Non-Western: Japan

Japan Before 1333     Japanese archipelago – Four main islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushi (+ many smaller ones) Japan’s geography – Mountainous island terrain making travel/communication difficult Japan’s proximity to Asia revealed through imported ideas: Buddhism, Chinese writing systems, etc. Sea around Japan protected from invasions/ allowed development of individualistic/unique character

Japan Before Buddhism  Buddhism introduced to Japan in 552 CE, divides early history of art in Japan into pre-Buddhist/Buddhist eras.

Jomon and Yayoi Periods     Jomon = Japan’s earlist distinctive culture, 10,500-300 BCE Jomon (“cord markings”) refers to Japanese potters technique of the Jomon period. Jomon people were hunter-gatherers, enjoyed settled lives, villages consisted of pit dwellings (shallow round excavations with raised earthen rims and thatched roofs). Shards (pottery fragments) found in Japan dated before 10,000 BCE (older than any other shard from the world)

Middle Jomon Pottery       Yayoi       Dotaku    Yayoi artisans produced “dotaku” (bells), not used as musical instruments but rather as ceremonial bells (often deposited in graves). Dotaku generally feature raised geometric decoration presented in bands or blocks (such as simple line drawings of people and animals) Dotaku engravings are the earliest examples of pictorial art in Japan. Yayoi period – 300BCE – 300CE, name derives from the Yayoi district of Tokyo (where evidence was first found) Culture emerged in Kyushu (southernmost of the Main Japanese islands, and spread northward). Increased interaction with China/Korea + immigration from Korea resulted in social and technological developments Pit dwelling villages began to grow in size and developed fortifications Japan beginning to have walled towns, many small kingdoms, and a highly layered social structure Yayoi pottery less sculptural than the Jomon ceramics, sometimes polychrome, and involved development of bronze casting and loom weaving. Middle Jomon period – 2500-1500 BCE Jomon pottery surfaces adorned w/ rope markings, incised lines, and applied coils of clay Population of this period mainy resided in mountainous inland region Jomon pottery adornment often transgressed the basic functionality of the vessel due to wealth displayed through sculptural treatment. Jomon vessels – storage/cooking/bone burial/elaborate ceremonial function The Japanese vessels are extremely thick and heavy as compared to the Neolithic Chinese Earthenware (which are harder, thinner, and lighter while emphasizing basic ceramic form and painted decoration).

Kofun Period   Kofun Period – 300-352, named after the tumuli that began to appear in the third century (ko = old, fun = tomb) The tumuli recall earlier Jomon practice of placing the dead on sacred mountains

Tomb of Nintoku  Largest tumuli in Japan, located at Sakai, usually identified as the tomb of Emperor Nintoku

most important Shinto religious center Destroyed and rebuilt every 20 years. reflects primary characteristics of Shinto (sacred space. wa = circle Haniwa often took shapes ranging from abstract shapes to objects. people would abandon settlements if hinted at spiritual defilement Rebuilding common in Shinto. ritual renewal. ridding sacred site of physical and spiritual impurities that otherwise might accumulate Shinto practice changed after introduction of Buddhism. marking beginning of Nara period (645-748 CE). Hani = clay. Nara period ruled from series of capitals south of modern Kyoto. e. believed to exist in the features of nature as well as charismatic people Also venerated the places the kami occupy (considered sacred) Clans (local groups claiming a common ancestor/basic societal unit during Kofun period) had their own protector kamis. marks beginning of the Asuka period. Asuka period – 552-645 CE. which adopted forms and rites of the Chinese court Buddhism established firmly in Japan half a century after introduction in 552 . including Chinese writing. and purification) Unique in design due to connection to Japanese imperial family Sole construction material at Ise is wood (fitted together in a mortise-and-tenon system) Mortise-and-tenon system – wallboards are sliped into slots into pillars Two massive freestanding posts support the ridgepole (the beam at the crest of the roof) Ise Shrine highlights connection between nature and spirit – materials are derived from natural world and shrine stands at a specific location where a kami is believed to have taken up residence Shinto          Shinto – Way of the Gods Developed in Japan in conjunction w/ advent of agriculture during the Yayoi period. which they offered prayers to in Spring for successful planting and in fall for successful harvests Purity was central religious belief of Japanese religion.g. Venerated local deities/spirits called kami. animals. and Buddhism) 645 CE.Ruler of Paekche (one of Korea’s Three Kingdoms) sent Japan’s ruler a gilded bronze of the Buddha along w/ sutras (Buddhist scriptures) translated into Chinese.   Haniwa      Central mound takes shape of a key hole Contains stone-walled burial chamber w/ coffin containing objects to assist “transition to next life” Exalted individuals often had symbolic items and imperial possessions placed within their coffins Haniwa – unglazed ceramic sculptures placed around Kofun tumui. Japan’s ruling elite embraces major elements of continental Asia (which became firmly established in Japan. Confucianism. Shinto deities didn’t exist until after introduction Still serves today as religion of many rural denizens Buddhist Japan      552 CE.series of reforms led to establishment of a centralized government in place of individual clans. and human figures (such as warriors/female shamans) Haniwa served as spiritual barriers protecting both the living and dead from “contamination” Were set in curving rows/in groups around a haniwa house placed directly over a deceased’s burial chamber (tumuli) Number of haniwa reflected the stature of the deceased Shrine of Amaterasu          Religion during Yayoi/Kofun eras – Shinto Religion Japanese imperial clan traces their origins to the Shinto sun goddess Amaterasu Ise Shrine – Attributed to Amaterasu.

of the Nara period. Esoteric Buddhism was introduced to Japan from China Named “Esoteric” due to the secret transmission of its teachings Two Esoteric Sets: Tendai (805) and Shingon (806). while the current now has 7. Served as the administrative center of a network of branch temples built in every province Built w/ concerns of imperial authority and Buddhism throughout the country The original Daibutsuden had 11 bays. Still the largest wooden building in the world Heian Period    784 – imperial house moved its capital north (possible escaping power of the Buddhist priests in Nara) Heian period – 794-1185. resulting in a more self-directed Japanese culture Esoteric Buddhism         Early Heian period. Shinto deities gained new identities as local manifestations of Buddhist deities Asuka and Nara Periods   During Nara and Asuka periods. written by Murasaki Shikubu (Lady Murasaki) around 1000 . Tendai based on the Lotus Sutra Shingon (True Word) based on two other sutras Both Tendai and Shingon Buddhists held ideal of individuals possessing Buddha nature and can achieve enlightenment through meditation rituals and careful living Shingon disciples use mudras (special hand gestures) and recite particular words or syllables (mantras/shingon) th Shingon became primary form of Buddhism in Japan through the mid-10 century Tale Of Genji  Japan’s most admired literary classic – Tale of Genji. Japan followed Korean and Chinese prototypes of arts associated w/ Buddhist practices Buddhist architecture in Japan resembled mainland architecture of that era very closely Tori Busshi     Earliest examples of Japanese sculpture includes a bronze Buddha triad (Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas) Tori Busshi received commission from Empress Suiko for a votive offering after Prince Shotuku fell ill in 621 Dedicated to the prince’s well-being in the afterlife after his death Busshi’s Shaka triad depicted a seated Buddha. Todaiji      The kondo at the Todaiji temple is known as the Daibutsuden (Great Buddha Hall). ties w/ China deteriorated. court-sponsored contracts had ceased by the end of the 9 century. resulting in depictions of his paradise in many pieces Daibutsuden. reflecting the style of early to mid-sixth century in China and Korea (characterized by elongated heads and stylized drapery folds that form illogical swirls) Horyuji Kondo     Busshi’s Shaka triad was created for an Asuka Buddhist temple at Horyuji. became exclusively worshiped as a major trend in Japanese Buddhism. was placed in the kondo (Golden/Main hall) around 680 Interior walls of the Golden Hall at Horyuji preserved some of the finest examples of Buddhist wall painting in eastern Asia (until a disastrous fire in 1949) Most important wall paintings depicted Buddhas of the four directions Amida (Buddha of immeasurable light and infinite life). takes name from the new capital th Eventually.

1336 To 1868  1185 – Japanese emperor in Kyoto appointed the first shogun in Kamakura in eastern Japan . junior painters would apply the colors. and the master would complete the work by brushing in fresh contours and details such as facial features. series of civil wars between rival warrior families led to the end of the Japanese imperial court as a major political and social force The victors of the wars. contact with China brought an appreciation for recent Chinese cultural developments ranging from architectural styles to Zen Buddhism th Heian and Kamakura Artistic Workshops         Until the late Heian period. headed by the Minamoto family. each workshop dominated by masters with his main assistants and apprentices (which were his relatives) Eldest son would inherit the master’s position after extensive training as a youth “School of art” in Japan – Network of workshops tracing their origins back to the same master in a kind of artistic clan Artistic cooperation also surfaced in court bureaus. which produced most Japanese art Membership in workshops often based on familial relationships. One shogun emerged supreme and governed Japan from his headquarters in the Muramachi district of Kyoto after several years of conflict Japan. located at the imperial palace emerging in the Heian period Master painters of painter bureaus would lay out the composition by brushing out lines and contours. Displayed sensitivity to sadness caused by transience of love and life Kamakura Period     Late 12 century. major artistic commissions came almost exclusively from the imperial court or other great temples Shogun warrior families gained wealth and later became great art partrons Artists were affiliated with workshops. became primary script for Japanese court poetry Handscrolls with pictures alternating w/ text Heian Court Culture      During Nara/Heian periods. which tells of the life and loves of Prince Genji and of his heirs.  Muromachi   The Kamakura period had ended with a civil war (much like how it began). by Lady Murasaki. but actual power resided with the shoguns. Priest-artists were trained in temple workshops to produce Buddhist art objects for public viewing as well as images for private priestly meditation. Japense imperial court developed as the center of an elite culture Aristocracy had the leisure to play musical instruments in poetry Exchanging of poems became common social practice/frequent preoccupation of lovers Heian court members complied the first great anthologies of Japanese poetry and wrote Japan’s most influential secular prose Tale of Genji. an alternative to family workshops. established a shogunate (military government) at Kamakura in eastern Japan The imperial court remained in Kyoto as the theoretical source of political authority. generally considered the world’s first lengthy novel. first shogun being Minamoto Yoritomo During the Kamakura shogunate.   Provides readers w/ a view of Heian court culture Hiragana – Sound-based writing system developed in Japan from Chinese characters.

in which shattering of fallen tile roof opens the monk’s mind Zen beliefs advocate the idea that Buddhists can transcend their ego and release themselves from the mundane world through cultivating discipline and intense concentration Zen temples often served as centers of Chinese learning and handled funeral rites th th Kano Motonobu    Opposite pole of Muromachi painting style represented by the Kano School. the Buddha of the West Zen emphasized rigorous discipline and personal responsibility. paid obeisance to the shogun Kamakura shogun ruled Japan for longer than a century. and self-control) Chinese Zen culture also carried implications of superior knowledge and refinement. Esoteric Buddhism. but worldly knowledge and mundane thought patterns suppress it. emperor lost all governing authority Japanese Shogunate – Daimyo (local lords). Achieving enlightenment would require breaking of everyday perception and logic. others emphasized the benefits of sudden shocks to the worldly mind. assuming title of shogun in 1603 These warlords reinforced their power through construction of huge castles with palatial residences. and learning was conducted at such temples Muromachi painting often consisting of “splashed-ink” style Zen Buddhism        Zen Buddhism began filtering into Japan in the 12 century. leaders of powerful warror bands composed of samurai. etc) Pure Land faith stressed reliance on the saving power of Amida. symbols of authority as well as fortresses th The Japanese Tea Ceremony . marked by the rise of the Ashikaga clan Named after the district in Kyoto in which the Ashikaga shoguns maintained their headquarters Zen Buddhism rose to prominence alongside the older traditions (Pure Land. giving way to Zen temples as centers of secular culture (as well as their functions as religious institutions) Chinese art. giving elevated stature to the warrior elite Those who embraced Zen also accepted other Buddhist teachings. collapsed in 1332 Civil war followed. later killed by one of his generals.    Shogun managed the country on the ruling emperor’s behalf. ending when Ashikaga Takaji established domination of his clan over all Japan and became the new imperially recognized shogun Muromachi Period          Muromachi Period – 1336-1573. literature. Toyotomi Hideyoshi took control of the government after Nobunaga’s assassination. holding special attraction for upper echelons of samurai and their loyalty codes (loyalty. One shock includes Kano Motonobu’s “Zen Patriarch Xiangyen Zhixian Sweeping With a Broom”. impacting Japanese culture starting in the 14 century during the Muromachi period Zen teachings assert that everyone has the potential for enlightenment. often through meditation Some Zen schools stressed meditation. ruling until 1598 Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged victorious in the struggle following Hideyoshi’s death. a virtual national painting academy th by the 17 century Kano Motonobu largely responsible for establishing the Kano style during the Muromachi period Kano style involving use of bold outlines to define the forms Momoyama Period       By the 15 century. courage. Japan was experiencing violent confrontations over territory and dominance as Daimyos themselves began to seize opportunities to expand their power Last century of the Muromachi period referred to as the Era of Warring States 1573 – Oda Nobunaga overthrew the Ashikaga shogunate in Kyoto.

also attributed to Rikyu. and drinking of green tea. also designed lacquers in Keotsu’s manner. and a greatly admired calligrapher Credit given to him for overseeing the design of wooden objects with lacquer decoration Ogata Korin   Primarily a painter.    The Japanese tea ceremony involves the ritual preparation. who was instrumental in establishing the rituals and aesthetics of the tea ceremony. and paintings As the ceremonies became popular. Shino Ceramics      Sen no Rikyu was influential in the determining the aesthetics of tea ceremony utensils. The ceremony eventually began carrying various political and ideological implications. heir of an important family in the capital of Kyoto. Rikyu was also the designer of the first Japanese teahouse built as an independent structure. suggesting the tranquility reached in old age th th Shino generally refers to ceramic wares produced during the late 16 and early 17 centuries in kilns in Mino. suggesting austerity and simplicity. Literati Painting . the official capital. Taian teahouse at the Myokian Temple in Kyoto is the oldest in Japan. Sen No Rikyu – Most venerated tea master of the Momoyama period. Instituted many policies designed to limit the pace of social and cultural change in Japan Tokugawa rulers banned Christianity and expelled all Western foreigners (except the Dutch) in fear of the destabilization of their social order Confucian ideas of civic responsibility and public duty made into public policy by Tokugawa rulers The Rinpa School     By the 18 century. initiating the Edo Period. encouraging the use of tea items whose value was their inherent beauty rather than their monetary worth. and set up his headquarters in Edo (modern Tokyo). Korin reduced motifs to a minimum in his works in order too offer a dramatic contrast of forms and visual textures. serving. lacquers. freestanding teahouses became common Sen No Rikyu      The tea ceremony was a favorite exercise of cultivation and refinement in the Momoyama period. Simple forms of the tea ceremony started in Japan in Zen temples as a symbolic withdrawal from the ordinary world to cultivate the mind and spirit Grand tea ceremonies served as an excuse to display treasured collections of Chinese objects such as porcelains. New aesthetic of refined rusticity/wabi was consistent with Zen concepts. Kano masters also served as the primary painting teachers for nearly everyone aspiring to a career in the field Earliest major alternative school to emerge in the Edo period – Rinpa Rinpa works feature vivid color and extensive use of gold and silver and often incorporate decorative patterns Rinpa School traces its roots to Tawaraya Sotatsu th Honami Koetsu   One of the earliest Rinpa masters. Edo Period     Tokugawa Ieyasu abandoned Kyoto. Shino vessels typically have rough surfaces and feature heavy glazes containing feldspar. becoming so serious that warlords granted or refused their vassals the right to practice it. Sabi – The value found in the old and weathered.

even depicting young women in domestic settings and landscapes Japanese Woodblock Prints       Ukiyo-e woodblock prints became enormously popular during the Edo period Sold at the cost of bowls of ramen. popular theaters. politics. American occupation led to imposing of democratic institutions in Japan th Japanese artists internalized Western lessons and transformed them into a part of Japan’s own vital culture . being able to be bought by even those of very modest income Designers sold drawings to publishers. one of many events which propelled Japan forward After the bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. in part due to demographics Developments in the printing industry led to the availability of numerous books and printed images. etc). Japan’s increasingly urban. which could convey the city’s delights for a fraction of the cost of participation Ukiyo-e – Picture of the floating world Main subjects of these paintings and prints came from the realms of pleasure (brothels. educated population spurred cultural and social restlessness among the lower classes Illustrations in printed books and imported paintings of lesser quality brought limited knowledge of Chinese literati painting into Japan Literati were cultured intellectuals whose education and upbringing as landed gentry gave them positions in bureaucracy that governed the country Japanese literati artists painted to earn a living th th Ukiyo-e      Growing urbanization led to an increase in the pursuit of sensual pleasure and entertainment in places such as pleasure houses Tokugawa’s efforts to control these activities ended in vain.    17 -18 centuries. when rebellious samurai from provinces far removed from Edo toppled Tokugawa. and culture on the world stage during the 20 century Participation in WW2 during the Showa Period (1926-1989). who oversaw their printing Master ukiyo-e printmakers were primarily men Japanese prints during the Edo period tend to have black outlines separating distinct color areas Ukiyo-e prints extended to Western culture and disseminated widely throughout Europe due to their affordability and portability Mordern Japan     Edo period and the rule of the shoguns ending in 1868. Power rested with the emperor’s cabinet after the revolution Meiji (“Enlightened Rule”) named after the emperor’s chosen reign name as a symbol of imperial authority Oil painting became a major genre in Japan during the Meiji period (1868-1912) Showa Period     Japan became increasingly prominent in economics.