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Fundamental PLC Programming

FUNDAMENTAL PLC PROGRAMMING
Q1. Explain with diagram the three steps of processor scan cycle of PLC program execution of standard one rung ladder diagram. Ans.: The ladder relay circuit monitors every input and output device throughout the circuit simultaneously, whereas the PLC performs the same function in a sequence of step called a Processor Scan Cycle. Figure (1) shows one rung of a relay ladder diagram to help explain the following three step that take place during he scanning process. As soon as the PLC is turned on, a Output Input program is fed into the CPU from the Device Device executive memory that runs an internal OD self – diagnostic check on the system. If I:2/4 any part of the processor is not O:1/3 functioning properly, its fault indicator Fig. (1) A Standard One Rung Ladder Diagram light illuminates. The diagnostic self – check also determines if there is a faulty memory or an improper connection with the I/O module. Once the self – diagnostic check confirms that the system is operating properly, it starts its scanning operation. The scanning operation consists of three steps as described here. Step 1: The first step of the scanning process is to Update the Input Image Table by sensing the voltage level of the input terminals. The status of the input field devices is recorded in memory. A 0 or 1 is stored into the bit of the memory location designated for a particular input terminal. In Figure (1) a 0 is stored into memory bit I:2/4 when no voltage is sensed, and a 1 is loaded when a voltage present. Step 2: The second step of the scanning process is to Scan Program Instructions located in file 2 i.e. user program, of the program file in the user memory. The process for each instruction involves three operations for each rung in a sequential order. 1. First, the CPU makes a reference to the input image table to find out the status of the input. In figure (1), it finds out the condition of input I:2/4. 2. Second, the CPU reads the instruction. The CPU makes decisions based on whether the input conditions are met and the type of logic function specified by the program. The program for figure (1) would read: If a 1 is present at memory bit 4 of the module in slot 2, then write a l at bit location 3 of the output module in slot 1. 3. Third, according to the decisions made, the CPU updates the output image table by recording a 0 or 1 at the relevant bit location in memory. The processor executes the entire list of instructions, rung – by – rung, in ascending rung order. Step 3: The third step of the scanning process is to Update the Output Terminals. The CPU takes data form the output data file and sends it out to the real world through the terminals of the output modules. The input /output updates and the program instruction step are separate, independent functions. Any status changes occurring in an external input device during the program instruction step are not accounted for until the next I/O scan. Similarly, data changes
Dr. Gulam Rabbani

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It tells the CPU to examine a bit at the memory location specified by the address number listed with the symbol. The referenced address may represent the status of external input affected by the condition of a field device.Fundamental PLC Programming associated with external outputs are not transferred to the output until the next scan. meaning that a corresponding external field device is open and does not supply a voltage at the input terminal. The diagram in figure (2) graphically summarize the three steps of the scan. and Unlatch Output. Explain following relay type Step 2 Interpret Logic of instructions with symbols and Program relay logic diagram: 1. or the logic states of an internal memory bit. The relay – type instructions are Examine – ON Contact. Energize Output Coil: The symbol for Energize Output Coil instruction is shown here. Energize Output Coil. for example. push buttons. the time to scan the instruction once may take five milliseconds. The three step scanning process Start Scan Cycle Step 1 Determine Status of is continuous and is repeated Input Devices many times each second. This symbol represents an input condition. The field devices that provide input signals include switches. and sensors. Q2.  The Examine – ON instruction is True when the addressed memory bit is a 1. Gulam Rabbani 2 .  The Examine – ON instruction is False when the addressed memory bit is a 0. These instructions are located in the left portion of the rung. there will be 200 scan each second. Examine – OFF Contact. Symbol Examine – ON Contact: The symbol for Examine – ON instruction is shown Examine – ON Contact here. An Examine – On instruction is often a single input on a rung. Several of them can also be programmed in series to perform an AND operation. Energize Output Ans. (2) Three Steps of PLC. or parallel to perform an OR operation. Examine – ON 2. meaning that a corresponding external input field devices is closed and supplies a voltage at the terminal of input module. This instruction will be performed only if Dr. a program Processor Scan Cycle is written that uses 1 K words of memory. The Step 3 time it takes to complete one scan Update ( Turn ON or OFF) depends on the size of the Output Devices program and the clock speed of the microprocessor used by the Fig. Therefore. If. Latch Output. This symbol represents an output action instruction. This symbol is also referred to an as Examine If Closed (XIC) instruction because it’s corresponding memory bit is a logic 1 (True condition) when the field device that control it is closed.: The most frequently used instruction in PLC programming is the relay ladder logic operations.

Latch Output 5. and relay coils. Most PLCs allow only one output to be programmed on each rung. It tells the CPU to Dr. Examine – ON Contact 2. Energize Output Coil 3. What are the different relay logic instructions? Explain any one relay logic instruction with Symbol and suitable relay logic diagram.  The output instruction sets the memory bit to a 1when the rung conditions is True. Output instruction is located on the right portion of the ladder – diagram rungs. (Examine – OFF) contact will be False. The float switch closes when the level of liquid in a storage tank lowers to a given height. The referenced bit provides the action command Coil signal for the output. and the pump switch is manually closed by an operator. The action energizes the pump to add more water to the tank. it de – energizes. an Button Float Examine – On contact with the same address Switch will be False.Fundamental PLC Programming the preceding instruction condition (input) provides a path of logic continuity.  When the output in the form of a coil is OFF. Examine – OFF Contact 4. The result is that the corresponding field device de – energizes.  The output instruction reset the memory bit to a 0 when the rung condition is False. meaning that once the current passing through the coil stops flowing. Gulam Rabbani 3 .O. This symbol represents an input condition.: The different relay logic instructions are as follows: 1. The Energize Output instruction tells the CPU to set a bit to Symbol 1 or rest a bit to 0 at the memory location specified by the address listed Energize – Output with the symbol.O. Unlatch Output. motors. Symbol Examine – ON Contact: The symbol for Examine – ON instruction is shown Examine – ON Contact here. A normally open I:1/2 I:1/3 O:2/4 push button is connected to terminal I:1/2 of the Figure – 1(b) A Rung with Two input module and a normally open float switch Examine – ON Inputs and One Output is connected to terminal I:1/3. This instruction is considered as a non – retentive output. The result is that the corresponding field device energizes. Q3. Examine – ON Inputs and One Output Figure – 1(a) shows a one – rung relay diagram and its equivalent ladder diagram [figure – 1(b)] with two Examine – ON inputs and one Energize Coil output. Push N. I:1/2 I:1/3 There can be more than one corresponding O:2/4 contact in the ladder diagram configuration that Figure – 1(a) A Rung with Two is activated by only one output coil. Ans. A pump is connected to terminal O:2/4 of the output module. When the output in the form of a coil is ON. an Examine – On contact with the same address will be True. and a normally closed N. Field devices operated by this instruction include lights. and a normally closed (Examine Pump – OFF) contact will be True.

Fundamental PLC Programming examine a bit at the memory location specified by the address number listed with the symbol. After the timed interval has expired. or the logic states of an internal memory bit. Timing operations are used in many industrial application PLC timers perform various functions such a delaying an action.: Timers are output instructions that are internet to the programmable controller. A timer is activated by a change in the logic continuity of its rung. Dr. Figure – 1(a) shows a one – rung relay Button Float diagram and its equivalent ladder diagram Switch [figure – 1(b)] with two Examine – ON inputs Pump and one Energize Coil output. and the pump switch is manually closed I:1/2 I:1/3 O:2/4 by an operator. Examine – ON Inputs and One Output Q4. They can also operate as astable or one – shot multi-vibratos. A pump is Examine – ON Inputs and One Output connected to terminal O:2/4 of the output module. push N. Several of them can also be programmed in series to perform an AND operation. The float switch closes when the level of liquid in a storage tank lowers to a given height. the timer output is energized causing a normally open or normally closed contact it controls to change its logic state. Push N. or parallel to perform an OR operation. The field devices that provide input signals include switches. buttons. Ans. The referenced address may represent the status of external input affected by the condition of a field device. The action energizes the pump Figure – 1(b) A Rung with Two to add more water to the tank.O.O. meaning that a corresponding external input field devices is closed and supplies a voltage at the terminal of input module. meaning that a corresponding external field device is open and does not supply a voltage at the input terminal. They are capable of providing timed control of devices that they activate. These instructions are located in the left portion of the rung.  The Examine – ON instruction is True when the addressed memory bit is a 1. causing an operation to run a predetermined period of time. Gulam Rabbani 4 . Explain Timer – ON (TON) instruction format bits with ladder diagram in a PLC. These contacts can be used throughout the program as many times as necessary. or recording the total accumulated time of continuous or intermittent events.  The Examine – ON instruction is False when the addressed memory bit is a 0. An Examine – On instruction is often a single input on a rung. The rung condition is most often controlled by an Examine instruction. The contacts associated with a specific timer are identified by using the same address number. and sensors. This symbol is also referred to an as Examine If Closed (XIC) instruction because it’s corresponding memory bit is a logic 1 (True condition) when the field device that control it is closed. A normally open I:1/2 I:1/3 push button is connected to terminal I:1/2 of the O:2/4 input module and a normally open float switch Figure – 1(a) A Rung with Two is connected to terminal I:1/3.

as Accumulator (AC) 0 shown in figure1– (b). the timer begins causing the accumulator value to increment and bit 14 to 15 set. The enable bit is used to energizer or de – energize one or more contacts in other rungs. They include: Enable bit (Bit – 15) EN: The enable bit the set when the rung condition is True and resets when the rung condition is False. The output bit then sets on or reset off. the following information must be entered as shown in fig. Done bit (Bit – 13) DN: This bit is considered the primary output of the 15 14 13 timer. but the accumulated value is less than the preset value. 1– (a). followed by the abbreviation TT. Timing bit (Bit – 14) TT: The timing bit is on anytime the timer is on. the accumulate value goes to zero. The timing bit is used to energize or de – energize one or more contacts located at other rungs. Gulam Rabbani 5 . the timer stops timing and the output energizes as bit 13 sets. The contacts to be controlled are programmed by entering the address of the timer that controls them. If logic continuity of the rung is lost before or after the timer has timed out. Q5. Time Base TON 3. The first word contains three status bits that are used to control various functions in a program. These include the Timer – on – Delay and the Timer – off – Delay. the timer has Word 1 EN TT DN INTERNAL timed out. The output bit is used to energize or de – energize one Word 3 ACCUMULATED VALUE or more N. When AC = PR. Accumulated Value Timer T4:0 Time Base 0. The Timer – On – Delay output is used to provide time – delayed action or to measure the duration for which some event is occurring. or N. Timer – On – Delay: When the rung condition become True. The choice of which to use is dependent on the type of operation to be performed. resets. and any bit hat is set. The on or off condition Word 2 PRESET VALUE depends on the type of timer instruction selected. followed by the abbreviation EN. There is several type of PLC timer instruction available.Fundamental PLC Programming Each timing instruction is programmed into the PLC. At the same time bit 14 resets. Symbol and Address 2.01 Each timer instruction occupies three Preset (PR) 500 DN words of an element in the timing file. followed by the abbreviation DN. The contacts to be controlled are programmed by entering Figure – 1(b) Timer Instruction in a File the address of the timer that controls them. The Figure – 1(a) A Timer Instruction for the PLC second and third words store the preset (PR) and accumulator (AC) values. Explain Counter – UP (CTU) instruction format bits with ladder diagram in a PLC. 1. The contacts to be controlled are programmable by entering the address of the timer that controls them. When the accumulated value equals the preset value.C. contacts located TIMER INSTRUCTION (3 Word Element) at other rungs. Dr. 2. Preset Value Timer ON Delay EN 4.O.

either an external device or software command must be used to control the logic continuity of the counter’s rung. Accumulated Value. as shown in Figur1– (b). determining the number of parts left in a container. PRESET(PR) 120 Symbol and Address: As a counter DN instruction is entered. or keeping inventory of items in stock that are loaded into and removed form a storage facility. Preset Value CU COUNTER C5:0 3. – 1(a) A Symbol for an UP – Counter Instruction of counter has been selected. Figure 1– (a) shows that address C5:0 is entered.: Counters are output instructions internal to the programmable controller. Dr. It is recommended that the first counter programmed be loaded into the lowest address of the file. The transition is sensed by the counter when its rung continuity changes form a False to a true logic condition. Symbol and Address COUNT UP 2. Each additional counter should then be entered into succeeding memory locations. As each counter instruction is programmed into the PLC. The choice of which one to use depends on the type of application to be performed. The contents of the words 15 CU 14 CD 13 DN 12 OV 11 UN INTERNAL Word 1 Word 2 Word 3 15 PRESET VALUE ACCUMULATED VALUE Counter Instruction (3 Word Element) Figure – 1(b) Counter Instruction in a File two and three are the same as for timer instructions. A file is reserved in memory for counters. a rectangle ACCUMULATOR (AC) 0 appears on the screen along with an abbreviation indicating which type Fig. as shown in figure 1– (a) the following information must be entered. A file address ranging form 0 to 255 must be entered after the word Counter to identify the address location where the instruction is stored. They hold the preset and the accumulated value. Each count occurs when a False – to – True transition is detected by the counter. Programmable controller counters perform various applications such as counting the quantity of boxes passing a sensor on a conveyor belt.Fundamental PLC Programming Ans. To activate an up – or – down – counter. Gulam Rabbani 6 . CTU 1. Counters simply count the number of events that occur. Each counter instruction occupies three words of an element in the counter file. then stores and display the accumulated value. There are two common types of counter functions performed by PLCs: up – counting and down – counting.

multiplication. Up – Counter: The Up – Counter instruction will increment by one each time a counted event occurs. Accumulated Value: After the preset value has been entered. the numbers form two sources are used. counters.767.768. The value entered indicates the number of counts that occur before action is taken by the counter. A reset instruction is required to clear the accumulated value. and the Underflow bit sets when it falls below the count of – 32. What are the arithmetic status bits? Explain ADD and SUB arithmetic instructions of PLC. Gulam Rabbani 7 . The address of the counter controlling it. Bit 0 is set if a carry is generated. It sets when these two values are equal. An application of an up – counter is counting the desired cereal boxes into a case to indicate when it is filled to capacity. When the accumulated value reaches the preset value. the overflow bit (12) will set.Fundamental PLC Programming Preset Value: After the address has been programmed. is placed above the symbol. Instructions are used to tell the processor to perform the four basic mathematical functions: addition.767 or – 32. but not at both of them. Up – Counter Enable bit (CU): This enable bit (15) is set when the condition of a rung where an up – counter is located becomes True and resets when the rung condition is False. which stop counting when the accumulator values equal the preset value. the arithmetic status bits in the status file of the data table are update as follows: C (Carry) S: 0/0. The content is taken directly form specific memory addresses. subtraction. Dr. The maximum numbers that can be loaded into the register are +32.767. a counter will continue to count up (or down). The counts are activated by a False – to – True change of the counter’s rung condition. its status can cause a device that the controls to turn on or off after reaching a certain count. Bit 14 will remain set if the counting continues beyond a value greater than the preset number. V (Overflow) S: 0/1. The Overflow bit sets when the accumulated value is grater than the maximum count of 32. All of the math operation will accept program constant at one source. Q6. The source can be a word address or a program constant. otherwise it is reset. Down – Counter Enable bit (CD): This enable bit (14) is affected by a down – counter and sets anytime the rung where its symbol is located is in a True condition. These bits are often used t change the logic states of an input contact symbol in another rung. Bit 1 is set if the result does not fit in the destination register. Ans. The number of events is recorded in the accumulator. To make the calculation. Overflow (OV) / Underflow (UN) bit: Unlike timers. timers. a number ranging form 0 to 32. Count Complete bit (DN): The Done bit (13) logic status is determined by comparing the accumulated value to the preset value. and division. An up – counter increment and a down – counter decrement. it changes by one count. This bit 0.: Most PLCs have the ability to carry out arithmetic operations. the cursor prompts the use to enter a multi . If the count goes beyond 32. the count complete bit (13) will set. Each bit is assigned a number. otherwise it is reset. is usually considered the primary output bit of the counter.768.digit number form 0 to 32. After each math instruction is performed. 767 at the right of the word PRESET can be selected. or any other accessible word location. The first word of element in a memory file contains five status bits. Every time the counter is activated by a False – to – True state in its rung condition. along with the abbreviation of the bit. 767 at the right of the abbreviation ACCUM.

S:13 and S :14.Fundamental PLC Programming Z (Zero) S: 0/2. They store word values generated by multiplication and division instructions. Dr.ACC 1/3 is True. The V (Overflow) bit is set if the result underflows. Additional Instruction (ADD): The addition operation adds two values specified after the source A source B indicators. Together. When the input instruction I: SUBTRACT SOURCE A C5:10. These are multiple bits containing 16 – bit registers. Bit2. Bit3. with the result being placed in the Figure – 1(b) SUBTRACTION OPERATION DEST (destination). S (Sign) S: 0/3. An example of subtraction operation is shown SUB in figure 1– (b). Bit1: The V (Overflow) bit sets if the sum does not fit into the destination address. Bit 3 is set if the result is negative. Bit 2 is set if the result of the math calculation is zero. Bit1. The C (Carry) bit is set if a borrow is generated. N7:1. An example of an addition operation is shown ADD in figure 1– (a). Bit3: The S (Sign) bit sets if the result is negative. When the input instruction I: ADD 1/2 is True.ACC constant of 5) will be added with the data in 5 DEST N7:0 source B (the accumulated value of counter C5:10). otherwise it is reset. they will store a full 32 – bit integer result of the multiplication operation. The data in source A (a program I: 1/2 SOURCE B C5:10. The sum is stored at the destination address. with the result being placed in the Figure – 1(a) ADDITION OPERATION DEST (destination). the PLC will enable the ADD SOURCE A 5 instruction. The data in source B (the program SOURCE B 5 constant) will be subtracted form the data in DEST N7:1 source A (the accumulated value of counter C5:10). The least signification word is stored in S: 13. Subtraction instruction (SUB): The subtraction operation calculates the difference between two values specified after the source A and source B indicators. The following status bits are affected: Bit0: The C (Carry) bit sets if a carry is generated. The Z (Zero) bit is set if the result is zero. and the most significant word is stored in S: 14. Bit2: The Z (Zero) bit sets if the result is zero. The following bits are affected: Bit0. Otherwise it is reset. the PLC will enable the SUB I: 1/3 instruction. N7:0. The S (Sign) bit is set if the result is negative. Gulam Rabbani 8 . The value at source B is subtracted form the value at source A and sorted at the destination.

O. Explain with symbols any five types of switches and their subcategories used as input devices to programmable logic controller.) and normally closed (N. These switches are activated by a machine operator or technician. Maintained Switches: These witches make contact when pressed and remain in position until released by pressure from another button through a mechanical linkage.O. 4.Fundamental PLC Programming Q7. are normally open. e.) push button. Ans. The two Two – Position J K and the three position selector switches are most common. A truth table indicates which contacts are Three – Position J K L J K L made by placing and X in a column that shows the A1 X corresponding position.) configuration.C. a foot switch is N.O. Also called mushroom – head switches. Stop buttons are commonly made of a normally closed (N. They also have an arrow that points to positions J X A2 and K for a two position selector. Foot Switches: Many machine or processes require frequent actuation of a pilot device to energize a circuit.C. Foot switches are heavy duty devices usually found in a normally open (N. the A1 contacts of the two position switch A2 X are made the switch is in position J and A2contacts are A2 X – Contact Closed made when the switch is in position K. Start buttons are commonly made of a normally open (N. the K position for 9 Dr.O. If the operator’s hands are engaged n performing some function of the process. the double – pole style push button N.C. Selector Switches: Selector switches are multi – positional devices that connect more than one set of contacts. a. often used to activate the pilot device in the same way as a push button.: 1. K. they are often used for emergency stop switches when the operator needs physically hit this switch hard and not be injured. Types of momentary switches are as described here: Normally Open Pus Button: This type of push button is spring loaded and N.) push button. b.C. c. Gulam Rabbani . Following are the different switches that are used as Input Devices: Manual Switches: Manual switches are used in the input section of ladder diagram to cause an action to occur at a desired time.C. Multiple – Pole Push Button: These push buttons are available with more than one set of contacts. closes its contacts for whatever period of time the button is held down. 2. The A1 X K symbols for the switches label the two sets of contacts as J A1 A2 A1and A2. Momentary Switches: A momentary switch is usually a push button that actuates a contact when it is pressed and reverts the contact back to its original position when the pressure on the buttons is released. d. or J. Normally Closed Push Button: This type of push button consists of contacts N. which open for whatever period of time the button is held down. 3. A1 For example. For example. Palm Operated: This push button is internally designed the same as normally closed push button devices. and L for a three position switch. & shown below has one set of contacts that are normally closed and one set that N.O. N.

Another example of a flow N.Fundamental PLC Programming the three – position switch allows for a shut – off condition. O. oil) and gases in a pipe or duct.O. Dr. inductive and capacitive.: The input device provides a path of continuity form a power line source to an output device when a rung is energized. c. Output device are located in the right portion of each rung. d. Ans.O.O. Automatic Switches: Automatic switches activate N. slurries. such as turning on an indicator lamp or running a motor. C. contact when they sense the presence or absence of some physical material or condition. Level switches are sometimes referred to as float switches. Such devices include. or solids such as powder or paste.C. required amount of water into a storage tank. The broken line indicates that they are Mechanical limit switch mechanically joined together. There are two types of proximity switches. N. Output device are also referred to as actuators.C. They are used to detect the N. Gulam Rabbani 10 . water. or to close the heater to turn on when the heat N. Q8.C. e. liquid. Proximity Limit Switches: These switches detect the Open Closed absence or presence of solid or liquid material without making physical contact. There are two types of output devices. and N. Flow Switches: These switches are used to detect the flow of liquids (i. Inductive proximity switches can only detect ferrous (magnetic) and nonferrous metals. a.e. A diamond is placed around the limit switch symbol to indicate that it is a proximity device. N.O. Explain with suitable diagrams the direct and indirect output devices used with programmable logic controller. water. f. contact. Pressure Switches: Pressure switches are commonly used in pumps.C. One application example of a level switch is to turn off an electric motor when it has pumped a N. One application of a temperature switch is to open and cause a heater to turn off when the heat has reached a certain level. Capacitive proximity switches can detect any type of solid or liquid material. b. Their function is to produce some type of action. or oil. such as air. switch application is to detect if enough lubricating oil is being supplied to a drill on a drilling machine. Figure show a limit switch that combines N. Temperature Switches: These switches are used to detect the temperature of a solid. is below a certain temperature. or N.O. and lubrication systems. Level Switches: These switches are used to detect the level of liquids. pressure of a medium. 5. These detectors use solid – state components that are inside the sensor body. N. N. direct and indirect. One application example of a flow switch is to detect if a clogged air filter is not allowing enough air flow to properly cool a heating coil. or gas. air compressors. Mechanical Limit Switches: These switches detect the presence of an object when physical contact is made.C.

a Pilot Lights G = Green A = Amber R=Red Y = Yellow Heating elements: These actuators are used for heating H such things as containers of liquid or to liquefy solids into liquids (such as plastics). Time Delay Relay: Timing devices are used in industry to regulate many types of machine operations. Indirect Devices: These output devices actuate normally open or normally closed contacts when they are energized. AC MOTORS DC MOTORS Shunt Field Series Field Comm. contacts closed and N. The symbols for the timing relays are shown in Figure. or Compens. (Figure (a) Show the symbol of the energized coil located at the output rung. Field Single Phase Three Phase (Show 4 loops) (Show 3 loops) (Show 2loops) Pilot Lights: A light can be used as an indicator to show the status of a ladder diagram rung. Relay: This is an electromechanical device that acts basically as a communication carrier.) in relation to the condition of the de – energized coil. This function is often performed by a timing relay that causes contacts to open or close a certain period of time after its coil is energized or de – energized. Contact are referred to as normally closed (N.) or normally open (N. which opens if the coil is energized. Relay is used to control fluid power valves Relay Coil Normally Open Normally Closed and as machine sequence control for Instanteneous Instanteneous operations such as drilling. they are electrically isolated from the input and usually control output devices at a different location in the ladder diagram. The letter b inside the circle indicates the color of the lamp. These contacts move from a closed to an open position. a b Being an electromechanical device. contacts opens. There are contacts.Fundamental PLC Programming DIRECT OUTPUT DEVICES: Direct devices actuate when its rung is energized. Dr. which closes if the corresponding coil is energized. Also referred to as auxiliary contacts. Another type of lamp in combines with a A R switch and illuminates when it is closed.C.O. the relay has a coil and a plunger that move through an opening coil. Contact Contact and grinding. and the normally closed contact. When the coil is energized N. boring. Gulam Rabbani 11 . milling. Figure (b) shows the symbol of the normally open contact.O. The most common types of direct output devices are as follows: Motor: Figure shows the schematic symbols of DC and AC motors. which are connected to the plunger. A stand – alone lamp indicates that the rung is energized. or form an open to a closed position.C. Indirect components include.

a magnetic field is produced around the coil. An N. as they do in On-delay Relay Off-delay Relay the normal control relay.C. the plunger moves inside the coil. The most common function of a contactor is to switch power that is applied to resistance heating elements. Like the relay. the contact Time Delay Relays remains closed for the delay period of the timer and then open. The frame and plunger are made up of lamination of a high – grade silicon steel. open. and (3) the coil. This magnetic field produces a force that acts on the solenoid plungers. or heavy industrial solenoids.O. Solenoid: Like the relay and contactor. The wound coil is made of an insulated copper conductor. N. but require separate overload protection. Dr. It is made up of three basic parts: (1) the frame (2) the plunger. N. The off – delay relay also controls N.C. The schematic symbol of a solenoid is shown in figure. a contactor operates in a similar fashion to the relay. Due to this force. An N. Contactor: In general. After the voltage is removed. a period of time passes before the contact N. it is an electromechanical device. This pull may be as low as a fraction of an ounce or as high as nearly 100 pounds.O. The major difference between them is that the contactor is capable of carrying larger amounts of current than a control relay. a period time passes before the contact is closed. the solenoid is an electromechanical device. and N. For an N. contacts.C. Published ratings on these devices are generally given in continuous amperes (usually 9 or 10 amps). For an N. Contactors are also used to switch motors. a period of time passes before the contact N.Fundamental PLC Programming When power is applied to the coil of an on – delay relay.C. changes states. contact closes Time delay after Time delay after energizing de-energizing and remains closed as long as voltage is applied to the coil. magnetic brakes. The force on the plunger is called Pull. type. contact opens when the coil is energized. They are then called Motor Starters.O.O. When a voltage is applied to the coil. When the coil is de energized the contact remains open until the relay times out. Gulam Rabbani 12 . the contacts changes states immediately. type.C.O. When the coil of a solenoid is energized.