Computer shogi


Computer shogi
Computer shogi is a field of artificial intelligence concerned with the creation of computer programs which can play shogi. The research and development of shogi software has been carried out mainly by freelance programmers, university research groups and private companies.

Game complexity
Shogi has the distinctive feature of reusing captured pieces. Therefore shogi has a higher branching factor than other chess variants. The computer has more positions to examine because each piece in hand can be dropped on many squares. This gives shogi the highest number of legal positions and the highest number of possible games of all the popular chess variants. The higher numbers for shogi mean it is harder to reach the highest levels of play. The number of legal positions and the number of possible games are 2 measures of shogi’s Game complexity.
Game Chess Xiangqi Shogi Board Size Number of Pieces Number of Different Pieces Legal Positions Possible Games Average Game Length 64 90 81 32 32 40 6 7 8 1047 1048 1071 10123 10150 10226 80 95 110

Computers versus humans
In the 1980s, due to the immaturity of the technology in such fields as programming, CPUs and memory, computer shogi programs took a long time to think, and often made moves for which there was no apparent justification. These programs had the level of an amateur of kyu rank. In the first decade of the new millennium, computer shogi has taken large steps forward in software and hardware technology. In 2007 champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza. He wrote in the Nikkei Newspaper evening edition on March 26, 2007 about the match between Bonanza and the 2006 Ryuo Champion Watanabe. Yoshiharu Habu rated Bonanza’s game at the level of 2 dan shoreikai.[1] In particular, computers are most suited to brute-force calculation, and far outperform humans at the task of finding ways of checkmating from a given position, which involves many fewer possibilities. In games with time limits of 10 seconds from the first move, computers are becoming a tough challenge for even professional shogi players.[2] The past steady progress of computer shogi is a guide for the future. In 1996 champion Yoshiharu Habu said a computer would beat him in 2015.[3] On 23 October 2005 at the 3rd International Shogi Forum the Japan Shogi Association allowed Toshiyuki Moriuchi, 2005 Meijin, to play computer shogi program YSS. Toshiyuki Moriuchi won the game playing 30 seconds per move with a Bishop handicap.[4]

Bonanza Vs Watanabe (2007)
The Japan Shogi Association (JSA) gave reigning Ryuo Champion Watanabe permission to compete against the reigning World Computer Shogi Champion Bonanza on 21 March 2007. Daiwa Securities sponsored the match. Hoki Kunihito wrote Bonanza. The computer was an Intel Xeon 2.66 GHz 8 core with 8 gigabytes of memory and 160-gigabyte hard drive. The game was played with 2 hours each and 1 minute byo-yomi per move after that. Those conditions favor Watanabe because longer time limits mean there are fewer mistakes from time pressure. Longer playing time also means human players can make long-term plans beyond the computer’s calculating horizon. The 2 players were not at the same playing level. Watanabe was 2006 Ryuo Champion and Bonanza was at the level of 2

This is the third time since 2005 that the Japan Shogi Association granted permission to a professional to play a computer. Gekisashi.[1] Bonanza was a little stronger than before due to program improvements and a faster computer.[6] After Bonanza’s loss Watanabe commented on computers in his blog. Akara contained 4 computer engines. Kato Yukio was the Asahi Amateur Meijin champion. Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper quoted Akira Watanabe on June 27. She played at the University of Tokyo on 11 October 2010. Researchers at the University of Tokyo and the University of Electro-Communications developed Akara. Shimizugami Toru was the Amateur Meijin champion. Akara ran on a network of 169 computers.[7] Year Program Human Handicap Time Byoyomi Winner Computer Computer Computer Human Human Computer Computer Canceled 2003 IS Shogi 2004 YSS 2005 Gekisashi 2006 Bonanza 2007 YSS Pro 5 Dan Katsumata 2 Piece Handicap 25 Min None Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Rook Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Bishop Yukio Kato Yukio Kato None None None None None 25 Min None 25 Min None 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 1 hour 1 min 2008 Tanase Shogi Yukio Kato 2008 Gekisashi 2009 GPS Shogi Shimizugami Toru Amateur champion In each succeeding year.[8] Akara vs Shimizu (2010) The Computer program Akara defeated the women’s Osho champion Shimizu Ichiyo. said Eiki Ito in 2011 creator of Bonkras. Watanabe said "I think I'll be able to defeat shogi software for the next 10 years". a computer has never defeated a male professional under standard time . Bonanza moved first and played fourth file rook anaguma as Watanabe expected. 2008. Bonanza resigned after move 112. Watanabe prepared for a weaker Bonanza as Watanabe studied old Bonanza game records. Bonanza and YSS. But the computer choose to attack immediately instead of taking its time (and using its impressive endgame strategies) which cost it the match. At present. top Shogi programs like Bonkras are currently at a level of lower. Watanabe thought some of Bonanza’s moves were inferior. “I thought they still had quite a way to go. However.[5] Watanabe commented after the game that he could have lost if Bonanza had played defensive moves before entering the endgame.Computer shogi dan shoreikai. Then YSS lost to amateur Kato Yukio in a 15-minute game. but now we have to recognize that they’ve reached the point where they are getting to be a match for professionals. Watanabe deeply analyzed these moves thinking that maybe the computer saw something that Watanabe did not see. 750 fans attended the event. The allotted thinking time per player is 3 hours and 60 seconds byoyomi. GPS Shogi. If there is a tie vote then Akara selects Gekisashi’s move. Akara selects the move with the most votes. The 4 engines voted on the best moves. Bonanza lost to the 2007 World Computer Shogi Champion YSS. 2 Annual CSA tournament exhibition games (2003–2009) The winners of CSA tournaments played exhibition games with strong middle-class professional players. Shimizu moved first and resigned in 86 moves after 6 hours and 3 minutes.” Ryuo champion Akira Watanabe clarifies his position on computers playing shogi. However. These exhibition games started in 2003. the human competition was stronger to match the stronger programs. Hidetchi reviews this game. Shimizu said she was trying to play her best as if she was facing a human player. and the first victory against a female professional. Another indication Bonanza was far below the level of professional Watanabe came 2 months after the match at the May 2007 World Computer Shogi Championship.

Bonkras again defeated Yonenaga.000 moves per second. Akira Watanabe. WinBoard is open source. computer program Bonkras crushed retired 68 year old Kunio Yonenaga.[9] Akara aggressively pursued Shimizu from the start of the game. Shogidokoro can be used to play Shogi by adding a Shogi engine to shogidokoro. Bonkras used 1 hour 55 minutes. K-6b. Lightning. Tord Romstad based USI on Universal Chess Interface (UCI). TJshogi. 300 GB Intel Xeon W3680 with 6 cores Bonanza 2 Akara Kosaku & Shinoda 150 25 min 54 sec 1 hour 42 min Akara Bonkras versus Yonenaga (2011–2012) On 21 December 2011. Main time was 15 minutes then additional 60 seconds per move. This helps programmers to write shogi programs faster because they can skip writing the user interface part. 132 cores. Mr. One amateur. GPS Shogi. GNU Shogi and Bonanza. 3 minutes 39 seconds on Shogi Club 24.G. This support was added to WinBoard in 2007 by H. The game had 113 moves. Ssp and TJshogi. Engines that can natively support WinBoard protocol are Shokidoki. This move was to confuse the computer by playing a move not in Bonkras's joseki (opening book). Time allowed was 3 hours and then 1 minute per move. Two computer Shogi programs beat a team of two amateurs. Shinoda. Shimizu made a questionable move partway though the game. Spear. Kosaku. BCMShogi[20] is a graphical user interface for the USI protocol and the WinBoard shogi protocol. . Hidetchi reviews this game. The allotted time for the amateurs was main time 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move. It is also useful for testing changes to a program. there was a two game amateur versus computer match. The allotted time for the computer was main time 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move. Bonanza can also run with an adapter (u2b). Yonenaga was gote (white) and played 2. but can connect to USI engines through the UCI2WB adapter. Shogidokoro uses the Universal Shogi Interface (USI). Akara played with a ranging rook strategy and offered an exchange of bishops. Laramie. the 1993 Meijin. • WinBoard/XBoard and BCMShogi are other GUIs that support Shogi.[15] On 14 January 2012. criticized Shimizu’s game. was the 1999 Amateur Ryuo.[16] Bonkras evaluated its game with Yonenaga in January 2012. Shogidokoro was created in 2007. and also available under Linux as XBoard. The USI is an open communication protocol that Shogi programs use to communicate with a user interface. and Akara went on to win. USI was designed by Norwegian computer chess programmer Tord Romstad in 2007. Yonenaga used 2 hours 33 minutes. Some engines that will run under shogidokoro are Blunder.[11] 3 Computers Bonanza and Akara beat Amateurs Kosaku and Shinoda (2011) On July 24 2011. Watanabe said. Bonkras ran on a Fujitsu Primergy BX400 with 6 blade servers to search 18. UCI was designed by computer chess programmer Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 2000. They played 85 moves in 1 hour. K-62. Mr. ponanza.[19] Unlike Shogidokoro. WinBoard uses its own protocol (Chess Engine Communication Protocol) to communicate with engines.Computer shogi controls. Shimizu had plenty of chances to win".[10] Ryuo champion. On 19 November 2010. was a Shoreikai three Dan player. as in the previous game he lost.000. Shogidokoro can automatically run a tournament between 2 programs.[17] Programmer tools • Shogidokoro[18] is a graphical user interface (GUI) that calls a program to play shogi and displays the moves on a board.[12] [13] [14] Game Computer Sente (first) Gote (second) Moves Computer Time 24 min 41 sec Amateur Time 2 hours 2 min Hardware Winner 1 Bonanza Kosaku & Shinoda Akara Bonanza 93 17 processors. the Daily Yomiuri quoted Watanabe. The other amateur. Yonenaga made the same second move. Bonkras moved first and used a ranging rook opening. "Ms. Muller.

• Gekisashi won 2002. The championship is broadcast on the Internet. 1993 and 1996 and written by Yoshikazu Kakinoki. The search is harder in shogi than in chess because of the larger number of possible moves. Gekisashi. YSS won 2nd place in 1999. won fourth place. The 2010 CSA winner. Humans are welcome to play on Floodgate. Bonanza won second place on a computer with 17 processors containing 132 cores and 300 gigabytes of memory. Each program has 25 minutes to complete a game. Yasushi Tanase was part of the Tokyo University team that wrote IS Shogi. The Gekisashi team is led by Yoshimasa Tsuruoka. • IS Shogi won in 1998. 2000. Otsuki Shogi. Programs running under Shogidokoro can connect to Floodgate. Monju and KCC Shogi) that had never won a CSA tournament defeated 3 of the previous year’s strongest programs (Bonanza. At the 19th annual CSA tournament.[24] In 2011. 2000. 4 Floodgate Annual Highest Rating Date Program Rating 3054 May 23. Programmer is Hiroshi Yamashita. 2006 and 3rd place in 1994. 4 programs (GPS Shogi.Computer shogi • Floodgate[21] is a computer shogi server for computers to compete and receive ratings. 1992. Ponanza won fifth place. The computers play automated games through a server. In 2001. • Tanase shogi won 2nd place in 2007 and 2008 also written by Yasushi Tanase. Shueso and GPS Shogi. 2005.000 games on Floodgate. Shueso won third place. Gekisashi and YSS). it grew to 55 programs. A program will stop searching when it reaches a stable position. The problem is professionals do not always follow an opening sequence as in chess but make different moves to create good formation of pieces. Bonkras ran on a computer with 3 processors containing 16 cores and 6 gigabytes of memory. From 2008 to 2010. Programmer Kunihito Hoki was living in Canada. • Kiwame won in 1992. 2001 and 2003.[23] The top three winners of the 2010 CSA tournament are Gekisashi. Floodgate started operating continuously in 2008. In chess there are fewer pieces which leads to perfect play by endgame databases. GPS Shogi won 6th place on a computer with 263 processors containing 832 cores and 1486 gigabytes of memory.[25][26] Computer shogi programs Components of computer shogi programs: • Opening book : An opening book of moves puts the program in a good position and saves time. Computer shogi programs that have played at the annual World Computer Shogi Championships: • Bonanza won first place the first time it was entered in the championships in 2006. 1993 and 1994 and written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. • Shogi Kakinoki won 2nd place in 1990. In shogi pieces can be dropped so there are no endgame databases. • Search algorithm : The Search algorithm that looks ahead more deeply in a sequence of moves allows the program to better evaluate a move. The problem is many positions are unstable because of the drop move. 2004 and 2007. Bonkras won the CSA tournament with 5 wins out of 7 games. 2003. A Tsumeshogi solver is used to quickly find mating moves. The first championship was in 1990 with 6 programs. YSS entered the first time in the 1991 tournament. 2008 and 2010. 167 players played 28. .000 games. 2011 Bonanza_expt • The annual computer vs computer world shogi championship[22] is organized by the Computer Shogi Association (CSA) of Japan. • YSS won in 1997. The GPS team created Floodgate. • KCC Shogi came in second place in 2005 and is from North Korea. The most active players have played 4. • Endgame : The endgame starts when the king is attacked and ends when the game is won.

The ban prevents the rating of computers relative to professional players. 5 Computer Shogi programs that play in video game systems: • • • • Habu Meijin no Omoshiro Shōgi plays on the Super Famicom.[27] On 14 October 2005. • 2005. • 2007. Professional Hashimoto followed the opening line while changing his bishop with the bishop of Tacos.[2] • 2011 December. rated 3211. computer program Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami Toru. Morita Shogi won in 1991 and written by Kazurou Morita. However. The Matsue National College of technology developed the computer program Tacos. Spear a free program written by Reijer Grimbergen has won 9th place of 24 in the 2009 upper division contest. Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami in a 1 hour game with 1 minute byoyomi. List of shogi video games. computer program Tanase Shogi beat Asahi Amateur Meijin title holder Kato Yukio. The game was played at the 29th Hokkoku Osho-Cup Shogi Tournament in Komatsu. Program Gekisashi defeated amateur 6-dan Shinoda Masato in a 40 minute exhibition game. GPS Shogi is free software written by students of the University of Tokyo and won in 2009. Tacos lost. Since 2005.[29] • 2008 May. Highest rating for a computer on Shogi Club 24 is 2744 for YSS. 75 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza. They played 113 moves with main time 3 hours and then 1 minute per move. rated 3364 after 2116 games. Tacos played first and chose the static rook line in the opening. GNU Shogi is a free software program by the Free Software Foundation that plays Shogi.[2] • 2012 January. Akara beat the women’s Osho champion Shimizu in 6 hours and 3 minutes. Bonkras defeated the 1993 Meijin Yonenaga.[30] • 2008 November. Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Bonkras. Restrictions On 18 September 2005 a Japan Shogi Association professional 5 dan played shogi against a computer. 1999 and written by British programmer Jeff Rollason.[16] . program Gekisashi defeated Eiji Ogawa in a 40 minute game of the first knock out round.Computer shogi • • • • • Shogi Kanazawa won in 1996 and in 1999 also written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. Milestones • 2005. 100 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. Clubhouse Games includes Shogi and plays on the Nintendo DS. and to make the most of computer shogi as a potential business opportunity. • 2011 May. Shotest Shogi plays on the Xbox. • 2008 May. the Japan Shogi Association has permitted three games between professionals and a computer. Tacos had a good development with some advantages in the opening and middle game even until move 80. professional Hashimoto defended and Tacos played strange moves. Shotest won 3rd place in 1998. first time a computer beat a Shogi champion. the Japan Shogi Association banned professional shogi players from competing against a computer. Japan. Many amateur players expected Tacos to win.[28] The Japan Shogi Association said the rule is to preserve the dignity of its professionals.[31] • 2010 October. At the Amateur Ryo tournament.

com) (in Japanese). shared/ image. jp/ rccg/ menu/ topic. computer-shogi. ocn. The Japan Times. . ne. html). [5] Sams. de/ Bernhard. asahi. Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. jp/ text/ nc20111102a1. 2011). . [20] Maerz. html) (in Japanese). html?sort=d& mid=812686165& start=1928). topica. nakajim. sjis. Takenobu. "Will the computer beat Yonenaga in Januarary 2012?" (http:/ / forum. [8] Otake. cocolog-nifty. "Famous Shogi Games: Shimizu Vs Akara (Oct. [16] "Fujitsu's Shogi Software Tops Former Shogi Champion Kunio Yonenaga" (http:/ / www. [19] Muller. computer-shogi. The Asahi Shimbun. [21] "Floodgate is a computer shogi server for computers" (http:/ / wdoor. Retrieved 28 November 2011. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2009/ 19csa. "Upset at the 19th CSA Computer Shogi Championship" (http:/ / www. Bernhard. . org/ kifu/ gpw2008/ vs_shimizugami. jaist. [23] Reijer Grimbergen. topica. . html) (in Japanese). "Famous Shogi Games: Bonanza Vs Watanabe (Mar. html) (in Japanese). arcor. Computer Shogi Association. Anthony Marsland. japantimes. T. com/ watch?v=H1YrSkDxXYQ) (video). Computer Shogi Association. c. jp/ entcog/ event/ event2011_comvshum. computer-shogi. "Bonkras evaluated its game with Yonenaga in January 2012" (http:/ / aleag. html?/ photos/ uncategorized/ 2012/ 01/ 18/ denougraphsmall. . 21st.Computer shogi 6 Notes [1] Yoshiharu. The Mainichi Newspapers. html) (in Japanese). htm). com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. muller/ shokidoki. org/ wcsc21/ index_e. January 16. jp/ text/ nn20051016a4. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. ISBN 3540430806. Japan. php?f=16& t=1214& start=50). Computer Shogi Association. [11] "Will shogi software beat male pros?" (http:/ / www. html). . org/ wcsc20/ index_e. Computers and games: Second International Conference. html). [28] "Shogi pros warned not to play computers" (http:/ / www. html) (in Japanese). October 26-28. com/ shougi/ topics/ TKY201108020334. [22] "Computer Shogi Association" (http:/ / www. html). co. [31] "Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Champion in a 1 hour game" (http:/ / www. [27] "Hashimoto vs Tacos in 2005" (http:/ / www. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ articlesmain. Maerz/ BCMGames/ index. com/ .). Fujitsu. ac. ac. . . geocities. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2008/ 18csa. 3 August 2011. . [18] "Shogidokoro Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / www. Harm Geert. co. . jp/ shogidokoro/ index. CG 2000. 2000 (http:/ / books. [3] Takizawa. html?mid=812678696& sort=d& start=1965). Retrieved 3 February 2012. com/ watch?v=lUnbzhnDIvA) (video). "Report on the Annual Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. [15] Takodori. co. youtube. . p. google. html) (in Japanese). 2005. Retrieved 26 December 2011. . "When asked in 1996 when he(Habu) thought a computer would beat him. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 2010)" (http:/ / www. [9] Hidetchi. html). . 2 August 2011. html). Oct. . his clear answer was “2015”"& f=false) (illustrated ed. The Daily Yomiuri. Shogi-L mailing list. yomiuri. "Yoshiharu Habu rates computer at the level of 2 dan shoreikai" (http:/ / lists. "BCMShogi Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / home. . . c. "Computer Shogi Program YSS On Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www32. teu. jp/ ~yss/ 24rating. html). "Computer versus Human Shogi Games" (http:/ / www. ooco. htm). jp/ dy/ national/ T101118005564. Berlin: Springer. . Computer Shogi Association. Retrieved 15 December 2011. "Exhibition Games at the 18th CSA Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. Reijer Grimbergen (2001). . Eikyu. 3 August 2011. fujitsu. [12] "The University of Electro-Communications" (http:/ / entcog. . his clear answer was “2015”" [4] Junichi Takada. . [29] Hiroshi Yamashita. net/ index. computer-shogi. . html). com/ books?id=af_tGp3c8NcC& pg=PA440& dq=When+ asked+ in+ 1996+ when+ he+ thought+ a+ computer+ would+ beat+ him. com/ global/ news/ pr/ archives/ month/ 2012/ 20120116-02. youtube. . . jp/ shogi/ logs/ LATEST/ players-floodgate. hccnet. . jp/ computer_shogi/ comvshuman. org/ index_e. html) (in Japanese). "Watanabe comments on his game with Bonanza" (http:/ / lists. 81squareuniverse. computer-shogi. [17] Ito. php?将棋-戦略的なアマトップ合è°ã¯ã‚³ãƒ³ãƒ”ュータに勝てるか) (in Japanese). [26] "Teams in 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. . chess. japantimes. November 2. 16. jpg). html). Tomoko (Wednesday. ac. [2] "Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www. . 440. com/ viewtopic. 19 November 2010.+ his+ clear+ answer+ was+ “2015”"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=rTPqTuDYEoH40gHM1aymCQ& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=When asked in 1996 when he thought a computer would beat him. [7] Reijer Grimbergen. [24] "Winners of 2010 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. The Japan Times. [25] "Winners of 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. . teu. org/ wcsc21/ team. 2007). . Hamamatsu. . Retrieved 22 January 2012. . ac. junichi-takada. shogidojo. ac. html). 11th. "WinBoard for Shogi" (http:/ / home. nl/ h. csa). . [6] Hidetchi. [10] "Shogi computer beats female champ Shimizu" (http:/ / blog. g. 12 October 2010. Sunday. 2007)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 November 2011. Shogi-L mailing list. Richard (March 21. . [30] Reijer Grimbergen. 81 square universe. "Shogi showdown for supercomputer" (http:/ / www. com/ view/ shogi-computer-beats-female-champ-shimizu). ed (in English). 2012. Habu (2007-03-27). htm). [14] "Museum of Abstract Strategy Games" (http:/ / www. teu. u-tokyo. [13] "Shogi programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www.

Computer shogi 7 External links • Computer versus Human Shogi Events (http://www.html) in Japanese .jp/computer_shogi/comvshuman.junichi-takada.

CommonsDelinker.0/ .org/w/index. Hydao. Kwamikagami. OneWeirdDude. 12 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Zzyzx11. Anatolnsk. Voorlandt.G. Sources and Contributors 8 Article Sources and Contributors Computer shogi  Source: http://en.0 Unported //creativecommons. Munci.php?oldid=474722515  Contributors: Aiken drum. BlueNovember. Mschribr.wikipedia. Rjwilmsi. Twipie.Muller.

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