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Making the Indian higher education system future ready

FICCI Higher Education Summit 2009

Contents

Foreword Executive summary Introduction Financial innovation Innovative use of ICT Reinvigorating research Thrust to vocational education and training Regulatory reforms Glossary Acknowledgements About FICCI

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Expansion & Excellence” on 6th & 7th November 2009 in FICCI. The Study identifies and reinforces that innovative financing. are in advantageous position with the young demographic profile in the graying global world as they would be providing the bulk of skilled and semi-skilled workforce to the world in near future. Not surprising that in today’s globalised economy. and suggest an action plan for “Make Indian Higher Education Future Ready”. FICCI-E&Y Study has aimed at identifying the current scenario and practices in the universities and higher education institutions through a primary survey.Foreword Dear Readers. inclusion. infer key issues and challenges. and excellence as the pillars of higher education. Today India and China. so that we can transcend not just the mere economic considerations but also incorporate deeper socio—cultural dimensions that will enable us to create an environmentally sustainable world. However. Taking its cue from the government agenda. health or food security. use of ICT. in India. and Sponsors/Partners in organising the FICCI Higher Education Summit 2009 titled “Imperatives for Higher Education: Inclusion. whether it is in environment. it is the globalisation of knowledge that will enable us to deal with the present and future challenges that is confronting us in every sphere of life. and streamlining vocational education and training as the key change agents. higher education has been a key factor for its ability to change and to induce change and progress in the society. USA as the partner country. New Delhi. reflect on the best practices. higher education is confronted with formidable challenges and must proceed to the most radical change and renewal it has ever been required to undertake. At any given time. We are grateful to Ministry of Human Resource Development. liberalisation of regulation and quality assurance mechanisms. Amit Mitra Secretary General FICCI Making the Indian higher education system future ready 1 . I wish the participants good luck in their future endeavors. It is heartening to see that higher education reforms are high on the agenda of the new government with emphasis on expansion. Government of India for its support. integrating research and teaching. It’s an opportunity that China has been preparing to leverage since the early 90’s. Warm Regards.

The Indian Higher Education system is characterised by a large ruralurban and gender divide. leaving a lot of ground to be covered to achieve our dream of universal higher education. with less than a handful of Indian HEIs achieving global recognition. has not been accompanied by an improvement in the delivery of higher education and consequent outcomes. consisting of over 20. however. Going forward. higher education has always been identified as a critical component of India’s growth story. and Regulatory Reforms. harvesting the real potential of India’s demographic strengths driving the economy to unprecedented heights. We have identified five imperatives for making the Indian Higher Education system future ready .Foreword Dear Readers. Thrust on Vocational Education & Training (VET). this vision can become a reality.000 institutes enrolling more than 12 million students. improve infrastructure and have a strong focus on research. with wide disparity across regions of the country. The need of the hour is to upgrade the Indian Higher Education system to train the increasing proportion of young population so India can truly realise the prophesised ‘Demographic Dividend’. Innovative Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). poor quality and inequity. which works in alignment with the higher education system. he understood the need for educated and skilled human resources only too well. Warm Regards. Growth in numbers. we envision Indian higher education institutes use financial innovation and ICT to rapidly enhance scale. GER in rural India is estimated to be about 7%. Simultaneously. The Indian Higher Education system continues to be bogged down by the challenges of inadequate access. This ongoing emphasis has resulted in India having one of the largest higher education systems in the world. The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in India has grown slowly and is estimated to be at 12%. enhancing the overall skill levels of the population and increasing productivity. while urban areas have a GER of about 23%. a healthy vocational education system should be created. Amitabh Jhingan Partner Education sector leader Ernst & Young 2 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Reinvigorating Research. Since independence. When Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru established the Indian Institutes of Technology. The current Government has set the ball rolling and we believe that by focusing on the imperatives mentioned above. Severe shortage of faculty and poor infrastructure have severely impacted results. We envision the Indian Higher Education system of the future to be one where a large number of public and private high quality institutions co-exist and flourish in a supportive and transparent regulatory environment.Financial Innovation.

We believe that financial innovation. From where things stand today. we have identified certain challenges across these five areas and outlined specific recommendations to improve upon the gaps and strengthen the foundation of the Indian higher education system. with the GERs of women and backward castes being much lower than the national average. thrust on vocational education & training (VET).2% since 1985-86. India has more than 400 universities and over 20. Though these are clearly positive trends. of which almost half were set up in the last decade. Inequity is also pervasive in the system. especially in regional languages ► Encourage private sector investment in education through the development of innovative PPP models Introduce performance based funding by the Government Rationalise tuition fees structures and support the same with the creation of a strong education financing mechanism Build an enabling environment to generate alternate sources of revenue by HEIs Improve ICT infrastructure in HEIs through PPP models and incentivise adoption of ICT in pedagogy Develop mechanisms for development and free distribution of high quality content across languages Improve connectivity across HEIs and create a national repository of digital content Incentivise research in universities. leading to significant paucity of funds for expansion and quality enhancement Inadequate exploration of alternate revenue streams by HEIs Poor coverage of scholarships and student loan schemes to support needy students and enable tuition fee rationalisation Lack of ICT infrastructure in HEIs and low technology/people readiness Poor quality of digital content. reinvigorating research. At about 12%. Given this backdrop. innovative use of information and communication technologies (ICT).000 colleges. limited funding for research as well as poor linkages between academic institutions and industry/Government R&D labs ► ► Thrust on Vocational Education and Training ► ► Low penetration of VET due to limited relevance and poor outcomes Multiple regulatory bodies and lack of linkage of VET with the mainstream education system ► ► ► Regulatory Framework ► ► ► Multiplicity of regulators with overlapping roles Uneven entry barriers leading to a skewed development of the system Limited transparency. Student enrollment has crossed 12. and regulatory reforms are potential ‘Game changers’ for the Indian higher education system. low autonomy and poor quality control systems ► ► ► Making the Indian higher education system future ready 3 . facilitating greater industry involvement and providing greater alignment with market needs Facilitate mobility between VET and mainstream education through a system of credit transfer Support private sector vocational education through accreditation and recognition mechanisms Create a single independent agency for regulating higher education and simplify the regulatory framework Reduce entry barriers for reputed players. The private sector has enthusiastically participated in the growth of the higher education system with about 63% of the total higher education institutions being private unaided institutions. Despite having more higher education institutions than any other country in the world. we have identified five areas critical to making the Indian Higher Education system future ready. and lower than many developing countries. clocking a compounded annual growth rate of 6. our GER is almost half of that of China. while creating an enabling environment in terms of lesser teaching hours for researchers. Game changers Financial Innovation Key challenges ► Key recommendations ► ► ► ► ► Very low per-capita spends on higher education. hardly any feature in the leading institutions in the world. by facilitating entry of high-quality foreign universities and private universities through the PPP mode Improve transparency and disclosure in the system Innovative use of Information and Communication Technology ► ► ► ► ► Reinvigorating Research ► ► Poor standard of research across Indian higher education institutes Lack of qualified faculty. the Indian higher education system continues to demonstrate many structural shortcomings which in turn create challenges in meeting future expectations. provision of attractive fellowships and enhanced industry collaboration Improve oversight structure for VET. both in terms of the number of institutions as well as the student enrollment.Executive summary The Indian higher education system has witnessed significant expansion in recent years.9 million in 2007-08. greater budgets and access to better infrastructure Increase the number and quality of doctoral students through the launch of innovative programs.

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Introduction .Current state Key challenges Potential Proposed thrust areas 1.

etc. postgraduate (PG). etc. and doctoral degree programs. Sources: EY-EDGE 2008: Globalising Higher Education in India 6 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . fitting. hospitality. retail. Medicine. Some institutes provide diplomas as well Most UG courses take three years except for certain professional courses such as Engineering. many private institutes have emerged to meet the demand from upcoming industries such as aviation. the duration of which vary between three months to three years While Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)/ Industrial Training Centres (ITCs) providing courses with relevance to specific trades (such as turning.Introduction: Current state Tertiary education in India is characterised by a well established higher education system and an evolving vocational education & training segment Elementary education Secondary education Tertiary education ► ► Primary – Class I – V Upper Primary – Class VI – VIII ► ► Secondary – Class IX – X Senior Secondary – Class XI – XII Higher education Vocational education & training General Professional Traditional New and emerging Major Fields of Study Science Commerce Arts Engineering Medicine Architecture ITI/ITC/Polytechnic courses IT/Computer training Travel and Tourism Aviation Hospitality Retail ► ► ► Higher education institutions include universities and colleges that provide undergraduate (UG). PG courses are generally of two years duration ► ► Vocational education institutes include institutes/ polytechnics that primarily provides certificate and diploma courses. etc) have been in existence for a long time. wiring.

Science and Commerce) colleges form a majority of the colleges in India* 14. accounting for more than half of the total universities 7. UGC: Annual Report 2005-06. Science & Commerce Engineering.72% 65.64% CAGR 5.000 17.07% C AG R5 % 55.08% Arts. American Council on Education: Higher Education in China 2008.000 China USA India Russia Brazil India United States China Student enrollment in higher education (2007) (million) Number of higher education institutions There has been a significant growth in the number of universities in the last decade % State universities dominate the landscape. * 2005-06 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 7 .85 9.EDGE 2009: Private enterprise in Indian higher education.2 % 11.57 ~ 6.000 colleges.37 25.S. U. Technical & Architechture Medical colleges Others Year-wise number of colleges in India Sources: EY. with almost 10.76 12.700 ~ 4.04% Central Universities State Universities Deemed to be universities Institutions of national importance (State Legislation) Institutions of national importance (Central legislation) Year-wise number of universities in India India has more than 20.24% 8.9% 8.000 colleges being set up in the current decade General course (Arts.Introduction: Current state The Indian higher education system has emerged as one of the largest in the world.35 4.57% R C AG 9 .55% 1. UNESCO: Global Education Digest 2009.10% C AG R7 28. Department of Education: Postsecondary Institutions in the United States Fall 2007. MHRD: Annual Report 2007-08. in terms of number of institutions as well as student enrolment India is third largest in the world in terms of student enrollment India has the largest number of higher education institutions in the world ~ 21.

science.EDGE 2009: Private enterprise in Indian higher education. UGC: Annual Report 2005-06. with a preference for degree granting courses There has been a steady increase in enrolment in the higher education system over the past two decades % CAGR 6.2 Enrolment in higher education per year (in million) While general courses (Arts.Introduction: Current state Student enrolment in higher education has grown significantly over the last few years. EY-EDGE 2008: Globalising Higher Education in India *2005-06 8 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . and commerce) account for majority (~80%) of student enrolment… 3% 1%2% 3% 7% …Engineering has increasingly strengthened its position as the most highly preferred professional course Arts Science Commerce/Management 46% 18% Engineering/ Technology Medicine Law Agriculture 20% Others Number of students by field of study* Percentage of students in professional courses Degree granting courses have seen greater enrolment vis-à-vis diploma & certificate courses The relative enrolment of students in post graduate programs has declined as compared to enrolment in UG courses Sources: EY.

53% 32.89% 2001 2006 Unaided private higher education institutions as a percentage of total institutions Enrollment in unaided private higher education institutions as a percentage of total enrolment There has been a rapid growth in the number of professional private higher education institutions Number of professional unaided private higher education institutions This growth is reflected in the dominant share of unaided private higher education institutions in professional courses 5 9 36 38 50 95 91 64 62 50 Pharmacy Engineering Management Private Public Computer Applications Medicine (MBBS) Percentage share of public and private institutions in professional courses (2006-07) Sources: XIth Five Year Plan. AICTE and other Professional Councils of Education Making the Indian higher education system future ready 9 . especially in professional higher education The share of unaided private higher education institutions in the country has grown significantly in the last few years The percentage of students in unaided private higher education institutions has also increased considerably 51.Introduction: Current state The private sector has played a key role in the growth of the higher education system.

3 1975-76 1981-82 1990-91 1999-00 2001-01 2002-03 Number of institutions offering distance education Student enrollment in distance education as a percentage of total students in higher education Vocational education Vocational education and training institutes (ITI/ITC) in India have substantially increased over the past two decades The capacity in ITI/ITC account for 43% of the total capacity in vocational education and training institutes in India 725.080 4.150 545.274 2. 9% C 9.734 4. MoLE: Annual Report 2008-09 10 Making the Indian higher education system future ready Appprenticeships .647 295.Introduction: Current state Distance education and vocational training have grown to acquire an important role in India’s tertiary education system Distance education In the last six years the number of institutions offering distance education has almost doubled A large percentage of students are enrolled in distance education courses CAG R 6. XIth Five Year Plan.000 230.7 2.000 CA G .465 4.253 408.4 R7 % 6.447 1.906 5. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003.000 ITI ITC Polytechnics Vocational Education in Secodary Schools 1982 1992 2000 2001 2002 2005 2009 Growth in Vocational Education and Training Institutes (ITI/ITC) Capacity in Vocational Education and Training Institutes Sources: Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education Volume 3: A comparative study on current trends in Distance Education in Canada and India 2002.0% AG R 17 20 22 10.1 5.

equity and quality “For every one of our people to benefit from new employment opportunities being created across the economy. Pratibha Patil at conference “Facing global and local challenges: the new dynamics of higher education” Sources: EY Analysis Making the Indian higher education system future ready 11 .Introduction: Key challenges However. trained faculty and effective pedagogy in higher education institutions aimed at delivering expected outcomes “Equity is at the heart of a good educational system.Keynote address by Kapil Sibal at World Conference on Higher Education “Expansion of the higher education system must be accompanied by steps to ensure quality and high standards” . We don’t have equity. Manmohan Singh’s address to the nation on Independence Day 2007 Access Availability of suitable number of institutions across regions to fulfill demand Equity Equal opportunity for all sections of society to participate in higher education Quality Provision of suitable infrastructure.” . Smt. India’s education system is bogged down by the fundamental challenges of access. we must ensure that every Indian is educated and skilled ” -Prime Minister Dr.Speech by President of India.

GER in India at 12% is extremely low 77.78 5.00 1980 11.00 1990 USA Brazil 10.60 17.00 11.07% in China from 1980 to 2007 Enrollment (million) Sources: UNESCO: Global Education Digest 2009 12 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .00 75.00 1.41 1.00 53.04 1980 4.36 2.76 11.70 3.00 16.20 3.4% as compared to China’s CAGR of 12.00 12.Introduction: Key challenges Access to the higher education system is currently restricted to a small portion of the society As compared to a GER world average of 26% in 2007.00 46.85 9.00 5.00 11.00 2007 Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) (percentage) While enrollments in India have grown at a good pace it is still considerably less than what has been achieved by China 25.40 5.00 71.8% from 1980 to 2007 25.78 NA 2000 Russia 2005 India China NA 2007 14.54 11.39% as compared to a CAGR of 13.57 9.00 3.28 1.60 1990 USA Brazil 7.00 NA 23.00 4.00 6.35 20.00 8.76 ► Enrollments in India grew at a CAGR of 5.00 84.00 NA 2000 Russia 2005 India China 20.00 ► ► 53.78 9.57 12.00 82.37 17.00 71.93 1.00 GER in India increased from 5% in 1980 to 12% in 2007 while in the same period China’s GER increased from 1% to 23% India’s GER grew at a CAGR of 3.71 13.

mass. higher education systems can be classified as elite.5 7.6 6.4 13.7 9. including those with high GDP per capita have an ‘elite’ higher education system SGDP* per capita.1 6. mass from 15-50 and an universal system of higher education from a GER of 50 and above Most Indian states. 2005 Making the Indian higher education system future ready Sources: CMIE: State Analysis Service. UGC: Higher Education in India 2008 * State Gross Domestic Product 13 .9 11 10.2 13.1 9.1 5.Introduction: Key challenges There is wide disparity across states in access to higher education There is wide geographic variation in GER in India (2005) 7.000 Tamil Nadu Mizoram Haryana Karnataka Sikkim Maharashtra Karnataka Himachal Pradesh Uttaranchal Andhra Pradesh Kerala Gujarat Arunanchal PradeshPunjab West Bengal Tripura Uttaranchal 20.000 Goa Delhi 40.9 14 ‘Universal’ higher education is still a distant dream as most states have an ‘elite’ higher education system ► ► ► According to a report by Martin Trow.9 8. 2005 60.4 11 India’s GER shows significant variability across regions: ► In the states it ranges from a low of 5. and universal higher education systems An ‘elite’ higher education system ranges from a GER of 0-15.8 11.9 in Daman Diu to a high of 33.5 8.7 11.1 in Uttaranchal ► In the union territories it ranges from a low of 1.2 12 10.2 in Delhi 12.4 12.7 6.9 8.7 in Bihar to a high of 15.3 15.9 11.000 Meghalaya Nagaland Rajasthan Chhattisgarh Manipur 0 Orissa Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Assam J&K Elite higher education system 15 Mass higher education system 50 Universal higher education system GER.6 12.1 7.4 9.

52 8.85 4.67 3.51 1983-84 1987-88 1993-94 Total Rural Urban 1999-00 2004-05 GERs for rural and urban India in the Indian higher education segment ► ► GERs in rural India have increased from 3.89 18. gender inequity.49 1.95 8.68 19.88 10.82 7.61 5.28 15.87 6.57 6.53 4.96 20. STs and OBCs is very low as compared to the other communities in the Indian higher education segment SCs STs OBCs Others GER for different communities in the higher education segment Sources: UGC: Higher Education in India 2008. and large differences in GERs in various communities There exists a significant difference in the GER of urban and rural India 23.Introduction: Key challenges The Indian higher education system suffers from a large rural-urban divide in access.08 5.79% Though GER in rural India has increased.42 9.17 20.94 3.05 24.58 7.98 14.36 24.23 12.95% in 1983-84 to 7.35 5.57 4.66 10.34 5.56 16.19 11.22 23.01 1987-88 1993-94 Total Rural 1999-00 Urban 2004-05 1983-84 1987-88 1993-94 Rural 1999-00 Urban 2004-05 Total GER for females in the Indian higher education segment ► GER for males in the Indian higher education segment ► While GERs for females has increased significantly there has been an increase in the disparity in GER for females in rural and urban areas by 6.67 10.37 2.38% from 1983-84 to 2004-05 While GERs for males has increased at a slower rate.77 8.66 7.71 The GERs for males also varies significantly between rural and urban areas 22.51% in 2004-05 while in urban India GERs have increased from 17.35 11.13 7.22 ► 6.68% to 23.59 7.68% There is a significant difference in GERs of various communities* 17. the gap between GERs in rural and urban areas has only widened The gap in urban rural GER is further accentuated if studied from a gender perspective The GERs for females is very low especially in rural India 22.44 12.79 17.57 7.22 12.77 The GERs for SCs. 11th Five Year Plan Volume II * 2004-05 14 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . there has been a decline in the disparity between GER in rural and urban areas from 1983-84 to 2004-05 by 0.84 1983-84 2.77 21.

EY Analysis Making the Indian higher education system future ready 15 .875 colleges with infrastructure deficiencies recognised by the UGC 48.505 0.28% CA G R 2 India has one of the highest student-teacher ratio’s in the world 26.26% 68.01 Average Indian College 2 AICTE norm (MBA/MCA) Books per student Journals per student Students per computer Sources: UGC: Higher Education in India 2008.488 0. ISB: Website. faculty appointment for higher education has grown at a slower pace than student enrollments . Working Paper 180.Techs in engineering institutions Prof Reader University College Lecturer Vacant Faculty Positions 2007-08 Lack of infrastructure Percentage of institutes under the UGC with infrastructure deficiencies ► ► Higher education institutions face an acute problem in terms lack of academic and physical infrastructure There are 153 universities and 9.2 13.Introduction: Key challenges Quality of higher education in India is impacted by shortage of faculty and poor infrastructure Shortage of quality faculty ► Rising enrolment and shortage of faculty have lead to India’s higher education system having the one of the highest student teacher ratio Moreover.5 14. IIT Bombay: website.6 11.0 0. ICRIER: Higher Education in India.0 13.3% Student.Teacher Ratio (2000) Currently.831 M. AICTE: Hand Book for approval process.574 PhDs and 42.40 IIT Bombay 4 AICTE norm Average Indian (UG) College 4.472 2005 Brazil Russia India China UK USA 2006 2007 2008 Growth in faculty ( in million ) Growth rate of enrolment during this period 6. many faculty positions in higher education institutes are not filled 45% 51% 18% 53% ► 41% According to an AICTE report in 2003 there was a shortage of 33.58% Universities Colleges The academic infrastructure in colleges across the country when compared with that of premier institutes and the AICTE norms highlights their poor status 88 53 9 ISB IIT Bombay Average Indian College ISB 0.503 0.35 229 0.0 18. The Need for Change.

Introduction: Key challenges Despite having one of the largest higher education system in the world few Indian institutions have earned global distinction SJTW Top-500 universities Rankings. 2009 USA UK Canada Australia Brazil Russia India China 6 2 2 30 21 15 2 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 4 42 5 160 17 FT Top-100 Global MBA Rankings. however in 2008 IIT Kanpur featured in the ranking in place of IIT Kharagpur the same range ► Indian School of Business. ranked 15th up from 20th in 2008 and is the only Indian management institute to appear in the list ► IIT Bombay and Delhi ranked 36th and 42nd respectively however they ranked 33rd and 34th in 2007 This dearth of quality institutes has led to an abnormal rush of students to get a seat in the few good ones 5% 2% IIMs IITs Seats as a % of total test takers Sources: Shanghai Jiao Tong University: 2009 Rankings. Financial Times: 2009 MBA Ranking. Times Higher Education: 2008 Stream Wise Ranking 16 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . 2009 55 THE Stream Wise Top 50 University Rankings. & Biomed Eng &Tech Arts & Hum 15 4 5 5 0 0 0 1 3 4 0 0 0 2 6 4 6 19 7 22 ► Quality of Education of faculty Output ► Weighted ►% Salary ► Research ► Graduate Quality employability Outlook Quality Ranking Parameters ► Quality Salary increase ► Research ► Size ► Placement/employment ► Research ► International ► Teaching of the institution ► Indian Institute of Science and IIT Kharagpur ranked in the 303-401 range. 2008 Life Sc.

A Canada Australia Singapore U. The World Bank: Trends in International Trade in Higher Education 2007 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 17 .577 48% 15% 94.080 Imports as a percentage of public spending on higher education 0.S.194 . an increasing number of Indian students are studying abroad Growth in Indian students studying overseas Percentage of Indian students studying in foreign countries 2005-06 13% 3% 4% 150.46 3.46% of GDP which comprises of around 80% of the public spending on higher education The figure is also comparable to the total spent on higher education which is 1% of the GDP in India Higher education imports as a percentage of GDP Value of imports of higher education in 2004 (USD million) 5. Envisioning the Future 2009.446 66.26 80 60 India China India China India China Sources: Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education.475 53. Other Countries 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2004-05 2005-06 Revenue loss ► ► The value of imports (Indian students overseas) is extremely high at 0.5% 159. 24 .Introduction: Key challenges In pursuit of better quality education.417 17% U.K.151 0.779 GR CA 109.

However. India’s has a relatively younger population with a median age of 25 years… 36.47 2009 India China 2016E USA 2020E Dependency Ratio Sources: XIth Five Year Plan.3 34.1 United States United Kingdom Brazil Russia India China Median Age (2009) …and is expected to benefit from the younger population which will enter the workforce over the next decade 59 36 34 62 64 68 A majority of India’s population lies between the ages of 15-64 years. resulting in a low dependency ratio and a substantial working population relative to other countries.6 38.3 2009 25 7 2020E 3 1980 1990 0-14 years 5 2000 4 15-64 years 65 years and above India’s population by age group The proportion of dependent population in India is expected to reduce. in the absence of appropriate education and training.49 0.2 28.57 0.Introduction: Potential Higher education and vocational training are critical to India reaping the ‘demographic dividend’ from possessing a young employable population… As compared to other countries. EY-EDGE 2008: Globalising Higher Education in India 18 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . United States Department of Labor: Employment Projections 2007.4 25. CIA Factbook.03 0.7 40. while it is rising in other countries 2. India may lose out on the’ demographic dividend’ due to a lack of skill set to meet the needs of the industry Higher education and vocational training will therefore play a critical role in preparing the work force to be constructively utilised to drive growth of the economy 58 39 31 5.39 0.

India is projected to become one of the leading economies in the world.000 2000 2010 China 2020 India 2030 Japan US 2040 2050 According to the ‘BRIC’ report. However. Goldman Sachs: Global Economics Paper No: 169 2008. released by Goldman Sachs.000 20. education was identified as a key enabler for India to achieve these projections. Goldman Sachs: Global Economics Paper No: 99 2003 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 19 .000 45. while India alone will have a labor surplus of 47million 47 19 3 -10 China -9 Japan -6 Russia -2 -12.000 35.000 25.000 15. aging of world economies would create a skilled manpower shortage of 56.5 million.000 40. Lack of a strong higher education system may have a debilitating impact on India’s efforts to achieve the forecasted growth Germany India is already a well established source of highly talented manpower 5% 12% 36% 34% 20% Medical doctors in USA Scientists in USA Scientists at NASA Employees at Microsoft Scientists at Intel Indians as a % of total manpower/ workforce …and can potentially resolve the labour supply-demand gap in various countries By 2020.000 US$ Bn 30.Introduction: Potential …which can not only drive domestic growth but also address the global manpower demand-supply gap India is emerging as one of the fastest growing economies as per the ‘BRIC’ report 50.5 Others Shortfall Brazil Surplus Mexico Pakistan India Others 5 19 -17 US UK Sources: XIth Five Year Plan.000 10.000 5.

Introduction: Proposed thrust areas We believe that five ‘game changers’ can significantly strengthen India’s higher education system and propel the country into becoming a knowledge superpower Game changers Potential impact Access 1. Reinvigorating research ► ► Improve the quality of Indian HEIs Significantly enhance the impact of the education system on the overall economy assisting India in emerging as a knowledge superpower ✔ 3. Regulatory reforms ► Providing a conducive environment for the entry & growth of a large number of high quality higher education institutes ✔ ✔ Sources: EY Analysis 20 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Thrust to vocational education and training ► ► Creating courses which are relevant to certain sections of society. thus attracting them to the higher education system Creating a pool of skilled resources to harness India’s demographic dividend ✔ ✔ 5. Innovative use of ICT ► ► ► Improving access to the system through online education Improving quality of teaching. especially across remote locations Increasing transparency and bolstering systems and processes across HEIs ✔ ✔ ✔ 4. Financial innovation Problem solved Equity Quality ► ► ► Increasing the number of institutions to plug the demand supply gap and provide access in low GER areas Upgrading facilities to create world class infrastructure at higher education institutions Enhance student financial support for maintaining equity in the system ✔ ✔ ✔ 2.

Current state Key challenges Best practices Recommendations 2. Financial innovation .

General higher education Deemed universities (excluding private deemed Universities) ► Sources @ national level University Grants Commission (Government of India) UGC (for 12 universities) and Central plan assistance (for 12 other universities) UGC (provides limited grants) Sources @ state level ► ► UGC (but at state level only a few are directly funded) State Department of Higher Education. Sources: Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education. state government colleges. the Ministry of Textiles directly funds the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) while the Ministry of Commerce and Industry funds the National Institute of Design (NID). with grants allocated by various agencies at the central and state levels Institutions Central Universities and colleges affiliated to Delhi University. State universities (excluding private universities). Allahabad University and Banaras Hindu University. IIMs. Technical education ► Department of Higher Education (Government of India) All India Council for Technical Education (provides limited grants) ► State technical universities and colleges ► State Department of Technical Education Central medical institutions such as AIIMS Medical education ► Ministry of Health (Government of India) State health universities and colleges ► State Department of Health Central agriculture universities Agriculture education ► Indian Council for Agricultural Research (Government of India) ► State agriculture universities and colleges State Department of Agriculture Ministries at national and state levels provide support to specialised institutions under their jurisdiction. For example.Financing: Current state Public financing of higher education in India operates through a complex system. Envisioning the Future 2009 22 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . private aided colleges ► ► Central technical institutions (IITs. NITs etc).

80% 0.759 10.060 2.616 10.863 2.977 1.728 Finland Sweden USA India UK Brazil Russia China Sources: UNESCO: Global Education Digest 2009.80% 0.40% 1. “China’s Great Leap” in Higher Education.90% 0. EAI Background Brief No. it is extremely low when assessed on a per student basis Public expenditure on higher education as a percentage of GDP* 1.Financing: Current state While India’s public expenditure on higher education as a percentage of GDP is comparable to other countries. Making the Indian higher education system future ready 23 .60% Finland Sweden USA India UK Brazil Russia China Public expenditure on higher education per student PPP USD* 13.162 1. 394.60% 0.836 10. * 2007 or the latest year for which data is available.60% 1. 2008.00% 0.

Financing: Current state

State governments have historically been a larger source of public funding for higher education, vis-à-vis the central government. However, the balance has been shifting towards the central government in recent years
Share of spending on higher education (2007-08)

33%

67%

Central Government

State Government

Central government expenditure on higher education has increased rapidly especially in 2009-10
196.2 135.4 117.4 69.6 34.2 35.4 2005-06 80.4 38.2 42.2 2006-07 Plan 76.1 41.3 46.4 113.2 83.0

Share of spending of central government on higher education (2009)
17% 38% 17%

CAGR 29.6%

89.0

28% 2007-08 Non Plan 2008-09 2009-10 General Higher Education Technical Higher Education Agriculture Medical

Total central government expenditure on higher education (INR billion)

As compared to the central government, expenditure on higher education by state governments has increased at a slower pace
CAGR 13.2%

Share of spending of state governments on higher education**

137.1 35% 52%

107.1

116.2

115.2 93.7 99.6 13% 13.4 2005-06 16.7 2006-07 Plan Non Plan 21.8 2007-08 General Higher Education

Technical Higher Education Agriculture, medical and others

Total state government expenditure on higher education (INR billion)

Sources: Union Budget: 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10; MHRD: Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education, 2003-2004 to 2005-2006, 2005-06 to 2007-08 24 Making the Indian higher education system future *General +Technical ** 2005-06

ready

Financing: Current state

The central government retains a higher share of spending on technical education while state governments account for a majority of the spending on general education
Share of spending on general education (2007-08) Share of spending on technical education (2007-08)

Central Government
Expenditure on general higher education has increased rapidly with a substantial increase 2009-10
77.1

Expenditure on technical education has seen substantial increases in 2007-08 and 2009-10
54.2
. 6% R 35 38.7

CA

8.3 GR 3

%

52.4 20.5

37.5

C AG

39.6 10.8

18.9

38.9 27.3 21.1 13.2 7.9 2005-06 15.1 12.2 2006-07 22.1 16.8

9.4 17.2 8.8 8.4 2006-07 2007-08 Plan 29.3

31.8

39.6

16.0 8.7 7.3

28.9

35.3

2007-08 Plan Non Plan

2008-09

2009-10 2005-06 2008-09 2009-10 Non Plan

Central government expenditure on general higher education (INR billion)

Central government expenditure on technical education (INR billion)

State Governments
Plan expenditure on general education has grown at a CAGR of 39.4% as compared to a CAGR of 10.3% for non plan expenditure
CAGR 12.5%

Expenditure on technical education is increasing at a faster rate than general education
28.4

108.7

85.8

92.6 21.2

.8% CAGR 15

23.6 17.6 97.7

80.2

84.9

13.4

14.6

5.6 2005-06

7.7 2006-07 Plan Non Plan

11.0 2007-08

7.8

9.0

10.8

2005-06

2006-07 Plan Non Plan

2007-08

State government expenditure on general higher education (INR billion)

State government expenditure on technical education (INR billion)

Sources: Union Budget: 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10; MHRD: Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education, 2003-2004 to 2005-2006, 2005-06 to 2007-08

Making the Indian higher education system future ready

25

Financing: Key challenges

Key challenges affecting financing of higher education

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26

Making the Indian higher education system future ready

2007-08. Planning Commission: Guidelines for classification of expenditure Making the Indian higher education system future ready 27 . 2006-07. the extremely high non plan expenditure by state governments highlights the absence of new investments which hampers quality of state higher education institutions Sources: Union Budget: 2005-06. rather than on capacity expansion Plan expenditure Non plan expenditure ► ► ► ► Expenditure on existing programmes/projects and schemes which leads to additions or extensions in capacity of existing institutions/establishments Expenditure on all new plan proposals Investment outlays for improving productivity/performance levels of existing capital stock Investment to replace worn-out capital ► ► ► Generic term used to cover all expenditure of government not included in the plan expenditure All expenditure connected with the maintenance of existing institutions and establishments All expenditure on continuing services and activities Percentage spent by the central government on non plan expenditure decreased substantially by 2008-09 however 2009-10 has again seen an increase There has been a slight decline in the percentage spent by the state governments on non plan expenditure though it still accounts for the majority of the expenditure 49% 47% 35% 34% 42% 88% 86% 84% 51% 53% 65% 66% 58% 14% 2006-07 Plan Non Plan 16% 2007-08 12% 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Plan 2008-09 2009-10 2005-06 Non Plan Percentage of central government expenditure on higher education Percentage of state government expenditure on general and technical higher education As compared to the central government. 2009-10. 2008-09.Financing: Key challenges Majority of the funding by the government is directed towards maintenance of institutes and to support operations.

327 31.08% 200 5. with inherent issues in the budgetary process and financing mechanism Funding of higher education institutions in India follows a traditional budgetary process.720 7.650 78 18.91% 5.32% Colleges Universities 2.67% IITs IIMs IISc NITs ISM Dhanbad Others Percentage allocation in Union Budget for Technical Education* (2009-10) 4.527 Total 5.Financing: Key challenges The flow of central funding is skewed towards certain groups of HEIs. Sucheta Kripalani Hospital Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research. UGC Annual Report 2005-06.62% 3. Envisioning the Future 2009 *There has been an effort to move towards block grants over recent years 28 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Submission of budget proposals to funding authorities Negotiations on separate budget items Line item based fund allocation* UGC receives around 96% of central budgetary outlay for University & Higher education system But a majority of Indian universities and colleges do not qualify for either central or UGC funding Eligibility of universities/HEIs for Central Government funding (Number of institutions) 70 7. Chandigarh Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research Cancer Research 21% 9% Other Educational Institutions Key challenges in UGC’s funding mechanism Absence of incentives to raise fees/improve financial performance Archaic negotiation based system with little focus on performance Lack of transparency in allocating funds to HEIs Sources: Union Budget 2009-10.40% 38.726 4. Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education.648 Eligible for central funding Not eligible for any funding Not eligible for central funding Percentage allocation of Department of Health for Medical Education* (2009-10) 13% 5% 37% 15% All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Lady Hardinge Medical College & Smt.

Making the Indian higher education system future ready 29 .4 53. Bangalore University).5 12.0 72.10% Japan Republic of Korea Australia United States Mexico India Tuition fees as a percentage of total expenditure (Public and Private) on higher education (2007) ► ► Limitations on level of public financing are leading to an increase in cost sharing by parents and students globally. This has in turn led to an increase in the fee levels across the world.5 10.5 25. Fee levels are still considerably low in major central universities (Delhi University. However they are comparatively higher in some state universities (Madras University.4 11.10% 36. The Eleventh Plan has also highlighted the low fee levels. fees constitute less than 15% of the total expenditure of Indian universities. Sources: UNESCO: Global Education Digest 2009. Indian higher education still witnesses comparatively lower household expenditure on higher education due to low fee levels.8 11. NKC: Report to the nation 2006-09.8 75. However. Fees are also high in most professional courses.8 13.8 36. CABE Committee 2005: Report on Financing of Higher and Technical Education.5 61.Financing: Key challenges Tuition fees at higher education institutions continues to remain low.8 17.9 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 Year 1980-81 1986-87 The proportion of fees in income for higher education institutes declined from 37% in 1950-51 to 12% in 198687 while the share of the Government rose to 76% Government Fees Others ► ► According to National Knowledge Commission. Source of income for higher education as a percentage of income 13.60% 19. especially at public institutes Tuition fees as a percentage of total expenditure is low in India as compared internationally 53.40% 52.6 49.10% 30. JNU) in India.30% 36. urging universities to recover at least 20% of operating costs from fees.7 34.

17% and 0. EY FICCI Higher Education Survey 2009 30 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .23% 0. Almost 56% universities have schemes which cater to less than 10% of the students while 23% do not have any university level scholarship schemes for students Lower coverage of government scholarship schemes (2009) Even lower presence of university level scholarship schemes (2009) 2% 21% 30% 19% 23% 19% 56% 30% Nil From 10-20% Less than 10% >20% Nil From 10-20% Less than 10% >20% Scholarship coverage (Government schemes) Scholarship coverage (University level schemes) Sources: CABE Committee 2005: Report on Financing of Higher and Technical Education. In fact.Financing: Key challenges India does not have robust scholarship and student loan schemes which can make higher education accessible at a more aligned tuition fee structure Public expenditure on scholarships has been declining over the years 0.12% 0. Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education.23% 1991-92 1995-96 1999-00 2003-04 % of total expenditure on Higher Education % of total expenditure on Technical Education Public expenditure on scholarships in Higher and Technical Education ► ► ► Scholarships schemes provided by the government cover a very insignificant portion of the total student population. Government earmarked an expenditure of merely INR 450 million on scholarships in higher education with an objective of covering just 2% of the student population in colleges and universities While the government scholarship reaches a very small proportion of the students.38% 0.48% 0. Universities themselves do not have any scholarship scheme.53%0. Envisioning the Future 2009.15%0.22% respectively in 2003-04 from 1990-91 having reached a low in 1999-2000 For the years 2008-09.32% 0. expenditure in terms of scholarships for higher and technical education as a percentage of total expenditure has declined by 0.

student loans availed by graduates in India are abysmally low..37% 3.1%) and delinquent level (0.40% 3.75% 7.Financing: Key challenges Though student loans have gained in popularity as a form of financing higher education. This despite the fact that India has witnessed a very low default rate (1..7%) in education loans. the proportion of students availing them continues to remain low Student loan accounts have gained in popularity especially after 2000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Number of Loan Accounts (In thousands) Amount outstanding ( INR million) Growth in student loan accounts and portfolio in India However an extremely low percentage of graduates in India avail student loans (2005) 77% 50% 85% 85% Education loans in India have a very high rate of interest as compared internationally (2005) 11.50% 2.37%) According to a recent market study.75%*) as compared to USA and UK (3. Interest rate prevalent in India for education loans is very high (11. Alex Usher: Global Debt Patterns – An International Comparison of Student Loan Burdens and Repayment Conditions 2005 * Based on the recent benchmark prime lending rate Making the Indian higher education system future ready 31 . 81% of the students showed interest in availing education loans but identified key concerns such as: ► Higher Interest rate ► Cumbersome procedures and documentations ► High administrative cost ► Absence of special provision for weaker sections of the society Sources: CABE Committee 2005: Report on Financing of Higher and Technical Education.37% 50% 1% Australia USA India UK Canada Sweden Australia India* Unites Sates United Kingdom Canada Percentage of graduates availing student loans Comparison of interest rates for education loans Despite recent growth.

This is because of the higher fee paid by foreign students as compared to domestic students.42% 16.5 times. Atlas of Student Mobility: Website.606 202.805 389. In UK.710 233. The following examples show the extent to which these universities have succeeded in self financing operations: ► In Beijing University 39.88 billion from non-EU students in 2007-08 Revenue from research consultancy constitutes a very small proportion of total fund inflow (2009) 74. an international student pays approximately USD 12.503 18.594 United States United Kingdom France Germany Australia China India Number of international students (2008) Differential fees for international students is a very popular cost-recovery measure abroad. registered patents by 5 times. universities generated an income of almost GBP 1.448 195.330 265.4 per cent in 1997 ► Through its Educational Research and Innovation Complex . with many deriving nil revenue.00% Nil <20% 20-40% 40-60% 60-80% >80% Percentage of total fund inflow Revenue from research and consultancy* Majority of the HEIs surveyed indicated that research & consultancy account for less than 20% of the total fund flow.7 per cent of the income in 1998 was from the state and the rest from its own sources.Financing: Key challenges Higher education institutions in India also underutilise other revenue streams such as intake of foreign students at differential fees and providing research and consultancy services India fares poorly in attracting foreign students 623. EY FICCI Higher Education Survey 2009 32 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .33% 0.28% 6. the Orel State Technical University of Central Russia has been able to create three times more training programmes.500 (in 2005) which is double the fees charged from the local citizens. increase laboratory and class room space by 8. volume of research and development by more than 8 times in a period of 7 years Sources: Guardian UK: Twice as many foreign students at UK universities 2009.98% 0.00% 2. HEIs were also lax in their utilisation of owned assets and encouraging endowments for financing operations Universities abroad raise additional funds from entrepreneurial activities and by maximising utilisation of assets. In Canada. The government share of funds in public universities declined from 82 per cent in 1992 to 63.

even as both generate little revenue from alternate sources Out of the institutions surveyed. attracting private investments and limited government grants Sources: EY-FICCI Higher Education Survey 2009 * Grants from Central Government. the key financial challenges include regulation of fees. public institutes depend on government grants* Proportion of institutes government grants 2% 50% 98% 21% 29% Private <20% 20-80% Public >80% 41% Private <20% 20-80% Public >80% <50 59% 78% 35% Private 50-100 Public >100 (INR Thousand) While private institutions depend largely on student fees… Student fees as a percent of total revenue 11% 11% …which is reflected by the higher fees charged by them Level of student fees 32% 10% 15% 33% 75% 2/3rds of the higher education institutions surveyed did not have student loan facilities Percentage of institutions with student loan facilities 34% Almost 60% of the institutions surveyed did not generate any endowments Percentage of institutes to have received endowments 42% 58% 66% Not facilitating loans Facilitating loans Received Not received Our survey has indicated that regulation of fees is the major financial challenge before Indian higher educational institutions Key financing challenges faced by Indian higher education institutions 44% 30% 22% 4% Regulation of fees Attracting private investment Limited government grants Others According to the institutions surveyed.Financing: Survey results Our survey indicates that private institutions depend largely on student fees while public institutions depend on government grants. State Government or UGC Making the Indian higher education system future ready 33 .

Germany ► Core funds specifically for teaching and research are negotiated between HEIs and the government. establishment of global reputation and brand name. Performance based funding – an international trend ► A large number of countries across the world have reformed systems of public funding by linking it with performance variables. research activities and innovative programs Benefits These mechanisms have led to a greater link between outputs and inputs in the higher education system. This ensures a greater focus on outcomes while also allowing autonomy. ► Separate distribution system – aimed at course completion targets. ► A unique model is used by The Rhineland-Palatinate which has two funding models. No. ► A criteria is set for a fixed period and funding extended in line with performance against the criteria.Financing: Best practices We believe that analysis of successful models of financing could provide critical inputs in structuring innovative solutions… The Melaka-Manipal Medical College – PPP for establishment of a private medical college ► ► ► ► Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) India entered into an agreement with Joint Venture Medical College Corporation (JVMC) Malaysia to start a private medical college in Malaysia. The local government provided teaching staff. The private partners also contributed by partially conducting the program in their India campus. Vol. The key objective was to provide additional doctors for Malaysia and offer opportunities for students in the region to study medicine at a cheaper cost than in the West. as there was a shortage of faculty for basic sciences in Malaysia Benefits ► Creation of the new college was a step in the direction of increasing the doctor : population ratio. 3. 34 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . teaching. It also led to decreased financial burden for the government as infrastructure costs were borne by the college. gained an opportunity to establish a college leading to increased overseas exposure. Finland has introduced a system of partially allocating resources on performance. based on evaluations. ► Sources: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (2005). It also allowed use of local government hospitals for training and teaching purposes On the other hand. international student exchange programs and attracting international students as well as graduate placement record. and academic staff. Finland ► Since 1998. the Manipal Group and members of Indian Diaspora in Malaysia. Issue 12. supervisory services along with financial assistance to students. ► The private partners on the other hand. ► Basic budget system – includes funding for research. rewarding universities for quality and effectiveness of operations. 4. ► The criteria include setting up centers of excellence. the private partners contributed to the infrastructure for the Melaka campus with a provision of patient care service and training of staff in the health centers. The agreement led to partnership between the State Government of Melaka.

In both cases. Mohali.University of Buffalo. The repayment rate ranges from 4%-8%. students can also choose to pay both a discounted upfront fees along with deferring rest of the payment. To fund the project. students can pay tuition fees upfront to universities and receive a 20% discount. Science and Technology (DEST). It was designed to ensure access to all students regardless of their socio-economic background. From 1998. “The International Comparative Higher Education and Finance Project” 2006. the government pays the amount to the institutions directly. The cost of the project is INR 3000 million. success in raising a large part of its project costs through endowments enabled achievement of its growth plans.8% in 2002. In return for the endowments. The program is administered by Department of Education.. The government support on higher education decreased from 77. Benefits ► The Australian Government introduced tuition fees simultaneously with the loan scheme which eventually led to a significant decrease in government financing of higher education. Under the scheme.2% of the costs in 1989 to 53. ISB succeeded in getting four endowments of INR 500 million each from its founder supporters – the Bharti Group. as well as attract more management students to focus and specialise in these areas. the Australian Tax Office and the higher education institutions. Funding through endowments at ISB Mohali ► ► ► ► In November 2008. ISB would set up four specialist centers for excellence named after its founder supporters. They can also choose to defer the payment and take a loan at zero real interest rate from the Government. Indian School of Business (ISB) signed an agreement with the Government of Punjab (GOP) to set up its second campus in India at the Knowledge City. ISB: website Making the Indian higher education system future ready 35 . They also furthered the cause of improving the quality of education in their home state by attracting a leading management institution Sources: Graduate School of Education . the Hero Group and the Punj Lloyd Group. ► Max India Institute of Healthcare Management ► Bharti Institute of Public Policy ► BML Munjal Institute of Manufacturing and Operation Excellence ► Punj Lloyd Institute of Physical Infrastructure Management These centers of excellence would promote research in their specific fields as well as provide specialisation options for management students Benefits ► For ISB. the Max Group.Financing: Best practices …beneficial both to the HEI and students while addressing the challenges of access and equity Innovative student loan scheme in Australia ► ► ► ► The Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) was launched in Australia in 1989 to contribute to student’s cost of higher education. ISB also recieved commitments from its supporters to provide internships and recruit students from this campus ► On the other hand. Student repayment of the HECS debt is through an income contingent liability scheme under which they pay through the taxation system after their salary reaches a threshold. the founder supporters were able to further research in areas of interest to them.

simplify the procedure for an HEI to obtain approval to be eligible for donations which earn tax exemption for the donor 4 ► Support raising of revenue through alternate sources ► ► 5 Attract foreign students ► ► ► Establish an agency under the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) to promote Indian higher education to international students Appoint partners to facilitate admission procedures for foreign applicants to Indian HEIs Create a supportive environment for attracting international students through easing of visa processes and academic reform to facilitate credit transfers between domestic and international universities 6 Improve management of finances at HEIs ► ► Support HEIs to obtain access to best in breed finance professionals Conduct seminars and short term courses to share best practices in management of operations at HEIs in order to improve utilisation of available finances 36 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . At the same time. set out model practices. and institutes through higher grants for better performance on these factors Develop supportive guidelines and norms to increase utilisation of existing assets/land banks of higher education institutes Encourage industrial houses/individuals to give endowments to both public and private HEIs. preferential allotment of seats etc. incentivise faculty through revenue sharing.Financing: Recommendations Recommendations on financial innovation 1 Encourage private sector funding of higher education ► ► Introduce innovative PPP models which encourage high quality players from the private sector to invest more in the higher education sector Provide tax incentives and simplify norms to attract private investments 2 Enhance impact of Government funding ► ► Introduce a mechanism of performance based funding by the Government Encourage HEIs to move towards higher self generation of funds to meet operational expenses. such as monetisation of IP (research patents. licenses). For this purpose. by providing a 125% weighted tax deduction to all endowments to recognised universities. organising seminars/ public events. consulting etc. so that Government funds are spent increasing on capacity expansion and quality improvement 3 Rationalise tuition fee and build strong financing structures ► ► ► Rationalise tuition fee structures to internationally accepted levels (~25% of income) which would enable self sustenance of HEIs and reduce strain on public funding Differential pricing may be accorded for students belonging to economically weaker sections Create robust financing system to support rationalised fee structure through encouragement of scholarships (public and industry sponsored) and increasing student loans coverage through special schemes Encourage higher education institutes to identify and develop innovative sources of income other than fees and grants.

Current state Key challenges Best practices Recommendations 3. Innovative use of ICT .

satellite and other mediums ► Teaching aids in classrooms ► Free educational content for all students on online repositories ► Mo de of C our se De live ry ► tive tra inis A dm t for uppor ool S T IT systems for educational institutes including complete student management and recordkeeping Roles of ICT ► r fo n o rm ti fo ora at b Pl lla Co Technological platform linking universities and other agencies for collaborative research and content development …and benefits all the stakeholders involved Anytime.ICT: Current state Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can perform multiple roles in higher education to benefit all stakeholders. ICT can perform various roles in higher education… Distance learning with delivery through internet. anywhere learning Better quality of education ► Students ► ► Lower overall cost of education Employers ► Cheaper costs of continuing education ► Increased convenience in providing education to staff Higher Education Institutes ► ► Less capital costs Easier to provide new courses ► ► Efficient processes Better management control Government ► Increases number of students under the gamut of education ► Increased capacity and cost effectiveness of education systems 38 Making the Indian higher education system future ready ...

providing anytime anywhere access to students Reduction in capacity constraints making large enrolments possible in courses run by reputed institutes Technology can be leveraged to provide access to courses in new and emerging fields to greater number of students Usage of supplementary teaching aids Better and more efficient processes and management systems Access to up-to-date content Increased knowledge sharing among course creators and scientists Creation of comprehensive centralised digital repositories for reference material ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ICT can help increase India’s GER aiding it in its transformation towards becoming a knowledge society Making the Indian higher education system future ready 39 . low access and poor quality Usage of ICT can help improve India’s higher education system in three ways Greater equity ► Better Access ► ► Improved Quality ► ► Better access to students from various socio-economic groups.ICT: Current state … while addressing India’s higher education related problems of inequity. leading to greater inclusion Good quality institutions are not restricted to a few pockets but are made accessible to students located all over the country Content from all over the world can be made available to students with access to internet Cheaper costs of education Increased flexibility.

Almost 95% of IGNOU’s printed material has been digitised and uploaded on the repository National Programme for Technology Enhanced Learning ► Approved in 2001. education programs are telecast on Gyan Darshan and Doordarshan’s National Channel (DD1) everyday ► Till date. Gyan Darshan is a bouquet of channels that broadcasts educational programs for school kids. and adults ► Courses are contributed by IGNOU. and sciences Education and Research Network (ERNET) promoted by the Department of Information Technology. Government of India.000 programs have been telecast on subjects such as Arts and Social Sciences E-Gyankosh ► It is a knowledge repository launched by IGNOU in 2005 which aims at storing and preserving digital learning resources. digital course content for 129 engineering/science courses has been developed and uploaded on youtube Delivery of content E-journal consortia ► AICTE – Indian National Digital Library in Engineering & Technology (AICTE – INDEST) is a consortium set up by the Ministry of Human Resource to enhance greater access and generate annual savings in access of bibliographic databases UGC has also launched its Digital Library Consortium to provide access to peer reviewed journals and bibliographic databases covering subjects such as arts. UGC CEC. more than 10. ERNET Website 40 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . university students. National Programme for Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) is a joint initiative of IITs and IISc ► As a part of its first phase. humanities. provides communication infrastructure and services to academic research institutions in India It is undertaking networking projects such as AICTE-Net. UGC CEC website.ICT: Current state The government has taken many initiatives to promote education using ICT over past few decades Past initiatives of the government have used ICT for content delivery and as an enabler of access Gyan Darshan ► Launched in 2000. IGNOU Profile 2009. ICAR-Net and UGC-Infonet to provide internet and intranet facilities ► Enabling access to resources Networking of higher education institutions ► ► Sources: NPTEL Project Document July 2003-June 2007. IITs etc Gyan Vani ► It is a bouquet of FM radio channels which broadcast programs contributed by institutions such as IGNOU and IITs UGC Countrywide Classroom ► Under the country wide classroom initiative.

It is also planning to set up national resource centers for standardisation and quality assurance of e-content for College and University segment and Engineering and Technology segment. National Mission on Education through ICT was launched by the government to harness ICT’s potential to make a difference In 2009. Efforts are already underway to prepare course content for 130 courses (Includes UG and PG courses). centrally sponsored scheme submitted by the Ministry of HRD and approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) The Mission envisions to cater to the learning needs of 500 million Indians Some of the key objectives of the Mission include: ► Availability of e-knowledge content free of cost to Indians ► Development of knowledge modules to take care of personalised needs of learners ► Providing support for the creation of virtual technological universities ► Building connectivity and knowledge network among and within institutions of higher learning in the country ► Standardisation and quality assurance of contents to make them world class ► Spreading digital literacy for teacher empowerment ► Certification of competencies of the human resources acquired either through formal or non-formal means The Mission has planned a variety of initiatives aimed at developing and standardising digital content for Indian higher education segment Scaling up Sakshat portal Generation of new digital content ► ► The Mission intends to scale up the existing Sakshat portal to take care of the needs of entire learning community. National Mission on Education through ICT Making the Indian higher education system future ready 41 . technology. Virtual Technical University (VTU) ► ► Quality assurance ► The Mission envisages creation of a VTU to enable training of UG/PG students along with new teachers.ICT: Current state Recently. It will also act as a human resource database aiding education related decision making. It will focus on science. the government approved the landmark “National Mission on Education through ICT” scheme ► ► ► The National Mission on Education through ICT is an INR 50 billion. Sources: Mission Document. ► ► It also plans to generate new online course content for UG. PG and Doctoral education. management and other related areas.

broadband access.ICT: Current state The private sector too has tapped the opportunity to provide knowledge infrastructure and leverage ICT for expanding capacity Many companies have entered the business of providing ICT infrastructure… ► Examples of companies providing ICT infrastructure HughesNet Has a network of 50 classrooms in 34 cities equipped with the technology to receive satellite signals from studios located in educational institutes. efficiency and recruiting …while private educational institutes are delivering courses over ICT Institute Segment Description Amity University Higher Education ► Offers online MBA and BBA programs Arihant Institute Test Preparation ► ► Has a network of classes equipped with technology to receive satellite signals CA coaching lectures recorded at base location in Ahmedabad are relayed to these classes in various cities Macmillan India Higher Education ► Has collaborated with IIM-C and IIT-D to offers online Management Development Programs The institutes are also realising other benefits of using ICT ► BITSConnect ► A USD 1. IP telephony and conferencing abilities in the institute and hostels The technological infrastructure is used to connect alumni with the institute on an ongoing basis Sources: Company websites 42 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . compliance.5 million initiative at Birla Institute of Technology & Science that provides a gigabit backbone. Examples of institutes using HughesNet infrastructure include IIMs. TOEFL) Oracle ► Provides enterprise-strength solutions that help educational institutes in improving performance management. IITs and XLRI Reliance World ► Part of Reliance ADAG.g. reporting. Reliance World is a chain of cyber cafes that has tied up with testing companies to offer testing centers (e.

ICT: Key challenges Key challenges affecting utilisation of ICT in Indian higher education te Lac ch k no of lo pe gy op re le ad an in d es s ic f st o ui s t n o ng r io Li rrie nat ge ba mi led e w ss o di kn Challenges Implementation challenges which have contributed to the ineffectiveness of previous initiatives Making the Indian higher education system future ready 43 .

33 5.”.5 . especially in rural areas is extremely poor Number of computers per 100 (2008) 80. UGC: Higher Education in India 2008 44 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .3% 72% 34 19 13 Russia Percentage of Indians living in rural areas Percentage of rural population using internet 74 1% 32 24 15 22 7 China 3 7 India Rural Urban Using internet Not using internet UK US Brazil Global 2004 ► 2008 With majority of Indians living in rural areas.61 3.76 Disparities in PC ownership across India 21% 21% 16% 4% 16. The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report “Vernacular Content Market in India. poor computer and internet penetration point towards the need to: ► Expose and train students in basic computing skills ► Train students in navigating websites and learning management systems to understand e-content Penetration of ICT systems in higher education institutions is extremely poor Moreover.1 M population towns <0.5 M population towns UK US Brazil Russia China Number of internet users per hundred inhabitants 80 63 65 Fixed broadband penetration is very low at 0.23 78.18 India Top 4 metros Next 4 metros 0.ICT: Key challenges India faces the challenges of low technology and people readiness in order to realise the potential of ICT Low technology and people readiness is a major challenge India faces in realising ICT’s promise in higher education A Penetration of computers and internet. our survey has revealed that a majority of Government institutions do not have IT systems B A survey of accredited colleges by UGC in 2008 revealed glaring IT infrastructure shortcomings Average Number of computers per college 6 Percentage of government institutes with ERP systems (2009) 22% Computers per student 229 With ERP Without ERP Sources: International Telecommunication Union.12 13.

this standardisation becomes even more difficult. ► In a multi-lingual country like India.ICT: Key challenges There are linguistic barriers that need to be overcome to increase the penetration of ICT as well India’s linguistic diversity necessitates the development of content in multiple languages Out of 368 million literate rural Indians. ► Lack of hardware ► Although content and applications in the vernacular languages have increased. only 17% can speak English There is heavy usage of local language internet applications in small towns Percentage of small town users using applications in local languages 60% 50% 17% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Speak English Do not speak English Email News Chat ► Preference for local languages in small towns and rural areas underscores the need to develop content in multiple languages. there are many challenges in development of local language content as listed below: Key challenges Absence of standardisation Local language computing continues to reel under absence of script-level and font level standardisation. Sources: The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report “Vernacular Content Market in India.” Making the Indian higher education system future ready 45 . However. their dissemination is low due to absence of supporting hardware. ► This limits scalability and flexibility of various initiatives.

g. majority did not watch it for more than once a week 41% Regularly Sometimes Never 45% 85. 05-06 14. Sources: IGNOU ODL Assessment learning 2008.Directors of Media Centers are chosen by Universities from among their professors. University of Pennsylvania. 2008 46% 3% 10% 14% 15% 15% 10% 49% Website is slow Not updated Links do not open Pages not available Do not have time No Do not have information radio of schedule Not interested Programs boring Server remains down 28% Problems with IGNOU website. although most of them do not have exposure to dynamics of media content production) Although. India is now also embarking upon ambitious internet based initiatives. Vol2. Center for Global Communications Studies.” 46 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . past experience highlights the need of an effective media strategy to realise anticipated potential. 2008 14% Frequency of watching UGC CWCR programs in Tamil Nadu. “From Countrywide Classroom to Virtual Classroom: the analysis of UGC experience of using television for higher education.39% Watch Do not watch …which has been due to many reasons including poor quality. . Issue 4 : “Pattern of usage of electronic media by higher education students in Tamil Nadu.ICT: Key challenges The past initiatives have also been affected by various implementation pitfalls that may impede the successful roll-out of the recent ICT initiatives Some of the previous ICT initiatives launched by IGNOU and UGC have had limited success… Frequency of listening to IGNOU hour on Gyan Vani. administration and co-ordination Reasons for not listening to the IGNOU hour on Gyan Vani. 2008 10% ► The following are considered to be some of the major problems with UGC CWCR: ► Absence of coordination and improper governance ► Insufficient increase in staff in comparison to the increase in hours of transmission ► Lack of staff expertise (for e.”. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT (IDEJICT) 2006.61% Among those who watched.

g. EdNA shares its metadata records with other related portals. It has expanded the reach of higher education by providing online education and administrative services. Paper for Polish E-Learning Conference. It has been recognised internationally as an innovative initiative which has shown benefits of community of networks approach and has emerged as a trusted resource base for higher education community in Australia. EdNA online is the virtual network of different learning environments and provides a gateway to key educational resources and services.ICT: Best practices ICT has been successfully employed by various countries to achieve increased collaboration while enabling greater access Multi university partnership for integration of ICT in Finnish Virtual University ► The idea of Finnish Virtual University (FVU) was mooted by Finnish Universities in 1998 after they felt a need for a platform for collaboration in teaching and research. This led to creation of FVU as a partnership between all Finnish universities in 2001. “E-Learning – Key Australian initiatives. FVU is governed by a consortium assembly with a representative each from its member university and the Ministry of Education and is completely funded by the national government. ► Collaborative networks: There are many networks of academic disciplines which provide intra and inter discipline connectivity and collaboration (e. It has also enabled facilitation of virtual mobility of students among institutions. “Finnish Virtual University”." 2003 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 47 . ► ► Sources: Reviewing (Traces of) European Virtual Campuses Re Vica Website. Mathematical Modeling Network) FVU has been able to create a platform for collaboration to offer wider regional access to higher education with more efficient use of special facilities around the country. It uses three models for service delivery: ► Retail: It acts as a one stop shop for education resources ► Aggregator: EdNA online acts as a metadata repository providing information about online resources on education. ► ► EdNA – A collaborative platform for education and teaching community ► Education Network Australia (EdNA) is the national initiative taken up by Australia to enhance collaboration among the education and training community. ► Wholesale: Under this model. It has enhanced online teaching and learning through innovative practices such as: ► Student mobility: FVU has launched a comprehensive portal providing online information and counseling services and self assessment tools ► E quality assurance: FVU has prepared an online evaluation tool which measures usability and quality of online courses ► Standardised content development: FVU has launched an interactive guide for developing online courses to enable development of quality content ► Teacher Training: FVU promotes development of pedagogical training and has launched an online tool for assessing staff ICT skills. It has also enabled creation of a dynamic network of university students and members.

► ► Sources: Website of Korea Education & Research Information Service. This phase also witnessed creation of VET learning object repositories and best practice knowledge sharing services. 2005-2007 and 2008-2011. In 1999. This was followed by key five year programs to continue modernisation of Korean national network. The first step involved setting up of establishing university e-learning support centers along with an administrative support system. Korea had its comprehensive educational information service known as “EDUNET”. It will also develop mechanism for closer engagement of learners and industry. In the same year. By 1996. ► ► ► Phased implementation of ICT strategy in vocational education in Australia ► Split into three stages. It has used a well rounded policy of development of ICT infrastructure and applications for higher education. a majority of the respondents were satisfied with its applications in management & administration. The framework is overseen by the Flexible Learning Advisory Group (FLAG). This phase saw training of teachers. pedagogy and educational achievement. Third stage (2008-11) is focusing on integration of initiatives to enable embedding of e-learning among various stakeholders. Korea.” PPT Ministry of Education & Human Resource Development.” Australian Flexible Learning Framework website 48 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . It will develop processes for development of materials in areas with skill shortage while further strengthening the repository network.ICT: Best practices Successful implementation of ICT initiatives has been supported globally by country specific policy formulation and phased implementation Overarching policy for development of ICT infrastructure and applications in South Korea ► South Korea has been an Asian leader in adoption of information and communication technology in various aspects of business and education. Korea began focusing on promotion of e-learning in higher education institutions. As early as 1987. “Korea’s e-learning experience in the Higher Education Sector. an advisory group consisting of senior government officials. Australian Flexible Learning Framework Strategy 20002004. In 2002. The framework has led to creation of a national network for accessing e-learning resources enabling greater access to professional development opportunities and uptake of flexible learning. Australian Flexible Learning Framework was launched in 2000 to utilise benefits of e-learning in Vocational Education. The First stage (2000-04) focused on capacity building (technology infrastructure and online content) by providing an enabling policy environment. KERIS launched National Education Resource Sharing System and National Digital Library Support System. In an evaluation of impact of ICT usage in University operations conducted in 2007. NIA later established the Korea Information Infrastructure (KII) initiative in 1994 to construct a nationwide optical fiber network. By 2003. It also witnessed 100% connectivity of Korean Higher Education Institutions with Research Information Service System (RISS). FLAG also overlooks policy development in Adult and Community Education (ACE). The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. setting up of an administrative education system (ERP) and support centers for distance education. it passed the “Framework Act on Informatization Promotion” which led to the creation of National Information Society Agency (NIA) to oversee construction of high speed networks. The second stage (2005-07) focused on client engagement by strengthening their roles in shaping VET provisions and making them more market relevant. The government also promoted the use of internet (through South Korean agency for Digital Opportunity – KADO) while ensuring internet security (through Korea Information Security Agency – KISA and Korea Internet Safety Commission – NIDA). Korea formalised a plan to digitalise information in educational environments. a body to oversee technology initiatives in Korean education. Korea also saw the formation of Korea Education & Research Information Service (KERIS). “Home Page.

This can also be supplemented by creation of online communities of practice 3 Encourage adoption of IT systems ► ► 4 Promote development of collaborative networks ► ► 5 Creation of a common centralised repository for e-journals. Intra and InterDisciplinary networks to enhance research collaboration between students and teachers should be promoted.ICT: Recommendations Recommendations for innovative use of ICT 1 Support development of high quality digital content ► ► ► ► Promote development of digital content by providing incentives for creation of the same by institutes of repute both in the private and the public sectors. Going. Simultaneously develop a mechanism for quality assurance of digital content through creation of a mechanism of rating of content by peers/students before its release to HEIs and universities Establish dedicated cell to support translation of content into local languages. e-books etc. These should be made available to recognised HEIs free of cost. LCD displays in HEIs through a PPP model. research papers. forward. ► ► A common repository of digitised content should be created. research papers and PhD thesis should be sought in digitised formats only. Access to this repository should be provided to all recognised HEIs at a nominal cost Making the Indian higher education system future ready 49 . The same should be created at the earliest and connectivity should be provided to all recognised institutes To supplement the current networking initiatives being undertaken. giving HEIs the freedom to choose the most suitable package and relevant modules. digitised PhD thesis. A committee should be set up to review these and select certain packages which can be customised to the Indian context. All content so created should be made freely available to HEIs through the internet 2 Promote ICT usage in classroom ► ► ► Develop a scheme for installation of IT infrastructure such as computers. Usage of IT systems for key activities should be promoted through it being made a key parameter in accreditation/quality ratings The Government is proposing the creation of a high speed knowledge network providing connectivity across education institutes. Existing non-copyrighted content should be digitised and uploaded into the repository. similar to schemes in vogue in the K-12 segment A series of courses should be launched on training faculty in usage of ICT in regular teaching Faculty usage of ICT in their pedagogy should be monitored as a key performance indicator There are multiple IT Systems/ERP packages aimed at the higher education segment.

53 .

Reinvigorating research .Current state Key challenges Best practices Recommendations 4.

1 13.4 2.9 National R&D expenditure spent by Higher Education Institutions 26% 57% 4. which itself is low by international standards Overall National Research & Development Expenditure R&D Spending as a percentage of GDP (2006 ) 3.9 16.S Japan U. a percentage which has remained constant from 2005 till 2008 In contrast China’s share increased from 13. Envisioning the Future 2009. DST: Research & Development Statistics at a Glance 2007-08 52 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .9% 30.61 1.8 Central Government State Government Public Sector Industry Higher Education Private Sector India China Japan United States Canada ► In 2005-06. Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education.9% Europe Rest of the World ► ► India spends approximately 1% of its GDP on R&D.7%.Research: Current state The Indian higher education segment contributes marginally to the national R&D expenditure. compared to 2.7% India China U.47 1.9% Share of Total Global R&D Spending (2008) 11.4 5% 10. China 12.5% to almost 18% ► Contribution to Research & Development Expenditure by Higher Education National R&D Expenditure (2005-06) 8% 4% 34.4% by Japan India’s share has of the total Global R&D spending is just 3.03 23.S.4% Japan India 17.1% 3.47% by the US and 3. research at higher education institutes accounted for a mere 4% of the total national R&D expenditure ► The R&D Expenditure spent on higher education in India is amongst the lowest vis-à-vis its global peer group Sources: Battelle and R&D Magazine: Global R&D Report 2008.

Research: Current state India has a low base of researchers and the academic sector contributes less than a seventh of the total number of researchers Number of researchers 1500000 1000000 500000 0 USA China Japan Russia Germany France UK Korea India Canada 6000 4000 2000 0 Number Per Million People ► India has approximately 130. UGC: Annual Report 2004-05 * The educational qualification of personnel engaged in R&D in 2005 is available for 116.06 Major scientific agencies State Governments Industrial Public Sector PhDs Post Graduates Diplomas and Others Graduates ► The academic sector in India contributes about 14% of the total research manpower of the country A comparative large part of the research base in India either is housed in scientific agencies (31%) or in the private sector (31%) ► Only 18% of India’s researchers. Making the Indian higher education system future ready 53 . a tenth of the number of researchers in the United States of America and a seventh of the number of researchers in China When viewed in comparison to the population of the country. an indication of their poor quality Almost half of the researchers are either graduates or diploma holders ► ► Sources: UNESCO: Institute of Statistics 2007.14 Research manpower qualification* (2005) 14% 18% 0.175 personnel out of a total of 154.06 0. DST: Research & Development Statistics at a Glance 2007-08. This is 2% of the number of researchers per million people that most developed countries have ► Percentage distribution of research manpower 0.12 Academic sector Central Government Ministries/Departments Industrial Private Sector 38% 0.31 30% 0.31 0.000 researchers. only18% are Ph Ds. India just has about 100 researchers per million people.827.

5 8.07 0.823 5.402 8.12 1.9 3.607 282. India’s research papers were cited at an average of 3.397 ► 488.512 666.734 in 1985-86 to 3.027 271.104 604.47 3.4 ► 3. one fifteenth of the number of research papers published by the USA On an overall basis.3 10. 97: Ranking of Indian engineering and technological institutes for their research performance during 1999–2008 August 2009 54 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . seven IIT’s and IISc have published twice the number of papers with more than thrice the impact as compared to almost 60 select Universities/Institutions ► Sources: UGC: Research Handbook 2005.134 12. Current Science Vol. India’s rank was 13th in the world in terms of the number of research papers published 722.434 ► India published about 180.443 in 2001-02 yet less than 10% contributed almost 80% of the publications and only 24 institutions published more than 300 papers In the last ten years.413 5.585 320.747 Italy Russia China India Brazil US Japan Germany UK France Citations per research paper (1994-04) 12.94 1.951 15. India lags behind in terms of both number and quality Number of research papers (1994-04) 2.000 research papers from 1994 to 2004.2 The number of times a research paper is cited is indicative of its quality.37 1.732 637 Citations per paper 2.100 6. indicating poor quality. India’s rank was 119th out of 149 countries in terms of number of citations ► US Japan Germany UK France Italy Russia China India Brazil Research papers in India are mostly published by a few elite institutions Research performance of selected Universities/Institutes (1999-08) Institution IITs IISc Universities Engineering NITs/RECs IIITs Number of Institutions 7 1 13 20 20 6 Publications 38.698.336 791 Citations 94.032 180.8 ► The number of institutions participating in research in India increased from 1.5 4.783 98.438 29.2 7.9 8.428 40.Research: Current state In terms of research papers.2 times.1 2.3 9.

amounting to an average of 79 patents a year This is substantially lesser than the patent filings by leading international higher education institutes and a fifth of the total patents filed by just the University of California ► Number of institutions engaged in patent filing in India 29 ► ► Patent filing is still done only by a few education institutes While the number of patents being filed by Indian institutes is increasing. and is significantly lesser than that of leading international players Number of Patents Received by the Top 10 Institutes in the US in 2002 University of California Massachusetts Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Stanford University University of Texas Johns Hopkins University University of Wisconsin State University of New York Pennsylvania State University Michigan State University 431 135 109 104 93 81 81 55 50 49 Number of Patent Applications by the Top 10 Indian Institutes from 1999-02 IITs Kharagpur and Guwahati IISc. the pace is slower than that of other Asian countries 9 25 1995 2000 2002 Growth in Patent Application in the Higher Education Institutions of India 63 42 33 33 46 Growth in Patent Application in Higher Education Institutions (1995-98 to 1999-02) 65% 30 32 36 36% 20% 19% 37% 1999 2000 Univeristy and Others 2001 IIT & IISC 2002 India Singapore Korea Japan China Sources: Arijit Chatterjee: Need for more academic R&D in India. Bangalore IITs Delhi. USPTO: Annual Report 2002 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 55 . Kanpur and Roorkee University of Delhi IIT Bombay IIT Madras AIIMS Goa University Mahatma Gandhi University Jawaharlal Nehru University 75 40 31 29 22 14 14 4 4 3 ► The top 10 Indian Patent Filing Institutes filed 236 patents in the three years from 1999 to 2002.Research: Current state Patent filing in India is limited to a few institutes. P. Ganguli: Industry-Academic Interaction in Technology Transfer and IPR 2005.

Research: Key challenges Key challenges affecting the quality of research in higher education D ge oc pl at ne tor ag tr ra a ue ac tin l st d tiv g ud by en lim ie po es it s or s a ed qu nd al ity Challenges P ed oor w u c lin re ith ati ka se in on ge ar du in s ch st st of bo ry itu di an te es d s of lty ge u ta ac t or d f uc d Sh lifie ond an a c ch r qu to ear nto ers h s e re m arc se re al ci ral an u in uct r f of str t fo ck fra or ch La in pp ear d u an s res Sources: 56 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .

China which had approximately half the number of PhDs that India had in Science in 1995. had taken a lead over India by 2004.Research: Key challenges The number of doctoral students has not kept pace with the overall growth of students in higher education and the overall quality of doctoral studies in many institutes is questionable Less than 1% of the total students enrolled in higher education are pursuing Ph D’s 0. there is indiscriminate admission of candidates to PhD without adequate evaluation of their research aptitude. During an inquiry into the status of higher education in Bihar. Sources: UGC: Annual Report 2005-06.64% 1. ► There is a lack of quality guides for research while those guiding doctoral research have little idea about work plans.4% 36.7 0. UGC: Higher Education in India 2008. ► There is rampant anecdotal evidence of plagiarism.42% 0. At some universities. ► In absence of any entrance test. the Verma Committee found that a single thesis was used by as many as eight students for their PhD. Pawan Agarwal: Indian Higher Education. which has fallen by 18% from 2000-01 to 2005-06 ► A variety of problems are leading to the questionable quality of PhDs: ► Different measures of quality control for award of PhD lead to wide variations in time of award of the degree. reveals that India has not kept pace with China.5 88.91% Graduate Post-Graduate Research Diploma 1980-81 1985-86 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01 Student enrollment at various levels of study PhD enrollment as a percentage of total enrollment Number of PhDs Number of Research Scholars 20000 45. NKC: Report to the nation 2006-09.7 0.519 10000 0 1995 India Science Engineering 2004 1995 China Others 2004 2000-01 PHD's/DSC's 2005-06 ► A comparison between the growth of Ph Ds in India and China.03% The number of students pursuing Ph D in ratio to the total student population in higher education has been declining 9.004 CAGR ~ . Envisioning the Future 2009 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 57 . The number of Engineering Ph D degrees awarded in India was a tenth of the number awarded in China in 2004 ► ► The falling interest in Ph Ds has also manifested itself in a reduction in the number of research scholars registered in India.6 0. This further leads to poor quality of PhD theses which include repetitive and imitative research.9 0. PhDs are awarded within 18 months while at others it takes almost 3-5 years to complete.

Sharing ideas and information with others who are working in the same or related areas are minimal in the campuses. In fact. 2008: 208) Sources: UGC: Higher Education in India 2008. just 5% of the faculty spends more than 20 hours per week on research “.Phil (2008) The shortage of faculty is giving faculty lesser time to focus on research Hours per week spent on research 100% 50% 0% Professors <5 5-10 10-15 Readers 15-20 20-25 Lecturers 25-40 A survey conducted by UGC shows that a quarter of the faculty in Indian higher education institutions spends less than 5 hours per week on research. Teachers expressed their willingness to pursue research if adequate facilities and support for infrastructure are provided in the institution. teacher survey reflects their attitude towards teaching and research. contrary to their complaints on infrastructure facilities only 16 per cent found that it is difficult to get adequate research support from public or private agencies. About half of the teachers therefore abstain from any form of research along with their teaching.. A total of 68 per cent of the teachers complain that it is difficult for them to manage research along with their heavy teaching schedule. However.Phil Universities Colleges Percentage of faculty positions vacant 2007-08 (as per sample survey conducted by UGC Percentage of Faculty without PhD/M.Research: Key challenges Large vacant faculty positions and poorly qualified faculty also dilute the quality of research done at higher education institutes There are large number of vacancies in faculty positions across universities and colleges A large section of the faculty in colleges and universities has not completed their PhD 45% 51% 53% 41% 24% Without PhD 57% 18% NA Professor Reader University College Lecturer Without PhD/M.. Teaching and research are not treated separately and no career advancements are provided to the faculty member who has a proven track record in research” (Varghese. NKC: Report to the nation 2006-2009 58 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Teachers have very poor exposure to scientific meetings and international conferences.

318.41 million However. ICMR: Annual Report 2007-08.63 billion in 2006-07.50 As a percentage of Harvard’s expenditure 11.87 million IITs and IISc got 20% of the funding.Research: Key challenges Extramural support given by major bodies in India to the higher education institutes is insignificant compared to funding received by other leading institutes abroad Extramural Support for R&D Projects 900 600 300 0 DR DO CS IR DB T DS T EF UG C TE T R E M CI IC M M A O th er DA IC O s ► The total extramural grants for research projects amounted to INR 11.5% Sources: DST: Research & Development Statistics at a Glance 2007-08. with the Department of Science and Technology providing almost 50% of this funding ICMR Extramural Support for R&D (2007-08) 6% 11% SERC programme funding (DST) 2007-08 19% 60% Universities Medical colleges Research Institutes Others 4% Hospitals ► ► Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 2007-08 gave extramural support worth INR 483. DST Annual Report 2007-08. UGC: Higher Education in India 2008 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 59 . education institutes were allocated just 11% of this amount ► ► DST under the SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council) R&D programme in 2007-08 sanctioned 495 Science and Engineering R&D projects at a total cost of INR 1.27 0.68 5% 1. while other universities and colleges had a 45% share However this funding for R&D is very low compared to international standards Amount in INR Billion Harvard University expenditure on research (2008) Total extramural support for R&D Projects in India UGC Grants for Research 256.

60 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . which is referred to as the ‘two-box disease’. this was done through creating multiple independent institutes and organisations such as the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. largely due to the following factors: ► Absence of a clear IPR regime governing the ownership of intellectual property created through government funded projects ► Limited incentives for academic institutions/academicians to partner with corporate bodies and vice-versa ► Lack of laid down structured processes and systems for academic institutions to partner with corporate bodies. the Institute for Plasma Research.. “Fusion to improve higher education. Working Paper India’s emergence as a Global R&D hub. The facilities and infrastructure of these institutes are not shared with higher education institutes. These institutes were highly funded and set up as ‘islands of excellence’. India invested significantly in upgrading its research infrastructure. R&D centres internationally are co-located with major universities. Defense Research and Development Organisation. The Hindu. 2005. The research staff engaged by these centres is actively involved in teaching post-graduate as well as under-graduate students There is a lack of an enabling environment for the corporate sector to work with the academic sector on joint research/commercialisation.” October 19. the same has not come about Government – Academic collaboration The two-box disease ► Industry – Academic collaboration The absence of enablers ► ► ► ► There exists a complete disconnect between the higher education system and the Government funded research and development laboratory system. the Centre for Advanced Technology. the Institute for Mathematical Sciences etc. The staff of these organisations have no obligation to teach at universities. there is no crosspollination of ideas and practices between the research laboratories set up by the Indian Government and the Indian Higher Education System In comparison.Research: Key challenges Lack of industry linkage and conducting research in isolation with public sector R&D centers has severely hampered the quality of research in Indian Institutions The Government R&D laboratories as well as academic institutions in India. However. focus significantly on basic and applied research. As such. Post independence. leading to an ad-hoc approach and poor visibility into outcomes Sources: Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies. the corporate sector focuses on product and process development related R&D Level of R&D activity by various stakeholders in India (2006. estimated) Basic Research Stakeholders Applied Research Product development Process development Indian Government (R&D Labs) Academic Institutions Indian Companies Foreign Companies Low Medium High While there are significant synergies for both the Government and the corporate sector to partner with academic institutions to enhance research.

the performance of public institutions is relatively better than that of private institutions Patents filed in the last three years 15% 17% 17% 85% 13% 20% 67% Private <30 30-100 100-500 Public >500 Private <10 10-50 >50 Public More than half the higher education institutes surveyed. public institutes have a better track record.Research: Survey results Our survey indicates better performance of public institutions in research related parameters. however private institutions are not far behind Our survey indicates that Public institutions have a better qualified faculty… Ph D qualified faculty as a proportion of total faculty … of which a larger proportion is spending time on research Proportion of faculty involved in research 15% 31% 75% 48% 24% 56% 11% 33% 61% 21% Private <10% 10-40% 17% 8% Public >40% Private <40% 40-80% Public >80% In terms of research papers. said that obtaining research grants is the biggest challenge they face as they seek to improve the quality of research Key challenges to improving research quality 60% 20% 16% 4% Obtaining research grants Industry partnership/support Quality of human resources Others Obtaining research grants. developing Industry partnerships and quality of human resources are the key challenges faced by Indian higher education system in improving the quality of research Sources: EY FICCI Higher Education Survey 2009 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 61 . however private institutes are not far behind Number of papers filed in the past three years 8% 24% 22% 46% 53% 13% While patent filing is low across both public and private institutions.

3. SNI members are given monthly financial incentives ranging from $800 USD (Junior Research) to $1. Academic promotion leads to a considerable rise of salary. 16 12 8 4 0 Lecturer Full Lecturer Assistant Professor Associate Professor Full Professor Salary levels (in Jordanian Dinar) 1600 800 0 Lecturer Full Assistant Associate Full Govt. Lecturer Professor Professor Professor Doctor School Army Teacher Officer Regulating research in Mexico ► The National System of Researchers (SNI) was created in July 1984. The quality of work and the prestige of contributions made are recognised on the basis of an evaluation (currently performed every 3 or 4 years). with the aim of acknowledging and rewarding the work performed by researchers in the country.2005) 15000 10000 ► 5000 ► 0 1986 1987 1990 1991 1994 1995 1998 1999 2002 1984 1985 1988 1989 1992 1993 1996 1997 2000 2001 2003 2004 2005 62 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .Research: Best practices Internationally. Levels 1.300 USD (for Seniors). The income of people involved in research work (most of the research in the country is carried out mainly at the universities) is relatively good. The academic ladder for the Ph. All public universities have a (more or less) similar scale for salaries which mainly depends of the professional rank of the research staff (assistant professor/researcher. academic staff in Jordan consists of three ranks. Research staff who work on largescale projects and get involved in some administrative work usually get paid for such extra efforts. The SNI classifies national researchers in accordance with their accomplishments in science and technology (the first requirement is that they must hold a doctorate) (CONACYT-SNI. associate/professor). This classification includes five categories: “Candidate” (Junior). public research centers. In spite of that. countries encourage research by acknowledging and rewarding the work done by researchers HR practices to encourage research in Jordan No. and Emeritus. a faculty member in a university is defined first as an instructor whose main job is to teach and whose work hours are teaching hours. 2006). job promotions in universities are entirely dependent upon research activity and record. of credit hours that faculty must teach ► ► According to the regulations of higher education in Jordan. compared with those with other careers in both the public and private sectors. whether at public universities. Members of the SNI (1984 . 2. or some private universities having an agreement with the CONACYT. The table shows the evolution of the SNI and highlights the significant growth in the number of members it has over the last few years.D.

This also led to an increase in income from technology transfer at these universities from SKW0. Universities in China were given freedom to engage in profit seeking businesses. around 40% of research conducted in the universities is funded by private companies. Making the Indian higher education system future ready 63 .473 billion in 2001 to SKW1. Excellent infrastructure.913 billion in 2003. Cornell University ILR School Working Paper: Doctoral Education and Academic Research (in India) 2006. the Chinese Government undertook specific reforms to promote University-Industry collaboration through introduction of laws on technology development. renowned faculty and strong quality control systems further facilitate academic research. Easy access to journal editors who also give comments on editing and improvement of quality.Research: Best practices Industry collaborations are promoted and high quality infrastructure and resources are provided to researchers Promoting Industry Collaboration in East Asia China ► In the late 90’s. Research in the USA is strongly supported by the government and industry. Support from government : Industry linkage : Computing facilities and library resources : Faculty : Quality control : Seminar series : Access to journal editors : Strong tradition of support and sponsorship from government Prevalence of Industry sponsored PhDs World class library resources and computing facilities Presence of world renowned scholars willing to guide PhD students under their wings Plagiarism checks along with system of internal and external examiners Access to regular high quality seminars. Sources: World Intellectual Property Organisation Report: Technology Transfer. transfer and commercialisation. Intellectual Property and Effective University-Industry Partnerships.2 trillion. Importantly.000 which generate sales of almost RMB45. South Korea ► The establishment of Industry University Cooperation Foundation (IUCF) significantly aided the increase in filing of patents and technology transfer by the universities. The number of scientific university run enterprises has over time increased to 2. Providing a conducive research environment in USA ► USA is the world leader in research and the enabling environment for academic research is the country is what most countries endeavour to emulate. 19 Korean private universities reported almost 133 cases of technology transfer in 2003. a significant increase from 58 in 2001.

Provide fast track growth to the most promising researchers in government universities Create ‘research awards’. Invest in creating a strong ICT backbone linking all Indian universities and providing a large digital repository of journals and publications to researchers across a range of institutes. which selects leading researchers amongst the faculty of both public and private sector education institutions through a fair and transparent process. setting easily measurable targets such as publications in high quality journals. Provide liberal scholarships for doctoral students Create transparent and objective screening mechanisms to select doctoral students. Create mechanisms to enable scientists in Government R&D labs to take up teaching assignments in partner universities Encourage joint research programmes between Government R&D labs and universities 4 Creating an environment to facilitate academic research ► ► ► ► Allow reduced teaching hours for faculty keen to pursue research in Government universities. Facilitate the creation of virtual research communities Allow researchers greater access to government research infrastructure Increase budgetary support for conduct of and participation in seminars Support introduction of integrated programs covering masters and doctoral studies Facilitate the launch of joint Ph D’s in collaboration with industry Increase research fellowship amounts and supplement them with teaching assistance allowances to increase the financial feasibility of pursuing Ph D. with in-built plagiarism checks Make a quantum increase in research grants Award research grants through a transparent process. Create a conducive environment for industry academia partnerships. These researchers should be provided with significant financial assistance to take their research forward. laying down model processes and encouraging institutes to reach out to industry through a system of incentives and disincentives Enact the pending legislation which allows institutions to monetise IPR created from government funded research 2 Facilitate industryacademia collaboration ► ► 3 Increase collaboration between Universities and Government R&D Labs ► ► ► Examine possibility of relocating R&D institutes to university campuses. allowing both private and public universities to compete for these grants 5 Increasing the number and quality of doctoral students ► ► ► ► ► 6 Increase research grants ► ► 64 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . by providing fiscal incentives. while ensuring all further infrastructure expansion in Government R&D institutes is done at university campuses.Research: Recommendations Recommendations on reinvigorating research 1 Rewarding Research ► ► Include research as a key criteria for faculty promotion and compensation. with an aim to set common national level standards Create an electronic database for submission of theses and dissertations.

Thrust to vocational education and training .Current state Key challenges Best practices Recommendations 5.

Regulates ITIs and ITCs under the Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) and also administers six Advance Training Institutes (ATIs) Regulates apprenticeship training through a Central Apprenticeship Council (CAC) and six regional directorates Formulates policies and lays down standards and technical requirements such as developing curricula. guiding and coordinating vocational education at secondary schools at the national and state level respectively ► DGET ► ► NCVT ► ► MHRD ► ► AICVE/SCVE ► State Government ► Operates and funds Industrial Training Institutes (ITI’s) SCVT ► Assists the NCVT to administer the All India Trades Test and advices the state government on training policy and coordinates vocational training at the state level Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. XIth Five Year Plan. arranging trade tests and developing standards for National Trade Certificates.Vocational education and training: Current state The Ministry of Labour & Employment and the Ministry of Human Resource Development are the key regulatory bodies governing vocational education and training in India Regulatory bodies for vocational education and training Central government State government Ministry of Labour & Employment (MoLE) Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGET) National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) All India Council for Vocational Education (AICVE) State Councils for Vocational Education (SCVE) State Council for Vocational Training (SCVT) ► MoLE ► ► Establishing and awarding National Trade Certificates (successful students of the All India Trades Test receive a National Trade Certificate) Prescribing training standards. and Recognizing training institutions for the purpose of issuing National Trade Certificates and laying down conditions for such recognition. 66 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . instructor training and skills testing Advises the central government on vocational training and conducts the All India Trades Test (a test for which students are eligible after completing craft courses) Define policy and regulate vocational education at secondary schools Regulates apprenticeship training through four Boards of Apprenticeship Training (BATs) Operates Polytechnics and Community Polytechnics (CPs) AICVE and SCVE are responsible for planning.

welding. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 67 . Private training institutes ► ► The private VET market is in India is estimated at USD 2 billion. IL&FS. but the private sector is increasingly growing in prominence. Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) and National Institute of Open Schooling are the major initiatives for training in the informal sector run by the MHRD ► PPP The PPP model has been adopted to improve the management and infrastructure of ITIs through a coordinated effort between FICCI. hospitality. It is focused towards services training in growing industry segments such as BFSI. and administer programmes under the government’s Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) ► ITI Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) are financed and managed by state labor ministries and offer basic skill development programmes such as plumbing. ICoFP. retail. especially for services related training Vocational Education and Training Public Private Secondary School ► ► Vocational education at the secondary school level is provided under the Vocational Education Program (VEP) The VEP was started in 1976-77 under the program of Vocationalisation of Higher Secondary Education in general education institutions run by the MHRD ► ITC ITCs (Industrial Training Centres) are privately financed and managed. Central and State Governments Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. masonry etc. Whistling Woods Apprenticeships ► ► ► Apprenticeship training is regulated under the Statutory Apprenticeship Training Scheme (SATS) and is administered by MHRD and DGET MHRD administers through four Boards of Apprenticeship Training (BATs) DGET administers through a Central Apprenticeship Council (CAC) and six Regional Directorates ► Polytechnics Polytechnics are run under the MHRD offering diploma courses ► Others ► There are six Advance Training Institutes (ATI) run by the Central Government which provide training in advanced skills Community polytechnics. VET in India has been provided under the public sector. aviation Key players in this segment include NIIT. Frankfinn. Aptech.Vocational education and training: Current state Traditionally. NKC: Report to the Nation 2006-2009.

and ITCs offering vocational courses.Vocational education and training: Current state Despite a focused program and significant increase in schools.583 400.000 126.000 846.080 in 1982 to 6.com.906 in 2009 The total capacity of the 6.906 institutes stood at 953. ITIs. MoLE: Annual Report 2008-09 68 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .884 with ITIs having more than double the capacity of ITCs per institute ► ITC’s have grown at faster rate as compared to ITI’s ITC’s now cater to a larger group of people and a greater number of ITCs have come into existence which can be attributed to their private management and preference as a vocational training platform by students.359 1883 1997 24% 25% 51% 6. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003.457 4. enrolment remains low with capacity largely underutilised Vocational Education in Secondary Schools ► In the last decade.906 1.952 4. 100 only 47% of the capacity is utilised Industrial Training Institutes/Industrial Training Centers ► The number of ITI’s/ITC’s have seen substantial growth however ITC’s have grown at a faster pace than ITI’s 5.100 400.359 685 1999-00 2008-09 1999-00 2008-09 Total Capacity Capacity Utilisation ► Number of schools offering vocational courses have increased dramatically in the last decade ► However enrollment in vocational courses has increased at a much slower pace ► Out of a total capacity of 846.indiastat. vocational education has seen a dramatic growth in supply although the segment suffers from severe under utilisation of capacity 9.082 3185 3. ► ► According to a FICCI survey (2006) 51% of ITI/ITC are under utilising their capacity ► Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008.080 2005 1982 2009 ITI Number 2009 2005 ITC Capacity (00s) 2009 Under utilisation Full utilisation Over utilisation ► The number of ITIs/ ITCs grew at a significant rate from 1. NKC: Report to the Nation 2006-2009. www.909 3.

9% 2001-02 Number 2005-06 Capacity Number and capacity of polytechnics Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008.203 1. has witnessed a steady increase in capacity although the utilisation has decreased from 72% in 2001 to 64% in 2008 371.Vocational education and training: Current state A similar trend of underutilisation coupled with increasing capacity is observed for apprenticeship.219 26.800 2001 Total Capacity 2006 Capacity Utilised 2008 2001 2006 2008 Total capacity under SATS Number of public/private sector establishments covered under SATS ► ► Increase in capacity over the years has been met with lower utilisation ► Number of establishments under SATS have seen a steady increase There are four types of apprentices. DGET is responsible for the fourth type namely Trade Apprentices 274. Technician and Technician (Vocational) Scheme (2008) The Trade apprentices scheme has the largest capacity and utilisation however the other schemes suffer from low capacity and utilisation. administered by MHRD and DGET. XIth Five Year Plan. Xth Five Year Plan Making the Indian higher education system future ready 69 . especially the Technician scheme ► Polytechnics ► The number and capacity of polytechnics have seen a marginal increase from 2001-02 to 2005-06 236.4% while capacity in polytechnics has increased at a CAGR of 3.488 220.900 17.800 23.292 265.000 ► The number of polytechnics have seen a CAGR of 2. MoLE: Annual Report 2008-09.392 (23%) 28.000 158.483 (41%) Graduate Technician Total Capacity Technician (Vocational) Capacity Utilised Trade Apprentices Total Capacity for Graduate.000 (72%) 172.194 17. Technician and Technician (Vocational) Apprentices.741 197. with the MHRD being responsible for three namely Graduate.000 1.087 20.000 230. except for the trade apprentices scheme Apprenticeship Training ► The Statutory Apprenticeship Training Scheme (SATS).334 15.218 (58%) 6.000 (75%) (64%) 237.994 (72%) 42.

193 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 ► The DGET plan budget is estimated for various training & employment related schemes which also include operations of ITIs and ITCs A major one time increase in plan expenditure in 2007-08 was on the account of announcement of Scheme for “Upgradation of 1396 Government ITIs through Public Private Partnership” Year-wise plan budget for DGET (INR million) Apprenticeship Training Expenditure on apprenticeship training has undergone discrete phases of increase 360 203 130 203 134 203 162 186 360 253 ► Plan expenditure on Apprenticeship training has seen discrete phases of growth whereas non-plan has increased steadily over the last 5 years 2008-09 witnessed a significant increase in plan expenditure 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Plan Non Plan 2008-09 2009-10 ► MHRD expenditure on apprenticeship training (INR million) Polytechnics Expenditure on polytechnics has grown at a rate of CAGR 359% 4. 92% 333 Expenditure on vocationalisation of education is dominated by the state government 148. 2009-10. MoLE: Annual Reports 70 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .694.450 ► 0 2005-06 45 2006-07 450 2007-08 990 2008-09 2009-10 2009-10 saw a major increase in the MHRD budgeted expenditure on polytechnics due to a substantial increase in the assistance given to states for upgrading of existing/ setting up of new polytechnics from INR 90 Cr in 2008-09 to INR 400 Cr in 2009-10 MHRD plan & non budgeted expenditure on polytechnics (INR million) Sources: Union Budget: 2005-06. 8% 180 180 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 MHRD plan expenditure on vocationalisation of education (INR million) Central Government State Government Expenditure on vocationalisation of education in 2002-03 (INR million) Industrial Training Institutes/Industrial Training Centers DGET plan expenditure has witnessed steady growth except for a major spike in the year 2007-08 10.948 ► 3. 2007-08.184 289 2004-05 612 2005-06 1.Vocational education and training: Current state There has been a steady growth in government expenditure on vocational education and training over the last 5 years Vocational Education in Secondary Schools Budgeted expenditure on vocationalisation of secondary education increased significantly in 2008-09 333 200 1. The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008.

there clearly remains a skill gap and growing need for vocational training… Over the next 5 years approximately 75 to 80 million jobs will be created… Sector Retail Healthcare Hospitality & Tourism Food & Agro Textile & Apparel Additional employment 2008 to 2013 (in million) 2 to 4 3. Engineers etc) ► High growth in the services sector coupled with the need for high efficiency is expected to boost demand for enhanced technical/ soft skill training programmes Drop-out rates across grades ► ► ► After class VIII approximately 20-21 million students drop-out Out of the 5.6 to 2 2 5 to 6 % requiring vocational training 90 20 65-70 65-70 80-90 …of which 75% will require vocational training Percentage distribution of type of jobs 9. ASERF: Status of education and vocational education in India Making the Indian higher education system future ready 71 . Administrative.5 million students that pass out of class X only 3. Farmers and related workers) Knowledge Based (Professional.7% Skill Based (Sales.3 million go to class XI 80% of the graduates in general streams (BSc/ BA) are perceived to be unemployable as they lack specific skills 50 29 62 1-5 6-8 Grade 9-12 ► In total about 22-23 million students drop out of class VIII and X and urgent attention is needed to provide training to this target group Sources: Technopak: Case for setting up sector skill councils in India.5 to 4 1. Production.0% Currently out of the total 455 million jobs in India 90% of jobs are skill based 89.Vocational education and training: Current state While public VET centers remain unutilised. Service.3% 1. Clerical) Knowledge + Skill Based (Architects.

Tier I and Tier II cities.7 CAGR 25 % 2.5 Billion in 2008 to USD 3.6 million students in English language.000 candidates in the financial planning and wealth management domain British School of Language: BSL has trained 1. BFSI and English training dominate the private sector market 7% 15% 3% ► 33% ► NIIT: The company provides IT and BFSI training and has tie ups with more than 100 universities world wide Frankfinn: The Institute has grown to over 100 centers in 95 cities across India and has tied-up with Edexcel.5 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Private vocational education market (USD Billion) ► Private sector vocational education is mainly focused on services training and is closely linked with the growth of the services sector Operational Training ► IT ► BFSI ► Retail ► Aviation ► Hospitality ► Media ► Others Functional Training ► Finance & Accounts ► Sales training ► Management training Soft Skill Training Language training ► IT/ BPO finishing school ► ► Target group ► 10th class pass (>14 years of age) is the minimum requirement. hospitality and travel management IMS Pro School: The Institute offers short term programmes in finance and retail and has trained over 6.3 1. Greater focus would be on SEC B and SEC C classes.7 Billion in 2012 3. IELTS and personality development 22% 20% IT BFSI English Training Retail Aviation Others Market Segment Share Sources: EY: Vocational education in India 72 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . accent training. UK to award certifications in aviation.Vocational education and training: Current state …leading to increasing participation by the private sector.9 2. although the focus is largely on graduates and 12th class passouts The target segment is mainly from Metros.9 1. as in the case of the higher education segment The private vocational education market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 25% from USD 1. although some lower income SEC A groups also contribute to the demand Private VET providers have aligned offerings to successfully meet industry requirements ► ► Market share IT.

tio f uc à-v n at is io n Challenges W st eak m ru o pu an ctu ver bl age re si ic m an gh VE e d t T nt ce of nt re s of o ity t f al ing o qu ad ure m or le ct ste Po uts stru sy p in ak VET we he t of e nc h of va wit ds le e re ing ne try n to s w i Lo tra ct ndu e i sp the re Sources: Making the Indian higher education system future ready 73 .Vocational education and training: Key challenges Key challenges affecting vocational education and training in India P vo oo a c r m nd ati pe ai tr on rc ns a a ep tr ini l e tio ea ng du n m v ca o ed is.

► ► ► Due to limited funding. Of those with industry experience a significant majority have less than 2 years of experience. The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008 74 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . leading to low resource allocation for other items Allocation for training material in ITIs is less than USD 1/student/month Teacher training and development. subsequent finding is guaranteed irrespective of the institution’s performance Same level of financing is received by poorly performing institutions as to those that maintain high quality Inadequate Infrastructure ► The central government has noted that facilities and infrastructure in most ITIs are inadequate with obsolete equipment in labs and workshops and poor maintenance Sources: Cygnus: Vocational Education Industry September 2008. Also two-thirds of instructors had received no training in the last 5 years. majority of funds are being spent on staff salaries.Vocational education and training: Key challenges The VET system is bogged down by poor quality of inputs… ► Poor Quality of Teachers ► A survey of ITI teachers showed that 61% of teachers have less than 12 years of schooling and a third have no industry experience. maintenance of buildings and equipments are also severely constrained Percentage expenditure by ITI Percentage expenditure by ITC Lack of Funding 26% 3% 0% 5% 10% 5% 12% 17% 66% Teaching/Learning Materials Teaching staff salaries Non-teaching staff salaries Utilities Maintenance 56% Teaching/Learning Materials Teaching staff salaries Non-teaching staff salaries Utilities Maintenance ► Ineffective funding model ► States do not follow a transparent funding method. once an institution begins to receive funding.

The skills being taught do not reflect the demand of the market ► ► Courses are in basic industrial trades and there is reluctance amongst state directorates and institutions to offer courses in more marketable service sector trades ITIs/ITCs are imparting training in 57 engineering and 50 non-engineering trades. Limited Curriculum Relevance ► Curriculum at institutes imparting vocational training have little relevance for trainees. The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. there exist about 4000 short duration courses providing more relevant skills for employment requirements.1 Some of the trades with high supply-demand ratio Trade Draughtsman (civil) Mechanic (Diesel) Fitter Electrician Welder Electronic mechanic State Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa Orissa Orissa Orissa Supply Demand Ratio 1.61 0.49 ► ► A supply-demand ratio of 1 means that the number of graduates produced each year equal the number of people employed in the trade Sources: Cygnus: Vocational Education Industry September 2008. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003 ITI Efficiency Report Making the Indian higher education system future ready 75 . However only 20% of the total students are enrolled in non-engineering trades as compared to 87% students in trades other than engineering in private institutions 20% 2% 13% 49% 36% 80% Engineering Trades Non-Engineering Trades Engineering related trades IT Related Courses Non.56 0. According to a World Bank report a reasonable ratio should be 0.77 0. In China.Vocational education and training: Key challenges …coupled with limited relevance of the current curriculum….86 0. 17% 43% Less than 3 months 6 months to 1 year 3 to 5 months More than 1 year Percentage distribution of vocational courses by duration in India ► Number of trades offered in ITI/ITC are not in tune with the needs of the market as they lead to oversupply of graduates in the specified trade and thus increase the risk of unemployment for graduates.1 0. This is measured by the supply-demand ratio which indicates the number of graduates produced to the number of people employed in the trade in the organised sector.1 and below however large number of trades offered have a ratio greater than 0.Engineering trades Tourism and Travel Enrollment in ITI/ITC by type of trade Enrollment in private institutions by type of trade 72% of courses in India range from 6 months to more than one year 11% 29% ► ► VET in India relies exclusively on a few training courses with long duration (2 to 3 years) covering around 100 skills.

8 Occasionally 66.Vocational education and training: Key challenges …has led to poor labor market outcomes Poor labor market outcomes Vocational education in Secondary Schools Due to their poor image and quality the vocational stream at the school level fails to attract good students. Although significant person of those studied were employed.7 58.84 67.27 Apprenticeship Training ► ► A 2003 DGET study of graduates puts into doubt the market relevance for apprenticeship training.16 29.2 18 12. Even after three years 61% of ITI graduates remain unemployed but fair better than the other categories Status Further Studies Of those in the labor market Employed Unemployed 32.000 other establishments registered for the same Employer perception on VET graduates Percentage of employers experiencing problems in finding skilled employees A study found that employers were dissatisfied with graduates from ITIs and felt that ITIs produce graduates not needed by the industry.900 private establishment were registered under the apprenticeship scheme in 2001 compared to 16.8 Frequently 22.10 12th 70. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003 76 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .4 Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. State Orissa Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Never 11.17 70.16 10th 51.03 ITI/ITC 17. Only 1.7 43.1 16.83 38.84 61.3% opted for higher studies.3 43. Industrial Training Institutes Status of students three years after graduation in percentage Labor market outcomes for public VET are disappointing across the board. A study reported that only 28% of the vocational stream pass-outs were employed while 38. around two-thirds of them were not employed in the trade in which they were trained and a third were trained in obsolete trades There is also a lack of employer interest in apprenticeship training.

The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. piecemeal initiatives have been taken towards forging partnerships and adopting best practices at public VET centers. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in India – Ministry of Education New Zealand Making the Indian higher education system future ready 77 . enrollments etc thus adversely affecting their quality The main problem is the way ITIs are governed. foreign governments seem to be recognising these competencies as is evidenced by the partnership between NIIT and ITIs in Malaysia to impart IT training The process for obtaining accreditations and approvals has also proved cumbersome for most private VET providers Sources: Cygnus: Vocational Education Industry September 2008. Interestingly. ITIs are part of the government. NCVT and SCVT At the national level. hire and fire teaching and non-teaching staff. ILO: Industrial Training Institutes of India 2003. distinction between the DGET and NCVT is blurred and there is a perceived lack of coordination At the state levels the SCVTs also seem to be unclear about their roles and their relationship with the national agencies Duplication of courses in vocational education and training ► There is an apparent lack of coordination between the responsible ministries namely MoLE responsible for vocational training and MHRD responsible for vocational education.Vocational education and training: Key challenges Multiplicity of bodies regulating vocational education has led to unclear and similar responsibilities. teachers and trainers are civil servants and resources are part of the government budget thus creating an obstacle to improve performance Governance for the private sector ► ► Absence of structured governance for the private sector ► The Government has not adopted a structured approach towards recognising and developing the private VET sector Despite the significant success of the private VET sector in meeting industry demands. with public institutes suffering from low autonomy and absence of structured governance for the private sector Governance at the system level ► Diverse accountability and complex delivery of training ► ► The system is governed by the DGET. This has resulted in duplication in skills imparted through programs offered under vocational education and training Governance at the institute level ► ► Low autonomy in ITIs ► The ITIs need greater operational autonomy to ensure more flexibility and responsiveness to the market demand for skills Currently ITI management do not have the freedom to decide training programmes.

In the US. the vocational and higher education sectors are almost completely segregated with little mobility from the vocational to the higher education sector. polytechnics were given university status.com: Vocation. not just education 2009 78 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008. only 8% of India’s labour force has undergone vocational training compared to 96% in Korea Share of labor force receiving vocational training Percentage share of VET in Secondary Education compares poorly to other countries ► ► ► The share of VET in secondary education enrolment in India is much lower as compared to other countries Low underutilisation of VET capacity at the secondary school level is indicative of the clear preference for formal education over vocational training Better quality of inputs as well as higher recognition and acceptability of mainstream education are cited as primary reasons for this perception divide 60 55 40 31 3 Russia China Chile Korea India Percentage share of VET in Secondary Education It is also widely regarded that Government resources have not been adequately channelised towards providing information about the availability and effectiveness of training programs There is little mobility between vocational and mainstream education ► ► In India. after which students can transfer to a university.Vocational education and training: Key challenges Vocational education and training in India suffers from a poor perception vis-à-vis mainstream higher education programs also the system is marred by low mobility between VET and mainstream education Share of labor force receiving vocational training is extremely low in India which can be attributed to VET suffering from poor perception 96 ► 85 86 88 ► 25 8 India Korea Japan Germany Canada Mexico ► Due to the stark difference in outcomes. In the UK. Thus students face barriers while transferring between the two sectors. In many countries easy transfer from vocational to academic stream. community colleges award associate degrees. students in Grade 11 and Grade 12 typically want to proceed to further education rather than undertake vocational training Diplomas awarded for vocational training courses are unable to match degrees awarded under the higher education system As a result. Netscribes: Vocational Training 2009. livemint.

► Ensuring close interaction with industry and TVET providers so that the strategic plan reflects industry needs and priorities. and coordinator by transferring control of 21 public training institutions to autonomous Management Boards and devolving greater responsibility to local authorities. Zambia granting autonomy to public training institutions ► ► ► The Government of Zambia transitioned its role in VET from provider to financier. consistent national strategies and a network of providers delivering high quality programs at the state and local level. The federal government took major initiatives in setting policy. with the federal and state governments being equal shareholders with participation from the industry ANTA made a conscious effort to maintain industry involvement by having a board of five industry representatives and through its mandate: ► Developing a national TVET system with agreed objectives and priorities. ► Developing effective training market with public and private provision of both high level. It was an initiative aimed at increasing autonomy and inducing competitiveness to improve the quality of VET in Zambia The Boards (established in 2000) are responsible for the curricula. and ► Enhancing efficiency and productivity of publicly funded providers that could compete effectively in the training market In addition. regulator. Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 79 . Employment and Training. cost-effectiveness. The authority was established as a company. institutions were to compete for finances on the basis of quality. administering institutions including their finances. the federal government combined the Ministries of Employment and Education ministries into the Department of Education. keeping in mind its main role of a financier in education. assured funding. After that. The Government continued to pay the salaries of those who opted to work under the new Boards for 2 to 3 years. and responsiveness to demand. for maintaining standards prescribed by the Technical Education and Vocational Education and Training Authority. and providing such services as needed The Government consciously took the route of easing the transition over a period of time to avoid resistance and to ensure lasting results. involving the industry and granting greater autonomy to public VET institutes… Australia’s reforms in setting up a national training body ► ► ► A major reform in Australia was the establishment of the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) by the federal and state governments. advanced technical training and further education opportunities for the workforce and community generally. governments are seeing merit in simplifying the regulatory structure. Its actions eventually led to some states also to combine their education and labor ministries.Vocational education and training: Best practices Globally.

was used to reach out to small and medium-size enterprises and assisting them to upgrade worker skills. up from 72 in 1988 Evaluations have found that CIMO has been effective in improving the performance of targeted companies. quality control techniques. Compared to a control group.50 per hour ($1). established in 1988. had higher rates of capacity utilisation. identified potential local and regional training suppliers and consulting agents. (b) wage and employment growth. and actively sought enterprises to deliver assistance on a cost-sharing basis. Overhead charges and the amounts earned from depreciation of training equipment were credited to the state government budget. absenteeism. as the basis for training programs and other consulting assistance By 2000.Vocational education and training: Best practices …as well as increasing relevance of training and providing support to specific sectors Mexico’s approach to support training for the unorganised sector ► ► ► ► ► ► ► The Integral Quality and Modernization Program (CIMO – now renamed PAC). CIMO was providing a package of training and industrial extension services to over 80. These improved outcomes were associated with increased productivity Other performance indicators were: (a) increased profitability. and were more likely to adopt quality control practices. including information on technology.560 youth were trained.000 employees. Courses were implemented under a pilot “Production-oriented Training Scheme”. Fees charged were around Rs. and providing an integrated package of services.300-400 per course ($7-10) Sources: The World Bank: Skill Development in India 2008 80 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . around 6. the Government empowered ITIs to conduct short (three to six months) courses in basic trades according to student demand. sales and capacity utilisation. CIMO firms increased investments in worker training. and marketing as well as subsidised training Most units were housed in business associations that contributed office and supported infrastructure. improve quality. a considerable amount of the training equipment and teachers became under-utilised So as to use the facilities efficiently.000 enterprises each year and training 200. Half of the revenue earned towards wage-related charges was credited to ITI development accounts while the other half was distributed among the administrative and teaching staff Between January 2002 and April 2003. and rejection rates for products. which aims to facilitate new trades and achieve some cost recovery The labor cost for delivering short-term training courses was based on Rs. Also because of the lower admissions. They worked with enterprises to conduct an initial evaluation of the firm. The promoters organised workshops on training and technical assistance services. and (c) reduced labor turnover. and raise productivity CIMO was set up as a pilot project to provide subsidised training but gained scale as it became apparent that lack of training was only one factor contributing to low productivity CIMO expanded in two directions—assisting enterprises with specific sectoral needs. Private sector interest also grew with more than 300 business associations participating in CIMO. new production processes. The most dramatic impacts were among micro and small firms Increasing relevance with introduction of short-term courses in Maharashtra ► ► ► ► The Maharashtra State Training Directorate curtailed long-term training programs in certain trades as the demand contracted rapidly.

delivery and management of public VET centers 5 ► Allow greater autonomy to public VET centers ► Allow management of public VET centers to align programs (beyond prescribed curriculum) with requirements of local markets Encourage public VET centers to generate revenue from alternate channels and utilise inflows for upgradation of infrastructure and teacher training Making the Indian higher education system future ready 81 . Further. hospitality and aviation. which can be utilised to transfer to mainstream education 3 Introduce a mechanism of increasing relevance of VET programs ► ► ► Institute mechanism for a new agency to periodically review VET programs and expedite approval of updated content and curricula/ introduction of new programs Advisory council should work in close coordination with the proposed agency to ensure relevance of updated content/ new programs Such an initiative would lend flexibility to VET programs and ensure that they are in line with labour demands emerging with the fundamental changes in India’s industry structure 4 Provide encouragement to private vocational training ► ► Develop system to evaluate quality of private VET providers and award accreditation. while retaining flexibility at a state level 2 Create greater alignment between vocational and mainstream education ► ► Facilitate mobility between vocational and mainstream education Create system of awarding credits for vocational training programs. BFSI. through an independent agency. A new agency should be formed under the central government to regulate all aspects of VET while state governments should be responsible for operations An advisory council should be formed consisting of industry representatives to advise on courses / curriculum. Partner at level of content development. ensuring alignment of the VET system with that of global / local needs Quality certification/ accreditation to be undertaken by an independent agency Such a structure would enable linkages between mainstream higher education and VET. The accreditation should be recognised by the Government and enable comparison with public VET centers and mainstream education providers Deploy Public Private Partnership model extensively to adopt best practices from successful private players in high growth industry segments such as IT.Vocational education and training: Recommendations Recommendations to provide a thrust to vocational education and training 1 ► Improve the oversight structure for VET management ► ► ► Streamline regulatory structure by centralising policy making for all VET under a single authority. VET would move in a single overall direction as defined by the regulatory agency.

85 .

Regulatory reforms .Current state Key challenges Best practices Recommendations 6.

the centre was also given the responsibility along with the states for all levels of education Higher education regulatory structure in India Education as part of the concurrent list. Many states have also set up state councils and advisory boards for providing guidelines for the proper functioning of higher education institution in the states. AICTE) Departments/Councils of Higher/Technical Education Higher Education Institutions Key Stakeholders Roles and responsibilities Central Government The Ministry of Human Resource Development is the nodal authority through which the central government plays a key role in defining public policy for higher education in the country. NBA Regulatory bodies/ Professional councils (e. education (including university education) was the responsibility of the states while the centre was given the function of coordination and determination of standards (Entry 66 of the Union List of the Constitution of India). Statutory bodies such as University Grants Commission (UGC) and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) along with professional councils such as Bar Council of India (BCI) are responsible for the regulation. related to their fields The state government discharges its responsibilities through respective government departments for higher education. UGC.Regulatory scenario: Current state The regulatory framework governing higher education in India is complex with both the central and state governments sharing roles and responsibilities Higher education in India comes under the concurrent list ► ► Post independence. 15 other ministries and departments also regulate higher education. Central Advisory Board of Education acts as a common forum for coordination between state and central governments. through Entry 25 in the Concurrent list of the Constitution of India. However in 1976. State Government Regulatory bodies and Professional councils Accreditation bodies The regulatory bodies/professional councils are assisted by accreditation bodies such as National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) in benchmarking higher education institutions Sources: EY Analysis 84 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . provides equal power to the Central and State Government in regulation Central Government State Government MHRD and multiple other ministries Accreditation bodies – NAAC.g. coordination and development of higher education in India.

Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) PCI regulates the graduate level programs in Pharmacy in India. All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) AICTE regulates the norms and standards in technical education in India with fields such as engineering. Indian Nursing Council (INC) INC determines standards for nursing education in India prescribing the uniform syllabus. Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM) CCIM determines the minimum standards of dissemination of education in Indian Systems of Medicine (Ayurveda. Bar Council of India (BCI) Established under the Advocates Act. Sources: EY Analysis Making the Indian higher education system future ready 85 . Dental Council of India (DCI) DCI maintains the standards of UG and PG dental education in India. architecture. It also registers Nurses with recognised qualification for practice in India. It also grants registration numbers to those with recognised qualifications. town planning. It also acts as the central registrar of Pharmacists. Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) CCH regulates diploma. It was established in 1973 under the Homeopathic Central Council Bill. management. It promotes and maintains standards in consultation with State Bar Councils. graduate and post graduate level courses in Homeopathy in India. It also prescribes the curriculum and examination pattern. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Acts as the apex body for coordinating agricultural research and education in India including horticulture. It also disburses grants received from the central government. Distance Education Council (DEC) It is entrusted with overseeing the development of open education system in India. Medical Council of India (MCI) MCI maintains the standards in medical education for UG and PG medical programs run in India. It also prescribes the curricula and examinations to be conducted. fisheries and animal sciences. Council of Architecture (CoA) CoA was established through the Architects Act in 1972 and is responsible for regulation of architecture education in India. National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) Established in 1995 under The National Council for Teacher Education Act. It designs fee structures and co-ordinates the development of instruction material. examination and research in universities across India. pharmacy falling under its purview. 1961 BCI acts as the apex body in legal education in India.Regulatory scenario: Current state There are multiple statutory and professional bodies overseeing key activities in their domains University Grants Commission (UGC) UGC is responsible for developing and disseminating standards of teaching. It maintains a Central Rehabilitation Register of all qualified professionals in the field of rehabilitation and special education. it coordinates the development of teacher education in India (For Elementary/Secondary/Tertiary and Formal/Non Formal Education) Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) RCI has been given the mandate to regulate and monitor services provided to persons with disability. Siddha and Unani Tibb). It also oversees the registration of architects in India. 1993.

UGC plays a recommendatory role. exerts its control over curriculum and examinations conducted at the college. It was set up in 1956 with the mandate coordination and maintenance of standards for university education in India. Private Universities have also started being set up by legislation in many states However. Key areas of UGC functioning include determining: ► Rules about fitness of universities ► Minimum standards of instruction ► Minimum qualifications for teachers in universities and colleges ► Pay and other service criteria related to teachers Sources: University Grants Commission 2009. On the other hand. They have autonomy in matters of fees and curriculum design. Delhi were the first two institutes to be granted deemed status. “Private Higher Education in India: Status and Prospects. it only acts as a recommendatory body since it does not have any power to establish or de-recognise any university. inter alia. It also disburses funds within the university education system. They also have affiliating powers for colleges within a particular geographic region. UGC acts as a recommendatory body determining standards of education The Universities form the bedrock of Indian higher education system but can be formed only through legislation Establishment of university ► Establishment of college ► ► Universities (Central/State/Institutions of national importance) in India can be established through an Act passed by Parliament or State Legislature. “Regulating the Private Sector. Indian Institute of Science. Post 2005. While deemed universities enjoy all the powers of universities they do not have the right to affiliate colleges. Importantly. Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE) was the first private institution to be declared a deemed university in 1976 ► Generally.Regulatory scenario: Current state Since universities are established through legislation or through the deemed route. determining rules and standards for higher education ► ► UGC is the apex body governing university education in India. colleges leading to the grant of a degree need to be affiliated to a particular university which. Deemed universities can be approved only by an executive order after UGC recommendation. 86 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . they have to follow the fee. Powers of universities and colleges ► ► ► ► Universities have degree granting powers and are responsible for conducting examinations. degree granting colleges have autonomy in admissions. despite its advantages it has not taken off as envisaged with only 324 colleges having been granted till January 2009. The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education. However. Diploma granting colleges have independence in matters of fees and examinations if they are not affiliated to a university. the UGC had started a scheme whereby Colleges could be granted ‘autonomous’ status granting them autonomy in terms of academic matters. However. curriculum standards of the university they are affiliated to. Bangalore and Indian Agricultural Research Institute. there are diploma granting institutions such as management colleges which are not affiliated to any University.” Presentation made in the symposium (Mortgaging the Future) on reforming the Indian Higher Education System. examination.” July 2007. However. Almost a decade back.

art. under the current regulations of AICTE and UGC a section 25 establishment is not permissible despite its inherent advantages of providing better and more transparent governance. Section 25 Companies These companies are incorporated under the Indian Companies Act. Educational or research trusts are generally set up as public trusts and enjoy tax benefits. Sources: EY-EDGE 2009. science or charity and are established after registration of the Memorandum of Association with the Registrar of Societies. to facilitate the entry of foreign universities in India. They are formed for purposed associated with literature. They are required to take approval of the central government (delegated to Regional Director) for license to operate as a company. 2009 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 87 . Leveraging Public Private Partnerships for India’s Education Sector. ► However. 1860. The proposed bill does not restrict the limit upto which foreign direct investment can be infused. 1882.” September 15. Thus the permitted forms for setting up a presence in the education sector are restricted to: Trusts Set up under the Indian Trusts Act. science. Trusts are governed by the provisions of the trust deed. Business Standard “Foreign Education Bill may get Cabinet nod this week. religion. A trust may either be ‘Public’ or ‘Private’. providing it the power to regulate their admission process and fee structure. There is an absence of clear regulations for foreign education providers although a legislation is under discussion Structure of higher education institutions in India ► Under the current regulations all institutions imparting higher education in India can be organised only as a not-for-profit entities. The bill proposes to cover foreign education providers under UGC’s purview. Legislation on entry of foreign education institutions ► ► The Ministry of HRD had unveiled the Foreign Educational Institutions Bill 2007. Societies Societies are set up under the Societies Registration Act. 1956 for the purposes of promoting commerce. It aims to provide quality higher education besides saving foreign exchange from reduced outward mobility of students. charity (including education). Trusts do not enjoy the status of a separate and distinct legal entity except for tax purposes.Regulatory scenario: Current state Current regulations allow only not-for-profit entities in higher education.

Many states have passed laws to regulate admission and prohibit capitation fees especially in private professional colleges (Andhra Pradesh – 1983. Supreme court laid down a framework for a differential fee structure. “Redefining a right. it was stated that the state government would advise all college managements to make provision for the needy and backward students.” 2002 88 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Sources: CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets 2008 “Indian Education Sector Outlook. An year later (2003). But these acts later led to judicial intervention which has continued to this date. Hindu Frontline Volume 19 – Issue 23. It urged the state to regulate capitation fees. This was later revoked in 2002. TMA Pai Vs State of Karnataka (2002) Educational institutions run by religious and linguistic minorities were granted freedom to administer institutions. yet meritorious. ► However. Karnataka – 1984. November 9-22.”. Maharashtra – 1987 etc). However they stated that payment seats cannot be more than 50% of total seats in professional institutions. led to the charging of capitation fees for securing admissions This led to increased government and judicial intervention in regulation of fees.Regulatory scenario: Current state There have been repeated judicial interventions to regulate the fee charging mechanism of private higher education institutions Regulation of fees and admission policies ► ► In the 80’s the emergence of private higher education along with a supply-demand gap. ► Unni Krishnan vs State of Andhra Pradesh (1993) The courts reiterated illegality of capitation fees. which was deemed necessary as it was felt that payment for seats/capitation fees made it difficult for economically backward. ► ► Islamic Academy Vs Union of India (2003) Overruling the earlier Supreme Court judgment in the TMA Pai case. The court declared illegal the fees charged in private colleges in excess of tuition fees at government colleges. the courts ruled that State governments could constitute admission and fee fixation committees in professional colleges. another bench of the Supreme Court endorsed a cost plus system for determining fees in private institutions. students to access professional higher education. when a bench of Supreme Court deemed differential fees unconstitutional. PA Inamdar Vs State of Maharashtra (2005) The judgment in this case ruled capitation fee could not be allowed although every institution is free to devise its own fee structure subject to limitations. Judicial intervention in regulation of capitation fees Mohini Jain Vs State of Karnataka (1992) ► It was noted in the case that charging capitation fees was denial of right to education. ► ► While banning capitation fees in 1993. Private institutions were however allowed to maintain management quota. Supreme Court Judgment Information System.

Making the Indian higher education system future ready 89 .70% Universities 16.10% 30. Other accreditation boards National Board of Accreditation (NBA) Set up in 1994. It has the authority to recognise or derecognise institutions/programs. It was established after the National Policy for Education. The grading and accreditation is finally done by NAAC based on analysis of evaluation report submitted by the peer team. ► Accreditation Board (AB) ► AB was set up by ICAR in 1996 with a mandate to accredit agriculture institutions.30% 83. Sources: National Assessment and Accreditation Council Annual Report 2006-07 (NAAC) Website.90% Colleges Unaccredited 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 Accredited Year wise number of institutions accredited ► Although accreditation is voluntary in India. The first step is the Institutional Eligibility for Quality Assessment (IEQA). Despite this. It regularly publishes manuals and promotions material for assessment and accreditation.Regulatory scenario: Current state A majority of higher education institutions in India remain unaccredited despite presence of designated bodies for quality assurance National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) ► ► ► ► NAAC is an autonomous body established in 1994 by UGC with its headquarters in Bangalore. 1986 stressed on establishment of an independent national body to address the deterioration in quality in higher education. 1372 879 672 241 383 … With a majority of them still out of its ambit (2009) 69. only a very few number of institutions are accredited. Under this step. National Board of Accreditation. the applicant institution is required to identify its eligibility for quality assessment. Under the next step. The accreditation process is not linked to funding.. The second step entails preparation of a Self Study Report by the institute. some states such as Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have made it mandatory especially for professional institutions. only 36% of Engineering and 10% of Management programs have been accredited by NBA. In fact. Accreditation done by AB is generally valid for a period between five to ten years and is linked to funding Accreditation through NAAC has received uneven response from higher education institutions. It later submits an assessment report to the institution. NAAC follows a three step accreditation process. NBA is an autonomous body established by AICTE to conduct periodical evaluation of technical courses offered in India. a peer team visits the institute for validation of self study report submitted earlier. This report is then submitted to NAAC for analysis.

Regulatory scenario: Key challenges Key challenges facing the Indian higher education segment on the regulatory front En pa rt di try i c sc b ip o a a ur rr pl tion ag ier ay o in s er f q g s ua l it y ed e at du ic pl es ry m ur ato Co ced gul ps o e la pr o r ver t o Challenges Poor governance and lack of accreditation 90 Making the Indian higher education system future ready .

including many vocational education players 97. state acts allowing private players to enter have became more prevalent Details Attractiveness for high quality players Entry Barriers Low High Uneven norms have led to imbalanced growth resulting in proliferation of colleges vis-à-vis few universities Proportion of colleges in Indian higher education system (2008-09) 2. post 2005. these lack sufficient academic / financial autonomy. However. reducing their attractiveness for the private sector Diploma granting colleges • Can be easily set up as these just need to comply with the norms of the regulatory body and need not be affiliated to a university • Enjoy financial autonomy.Regulatory scenario: Key challenges Entry barriers have led to a skewed growth of Indian higher education system and discouraged high quality players HEI structures in the context of the regulatory framework in India Degree granting colleges • Relatively easy to set up in line with state / university regulations • However.8% Universities Colleges Sources: EY Analysis.2% ► ► Comparatively easier norms for setting up degree / diploma granting college have resulted in exceptional growth of colleges vis-à-vis universities There are also a number of institutions which have decided to stay outside the ambit of regulation. MHRD: Annual Report 2007-08 Making the Indian higher education system future ready 91 . but need to comply with the norms of the regulatory body on infrastructure and curriculum Unapproved institutions • This category includes institutions which are outside the ambit of regulation • The qualifications they offer are not recognised by the Government and they depend on industry recognition • Enjoy complete financial and academic autonomy Institute Category Universities • Can be set up only through legislation or the deemed route • Limited possibilities for private sector players to enter.

’ Yashpal Committee. DEC. ruled that CoA is the final authority in fixing norms and standards for architectural institutions. Supreme Court of India stated that the Section 10(k) of AICTE Act covers only a technical institution and not a university. February 29. 2008 92 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . dated 8 September 2002. ► Multiple rulings on AICTE jurisdiction: In its ruling dated 24th September 2001. in 2006 Madras High Court questioned the exclusion of deemed universities from AICTE’s purview especially when they were previously run as technical institutions. UGC and DEC to some extent State councils Central Council for Homeopathy (CCH) Prescribe and recognise qualification in homeopathy Sources: Policy Orientation for Private Initiatives in Higher Education. M Anandakrishnan. Report of ‘The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education. coordination and determination of the open university and distance education system Planning and coordinated development of technical education Other professional councils and UGC All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Council of Architects (COA) Medical Council of India (MCI) UGC. COA and State councils for technical development UGC Coordinated agricultural research and education Regulate profession and practice of architects and town planner Establish standards in medical education and to define medical qualification in India and abroad AICTE State medical councils and the state government. However. PCI. often leading to legal battles. This has led to an overlap in jurisdiction between key regulatory bodies for higher education in India. Statutory Body University Grants Commission (UGC) Distance Education Council (DEC) Mandate Coordination and determination of standards in higher education Role overlap with Other professional councils and DEC Promotion. its role is not validated in the provisions of various Acts governing professional councils. accreditation processes. policies prescribed by central and state regulatory bodies have led to creation of various ambiguities and inconsistencies in different areas such as approval mechanisms.Regulatory scenario: Key challenges Multiplicity of regulators has resulted in overlap of key functions leading to complex procedures Regulatory agencies operating at multiple levels lead to complexities ► ► While UGC has been entrusted with the overall responsibility of Indian higher education system. FICCI Recommendations on the Regulatory Framework for Technical Education. In such an environment. ► Legal battle between AICTE and Council of Architecture (CoA): Bombay High Court in its judgment.

key HEI appointments in several states are increasingly being driven by political and financial considerations at the cost of qualification and competence The highly regulated nature of the sector often hampers the ability of private institutions to function on an autonomous basis without regulatory interference. For example. and most academics are burdened with administrative responsibilities. students’ ‘Right to Know’ requirement under the provision of the Higher Education Act of 1965 requires the disclosure of information relating to. names of associations. types of aids. This staff are most often not trained nor equipped with knowledge of best practices in management of education institutions. Though the accreditation systems in India and the US have the same core elements. NKC: Report to the Nation 2006-2009. current academic programs of the institution. While the regulations seek to ensure compliance with minimum norms and standards to promote the development of higher education. all require regulatory consent. System has insufficient capacity and has rated only 20% of the total institutions Accreditation is discretionary and is based on standard instruments which are largely based on numerical facts US Has 100 public. in the public domain. establishing fees. selection criteria. there is a stark difference in the administration of the accreditation systems. requirements and procedures from withdrawing from the institution. cost of attendance. etc. NBA and AB at the national leve. the regulations impede operational flexibility. private accrediting organisations at three levels namely at a regional. agencies accrediting the institution and financial assistance to students like. recruitment and remuneration of staff. infrastructure requirements. Interference from political and commercial interests in appointments to key posts ► According to the Yashpal Committee. aspects such as setting-up of the institution. etc. physical assets. ► Institutional information like. admission/allocation of students. national and specialised level Most institutions have been accredited Capacity Methodology Institutions are accredited based on their own stated purpose thus safeguarding the diversity of institutions which is considered a hallmark of the US higher education system Sources: AACRAO: website. Yashpal Committee Report: The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education Making the Indian higher education system future ready 93 . changes in curriculum. Low operating flexibility ► ► Relative to other countries the accreditation system in India suffers from inherent shortcomings ► Poor design of the accreditation system in India creates little or no incentives for institutions to proactively seek accreditation. Some of these differences are indicated below: India Institution Accreditation granted by NAAC. academic curricula.Regulatory scenario: Key challenges The Indian higher education system suffers from poor governance and lack of accreditation Governance of higher education institutions suffers from various challenges Lack of disclosure norms leading to students and parents making ill-informed choices ► ► The current disclosure norms do not make it mandatory for higher education institution to place basic information relating to their financial situation. In the USA. eligibility requirements. Lack of management talent ► There are few programs in the country in education management. refund policy.

There has also been a substantial increase in third party revenues generated by Dutch universities. In fact in 2005. The changes brought about by reforms allowed universities to make strategic decisions while acting quickly. Austria faced a financial crisis leading to cutbacks in the university sector even as they suffered from capacity overload. However. The ‘Act on Modernisation of the University Governing Organisation’ and subsequent reforms introduced major changes in Dutch higher education such as: ► Increasing institutional autonomy: While the government continued to set the overarching framework for internal governance. contract activities contributed almost 25% to university budgets. The UG Act further increased operational and financial autonomy given to universities. tuition fees were also introduced supplemented by a system of student financial aid. there was significant government interference in the Dutch university sector. University of Twente. Sources: Final Report to the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission “The extent and impact of higher education governance reforms across Europe. An advisory body of staff and students was also introduced to promote their participation in university decision making. They were highly regulated. universities were free to make their choices within this framework and devise their own structures. ► Increasing the responsiveness of decision making: In the previous governance structures. In 2001. The UOG Act promoted creation of effective organisational structures with target oriented steering mechanisms along with greater self governance. Institutional management has also resulted in reforms of research policies leading to restructuring (Formation of Centers of excellence or Research institutes) to increase the impact on research performance. Governance reform to enable better performance of Austrian universities ► ► ► During the 80’s. growing pressure for streamlining public budget during the 80’s led to significant changes in Dutch higher education. The Netherlands “Higher Education Governance reforms across Europe. A visible benefit has been in the resultant flexibility in the recruitment leading to increased number of jobs for younger scientists. The executive board (including the rector) determines the institutional strategy which is approved by the supervisory board (consisting of five external stakeholders). Governance reforms have proved beneficial as indicated by various studies which have shown improvements in internal management structures. The universities have been able to innovate their educational services while taking steps to improve quality.” 94 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . powers were diffused between executive board and representative councils. The universities also faced high dropout rates and lengthy time for completion of degrees. In 1985 the Government introduced the concept of ‘Steering from the distance’. the University Organisation Amendment Act 1993 (UOG) and the University Act 2002 (UG) were passed leading to significant changes in university governance structures.”. The sector suffered from lack of clear responsibilities with non transparent decision making bodies leading to slow decision making. The new structure strengthened powers of executives through integration of governance and management authorities. especially in non academic matters. With an aim of solving these problems. confining government’s role to defining overall framework for higher education system to operate in aided by greater accountability. Center for International Higher Education – Boston College “World Class Reform of Universities in Austria.”. with state laws stipulating many aspects of their functioning leading to inefficient decision making.Regulatory scenario: Best practices International experience corroborates the benefits of providing greater financial and operational autonomy to universities Improved performance of Dutch universities aided by greater institutional autonomy ► ► ► Although the universities had been granted separate legal status in 1960 and had sufficient academic autonomy. Over time complete autonomy was provided to Austrian universities.

Over time the operations of transnational higher education institutional has contributed to diversification of Malaysian higher education systems. Before 1996. there was a spate of agreements between Malaysian and overseas higher educational institutions (particularly from UK and Australia).Regulatory scenario: Best practices Countries have also promoted efficiency through restructuring of public finance bodies in a new regulatory framework and creating harmonious environment for entry of foreign higher education institutions Reforms to promote transnational higher education in Malaysia ► ► ► ► In the mid-90’s.”. In case of courses leading to professional qualifications. Private Higher Educational Act (PHEI). the Government introduced a new framework allowing collaborative arrangements for degree level education by private institutions. IHEM Country Report “Higher Education in the United Kingdom. The Government passed a number of acts in 1996 including The Education Act.”2007. developing detailed higher education policies while at the third level universities determined their operational plans within the parameters set up the bodies at the higher level in the hierarchy. In fact. The Government also realised higher outbound movement of students leading to a currency outflow of almost USD 800 million. Making the Indian higher education system future ready 95 . New Zealand and Hong Kong. This led to creation of a three tier system of governance in UK. But by 1998. Over time the quality assurance function was separated from HEFCE leading to the creation of Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) in 1997. Sources: National Higher Education Research Institute Malaysia “Transnational Higher Education in Malaysia: Balancing benefits and concerns through regulations. HEFCE has aided in promotion of high quality teaching and research along with ensuring proper usage of public funds. Restructuring public finance of higher education in United Kingdom (UK) ► ► ► University Grants Committee was established in 1919 to channel public funds to UK universities. The Malaysian Government realised the problem of under supply of higher education institutions leading to lower enrolment ratios. It was replaced by Universities Funding Council (UFC) and Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC). After the passing of the PHEI Act 1996. Decisions taken in the early 80’s to reduce public expenditure on higher education by UGC led to its increasing unpopularity leading to frequent protests. In the 1940’s its scope was expanded to include data collection and preparing plans for university education. almost 12% of Malaysia’s current account deficit. By narrowing down the demand-supply gap. The Education Reform Act 1988. the Government management the system through legislations deciding the goals of the system. HEFCE formed the second level. it has also led to greater access to higher education. National Council on Higher Education Act and National Accreditation Board Act to significantly pave the way for reforming higher educational institutional framework and promote delivery of transnational higher education.”. private higher education institutes did not have any degree granting powers. led to replacement of the UFC by Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). Research and Library Services Division Hong Kong “Academic freedom and institutional autonomy of higher education in the United Kingdom. a recent survey of higher education stakeholders in England it was revealed that almost 82% view HEFCE favorably. finally led to abolishing of the UGC in UK. With the passing of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. HEFCE Website. Significantly. all the transnational higher education providers operating were subject to Malaysian laws and local quality assurance framework. At the top. it was mandated to meet the norms of licensing bodies. The PHEI Act was further amended in 2003 with a framework for setting up and upgrading private universities/colleges and operation of branch campuses of foreign universities in Malaysia. This led to a reassessment of direction of Malaysian higher education ultimately leading to articulation of a vision to make the country a regional hub for higher education.

Processes should be set out to ensure that the new regulator operates in a transparent manner. flexible norms. creation of knowledge hubs and introduction of PPP models 96 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . there are certain restrictions on Section 25 companies. However. due care needs to be ensured that it gets adequate independence and autonomy. A standard return should be prescribed for higher education institutions and it should be mandatory to publish the same on the institutes web-site as well as on the site of the education regulator The information provided should be auditable. which should happen in a transparent manner 3 Allow Section 25 companies to operate in Higher Education ► While trusts and societies are allowed to operate higher education institutes. 2 Promote institutional autonomy at Indian HEIs ► ► ► Current regulatory framework should be changed to provide sufficient internal autonomy to universities and higher education institutions. The same should be lifted to allow Section 25 companies to operate in Higher Education. The same should be done at the earliest. the Government should consider the constitution of a body along the lines of HEFCE (UK) to oversee the funding of higher education institutes in India and enable better coordination between center and states. with strict penalties for furnishing incorrect/delayed information More accreditation agencies should be set up and mandatory accreditation should be considered 5 Encourage entry of high-quality Foreign Universities ► ► The Government is in the process of allowing foreign universities into India. The proposed legislation in this regard should be enacted at the earliest. A governance framework should be prescribed which allows representation of various stakeholders in the decision making process of HEIs. The regulator also needs to be adequately empowered to take action against defaulting institutions while simultaneously setting out a robust mechanism for appeals against its orders The regulatory framework must be more transparent and simplified with multiple and overlapping regulations replaced with simple clearer rules Simultaneously. The decision making powers at various levels should be well laid out Procedures should be framed for appointments at key levels. 6 Correct structural shortcomings ► ► The ratio of universities to colleges in the country needs to be corrected by facilitating the creation of more universities both by the public as well as the private sector Entry barriers for the creation of universities need to be reduced and mechanisms created to attract high quality players to set up universities by providing quicker clearances. 4 Bring about greater transparency and disclosure in the system ► ► ► There exists limited transparency in the performance of higher education institutions. Due care needs to be taken to ensure that these norms do not facilitate the entry of low quality providers or degree-mills.Regulatory scenario : Recommendations Recommendations on regulatory reforms 1 ► Creation of an independent body for regulating higher education and simplification of rules ► ► ► ► The Government is in the process of creating a single independent body to regulate various aspects of higher education.

Glossary AB AICTE AICVE BCI CABE CCEA CCH CCIM CMIE CoA CSIR DBT DCI DEC DRDO DST ERNET GER HEI HEFCE ICAR ICMR ICT IEQA IGNOU ILO Accreditation Board All India Council for Technical Education All Indian Council for Vocational Education Bar Council of India Central Advisory Board of Education Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs Central Council of Homeopathy INC INDES IPR ITC ITI ITU MCIT Indian Nursing Council Indian Digital Library in Engineering Science & Technology Intellectual Property Rights Industrial Training Center Industrial Training Institute International Telecommunication Union Ministry of Communications & Information Technology Ministry of Human Resource & Development Ministry of Environment & Forests Ministry of Labour & Employment National Assessment and Accreditation Council National Board of Accreditation National Council for Teacher Education National Council for Vocational Training National Knowledge Commission National Programme for Technology Enhanced Learning Public Private Partnership Rehabilitation Council of India State Council for Vocational Education State Council for Vocational Training University Grants Commission Consortium for Educational Communication Country Wide Class Room Vocational Education & Training World Intellectual Property Organisation Central Council for Indian Medicine Center for Monitoring Indian Economy Council of Architecture Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Department of Biotechnology Dental Council of India Distance Education Council Defence Research and Development Organisation Department of Science and Technology Education and Research Network Gross Enrollment Ratio Higher Education Institution Higher Education Funding Council for England Indian Council of Agricultural Research Indian Council of Medical Research Information and Communication Technology Institutional Eligibility for Quality Assessment Indira Gandhi National Open University International Labour Organisation MHRD MOEF MoLE NAAC NBA NCTE NCVT NKC NPTEL PPP RCI SCVE SCVT UGC CEC CWCR VET WIPO Making the Indian higher education system future ready 97 .

Institute of Management College of Engineering. Banaras Hindu University International Institute of Information Technology. Manipal Dibrugarh University DRIEMS Business School 98 Making the Indian higher education system future ready . Lucknow Jaypee Institute of Information Technology Jaypee University of Information Technology.E. Pune Jaipuria Institute of Management. Solan Amrita School of Business Bethune College BITS Pilani BMIT Jaipur Chitkara University Christ University.L. Thiruvananthpuram Defence Institute of Advanced Technology Delhi Technological University Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology JSS Academy of Technical Education K. Gwalior Institute of technology. Society's Law College Kasturba Medical College.Acknowledgements Alliance Business Academy Gitam University HIHT University Himachal Pradesh University IIIT Bangalore Indian Institute of Technology Madras Institute of Technology and Management.

RR & Dr. Coimbatore Vel Tech Dr. SR University Vignana Jyothi Institute of Management Xavier Institute Of Management National Institute of Engineering National Institute of Industrial Engineering National Institute of Technology. Pune Teerthanker Mahaveer Univesity Thapar University Padmashree Dr. Durgapur NIT Hamirpur Noorul Islam University Rashtreeya Vidyalaya College of Engineering Regional College of Management. Bhubaneshwar Making the Indian higher education system future ready 99 . Joseph's College Bangalore Symbiosis Centre for Information Technology.Acknowledgements LNM Institute of Information Technology S P Mandal's L N Welingkar Institute Of Management Development & Research Lovely Professional University Shiksha 'O' Anusandhan University MS Ramaiah Medical College. Bangalore Skyline Business School SP Jain Institute of Management SSN College of Engineering St. DY Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology Thiagrajar College of Engineering Pondicherry University University Of Petroleum & Energy Studies PSG College of Technology.

Team

Ernst & Young team Amitabh Jhingan Noor Chawla Santosh S Arjun Laroia Rachit Gupta Dhruv Gupta Bharat Gulia Bahubali Shah Siddharth Vaidya Gaurav Sharma Apurva Swarup

FICCI team Shobha Mishra Gosh Rajesh Pankaj Sarita Chauhan

100

Making the Indian higher education system future ready

About FICCI

Established in 1927, FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India. Its history is closely interwoven with India's struggle for independence and its subsequent emergence as one of the most rapidly growing economies globally. FICCI plays a leading role in policy debates that are at the forefront of social, economic and political change. Through its 400 professionals, FICCI is active in 38 sectors of the economy. FICCI's stand on policy issues is sought out by think tanks, governments and academia. Its publications are widely read for their in-depth research and policy prescriptions. FICCI has joint business councils with 79 countries around the world. A non-government, not-for-profit organisation, FICCI is the voice of India's business and industry. FICCI has direct membership from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs, and an indirect membership of over 83,000 companies from regional chambers of commerce. FICCI works closely with the government on policy issues, enhancing efficiency, competitiveness and expanding business opportunities for industry through a range of specialised services and global linkages. It also provides a platform for sector specific consensus building and networking. Partnerships with countries across the world carry forward our initiatives in inclusive development, which encompass health, education, livelihood, governance, skill development, etc. FICCI serves as the first port of call for Indian industry and the international business community.

Federation of Indian Chambers Of Commerce and Industry Federation House, 1 Tansen Marg New Delhi-110001 Phone—+91-11-23738760—70 Fax- +91-11-23721504 Email—education@ficci.com www.ficci.com

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Notes

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Making the Indian higher education system future ready

Ambawadi Ahmedabad – 380 015 Tel: + 91 79 6608 3800 Fax: + 91 79 6608 3900 Bengaluru "UB City". Canberra Block 12th & 13th floor No. 3. Vittal Mallya Road Bangaluru – 560 001 Tel : + 91 80 4027 5000 6727 5000 Fax: + 91 80 2210 6000 (12th Floor) Fax: + 91 80 2224 0695 (13th Floor) Chennai TPL House. 2nd floor No. Shivalik Ishaan Near CN Vidhyalaya.Our offices Ahmedabad 2nd Floor. 24. Camac Street Block 'C'. 2nd floor Ashoka Bhoopal Chambers Sardar Patel Road Secunderabad – 500 003 Tel: + 91 40 6627 4000 Fax: + 91 40 2789 8851 Kolkata 22. Cenotaph Road Teynampet Chennai – 600 018 Tel: + 91 44 4219 4400 Fax: + 91 44 2431 1450 Gurgaon Golf View Corporate Tower – B Near DLF Golf Course Sector 42 Gurgaon – 122002 Tel: + 91 124 464 4000 Fax: + 91 124 464 4050 Hyderabad 205. 3rd floor Kolkata – 700 016 Tel: + 91 33 6615 3400 Fax: + 91 33 2281 7750 .

411 006 Tel: + 91 20 6601 6000 Fax: + 91 20 6601 5900 . HT House 18-20 Kasturba Gandhi Marg New Delhi – 110 001 Tel: + 91 11 4363 3000 Fax: + 91 11 4363 3200 Pune C-401. Mumbai – 400 013 Tel: + 91 22 4035 6300 Fax: + 91 22 4035 6400 New Delhi 6th floor. Nariman Point Mumbai – 400 021 Tel : + 91 22 6749 8000 Fax : + 91 22 6749 8200 Jalan Mill Compound 95.Mumbai 6th floor & 18th floor Express Towers Nariman Point Mumbai – 400 021 Tel: + 91 22 6657 9200 (6th floor) Fax: + 91 22 22876401 Tel: + 91 22 6665 5000 (18th floor) Fax: + 91 22 2282 6000 Jolly Makers Chambers II 15th floor. 4th floor Panchshil Tech Park Yerwada (Near Don Bosco School) Pune . Ganpatrao Kadam Marg Lower Parel.

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