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International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159

An analysis and optimisation of the geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag phenomenon in WEDM
A.B. Puri a,∗, B. Bhattacharyya b
a

Mechanical Engineering Department, NERIST, NIRJULI-791 109 Arunachal, Pradesh, India b Production Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700 032, India

Received 19 September 2001; received in revised form 20 August 2002; accepted 21 August 2002

Abstract An extensive study of the wire lag phenomenon in Wire-cut Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) has been carried out and the trend of variation of the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag with various machine control parameters has been established in this paper. In an extremely complicated machining process like Wire-cut EDM, which is governed by as many as ten control factors, it is very difficult to select the best parametric combination for a particular situation arising out of customer requirements. In the present research study, all the machine control parameters are considered simultaneously for the machining operation which comprised a rough cut followed by a trim cut. The objective of the study has been to carry out an experimental investigation based on the Taguchi method involving thirteen control factors with three levels for an orthogonal array L27 (313). The main influencing factors are determined for given machining criteria, such as: average cutting speed, surface finish characteristic and geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag. Also, the optimum parametric settings for different machining situations have been found out and reported in the paper.  2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: WEDM; Surface finish characteristics; Trim cut; Wire lag; Taguchi method

1. Introduction As newer and more exotic materials have been developed in the past few decades, conventional machining operations tend to reach their limitations as relatively more complicated shaped jobs are required to be manufactured. The increased use of wire-cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM) in manufacturing, has thus kept growing at a highly accelerated rate since its first industrial application more than 30 years ago. Its broad capabilities have allowed it to encompass production in aerospace and automotive industries and virtually all areas of conductive material machining [1]. This is because wire EDM provides the best alternative, or sometimes the only alternative, for machining conductive, exotic and HSTR (high strength and temperature resistive) material with the scope of generating intricate

Corresponding author. E-mail address: puri@agni.nerist.ac.in (A.B. Puri).

shapes and profiles. Also, WEDM has proved to have tremendous potential in its applicability in the present day metal cutting industry for achieving a considerable dimensional accuracy, surface finish and contour generation feature of products or parts. Wire EDM is a special form of the traditional EDM process in which the electrode is a continuously moving conductive wire. Material is eroded from the workpiece by a series of discrete sparks between the workpiece and the wire electrode (tool) separated by a thin film of dielectric fluid (deionised water) which is continuously force fed to the machining zone to flush away the eroded particles. The movement of the wire is controlled numerically to achieve the desired three-dimensional shape and accuracy for the workpiece. Although the average cutting speed, relative machining costs, accuracy and surface finish have been improved many times since the commercial inception of the machine, much more improvement is still required to meet the increasing demand of precision and accuracy by different industries. It is a well-known fact that a high material removal

0890-6955/03/$ - see front matter  2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 8 9 0 - 6 9 5 5 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 1 5 8 - X

it is almost impossible to determine any of these forces quantitatively. hydraulic forces due to flushing. This is because the magnitudes and directions of various forces acting along or upon the wire are not always constant as the occurrence of sparks is highly stochastic in nature. interaction of two successive discharges and presence of debris particles in the machining zone. average cutting speed (Vc). [2. to show how it varies with cutting speed and surface finish for various combinations of control parameters in Wire EDM. But to date. the manufacturers’ guidelines for the selection of machining parameters are conservative in nature and do not throw any light upon the magnitude of the wire lag. Also. The wire-lag phenomenon during machining The mechanical behaviour of the wire during machining is extremely complicated in nature. A rough cut (first cut) followed by one or two trim cuts is considered as a probable solution to the above problem depending upon customer requirements.e. However. (f) The disturbing forces acting per unit length of the wire perpendicular to the axial force is constant over the span of the wire between guides. decomposition and distribution of dielectric. all important machine control parameters have not been considered simultaneously in previous research studies. several attempts were made to perform a parametric study and to mathematically model the WEDM process from time to time [4–8]. several researchers have been of the opinion that the main forces acting along or upon the wire are forces from gas bubbles formed by the plasma of the erosion mechanism. Therefore. the user must monitor and tune machining parameters to achieve a better machining rate and a desirable surface finish with a precise contour or profile. the wire bending or the static deflection (y) of the stretched wire of length ‘L’ in a plane (along z-axis) may be expressed as [3]: . An attempt to study the in-process static mechanical behavior of the wire had been carried out and a hardware system with a proper control algorithm enabling virtually any contour to be cut at a relatively high cutting speed was proposed by Dauw et al. (d) The wire mass is uniformly spread along its length. To date. However. Instead. very little study has been done on the wire lag phenomenon. Also. This is an age-long problem and continuous efforts are being made by different researchers all over the world to fulfill such an objective. B. the vibrational behaviour and the static deflection of the wire (wire lag) need to be studied simultaneously. even for a skilled operator with a state-of-the-art WEDM machine is rarely possible. surface finish characteristic and the geometrical inaccuracy caused by wire lag (g). it is a fact that because of the many variables and the complex and stochastic nature of the process. so far as precision and accuracy are concerned. Although. Moreover. Also. random ionic migration. the objective of this paper is to study the main influencing factors among the controllable parameters that effect machining performances. researchers have been able to determine the forces acting perpendicular to the wire during the WEDM operation for particular machining conditions and set-up experimentally. Although a good number of researches have been carried out to study wire vibration. which is impact. 2. and. such as. the authors believe that there is little effect of electrodynamic force on the mechanical behaviour of the wire. (e) The viscous force resisting the deflection of wire in the dielectric medium is negligibly small in comparison to other gap forces and axial tensile force (F). another force acts perpendicular to the wire. Thus. In addition. little research work has been carried out on wire lag. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 rate and a very good surface finish can never be achieved simultaneously in WEDM process. several of the above-mentioned factors vary markedly with time and space in the discharge zone [9]. All these above-mentioned forces along with the axial tensile force (F) applied to the wire set the wire to vibration along with a wire-bending in the reverse direction of cutting when discrete sparks are generated between the electrodes. Such a study requires an investigation of the deformation or deflection of the wire in detail as it plays a major role in the accuracy of the profile of an electro-discharge machined job. (c) The wire is perfectly flexible. which is very important for precision contour generation. (b) The wire is static (not moving). Keeping in mind the above problems. is helpful but insufficient. An attempt has also been made to investigate the trend of variation of the above-mentioned inaccuracy with various machine control parameters as well as to propose optimum parametric combinations for various machining requirements.3]: (a) The axial tensile force (F) remains constant between the wire guides. which acts in the reverse direction of the discharge occurrence.3].152 A.B. The stochastic nature of the Wire EDM process is also attributed to a combination of factors including fluctuation in voltage and current. The static deflection of a stretched wire supported by the two wire guides at opposite ends has been mathematically modelled with the following assumptions [2. achieving the optimal performance. which is based on manufacturers’ in-house experimentation. it does not offer any resistance to bending. i. During every individual spark discharge. Puri. The available technological data. the wire experiences an impact. electrostatic force and electrodynamic force.

The geometrical error resulting out of this wire lag should affect any contour cutting as depicted in Fig.e. 3. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 153 ∂2y F 2 ∂z q0 (1) y q0 (h 2F H). the solution of eq.B. Also ymax where y1 q0 H(h 2F H) and y2 q0h2 8F q0 H(h 2F H) q0h2 8F y1 y2 Eq. (2) describes a parabola. . which clarifies that the magnitude of wire lag (y) is equal to the maximum deviation of the traced path from the defined path of the wire-tool in WEDM.z (3) where F is the wire tension (N). Thus. Illustration of the effect of wire lag on the work-piece contour in WEDM. However. y y(z) is the wire deflection (m). as the “y” appears to be negative. B. 1. 1 is a schematic representation of static deflection of wire tool in Wire EDM process.A. Designing for the experimental studies An orthogonal array L27 (313) has been employed according to the Taguchi method based robust design philosophy to evaluate the main influencing factors that effect the average cutting speed (Vc). The solution of the eq. The other surface finish characteristics like Rt (peak to valley measures) and Rz (ten point averaged heights of irregularities) have not been taken into consideration because their trends of variation are almost similar as with Ra in wire EDM process [10]. 2. Thirteen machining parameters were chosen as the control factors wherein each of the factors was designed to have three levels as given in L is the distance between the upper and lower wire guides. which indicates that the shape of the wire within the workpiece will be parabolic during machining operation. Fig. (1) will appear as follows: y q0 z(L z) 2F (2) Eq. and H is the distance between the wire guide and the workpiece in the above expressions. Fig. the machining operation is designed to comprise a rough cut followed by a trim cut. Fig. h is the workpiece thickness. It has also been established that a rough cut must be followed with at least one trim cut to achieve a better productivity and an acceptable level of surface finish [11]. i. it ascertains that the static deflection or wire lagging occurs in the opposite direction of cutting. 2. surface finish characteristic in terms of CLA values (Ra) and the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag (g). Puri. the wire outside the workpiece will be straight up to the guide during machining. On the other hand. Schematic diagram of WEDM process during rough cutting. (1) outside the workpiece and within the wire span between the guides (q 0 0) will appear as. (3) describes a straight line. q0 is the specific external load or body force per unit length of the wire (N/m).

I. FR Offset of Wire Cutting speed Level 100 1. The cutting speed data (mm/min) were directly obtained from the computer monitor of the machine tool generator ELPULS-40. E.85% C. WT Servo Set Voltage. VP Water pressure. for a machining operation consisting of a trim cutting operation with a considerably large value of wire tool offset. VP H.83 3 9 175 Proportional mode Unit volt N/m2 m/min N volt lit/min µm mm/min Fig. The geometrical shapes of the contours. F. The maximum deviation of the traced path from the defined path of the wire due to the wire lag phenomenon while generating a profile of 90° corner. OFFSET M.e. A typical contour generated during cutting a right-angled corner in WEDM. L and M are for the trim cutting operation. DF F. 5% Mo. 4). TON E.6 1/10 80 100 6 11. servoset spark voltage (SV). supercut-734. for off- Table 2 Machining conditions for rough cut Control Factors Pulse Peak voltage. . The control factors are pulse on time (TON). Speed 1. 3. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 Table 1 Factors with their levels Control factors Level 1 Rough-cut A. TON B. SV Flow rate.7 1/11 100 (100) 7 13.00 16 180 0. G. C. and pulse peak current (IP) for rough cut. Puri. manufactured by Seimitsu. Thus. TOFF C. WP Wire feed rate. WF Wire tension. respectively. K.47×106 6 8. IP G. The machining conditions for rough cut are given in Table 2. A brass wire of 250 µm diameter was used as the tool electrode (cathode).10 14 200 0. Japan. corresponding duty factor (D). the average cutting speed must be higher.25% W. For higher productivity. H.5 1/9 70 75 5 10 3 1 155 1 2 1.2 10 2 150 2 3 1. IP D. the measured values of deviations (g) are not equal to the wire lag values (y).B. Factors A. has been measured and termed as geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag (g) in this study for convenience (Fig. it is quite reasonable to term the maximum deviation of the traced path from the defined path of the wire tool as the wire lag. wire tension (WT). 3. Fig.154 A. The defined contour and the traced contour are 1-2-3-4-5 and 1-2-3 -4-5. was used for conducting the experiments with a typical die steel (M2-hardened and annealed: 0. J. the dimensional configuration of the contour generated by the first (rough) cut is affected by the second cut. A typical wire-cut EDM machine. pulse peak voltage (VP). But.05 15 190 0. i. 2% V) plate of 28 mm thickness. wire offset and cutting speed for trim cut. 4 depicts a machining operation comprising a rough cut followed by a trim cutting operation. As from Figs. 6.54 16 4 140 4 µs µs Amp µs – Amp volt m/min N volt lit/min µm mm/min Unit Vc 2 (Rough Cutting Velocity)(Trim Cutting Velocity) Rough Cutting Velocity Trim Cutting Velocity Trim-cut Table 1. pulse off time (TOFF). dielectric flow rate (FR). the right-angled corners of the specimens as viewed with 200 times (200×) magnification are similar to the expected ones. and pulse on time (TON). SV K. pulse peak current (IP). FR L. B and C are for the rough cutting operation and factors D. 2 and 3. B. wire feed velocity (WF). Rectangular jobs of sizes 7 × 10 × 28 were cut out from the die steel plate as specimens. 4% Cr. mm/min) was calculated as. Surface roughness values (Ra) were measured using a SURFCOM 120 A-TSK roughness measuring instrument and the geometrical inaccuracies (g) were measured using a contour measuring instrument SURFCOM. as the workpiece (anode). WT J. A typical machined right-angled corner is shown in Fig. WF I. The average cutting speed (Vc.

.286 3. andyi = i-th reading.750 2.037 0. Test results and discussions 4.090 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 h1 (Vc) 1.148 3.793 0.6460 33.231 4. the next step in data analysis has been to estimate the effect of each control factor on each of the three machining characteristics of interest in the present set of research and to perform analysis of variance (ANOVA).1499 31.590 1.834 2.B.797 0.258 h2 (Ra) 0.191 4.4375 25. such as average cutting speed (Vc). The total summary of data for the performed experiments is presented in Table 3. Impact of wire tool offset on the geometrical inaccuracy in WEDM.385 1.340 2.831 3.980 7. On the other hand. minimizing sensitivity to noise factors.8280 27. The difference between the defined contour (or defined path of the wire) and the generated contour (or the traced path of the wire) in this case is g1 and is measured in this study as the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag.7145 26.768 3.700 1. (b) For smaller-the-better type problems: S / N ratio h 10log 1 ni n y2 i 1 (5) Maximizing signal to noise ratio (S / N ratio h) is equivalent to minimizing the variance (s2) i.883 3. 4. After the data for each experiment are summarized. h2 and h3. 1.610 4.614 0. yi’s are the repetition in observed readings.860 4.e.920 0.8526 28.324 2.8341 31. 2 and so on. However.7218 32. according to Taguchi based methodology.e.6635 30.043 2. Thus.5895 29.4464 29. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 155 4.232 0. The contour A-B-C is generated by the first cut.370 3.4732 24. No.184 2. h1 2 is h1 for experiment no. i.109 1.697 3. h.3123 25. Similarly. As there are no adjustment factors in these problems.611 1.582 3.359 0.222 6.7077 32.405 3.196 5. the characteristic that a larger value represents the better machining performance.243 1.511 5.724 4. Analysis of the experimental data The first step in data analysis has been to summarize the data for each experiment.6026 30.158 1. Hence. h2 h3 1 1 to h2 to h3 27 27 10log10 1 9i 9 y2 i 1 (7) set1.554 4.3710 1 y2 1 i (4) Where.1146 28.406 0.3025 29. h1 Fig.6191 20.351 1. the quality loss (Q) is simply minimized.6472 28.3310 32. the characteristic that smaller value indicates better machining performance (such as Ra and g) is addressed as smaller-the-better type problem. Ra and g have been calculated as h1. defined by the following equations [12]: (a) For larger-the-better type problems: S / N ratio h 10log 1 ni n h1 1 stands for h1 for experiment no. Table 3 Data summary of the experiment Exp.160 2.437 0.6822 28. Puri.7720 30. B. The signal to noise ratios for Vc.1. the experimental studies are made as per the above stated design modules and a total of 9 readings have been taken for each experiment.A.541 0.9668 30.216 4. n = number of readings.388 3.083 2.687 2. is called larger-the-better type problem. minimizing Q is equivalent to maximizing signal to noise ratios (S/N ratio).522 4. 1 10log10 1 9i 9 1 y2 1 i (6) and. respectively.795 0.569 2.2778 30. Again.2372 26. .314 h3 (g) 31.4504 31.

Vc 238. are the significant factors for surface roughness values (Ra).43∗ 2. WT J. 5.74∗ 6.156 A. Puri.93∗ 4. and pulse peak voltage (G). pulse peak current (C) during rough cutting. 4.69∗ 14.69 4. whereas pulse peak current (C) during rough cutting and pulse on time (D). to visualize the relative effects of the various factors on all the three machining characteristics. VP H.94∗ 15. The CLA values are found to be proportional with the energy contained in a pulse while it decreases with the increase of dielectric flow rate during trim cutting.0∗ 0.15∗ 0. As the offset values decrease.79. dielectric flow rate (K). C. which makes it easy Fig. wire tool offset (L) and constant cutting speed (M) during trim cutting.13 (for G only). and duty factor (E). pulse peak current (C).8∗ 1. surface roughness data and the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag. but also on the applied energy rate or power.89 3249.11 F1. IP D.01 0. On the contrary.B. Also.84 (for G only). wire feed rate (H) and wire tension (I) during trim cutting. This establishes the fact that the cutting speed is proportional with the energy invested during cutting and is dependent not only on the energy contained in a pulse determining the crater size. WF I. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 Table 4 “F”—values for Vc. The g-values are found to have an increasing trend with the increase of offset values during trim cutting.20 0.51 217. the pulse on time (A) and pulse off time (B) during rough cutting. servo spark gap set voltage (J).21∗ 4. IP G.19 0. TOFF C.35 4. and pulse on time (D) and constant cutting speed (M) during trim cutting. F1. become the most significant factors to determine the surface finish of a machined job.46∗ 76. Comparing the variances and degrees of contribution for each control factor from Table 4.03 11. Speed F2.29 3.35 4.57 8. wire tool offset (L) and constant cutting speed (M) during trim cutting. and pulse on time (D) and constant cutting speed (M) during trim cutting. TON B.16 86.63∗ g 82. ∗Significant fac- Table 4 shows the variance ratios (F-values) for average cutting speed.87∗ 163.3 2.27 13.5 10.3 9. F1.78 1.3 tors. VP) during trim cutting confirm that the q0 is too small to affect the g-values.83 86. DF F.88 2. FR L. Very small Fvalues for the pulse parameters (except pulse peak voltage. At the same time. The average cutting speed has been found to have an increasing trend with the increase of pulse on time (A).66∗ 0. pulse peak current (F).03 5. As far as the geometrical inaccuracy (g-values) is concerned. F-values have been estimated considering the pooled error and the corresponding pooled sum of squares.86∗ 6. wire tension (I). the thickness of the material layer to be removed goes on increasing causing . Ra and g Factor A. as is depicted in Fig. it is found that pulse on time (A). during rough cutting. This is explained in Fig. 6. are found to be insignificant for surface roughness values (Ra).98. The significant factors for geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag (g) are pulse on time (A). 5. it decreases with the increase of pulse off time (B). dielectric flow rate (K) and constant cutting speed (M) during trim cutting. all the pulse parameters during rough cutting are significant since they affect the external body force (q0) on the wire directly. TON E.48∗ 106. pulse peak voltage (G).61 (for G only).5 5. pulse off time (B). Graphical representation of Wire EDM factor effects. servo spark gap set voltage (J). pulse off time (B) and pulse peak current (C) during rough cutting. pulse peak voltage (G). This is because of the fact that the craters formed during rough cutting are superimposed by the craters formed during trim cutting and ultimately the factors pulse on time (D). OFFSET M. 5.55.13 21.11 4.0∗ Ra 6. F2. F2.05∗ 8. B. the surface finish becomes better for a comparatively smaller value of constant cutting speed and for a higher value of offset during trim cutting.47∗ 70. The factor effects are also displayed graphically in Fig. are the most significant factors for the average cutting speed (Vc).69∗ 242. SV K.47∗ 3.

This is explained in Fig. the g-values are lesser may also be explained in the same line.A. The static wire lag in the reverse direction of cutting in case of a trim cutting operation with very low energy pulses is almost totally absent. Almost all the control factors have been studied simultaneously to establish the trends of variation of a few important machining criteria with various control parameters. 4. B. Fig. Puri. Conclusions The Taguchi methodology is employed to find out the main parameters that affect the different machining criteria. which contradicts to achieve minimum Ra and “g” at a time for the same parametric setting.3. Wire tension is another important aspect. Options for VP remain one or two in any advanced WEDM system. the increased magnitude of wire tool vibration at small wire tension removes a higher thickness of material layer causing to reduce the geometrical inaccuracy of the machined job as explained earlier. The reason why at higher pulse peak voltage (G) and at lower constant cutting speed (M). ultimately q0 does not help to produce wire lag in the reverse direction of cutting during trim cutting operation. 6. Therefore. This is because different levels of the same factors have been optimum for different characteristics as is evident from Fig.B. 5. . It is found that there is a lot of similarity in optimum parametric combination for Ra and g except in pulse peak voltage and offset. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 157 to decrease the geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag in the first cut. Illustration of the effect of wire lag and wire-tool offset on the contour generated in trim cutting. Its aim is to verify the optimum condition suggested by the matrix experiment estimating how close are the respective predictions with the real ones. if the VP is kept constant for both. It is clear that the data agree very well with the predictions. However. Not only that. it is the amount of offset. A higher offset (within the range of study) produces a better finish. 5 also clarifies that it is almost impossible to recommend a single suitable combination of various control parameters. The h-values were predicted under the optimum condition for the above case study. if the observed S/N ratios under the optimum conditions differ drastically from their respective predictions. based on the above analysis and are provided as in Table 5. Also. The results are tabulated in Table 6. 5. Optimisation of the machining performances The task of determining the best setting for each control factor is complicated when multiple characteristics are to be optimised. the q0 and the wire lag caused thereby in the reverse direction of cutting have little influence on the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to it in a trim cutting operation. the optimum combinations for individual machining criteria are found. such as average cutting speed. Interestingly. Nevertheless. Thus. Verification experiment Conducting a verification experiment is a crucial. 6. the optimum settings given in Table 6 may be adopted and implemented accordingly. final and indispensable part of the Taguchi method oriented robust design project. A rough cut followed by a trim cut has been considered as a machining operation. It is found that the g-values are comparatively low for small values of wire tensions. Based on the constraints of the Fig. Therefore. 4. surface roughness values and the geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag in the present set of research study. Therefore. This is also in support of the fact that the wire lag does not persist during trim cutting operation. Rather. but it produces the maximum geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag at the same time. The values of “g” were found to vary within a range of 15–50 µm in the present set of experimentation. the additive model proves to be a failure eventually. which can yield the maximum productivity with the best surface finish and least geometrical inaccuracy caused due to wire lag. h-values were estimated from the machining results under optimum parametric settings. as the wire does not get material to be removed in the frontal part.2. the energy invested is higher at higher pulse peak voltage (G) and the value of q0 is supposed to be large expecting a high geometrical inaccuracy to occur. the external forces generated due to lateral sparks pushes the wire in the perpendicular direction away from the path being moved.

15% A2 B2 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 H1 I1 J2 K3 L1 M1 Overall mean 0.034 0.3648 0. the skewness.158 A.313 0.1331 0.046 0.4938 0.2865 0. Other performance criteria. kurtosis. wire tool offset and constant cutting speed during trim cutting. This rules out the possibility of the existence of the probable significant interactions among the control factors under a stable machining condition.224 6.142 0.242 0.8069 1. waviness and white .B. wire tension.745 6.04 2.336 1. wire tool offset and constant cutting speed during trim cutting.5194 0. The experimental analysis further confirms that the difference between the offset values for the rough cut and the trim cut should be maintained as high as possible till the surface finish criterion permits. servo spark gap set voltage.019 0. Bhattacharyya / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 151–159 Table 5 Optimum parametric combination Physical requirement For a high productivity For least surface roughness For least geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag Significant factors A1 B1 C1 D1 M3 C1 D1 G1 J2 K3 L1 M1 A2 B3 C1 G2 I1 J2 L3 M1 Insignificant factors E1 F3 G2 H2 I3 J2 K3 L3 A2 B2 E1 F1 H1 I1 D2 E1 F1 H3 K3 Table 6 Prediction of hmax using the additive model h contribution (dB) Optimum factor setting Cutting speed Optimum factor setting CLA Value Optimum factor setting A2 B3 C1 D2 E1 F1 G2 H3 I1 J2 K3 L3 M1 Overall mean Geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag 1.197 0.033 0.4245 1. and pulse peak voltage. (v) The predicted S/N ratios agree very well with those calculated from the experimental results under the optimum settings.7436 20.25 20. Puri.294 0.141 0.9682 0. wire.657 2.54% A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F3 G2 H2 I3 J2 K3 L3 M3 Overall mean Total (predicted) Experimental Deviation of actual result from the prediction 0. dielectric flow rate. such as.358 2.938 2. the minimisation of the geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag will find tremendous potentiality in industrial applications for manufacturing jobs with ultraprecision contours. (iii) The significant factors for geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag (g) are pulse on time. (iv) A single set of parametric combination can never produce the highest productivity (within the possible range) with the best surface finish and least geometrical inaccuracy due to wire lag.021 0.065 0. workpiece material and work piece height into account as process inputs. servo spark gap set voltage. Thus. Further research might attempt to take more factors.065 0.729 0. and pulse on time.238 0.4005 29.126 0. This will help in minimising the geometrical inaccuracy in the most effective way.275 1.052 0. pulse off time and pulse peak current during rough cutting. B.632 0.919 0.071 2.991 1. A proper trade-off becomes inevitable to satisfy all the above-mentioned three machining criteria simultaneously. the following conclusions are drawn: (i) The average cutting speed (Vc) is mostly effected by pulse on time.66% present set of experimentation.01 0.665 0.16 0. pulse off time and pulse peak current during rough cutting. (ii) The surface roughness values (Ra) are influenced mostly by pulse peak current during rough cutting.0457 0.032 0. and pulse on time and the constant (not proportional as in rough cutting) cutting speed during trim cutting.171 0. pulse peak voltage. such as.6975 0.085 0.

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