# Monte Carlo Generators

Outline
1.Overview 2.Event Integrator vs Generator 3.NLO Monte Carlo 4.Parton Showers
1. DGLAP 2. Sudakov Factor

1. String Model 2. Cluster Model

6.Lattice QCD

Overview .

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accept and histogram with weight 1 . (positive definite function) → event generator: events: weights: ● Occur with the same frequency as in nature ● If weight > random number.Event Integrator vs Generator ● Alex: Monte Carlo → numerical integration ● Histogram each event with a weight ● Probability distro.

Elementary Hard Process Solutions: ● Phase space slicing (JETRAD. EERAD) ● Subtraction Method (EVENT. DISENT.MCFM) . NLOJET++. DYRAD.

Initial and Final State Parton Showers ● ● Factorize 2 → n process to 2 → 2 process Initial State Radiation (ISR) ● Incident parton with low spacelike virtuality can radiate timelike partons Outgoing parton with large timelike virtuality can generate a shower with lower virtuality ● Final State Radiation (FSR) ● .

Iterative structure that allows simple expressions for q→qg.Parton Showers Emission rate for branching diverges when the gluon becomes collinear or when the gluon energy vanishes ● ● q→qg g→gg 1. g→gg and g→qq branchings to be combined to build up complex multiparton final states 2.A Sudakov factor that offers a physical way to handle the cancellation between real and virtual divergences .

DGLAP Equations .

Sudakov (Form) Factor .

Hadronization Process ● A specific model used in an event generator for the transition from the partonic “final” state to a complete representation of the actual hadronic final state. Two Main Hadronization Classes: ● String – transforms partonic systems directly into hadrons Has an intermediate stage of cluster objects (m ~ GeV) ● Cluster – .

String Model ● ● Assumes linear confinement Strings ● ● ● endpoint = quark kink = gluon partons ordered in color along the string Space-time motion and breakup ↔ energy-momentum distribution of primary hadrons Need to be taken from data (weakness) ● Predictive Framework ● ● Parameters related to flavor properties ● .

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Cluster Model ● Based on the preconfinement property of parton showers ● Color-singlet parton clusters with a universal mass distribution at low scales Color-connected pairs form clusters Limited cluster mass spectrum → limited transverse momenta and suppression of heavy flavor. strangeness and baryon production ● Gluons split non-perturbatively into quark-antiquark pairs ● ● Formed clusters undergo quasi-two-body sequential phase-space decay ● ● Quality when combined with angular-ordered parton showers comparable to the string theory but needs less parameters .

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Lattice QCD ● ● Non-perturbative Treats low-energy QCD where analytic and perturbative solutions are impossible or fail Discrete rather than continuous spacetime introduces a “natural” momentum cutoff of 1/a where 'a' is the lattice spacing Quark fields defined at lattice sites while gluon fields defined on the links connecting sites Approximation approaches continuum QCD in the limit a→0 (Early Days) Quenched – quark fields are “frozen” (Today) Dynamical .molecular dynamics or microcanonical ensemble algorithms ● ● ● ● ● .

.Decay process of a kaon into two pions ● Calculation took 54 million processor hours on the IBM BlueGene/P supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US.Mass of the proton determined with less than 2 percent error 2.Some Lattice QCD Results: 1.

cam. “General-Purpose Event Generators for LHC Physics”. www.phy. Buckley et al. 2007. .cam.pdf. “Monte Carlo Generators”.uk/theory/webber/MunichPDF/MClecture1. Matt Dobb's Presentation “Simulating Hadron Collider Interactions”.phy. January 2005. 19-23 November. www-atlas.ac. November 2006.uk/theory/webber/MunichPDF/MClecture2. hepph/0611247. Torbjorn Sjostrand.hep.References Brian Webber's Presentation “Monte Carlo Methods in Particle Physics”.2599v1. www.pdf. 13 January 2011.pdf.ac.hep. hep-ph/1101.gov/physics/Matt_MonteCarloTutorial.lbl.