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TOPIC 1 Views and Perspectives CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY Constructivists believe that learning is accomplished through exploring, experimenting, and

manipulating objects or materials. This theory directly relates to the development of creative thinking and the necessity for active participation in the process. The classroom should contain a variety of materials that can be explored and combined in many different ways. Active learning and social interactions are encouraged throughout the day. Individual interests of the child will be identified to provide opportunities for group work and long-term projects. (Piaget) Piaget was interested in how children reacted to their environment. He see a child's knowledge as composed of schemas, basic units of knowledge used to organize past experiences and serve as a basis for understanding new ones. Schemas are continually being modified by two complementary processes that Piaget termed assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation refers to the process of taking in new information by incorporating it into an existing schema. In other words, people assimilate new experiences by relating them to things they already know. On the other hand, accommodation is what happens when the schema itself changes to accommodate new knowledge. According to Piaget, cognitive development involves an ongoing attempt to achieve a balance between assimilation and accommodation that he termed equilibration. According to the Piaget, development occurs through predictable stages: Sensorimotor stage (infancy): In this period, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity. Knowledge of the world is limited, but developing, because it is based on physical interactions and experiences.

Pre-operational stage (toddlerhood and early childhood): In this period, they are developing important symbolic representations in their play, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed. Concrete operational stage (elementary and early adolescence): In this stage, characterized by seven types of conservation (number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, and volume), intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Formal operational stage (adolescence and adulthood): In this stage, children are able to construct understanding by using abstract thinking.

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (Vygotsky) Vygotsky believed that children learn through interactions with their surrounding culture. He states that the cognitive development of children and adolescents is enhanced when they work in their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). To reach the ZPD, children need the help of adults or more competent individuals to support them as they are learning new things. According to Vygotsky theory, children can do more with the help and guidance of an adult or other person more experienced person than they can do by themselves. The Zone of Proximal Development defines skills and abilities that are in the process of developing. It is the range of tasks that one cannot yet perform independently, but can accomplish with the help of a more competent individual. For example, a child might not be able to walk across a balance beam on her own, but she can do so while holding her mothers hand. Since children are always learning new things, the ZPD changes as new skills are acquired. Collaboration is a tool to assist children in working together on projects, sharing ideas, clarifying thinking, and mediating problems. The teacher will poses questions, guides thinking, and challenges the children to think in new ways. THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (Gardner) Gardner suggests there are eight different types of intelligence. He identifies a variety of ways we learn and

where we may excel. The different kinds of intelligence point to a variety of ways of knowing. Teachers should encourage students to use their individual strengths, which may be in music, movement, or drawing (Fowler, 1990). The eight intelligences Gardner defines are: Verbal-Linguistic Related to words and language; producing language with sensitivity to the nuances, order, and rhythm of words. Logical-Mathematical Includes deductive or inductive reasoning; recognizing and manipulating abstract relationships. Musical Deals with the recognition of tonal patterns, environmental noise, and sensitivity to rhythm and beats; responsiveness to the emotional implications and elements of music. Visual-Spatial Relies on the sense of sight and the ability to visualize an object; creating visual-spatial representations of the world, and transferring them mentally or concretely. Bodily-Kinesthetic Includes physical movement and awareness and/or wisdom of the body; the body is used to solve problems, make things, and convey ideas and emotions. Interpersonal Deals with person-to person relationships and communication: working effectively with others; understanding people; and recognizing their goals, motivations, and intentions. Intrapersonal Involves self-reflection and metacognition; understanding ones own emotions, goals and intentions. Naturalistic Capacity to recognize flora and fauna, make distinctions in the natural world, and use this ability productively.

A classroom for young children working with this model will provide opportunities for the development of all areas of intelligence. Using this model to plan curriculum ensures that a variety of intelligences are used throughout the classroom and childrens different ways of learning are supported through appropriate activities. Activities: Name Ericksons 8 stages of social and emotional development and provide an example for each stage. Explain Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development theory. Give examples on how to use the ZPD theory in teaching and learning arts to children. List down Gardner multiple intelligence theory and provide examples and explanations for each intelligence.