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Lopa Nath Homework #1 The da Vinci

Due: October 19, 2009 Dr. Slattery – Bioengineering Seminar

You may know Leonardo Da Vinci as the man famous for paintings such as The Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Did you know he was also a scientist who reportedly drew and built the world’s first robot? Although the subject of my paper, the da Vinci surgical robot, was not Leonardo’s original design, the robot received its name because of Leonardo’s detail to threedimensional accuracy and the many drawings of the anatomy by him. The company that owns the da Vinci robot is Intuitive Surgical Inc. They launched the da Vinci in January 1999 (About Intuitive, 2005). The robot has three parts to it—the surgeon’s console, a vision cart, and a moveable cart. The vision cart has a light source and cameras which generate the three dimensional image that is fed to the surgeon’s screen. The surgeon’s console where the surgeon is seated creates a three-dimensional view of the surgery field and even has depth perception. The moveable cart has the arms of the robot that perform the actual surgery and another camera (Lanfranco, Castellanos, Desai, Meyers, 2004). The end effector has a wrist at the end of it which gives it the high precision that is needed in surgeries. The robot has seven degrees of freedom: three on the manipulator and three from the wrist (Cleary, Nguyen). The robot also has a motion filter to account for “unintended motion tremors”. The da Vinci robot is said to be of “Master-slave” robot type. The robot never runs autonomously so it is controlled at all times by the surgeon. The surgeon stays seated at the console while the robotic arm is positioned over the patient and performs whatever function the surgeon wants it to (Townsend, Beauchamp, Evers & Mattox, 2008). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared the da Vinci robot for numerous surgeries. The robot has succeeded in many surgeries such as hysterectomies, mitral valve repairs, radical prostatectomy, gastric bypass, and cardiac tissue ablation (FDA Clearance, 2005). On July

12, 2000 USA Today released an article about how the robot had been approved for microsurgeries (“Da Vinci Robot OK’d for Precise Microsurgery”, 2000, p. 0.7D). Because of its wrist, the robot has more precision where the surgery is taking place on the body. Granted, none of the robots that currently exist are perfected, however with robotic surgery, surgeons will not tire during surgery, patients will not be affected by unintended movements from the surgeon, and the limited dexterity. The robot which is stable does not tire, has better precision, can be sterilized more than a human, and surgeons will no longer be in danger of being affected by radiation and infection. Everyday new technology is applied to different research areas. Although robotics in surgery has much room for improvement, it holds significant promise as it continues to evolve through the years.

Works Cited Cleary K, Nguyen CC. Medical Robotics. In: Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook. sect. 4, chapt. 6. Davis, R. Da Vinci Robot OK’d for Precise Microsurgery. (2000, July 12). USA Today. Pp. 0.7D. Intuitive Surgical. (2005). About Intuitive. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/corporate/ companyprofile/index.aspx. Intuitive Surgical. (2005). FDA Clearance. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from http://www.intuitivesurgical.com/products/ fdaclearance/index.aspx. Lanfranco AR, Castellanos AE, Desai JP, Meyers WC. Robotic Surgery: A Current Perspective. Annals of Surgery. 239: 14 – 21, 2004. Townsend CM, Beauchamp DR, Evers MB, Mattox KL. Classification of Surgical Robots. In: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. PA: Saunders, 2008.