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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2WHY WE NEED IT? 1.2.1Advantages associated 1.2.2Advantage to consumers 1.3 TECHNOLOGY 1.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 2 2.1 SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 2.1.1LNG SOURCES 2.1.2 WHAT DRIVES NATURAL GAS PRICE 2.1.3 LNG STUDY WHITE PAPER 2.1.4 COMPARISIONS WITH OTHER FUELS 2.1.5 ENIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES RELATING LNG 2.1.6 LNG DIRECTLY TO STATIONS

2.2 ISSUES RELATED TO LNG 2.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 3 3.1 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS 3.1.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2 ANALYSIS 3. Questionnaire. .1.3.3 CHALLENGES Bibliography ANNEXURE 1.3. Various LNG Outlet Images. 2.1.3. 3.2 ENGINE TECHNOLOGY 4. Expert Questions.2 4 P`S OF MARKETING 3.1 IMPLEMENTING LNG AS A FUEL 4.1 SWOT ANALYSIS 3.3 RESEARCH FINDINGS 3.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 4 4.1.1 FUEL TANK DESIGN 4.

This project is concerned with the utilization of the LNG directly as a fuel for vehicles. Also with growing environmental concerns through out the globe there is a huge pressure on developing countries like India to adopt clean eco friendly fuel which would decrease the global warming. This will cause further rise in price. Hence at this prevailing situation we need a source which is cheaper and economical and also at par in efficiency with these fuel. This is due to the large reserves throughout the world and because it is relatively clean fuel. Clean fuel burns with almost zero residue. LNG can be significantly used as a direct source of fuel having high efficiency and more economical and most important environmental friendly fuel. Safe to operate. High Octane number. which it gives in other fuels as Diesel or LPG. Reliable.petrol etc) are rising at rapid rate and it is assumed to rise further in near future.CHAPTER 1 1. Government is also planning to shed the subsidies on fuel in near future. Also if it be used as fuel it will curtail the government burden in terms of subsidy. Less Maintenance. 1. As the LNG is cheap and if it used directly without the cost of re gasification it would be a better and cheap fuel for the vehicles. East to install in automobile and high flexibility. . Energy Security.2. With small improvement in the design of the vehicles.1 INTRODUCTION Liqufied Natural gas is becoming one of the most important primary energy sources for the 21st century.2 WHY WE NEED IT Currently fuel price ( diesel. Hence above and many more factors forcing to use LNG as a source of fuel for automobile. Moreover. Easily Available. 1.1 Advantages associated          Low operating Cost.

As LNG is imported then it be converted into CNG or LPG which later used as a fuel. This project if implemented can change the whole prospects of automobile industry. 1. 1. burden on government and economy of common people can be met.4 CONCLUSION With the use of LNG as a fuel various common aspect as like mileage. Many organisation ready to promote this project. Produces less Sulphur content. Less hazardous. . The fuel tank be replaced by Cryogenic tank for storing LNG at -161 degree centigrade.3 TECHNOLOGY In this project we have developed a way to utilize LNG as a fuel for automobile. With a small change in the automobile design LNG can efficiently be used as a fuel. According to our study and expert opinion S60G type of engine which is used for Natural gas drive can be used for this purpose. This fuel directly be used without any re gasification. little bit in engine design ( cylinder lining. Affordable. Re gasification can cost around 30-40 % of the cost.          Less knocking tendency in automobile. Safe operation. Also environment can be protected and energy security of the country can be met. Being a gas it takes less time to fill compare to CNG and LPG.2 Advantage to consumers Less in cost. Less in operating cost. budget. The modification be in case of Fuel tank. Thus with this project we are developing a fuel that would serve the future. Tax rebate in importing LNG ( budget 2012-13). head). 1.2. but we have developed a technology to use it without re gasification.

1.CHAPTER 2 2. International Energy Agency)       Russian Federation Indonesia Australia Qatar US Trinidad & Tobago LNG Import and Re gasification Terminals ( Source) (http://www.A.chevron.Yucel. 2.1LNG SOURCES Various source countries of LNG are : ( Source :. Brown & Mine K.2 WHAT DRIVES NATURAL GAS PRICE ( Source: Research paper by Stephen P. there are 101 import terminals designed to receive LNG shipments. At present in India has 2 existing LNG receiving terminals and many others are proposed.1.) . 24 LNG liquefaction export terminals and more than 200 storage facilities where LNG is kept until needed. Worldwide.com/deliveringenergy/naturalgas/liquefiednaturalgas/ LNG is returned to a gaseous state at LNG import and re gasification terminals.1 SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 2. which are designed and constructed according to stringent national codes and international standards.IEA.

44.130.000 . ~ 80.000 Btu 130+ Natural Gas.000 128. and other energy sources 120+ Underground reserves N/A Energy Content per 109. Underground waste cooking oil.000 33.38. reserves animal fats.42 to 1 or 70% 1. hydroelectric.000 .000 117. Methanol.000 .1 to 1 or 90% 3. Gallon diesel #2) 38.55 to 1 or 66% Liquid Compressed Gas or Liquid Liquid . Grains.4 COMPARISIONS WITH OTHER FUELS Gasoline No. natural agricultural waste gas.120.1. 3. 2 Diesel Biodiesel CNG Electricity Ethanol (E85) Hydrogen LNG Chemical Structure C4 to C12 C10 to C20 Methyl esters of CH4 C16-C18 fatty acids 46 to 60 N/A N/A CH3CH2OH H2 CH4 Cetane number 5 to 20 40 to 55 N/A N/A N/A N/A Octane number Main fuel source 86 to 94 Crude Oil 8 to 15 Crude Oil ~25 120+ Soy bean oil. or nuclear. Corn.000 Btu Btu Btu (compared to Btu @ 3000 psi. and renewable resources can also be used.000 . university of California. however.000 .3 LNG STUDY WHITE PAPER ( Source: .94 to 1 or 25% Energy Ratio (relative to diesel) at 3000 psi.500 Btu 1. Riverside) 2.0 to Compared to 1 @ 3600 psi Gasoline Liquid Liquid Liquid Compressed Gas N/A Physical State ~73.000 @ 3600 psi 1. and rapeseed oil N/A 100 Coal.125.1.LNG study white paper.2.

California has the highest concentration of CNG stations. some forming emissions amount of emissions can be compared to some contributed to conventional fuels. Zero regulated emissions for fuel cell-powered vehicles.doe. Coal reserves. See your local car/truck dealership Vehicle Conversion N/A Information Available Vehicles to purchase Produces harmful Environmental Impacts of Burning emissions. HC emissions may be increased. Bicycles.gov/afv/conversion. dependence on foreign oil by being produced from renewable resources. Fuel Availability Available at all fueling stations.shtm Visit the AFDC Web Site's "Infrastructure Development Information and Resources Page" .3 to 1. Energy Security Impacts Manufactured using mostly imported oil. however. however.however. LNG is available through several suppliers of cryogenic liquid AFV Fueling Station Locations Infrastructure Information N/A N/A N/A N/A Visit the AFDC Web Site’s AFV Fueling Station Locator (http://www. Lightduty vehicles. CNG vehicles can EVs have zero demonstrate a tailpipe emissions. There are 22 states that have some biodiesel stations available to the public. NOx emissions may be increased. from an increasing number of suppliers. More than 600 electric charging stations are available in California and Arizona. Biodiesel is domestically produced and has a fossil energy ratio of 3. fleet garages. diesel and diesel vehicles are rapidly improving and emissions are being reduced especially with after-treatment devices.gov/refueling_mapsite. Many types of vehicles classes. Light-duty vehicles.shtml)to learn more Produces harmful emissions. but. The generated mainly domestically and it is United States has through coal fired renewable. but some vehicles are being leased for demonstration purposes. medium and heavy duty trucks and buses. There are only a small number of hydrogen stations across the country.afdc. medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses these vehicles are flexible fuel vehicles that can be fueled with E85 (ethanol). gasoline. Many engines also compatible with up to 20% blends. E-85 vehicles can demonstrate a 25% reduction in ozone-forming emissions compared to reformulated gasoline. Neighborhood Electric Vehicles. Hydrogen can help reduce U. Reduces particulate matter and global warming gas emissions compared to conventional diesel. gasoline the Fuel and gasoline vehicles are rapidly improving and emissions are being reduced. approximately 150 stations are available in 23 states. LNG is domestic produced and its typically costs les than gasoline and diesel fuels. No vehicles are Medium and available for heavy-duty truc commercial sale and buses. government facilities. Home fueling will be available in the fall of 2005. vast natural gas power plants.doe. Most homes.S.ccities. and businesses have adequate electrical capacity for charging. special hookup or upgrades may be required. More than 1. Most of the E-85 fueling stations are located in the Midwest. Available at select Available in bulk fueling stations. however. but in all. HC emissions may b increased. yet.afdc. today—no modifications are needed for up to 5% blends. LNG vehicles c demonstrate a reduction in ozo forming emissio compared to so conventional fu however. which is not an energy secure option. CNG is domestically Electricity is Ethanol is produced produced.doe. which means that its fossil energy inputs are similar to those of petroleum.100 CNG stations can be found across the country.Types of vehicles available today All types of vehicle classes. Any vehicle that Many types of runs on diesel vehicle classes. Most are available for private use only. Manufactured using imported oil. however. reduction in ozone. which is not an energy secure option. is the United States’ most plentiful fossil energy resource and coal is our most economical and price stable fossil fuel. power generation. See your local car/truck dealership N/A Visit the Vehicle Buyer’s Guide (http://www. and only NOx emissions possible for internal combustion engines operating on hydrogen. or any combination of the two fuels.gov/vbg/) to learn more about light and heavy-duty Visit the AFDC Web Site’s Conversion page (http://www. Public LNG stations are limited (only 35 nationally).

LNG rapidly evaporates. ethanol is less dangerous than gasoline because its low evaporation speed keeps alcohol concentration in the air low and non explosive.Maintenance Issues Hoses and seals may be affected with higherpercent blends. High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification. or fuel injectors are required. all alternative fuel vehicles must meet today's OEM safety standards) Gasoline is a relatively safe fuel since people have learned to use it safely. so a spill could pollute soil and water. and automotive environmental exposure. delivered. Diesel is not biodegradable though.html) 2. oil changes. if not identical. Practices are very similar. can be transported.afdc. If spilled. to those for conventionally fueled operations. the batteries must be replaced every 3-6 years. non-toxic and noncorrosive. however. maintenance should be very minimal. . codes and standards for consumer vehicle use are under development. High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification. Diesel is a relatively safe fuel since people have learned to use it safely. so a spill could pollute soil and water. Pressurized tanks have been designed to withstand severe impact. Cryogenic fuels require special handling procedures and equipment to properly store a dispense.gov/documents/pricereport/pricereports. No tuneups. Average Cost/gge You can get average costs for all fuel types through the Alternative Fuel Price Report (www. vehicles. In conventional accidents. Service requirements are expected to be reduced. When hydrogen is used in fuel cell applications. OEM EVs meet all Ethanol can form the same vehicle an explosive vapor safety standards as in fuel tanks. leaving no residue on water or soil.doe. radiators.5 ENIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES RELATING LNG ( Source:. Special lubricants may be required. Less toxic and more biodegradable than conventional fuel. LNG would not result in a slick because it evaporates quickly and disperses. and stored using the same equipment as for diesel fuel. Hydrogen has an excellent industrial safety record. environmentally-friendly fuel. Safety (Without exception. water pumps. high external temperatures.Centre for Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG being a safe. When exposed to the environment. However. Gasoline is not biodegradable though.LNG is odorless.1. lubricity is improved over that of conventional diesel fuel. timing belts.

It produces relatively low emissions when burned to heat homes. generate electricity and fuel vehicles. This dramatic reduction allows it to be shipped safely and efficiently aboard specially designed LNG vessels. LNG is warmed to return it to its gaseous state and delivered to natural gas customers through local pipelines. It has been transported and used for more than 50 years and has a strong safety record. LNG is not new.6 LNG DIRECTLY TO STATIONS ( Source :. LNG vehicles can demonstrate a reduction in ozone for Ming emissions compared to some conventional fuels. HC emissions may be increased. changing it from a gas into a liquid 1/600th its original volume. To move this environmentally friendly fuel across oceans. natural gas must be converted into liquefied natural gas (LNG). but much of it is in areas far from where the gas is needed.1. either in port or at sea. 2. LNG tanker is double-hulled and heavily insulated with a special membrane system.Research Paper Poster PO -12) 2. After arriving at its destination. however. .2 ISSUES RELATED TO LNG The world has enormous quantities of natural gas. and more than 119. LNG vessels have traveled more than 151 million miles during the past 50 years.000 LNG carrier voyages have taken place without major accidents or safety or security problems. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to –260° F (–162° C).

site surveillance. The process of cooling natural gas into a liquid is called liquefaction. Like other fuels. As in all modern oil tankers. sophisticated radar and positioning systems alert the crew to other traffic and hazards around the ship. Like at any industrial facility. Ships also employ antipiracy and boarding measures and must comply with the requirements of the International Ship and Port Security Code. 2. advanced radar and positioning systems. and numerous other technologies designed to ensure the safe and secure transport of LNG. when it vaporizes and mixes with oxygen. with an extensive cargo safety system. emergency shutdown systems. stringent safety and security measures are employed. In water. Security can include physical barriers.4 CONCLUSION With the analysis of the secondary data available with us. it is flammable if it is exposed to an ignition source. this project is feasible and can be effectively utilized as a future fuel for automobile. LNG ships are double-hulled and heavily insulated. making water-spill cleanup unnecessary. Distress systems and beacons automatically send out signals if the ship experiences difficulty. While converting natural gas to and from LNG. LNG is not stored under pressure. there is a limited flammability range: If the concentration of natural gas in the air is below 5 percent or greater than 15 percent. Hence switching towards LNG is a good option. it will not ignite. As comparatively according to secondary data the fuel is cheap and have all the aspects which are required for a prosperous fuel. security issues for liquefaction facilities are tailored to regional and local concerns. . LNG is not a flammable liquid. personnel and equipment access control. so it will not explode or burn. Shipping LNG Safely and Securely LNG ships are equipped with sophisticated leak detection technology. The cargo control room is manned continuously when cargo is being transferred to and from the ship. and intruder alert systems.An LNG spill would not damage the ground or leave any residue as it evaporates. Even then. LNG is insoluble and would simply evaporate.

Research Instruments:  Primary data source used by us was Questionnaire & Scheduling.1.chart and diagram also through tables and calculation. The secondary source was through Internet Sources.  Interview with Expert Groups.1 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS 3. websites & Research Paper.2 ANALYSIS The data analysis of this research was carried out using Microsoft Excel software through various Pi.CHAPTER 3 3. It is with an objective of understanding this project better with information and tables wherever deemed necessary. 3. Primary ResearchSample Design Used:    Random Sampling Convenience Sampling Sample Size: For the project the sample size taken was of 25 people. .1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Study on LNG as an Alternative Fuel was conducted through primary and secondary research.

e) Environmental friendly. c) Knowledge. 2. 4.3. 3. 3. CNG. e) Can help to decrease the monthly budget of consumer. b) Less operating Cost comparatively c) Safer to operate.3. Opportunitiesa) Can serve as a alternative of petrol . b) Can help to decrease the pollution level. 2. b) Political. Weakness a) High initial investment.1 SWOT ANALYSIS 1. 3.LNG as a fuel for automobile. But the initial investment is little bit more comparatively petrol and diesel vehicles.3. Price . d) Better mileage.3 RESEARCH FINDINGS 3. Place – Providing the fuel to all market segments. better efficiency and moreover environmental friendly. Strength a) Highly reliable. diesel. c) Less knowledge about the product.Price at which we are providing the product have less operating cost .2 4 P’S OF MARKETING 1. basically to car owners and for heavy vehicles. . d) Easily available. Threatsa) Serious competition from other fuel available in market. LPG. Product . c) Energy Security. b) Availability of Infrastructure. d) Availability.

uses a throttle. LNG fuel storage systems are significantly more complicated to design and manufacture and their cost is an order of magnitude greater than that of a diesel tank.6lb/gal.1 IMPLEMENTING LNG AS A FUEL For implementing LNG as a fuel in automobile we can use the series 60 natural gas engine(S60G) which was developed Detroit Diesel corporation to fill a projected need for a low emission heavy duty high horse power engine that could be successfully employed.1. Typical tank pressures are between 20 to 150 psig. but the design must withstand more than two times that amount to compensate for heat gain when not in use. Standard diesel tanks are single-wall aluminum containers and cost in the hundreds of dollars. and spark ignition. The weight of LNG is approximately 3. 4.Tanks for cryogenic LNG require double-wall construction from stainless steel with super insulation and vacuum inter-tank space.1 FUEL TANK DESIGN On-board fuel storage is considerably different between diesel and LNG. a low compression ratio. Unfortunately.4.5 lb/gal. given the difference in tank design and fuel density. depending on size. the more complex LNG fuel tank is substantially heavier. Promotion – Customers can be attracted through local TV channels. News paper and by door to door marketing. 4. CHAPTER 4 4. In total. LNGpowered tractors have suffered a weight penalty.1. which includes the DDC S60G.2 Engine Technology Current dedicated natural gas engine technology. Inherent to this engine strategy is a thermal efficiency penalty of 15% or more versus a diesel- . compared to diesel at 7.

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). with the support of the U. Requirement of skilled people. these new engine designs may take many years to perfect and commercialize. By comparison. 4. is sponsoring research that will potentially lead to natural gas engines with efficiencies similar to diesel engines.cycle engine. Manufacturing of Cryogenic tanks. has a high compression ratio and is ignited by heat of compression.S. Under cooling may also occur. the diesel engine does not use a throttle. However.1.3 CHALLENGES       First and foremost challenge will be to prepare a practical working model which will not only be efficient but also be cost effective. Starting problem may arise. Convencing the automobile industry to implement necessary changes in there models. . Department of Energy (DOE).