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International Mathematical Forum, Vol. 7, 2012, no.

13, 631 - 638
Solution of Nonlinear Differential Equations Using
Mixture of Elzaki Transform and Differential
Transform Method
Tarig M. Elzaki
Mathematics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts-Alkamil
King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah Saudi Arabia
Math. Dept. Sudan University of Science and Technology-Sudan
Tarig.alzaki@gmail.com
Abstract
In this paper, we apply a new integral transform ''Elzaki transform'' with the
differential transform method to solve some nonlinear differential equations .The
method is based on the ELzaki transform and differential transform methods. The
nonlinear terms can be easily handled by the use of differential transform method.
Keywords: ELzaki transform – differential transform- nonlinear differential
equations.
Introduction
Many problems of physical interest are described by ordinary or partial differential
equations with appropriate initial or boundary conditions, these problems are usually
formulated as initial value Problems or boundary value problems, ELzaki transform
method [1-4] is particularly useful for finding solutions for these problems.
ELzaki transform is a useful technique for solving linear Differential equations but
this transform is totally incapable of handling nonlinear equations because of the
difficulties that are caused by the nonlinear terms. This paper is using differential
transforms method [5, 6, 7,] to decompose the nonlinear term, so that the solution can
be obtained by iteration procedure. This means that we can use both ELzaki transform
and differential transform methods to solve many nonlinear Problems. The main aim
of this paper is to solve nonlinear differential equations by using of ELzaki
differential transform method. The main thrust of this technique is that the solution
which is expressed as an infinite series converges fast to exact solutions.
ELzaki Transform:
Consider functions in the set A defined by:
632 T. M. Elzaki
, ) , ) , ) j )
1 2
: , , 0, , 1 0,
j
t
j k
A f t M k k f t M e if t
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
= - > < e ÷ × ·
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
Where M a constant must be a finite number and
2 1
, k k can be finite or infinite.
ELzaki transform denoted by the operator , ) · E , is defined by the integral equation:
, ) , ) , )
1 2
0
, , 0
t
u
E f t T u u f t e dt k u k t
·
÷
= = s s > 1
¸ ] }
(1)
Theorem (1): [1]
Let , ) u T be ELzaki transform of , ) , ) , ) , ) f t E f t T u 1 =
¸ ]
then:
(i) , ) j ¦
, )
, ) 0 uf
u
u T
t f E ÷ = ' (ii) , ) j ¦
, )
, ) , ) 0 0
2
f u f
u
u T
t f E ' ÷ ÷ = ' '
Proof:-
(i) By the definition we have:
, ) j ¦ , ) ,
0
dt e t f u t f E
u
t
÷
·
}
' = ' Integrating by parts, we get:
, ) j ¦
, )
, ) 0 uf
u
u T
t f E ÷ = '
(ii) Let , ) , ), t f t g ' = Then: , ) j ¦ , ) j ¦ , ) 0
1
ug t g E
u
t g E ÷ = '
Using (i) to find that: , ) j ¦
, )
, ) , ) 0 0
2
f u f
u
u T
t f E ' ÷ ÷ = ' '
Differential Transform:
Differential transform of the function , ) x y is defined as follows:
, )
, )
0
1
!
k
k
x
d y x
Y k
k dx
=
1
=
(
¸ ]
(2)
And the inverse differential transform of , ) Y k is defined as:
, ) , )
0
k
k
y x Y k x
·
=
=
_
The main theorems of the one – dimensional differential transform are.
Theorem (2) If , ) , ) , ) , w x y x z x = ± then , ) , ) , ) W k Y k Z x = ±
Theorem (3) If , ) , ) , w x cy x = Then , ) , ) W k cY k =
Theorem (4) If , )
, )
,
dy x
w x
dx
= then , ) k W =, ) , ) 1 1 k Y k + +
Theorem(5) If , )
, )
,
n
n
d y x
w x
dx
= then , )
, )
, )
!
!
k n
W k Y k n
k
+
= +
Solution of nonlinear differential equations 633
Theorem (6) If , ) , ) , ) , w x y x z x = then , ) , ) , )
0
k
r
W x Y r Z k r
=
= ÷
_
Theorem (7) If , ) ,
n
w x x = then , ) , )
1 ,
0 ,
k n
W k k n
k n

= ¦
= ÷ =
´
=
¹
Note that c is a constant and n is a nonnegative integer.
Analysis of Differential Transform:
In this section, we will introduce a reliable and efficient algorithm to calculate the
differential transform of nonlinear functions.
I / Exponential nonlinearity: , )
ay
e y f = .
From the definition of transform
, )
, ) , ) , ) 0 0
0
0
ay x ay aY
x
F e e e
=
1
= = =
¸ ]
(3)
By differentiation , )
ay
e y f = with respect to x , we get:
, ) , )
, )
, )
dx
x dy
y af
dx
x dy
ae
dx
y df
ay
= = (4)
Application of the differential transform to Eq (4) gives:
, ) , ) , ) , ) , )
0
1 1 1 1
k
m
k F k a m Y m F k m
=
+ + = + + ÷
_
(5)
Replacing 1 + k by k gives
, ) , ) , )
1
0
1
1 1 , 1
k
m
m
F k a Y m F k m k
k
÷
=
+
= + ÷ ÷ >
_
(6)
Then from Eqs (3) and (6), we obtain the recursive relation
, )
, )
, ) , )
0
1
0
, 0
1
1 1 , 1
aY
k
m
e k
F k
m
a Y m F m m k
k
÷
=
¦
=
¦
=
´ +
+ ÷ ÷ >
¦
¹
_
(7)
II / Logarithmic nonlinearity: , ) , ) ln , 0. f y a by a by = + + >
Differentiating , ) , ) ln , f y a by = + with respect to x ,we get:
, ) , ) , )
dx
x dy
by a
b
dx
x y df
+
= , or
, ) , ) , )
(
]
1

¸

÷ =
dx
y df
y
dx
x dy
b
dx
y df
a (8)
By the definition of transform:
, ) , ) , ) , ) , )
0
0 ln ln 0 ln 0
x
F a by x a by a bY
=
1 = + = + = + 1 1
¸ ] ¸ ] ¸ ]
(9)
Take the differential transform of Eq.(8) to get:
, ) , ) , ) , )
0
1
1 1 1
1
k
m
m
aF k b Y k F m Y k m
k
=
+ 1
+ = + ÷ + ÷
(
+
¸ ]
_
(10)
Replacing 1 + k by k yields:
634 T. M. Elzaki
, ) , ) , ) , )
1
0
1
1 1 , 1
k
m
m
a F k b Y k F m Y k m k
k
÷
=
+ 1
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ >
(
¸ ]
_
(11)
Put 1 = k into Eq.(11) to get:
, )
, )
, ) 1 1 .
0
b
F Y
a by
=
+
(12)
For , 2 > k Eq. (11) can be rewritten as
, )
, )
, ) , ) , )
2
0
1
1 1
0
k
m
b m
F k Y k F m Y k m
a by k
÷
=
+ 1
= ÷ + ÷ ÷
(
+
¸ ]
_
(13)
Thus the recursive relation is:
, )
, )
, )
, )
, )
, ) , ) , )
2
0
ln 0 , 0
1 , 1
0
1
1 1 , 2
0
k
m
a bY k
b
F k Y k
a bY
b m
Y k F m Y k m k
a bY k
÷
=
¦
¦
+ = 1
¦ ¸ ]
¦
¦
= =
´
+
¦
¦
+ 1
¦
÷ + ÷ ÷ >
(
+ ¦
¸ ]
¹
_
Application:
Example (1)
Consider the simple nonlinear first order differential equation.
, ) 1 0 ,
2
= = ' y y y (14)
First applying ELzaki transform , ) E on both sides to find:
, )
, ) , )
2 2 2
0
Y u
uy E y Y u u uE y
u
1 1 ÷ = ¬ = +
¸ ] ¸ ]
(15)
The standard ELzaki transformation method defines the solution , ) t y by the series.
0
( )
n
y y n
·
=
=
_
(16)
Operating with ELzaki inverse on both sides of Eq (15) gives:
, ) , ) j ¦
2 1
1 y E u E t y
÷
+ = (17)
Substituting Eq (16) into Eq (17) we find:
j ¦ ¦ ;
1
( 1) , 0
n
y n E u E A n
÷
+ = > (18)
Where , ) , ) ,
0
r n y r y A
n
r
n
÷ =
_
=
and 1
0
= A
For 0 n = , we have: , ) j ¦ ¦ ; j ¦ ¦ ; t E u E A E u E y = = =
÷ ÷
1 1
1
0
1
For , 1 = n we have: t A 2
1
= and , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
2 1
2 2 t t E u E y = =
÷
For 2 = n ,we haves:
2
2
3t A = and , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
3 2 1
3 3 t t E u E y = =
÷
Solution of nonlinear differential equations 635
The Solution in a series form is given by.
, ) , ) , ) , ) , ) , )
2 3
1
0 1 2 3 ...... 1 .........
1
y t y y y y y t t t t
t
= + + + + ¬ = + + + + =
÷
Example (2)
We consider the following nonlinear differential equation.
, ) 2 0 ,
2
= ÷ = y y y
dt
dy
(19)
In a similar way we have:
, )
, )
2
0
Y u
uy E y y
u
1 ÷ = ÷
¸ ]
or , )
2 2
2 Y u u uE y y 1 = + ÷
¸ ]
(20)
The inverse of ELzaki transform implies that:
, ) j ¦ ¦ ;
2 1
2 y y E u E t y ÷ + =
÷
(21)
The recursive relation is given by:
, ) j ¦ ¦ ;
1
1 ( ) , 0
n
y n E u E y n A n
÷
+ = ÷ > (22)
Where , ) , 2 0 = y and , ) , ) r n y r y A
n
r
n
÷ =
_
=0
The first few components of
n
A are
, ) , ) , ) , ) , ) , )
, ) , ) , ) , )
2 2
0 1 2
3
0 , 2 0 1 , 2 0 2 1
2 0 3 2 1 2 , ......
A y A y y A y y y
A y y y y
= = = +
= +
From the recursive relation we have:
, ) , ) ¦ ; j ¦ ¦ ;
, ) , ) ¦ ; j ¦ ¦ ;
, ) , ) ¦ ; ¦ ;
1 1
0
1 1 2
1
1 1 2 3
2
(0) 2
1 0 2 2
2 1 6 3
13
3 2 13
3
y
y E u E y A E u E t
y E uE y A E uE t t
y E u E y A E u E t t
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ 1
¸ ]
= ÷ = = 1
¸ ]
1 = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
Then we have the following approximate solution to the initial problem.
, ) , ) , ) , )
, )
2 3 4
0 1 2 ....
13 25 2
2 2 3 ......
3 4 2
t
y t y y y
y t t t t t
e
÷
= + + +
= ÷ + ÷ + =
÷
Example (3)
Consider the nonlinear initial – value Problem
, ) , ) , ) 2 4 ln , 0 , 0 1 , 0 0 y x y y y y y y '' ' = + > = = (23)
Applying ELzaki transform to Eq (23) and using the initial conditions, we obtain.
, ) j ¦
2 2
2 4 ln Y u u u E y y y = + + (24)
Take the inverse of Eq (24) to find:
, ) j ¦ ¦ ;
1 2
1 2 4 ln y x E u E y y y
÷
= + + (25)
636 T. M. Elzaki
The recursive relation is given by:
, ) , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
n
A n y E u E n y 4 2 1
2 1
+ = +
÷
(26)
Where , ) , ) m n F m y A
n
m
n
÷ =
_
=0
(27)
And
, ) , )
, )
, )
, )
, ) , )
, ) , )
2
0
ln 0 , 0
1
( ) , 1
0
1
1 1 , 2
0 0
n
m
y n
y
F n n
y
y n
m
F m y n m n
y ny
÷
=
¦
¦
=
¦
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
¦
+
¦
÷ + ÷ ÷ >
¦
¹
_
(28)
Then we have:
, ) , 0 0 0
0
= ¬ = A F and , ) j ¦ ¦ ; j ¦
2 4 1 2 1
2 2 1 x u E E u E y = = =
÷ ÷
, ) , 1
2
1
2
x A x F = ¬ = and , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
2
6 2
4
2 2 1
x
x E u E y = =
÷
, ) , 0 2
4
2
x A F = ¬ = and , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
6
5 3
6
4 2 1
x
x E u E y = =
÷
Then the exact solution is:
, ) , )
2
2
0
6 4
2
!
1
....
! 3 ! 2
1
x
k
k
e x
k
x x
x x y = = + + + + =
_
·
=
Example (4)
Consider the initial –value problem of Bratu-type.
, ) , ) , ) 0 0 0 , 1 0 , 0 2 = ' = < < = ÷ ' ' y y x e x y
y
(29)
Take ELzaki transform of this equation and use the initial condition to obtain:
, )
2
2
y
Y u u E e 1 =
¸ ]
(30)
Take the inverse to obtain:
, ) j ¦ ¦ ;
y
e E u E x y 2
2 1 ÷
=
Then the recursive relation is given by:
, ) , ) j ¦ ¦ ; n F E u E n y 2 1
2 1 ÷
= + (31)
Where , ) 0 0 = y , and , )
, )
, ) , )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ÷ ÷ +
+
=
=
_
÷
=
1 , 1 1
1
0 ,
1
0
0
n m n F m y
n
m
n e
n F
n
m
y
(32)
Then from Eqs (31) and (32) we have
Solution of nonlinear differential equations 637
, ) , 1 0 = F and , ) j ¦ ¦ ; j ¦
2 4 1 2 1
2 2 1 x u E E u E y = = =
÷ ÷
, ) , 1
2
x F = and , ) j ¦ ¦ ;
6
2 2
4
2 2 1
x
x E u E y = =
÷
, )
4
3
2
2 x F = , and , )
1 2 4 6
4 2
3
3 45
y E u E x x
÷
¦ ¹ 1
= =
´ `
(
¸ ] ¹ )
Then the series solution is
, ) , )
2 4 6
1 2
...... 2ln cos
6 45
y x x x x x = + + + = ÷
Conclusions:
In this paper, the series solutions of nonlinear differential equations are obtained by
using ELzaki transform and differential transform methods. This technique is useful
to solve linear and nonlinear differential equations.
Appendix:
Elzaki transform of some Functions
, ) t f , ) j ¦ , ) u T t f E =
1
2
u
t
3
u
n
t
2
!
+ n
u n
at
e
au
u
÷ 1
2
sinat
2 2
3
1 u a
au
+
cosat
2 2
2
1 u a
u
+
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638 T. M. Elzaki
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Received: August, 2011