Computer shogi

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Computer shogi
Computer shogi is a field of artificial intelligence concerned with the creation of computer programs which can play shogi. The research and development of shogi software has been carried out mainly by freelance programmers, university research groups and private companies.

Game complexity
Shogi has the distinctive feature of reusing captured pieces. Therefore shogi has a higher branching factor than other chess variants. The computer has more positions to examine because each piece in hand can be dropped on many squares. This gives shogi the highest number of legal positions and the highest number of possible games of all the popular chess variants. The higher numbers for shogi mean it is harder to reach the highest levels of play. The number of legal positions and the number of possible games are 2 measures of shogi’s Game complexity.
Game Chess Xiangqi Shogi Board Size Number of Pieces Number of Different Pieces Legal Positions Possible Games Average Game Length 64 90 81 32 32 40 6 7 8 1047 1048 1071 10123 10150 10226 80 95 110

Computers versus humans
In the 1980s, due to the immaturity of the technology in such fields as programming, CPUs and memory, computer shogi programs took a long time to think, and often made moves for which there was no apparent justification. These programs had the level of an amateur of kyu rank. In the first decade of the new millennium, computer shogi has taken large steps forward in software and hardware technology. In 2007 champion Yoshiharu Habu estimated the strength of the 2006 world computer shogi champion Bonanza. He wrote in the Nikkei Newspaper evening edition on March 26, 2007 about the match between Bonanza and the 2006 Ryuo Champion Watanabe. Yoshiharu Habu rated Bonanza’s game at the level of 2 dan shoreikai.[1] In particular, computers are most suited to brute-force calculation, and far outperform humans at the task of finding ways of checkmating from a given position, which involves many fewer possibilities. In games with time limits of 10 seconds from the first move, computers are becoming a tough challenge for even professional shogi players.[2] The past steady progress of computer shogi is a guide for the future. In 1996 champion Yoshiharu Habu said a computer would beat him in 2015.[3] On 23 October 2005 at the 3rd International Shogi Forum the Japan Shogi Association allowed Toshiyuki Moriuchi, 2005 Meijin, to play computer shogi program YSS. Toshiyuki Moriuchi won the game playing 30 seconds per move with a Bishop handicap.[4]

Bonanza Vs Watanabe (2007)
The Japan Shogi Association (JSA) gave reigning Ryuo Champion Watanabe permission to compete against the reigning World Computer Shogi Champion Bonanza on 21 March 2007. Daiwa Securities sponsored the match. Hoki Kunihito wrote Bonanza. The computer was an Intel Xeon 2.66 GHz 8 core with 8 gigabytes of memory and 160-gigabyte hard drive. The game was played with 2 hours each and 1 minute byo-yomi per move after that. Those conditions favor Watanabe because longer time limits mean there are fewer mistakes from time pressure. Longer playing time also means human players can make long-term plans beyond the computer’s calculating horizon. The 2 players were not at the same playing level. Watanabe was 2006 Ryuo Champion and Bonanza was at the level of 2

The allotted thinking time per player is 3 hours and 60 seconds byoyomi. Shimizu said she was trying to play her best as if she was facing a human player.” Ryuo champion Akira Watanabe clarifies his position on computers playing shogi. 2 Annual CSA tournament exhibition games (2003–2009) The winners of CSA tournaments played exhibition games with strong players.Computer shogi dan shoreikai. Bonanza lost to the 2007 World Computer Shogi Champion YSS. Hidetchi reviews this game. the human competition was stronger to match the stronger programs. At present. Shimizu moved first and resigned in 86 moves after 6 hours and 3 minutes. 750 fans attended the event. Researchers at the University of Tokyo and the University of Electro-Communications developed Akara.[7] Year Program Human Handicap Time Byoyomi Winner Computer Computer Computer Human Human Computer Computer Canceled 2003 IS Shogi 2004 YSS 2005 Gekisashi 2006 Bonanza 2007 YSS Pro 5 Dan Katsumata 2 Piece Handicap 25 Min None Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Rook Pro 5 Dan Katsumata Bishop Yukio Kato Yukio Kato None None None None None 25 Min None 25 Min None 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 15 Min 30 Sec 1 hour 1 min 2008 Tanase Shogi Yukio Kato 2008 Gekisashi 2009 GPS Shogi Shimizugami Toru Amateur champion In each succeeding year. However. Watanabe thought some of Bonanza’s moves were inferior.[5] Watanabe commented after the game that he could have lost if Bonanza had played defensive moves before entering the endgame. Kato Yukio was the Asahi Amateur Meijin champion. a computer has never defeated a male professional under standard time . Bonanza resigned after move 112. Akara selects the move with the most votes.[1] Bonanza was a little stronger than before due to program improvements and a faster computer. Watanabe deeply analyzed these moves thinking that maybe the computer saw something that Watanabe did not see. Then YSS lost to amateur Kato Yukio in a 15-minute game.to middle-class professional players. Watanabe said "I think I'll be able to defeat shogi software for the next 10 years". and the first victory against a female professional. But the computer choose to attack immediately instead of taking its time (and using its impressive endgame strategies) which cost it the match. “I thought they still had quite a way to go.[8] Akara vs Shimizu (2010) The Computer program Akara defeated the women’s Osho champion Shimizu Ichiyo. Bonanza moved first and played fourth file rook anaguma as Watanabe expected. This is the third time since 2005 that the Japan Shogi Association granted permission to a professional to play a computer. She played at the University of Tokyo on 11 October 2010. Bonanza and YSS. Another indication Bonanza was far below the level of professional Watanabe came 2 months after the match at the May 2007 World Computer Shogi Championship. These exhibition games started in 2003. If there is a tie vote then Akara selects Gekisashi’s move. The 4 engines voted on the best moves. Akara ran on a network of 169 computers. Akara contained 4 computer engines. but now we have to recognize that they’ve reached the point where they are getting to be a match for professionals. GPS Shogi. Shimizugami Toru was the Amateur Meijin champion. Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper quoted Akira Watanabe on June 27. 2008. Watanabe prepared for a weaker Bonanza as Watanabe studied old Bonanza game records.[6] After Bonanza’s loss Watanabe commented on computers in his blog. Gekisashi. top Shogi programs like Bonkras are currently at a level of lower. said Eiki Ito in 2011 creator of Bonkras. However.

[16] Bonkras evaluated its game with Yonenaga in January 2012. the 1993 Meijin. K-6b.[9] Akara aggressively pursued Shimizu from the start of the game. Yonenaga made the same second move.[10] Ryuo champion. there was a two game amateur versus computer match. The allotted time for the computer was main time 25 minutes and then 10 seconds per move. GPS Shogi. Engines that can natively support WinBoard protocol are Shokidoki. Bonkras again defeated Yonenaga. and also available under Linux as XBoard.[12] [13] [14] Game Computer Sente (first) Gote (second) Moves Computer Time 24 min 41 sec Amateur Time 2 hours 2 min Hardware Winner 1 Bonanza Kosaku & Shinoda Akara Bonanza 93 17 processors. criticized Shimizu’s game. Kosaku. This support was added to WinBoard in 2007 by H. This helps programmers to write shogi programs faster because they can skip writing the user interface part. Shinoda. Lightning. 300 GB Intel Xeon W3680 with 6 cores Bonanza 2 Akara Kosaku & Shinoda 150 25 min 54 sec 1 hour 42 min Akara Bonkras versus Yonenaga (2011–2012) On 21 December 2011. Ssp and TJshogi. Watanabe said. UCI was designed by computer chess programmer Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 2000. This move was to confuse the computer by playing a move not in Bonkras's joseki (opening book). On 19 November 2010. was the 1999 Amateur Ryuo. and Akara went on to win. Muller. One amateur. Tord Romstad based USI on Universal Chess Interface (UCI). Shogidokoro uses the Universal Shogi Interface (USI).Computer shogi controls. Bonkras moved first and used a ranging rook opening. They played 85 moves in 1 hour. Shogidokoro can automatically run a tournament between 2 programs. ponanza. Bonkras ran on a Fujitsu Primergy BX400 with 6 blade servers to search 18. as in the previous game he lost. Time allowed was 3 hours and then 1 minute per move. The USI is an open communication protocol that Shogi programs use to communicate with a user interface. USI was designed by Norwegian computer chess programmer Tord Romstad in 2007. 3 minutes 39 seconds on Shogi Club 24. the Daily Yomiuri quoted Watanabe.000.000 moves per second.G. The allotted time for the amateurs was main time 1 hour and then 3 minutes per move.[11] 3 Computers Bonanza and Akara beat Amateurs Kosaku and Shinoda (2011) On July 24 2011. Shogidokoro was created in 2007. 132 cores. Bonanza can also run with an adapter (u2b). BCMShogi[20] is a graphical user interface for the USI protocol and the WinBoard shogi protocol. WinBoard uses its own protocol (Chess Engine Communication Protocol) to communicate with engines. GNU Shogi and Bonanza. The other amateur. Main time was 15 minutes then additional 60 seconds per move. Shogidokoro can be used to play Shogi by adding a Shogi engine to shogidokoro. Laramie. Hidetchi reviews this game. but can connect to USI engines through the UCI2WB adapter. was a Shoreikai three Dan player. The game had 113 moves. Some engines that will run under shogidokoro are Blunder. Akara played with a ranging rook strategy and offered an exchange of bishops. Shimizu had plenty of chances to win". Yonenaga was gote (white) and played 2. Shimizu made a questionable move partway though the game. • WinBoard/XBoard and BCMShogi are other GUIs that support Shogi. Yonenaga used 2 hours 33 minutes.[15] On 14 January 2012. Mr. computer program Bonkras crushed retired 68 year old Kunio Yonenaga.[19] Unlike Shogidokoro. Spear. Bonkras used 1 hour 55 minutes. It is also useful for testing changes to a program. K-62. Two computer Shogi programs beat a team of two amateurs. WinBoard is open source. . "Ms.[17] Programmer tools • Shogidokoro[18] is a graphical user interface (GUI) that calls a program to play shogi and displays the moves on a board. Mr. Akira Watanabe. TJshogi.

• Tanase shogi won 2nd place in 2007 and 2008 also written by Yasushi Tanase. 1993 and 1994 and written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. • Shogi Kakinoki won 2nd place in 1990.000 games on Floodgate. • Endgame : The endgame starts when the king is attacked and ends when the game is won. 2000. The championship is broadcast on the Internet. 2011 Bonanza_expt • The annual computer vs computer world shogi championship[22] is organized by the Computer Shogi Association (CSA) of Japan. In shogi pieces can be dropped so there are no endgame databases. Gekisashi and YSS). • IS Shogi won in 1998. GPS Shogi won 6th place on a computer with 263 processors containing 832 cores and 1486 gigabytes of memory. Bonanza won second place on a computer with 17 processors containing 132 cores and 300 gigabytes of memory.[23] The top three winners of the 2010 CSA tournament are Gekisashi. Shueso won third place. The computers play automated games through a server. 4 Floodgate Annual Highest Rating Date Program Rating 3054 May 23. A program will stop searching when it reaches a stable position. 2003. The 2010 CSA winner. won fourth place.[25][26] Computer shogi programs Components of computer shogi programs: • Opening book : An opening book of moves puts the program in a good position and saves time. Monju and KCC Shogi) that had never won a CSA tournament defeated 3 of the previous year’s strongest programs (Bonanza. • KCC Shogi came in second place in 2005 and is from North Korea.Computer shogi • Floodgate[21] is a computer shogi server for computers to compete and receive ratings. The first championship was in 1990 with 6 programs. 1992. Bonkras ran on a computer with 3 processors containing 16 cores and 6 gigabytes of memory. 2005. Floodgate started operating continuously in 2008. 2000. The most active players have played 4. In chess there are fewer pieces which leads to perfect play by endgame databases. it grew to 55 programs. Otsuki Shogi. YSS won 2nd place in 1999. . 2006 and 3rd place in 1994. 2001 and 2003. In 2001. A Tsumeshogi solver is used to quickly find mating moves. • Kiwame won in 1992. YSS entered the first time in the 1991 tournament. The GPS team created Floodgate. Each program has 25 minutes to complete a game. • YSS won in 1997. Shueso and GPS Shogi. The Gekisashi team is led by Yoshimasa Tsuruoka. Ponanza won fifth place. • Search algorithm : The Search algorithm that looks ahead more deeply in a sequence of moves allows the program to better evaluate a move. 2004 and 2007. Gekisashi. Programmer Kunihito Hoki was living in Canada. 2008 and 2010. • Gekisashi won 2002.[24] In 2011. Bonkras won the CSA tournament with 5 wins out of 7 games. 1993 and 1996 and written by Yoshikazu Kakinoki. The problem is many positions are unstable because of the drop move. Humans are welcome to play on Floodgate. 167 players played 28. 4 programs (GPS Shogi. From 2008 to 2010. Programmer is Hiroshi Yamashita. Programs running under Shogidokoro can connect to Floodgate. Computer shogi programs that have played at the annual World Computer Shogi Championships: • Bonanza won first place the first time it was entered in the championships in 2006. At the 19th annual CSA tournament. Yasushi Tanase was part of the Tokyo University team that wrote IS Shogi. The problem is professionals do not always follow an opening sequence as in chess but make different moves to create good formation of pieces.000 games. The search is harder in shogi than in chess because of the larger number of possible moves.

• 2008 May. program Gekisashi defeated Eiji Ogawa in a 40 minute game of the first knock out round. the Japan Shogi Association banned professional shogi players from competing against a computer. Many amateur players expected Tacos to win. rated 3364 after 2116 games. Japan. computer program Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami Toru. Restrictions On 18 September 2005 a Japan Shogi Association professional 5 dan played shogi against a computer. Shotest Shogi plays on the Xbox. Bonkras defeated the 1993 Meijin Yonenaga.[28] The Japan Shogi Association said the rule is to preserve the dignity of its professionals.[16] . 100 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. At the Amateur Ryo tournament. and to make the most of computer shogi as a potential business opportunity. Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Shimizugami in a 1 hour game with 1 minute byoyomi. GPS Shogi is free software written by students of the University of Tokyo and won in 2009. The Matsue National College of technology developed the computer program Tacos.Computer shogi • • • • • Shogi Kanazawa won in 1996 and in 1999 also written by Shinichirou Kanazawa. List of shogi video games. • 2007. Spear a free program written by Reijer Grimbergen has won 9th place of 24 in the 2009 upper division contest.[27] On 14 October 2005. Clubhouse Games includes Shogi and plays on the Nintendo DS. Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Ponanza. 75 moves played in 15 minute exhibition game. The game was played at the 29th Hokkoku Osho-Cup Shogi Tournament in Komatsu. • 2005. Tacos played first and chose the static rook line in the opening. Professional Hashimoto followed the opening line while changing his bishop with the bishop of Tacos. the Japan Shogi Association has permitted three games between professionals and a computer.[30] • 2008 November.[31] • 2010 October. Since 2005. Shotest won 3rd place in 1998. Program Gekisashi defeated amateur 6-dan Shinoda Masato in a 40 minute exhibition game. Milestones • 2005. professional Hashimoto defended and Tacos played strange moves. 5 Computer Shogi programs that play in video game systems: • • • • Habu Meijin no Omoshiro Shōgi plays on the Super Famicom. • 2011 May. Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24 is computer program Bonkras.[2] • 2011 December. They played 113 moves with main time 3 hours and then 1 minute per move. The ban prevents the rating of computers relative to professional players. Tacos lost. first time a computer beat a Shogi champion. However. computer program Tanase Shogi beat Asahi Amateur Meijin title holder Kato Yukio. Morita Shogi won in 1991 and written by Kazurou Morita. Tacos had a good development with some advantages in the opening and middle game even until move 80. GNU Shogi is a free software program by the Free Software Foundation that plays Shogi. Highest rating for a computer on Shogi Club 24 is 2744 for YSS.[2] • 2012 January.[29] • 2008 May. rated 3211. Akara beat the women’s Osho champion Shimizu in 6 hours and 3 minutes. 1999 and written by British programmer Jeff Rollason.

html) (in Japanese). ac. jpg). youtube. 3 August 2011. ocn. ac. Tomoko (Wednesday. "Upset at the 19th CSA Computer Shogi Championship" (http:/ / www. [6] Hidetchi. . [17] Ito. Shogi-L mailing list. Hamamatsu. html). Maerz/ BCMGames/ index. [18] "Shogidokoro Shogi Graphical User Interface" (http:/ / www. html). The Mainichi Newspapers. [29] Hiroshi Yamashita. 12 October 2010. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ CSA2009/ 19csa. ed (in English). . [12] "The University of Electro-Communications" (http:/ / entcog. org/ index_e. . nl/ h. jp/ text/ nc20111102a1. shared/ image. [14] "Museum of Abstract Strategy Games" (http:/ / www. . jp/ ~yss/ 24rating. . [9] Hidetchi. [25] "Winners of 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. "When asked in 1996 when he(Habu) thought a computer would beat him. sjis.). . "Computer versus Human Shogi Games" (http:/ / www. Computer Shogi Association. Retrieved 23 November 2011. html) (in Japanese). The Japan Times. com/ viewtopic. Fujitsu. [22] "Computer Shogi Association" (http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=H1YrSkDxXYQ) (video). htm). [2] "Highest rated player on Shogi Club 24" (http:/ / www. . . topica. computer-shogi. html). japantimes. Harm Geert. . com) (in Japanese). japantimes. nakajim. jp/ entcog/ event/ event2011_comvshum. [5] Sams. jaist. php?f=16& t=1214& start=50). ISBN 3540430806. Computer Shogi Association. . php?将棋-戦略的なアマトップ合è°ã¯ã‚³ãƒ³ãƒ”ュータに勝てるか) (in Japanese). net/ index. January 16.+ his+ clear+ answer+ was+ “2015”"& hl=en& sa=X& ei=rTPqTuDYEoH40gHM1aymCQ& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=When asked in 1996 when he thought a computer would beat him. The Asahi Shimbun. html) (in Japanese). [8] Otake. com/ global/ news/ pr/ archives/ month/ 2012/ 20120116-02. "Yoshiharu Habu rates computer at the level of 2 dan shoreikai" (http:/ / lists. c. 2011). Computer Shogi Association. p. 3 August 2011. computer-shogi. . "Bonkras evaluated its game with Yonenaga in January 2012" (http:/ / aleag. . . 21st. u-tokyo. 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(http:/ / www. html) (in Japanese). htm). 440. [7] Reijer Grimbergen. cocolog-nifty. org/ kifu/ gpw2008/ vs_shimizugami. The Japan Times. co. computer-shogi. Reijer Grimbergen (2001). "Exhibition Games at the 18th CSA Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. c. google. CG 2000. Anthony Marsland. Japan. com/ . . . Retrieved 15 December 2011. Oct. . [26] "Teams in 2011 CSA tournament" (http:/ / www. jp/ computer_shogi/ comvshuman. junichi-takada. The Daily Yomiuri. computer-shogi. [27] "Hashimoto vs Tacos in 2005" (http:/ / www. . arcor. com/ lists/ shogi/ read/ message. geocities. teu. "Report on the Annual Computer Shogi Championships" (http:/ / www. g. [16] "Fujitsu's Shogi Software Tops Former Shogi Champion Kunio Yonenaga" (http:/ / www. [13] "Shogi programs crush Amateurs" (http:/ / www. [31] "Gekisashi beat Amateur Meijin Champion in a 1 hour game" (http:/ / www. Computers and games: Second International Conference. html). . "Will the computer beat Yonenaga in Januarary 2012?" (http:/ / forum. teu. de/ Bernhard. Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. his clear answer was “2015”" [4] Junichi Takada. . co. [19] Muller. Shogi-L mailing list. topica. com/ view/ shogi-computer-beats-female-champ-shimizu). Richard (March 21. 2010)" (http:/ / www. 2012. ooco. jp/ gamelab/ SHOGI/ articlesmain. csa). . . html?sort=d& mid=812686165& start=1928). 2007)" (http:/ / www. [30] Reijer Grimbergen. "WinBoard for Shogi" (http:/ / home.

junichi-takada.html) in Japanese .jp/computer_shogi/comvshuman.Computer shogi 7 External links • Computer versus Human Shogi Events (http://www.

org/w/index.G. H. Anatolnsk. Voorlandt. Twipie. Zzyzx11.0 Unported //creativecommons.wikipedia.php?oldid=474722515  Contributors: Aiken drum. Hydao.Article Sources and Contributors 8 Article Sources and Contributors Computer shogi  Source: http://en. Mschribr. OneWeirdDude. Rjwilmsi.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Kwamikagami.Muller. BlueNovember. 12 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. CommonsDelinker.0/ . Munci.