Thin Lenses

Lens makers’ equation equation: q
1 1 1 1 + = (n − 1)( − ) p q R1 R2
1 1 1 = (n − 1)( − ) f R1 R2

f- focal length

The left face of a biconvex lens has a radius of curvature of magnitude 12 cm. (b) Calculate the focal length if the radii of curvature of the two faces are interchanged. . (a) Calculate the focal length of the lens. and the right face has a radius of curvature of magnitude 18 cm.44. The index of refraction of the glass is 1.

After being refracted by the lens.Ray Diagrams for Thin Converging Lenses Ray 1 is drawn parallel to the principal axis. Ray is d R 3 i drawn through that th h th t focal point on the front side of the lens (or as if coming from the focal point if p<f) and emerges from the lens parallel to the principal axis. . Ray 2 is drawn through the center of the lens and continues in a straight line. this ray lens passes through the focal point on the back side of the lens.

lenses in case s < f or (p<f) .Converging lenses.

After being refracted by the lens. .Ray Diagrams for Thin Diverging Lenses Ray 1 is drawn parallel to the principal axis. Ray 3 is drawn toward the focal i f l point on the back side of h b k id f the lens and emerges from the lens parallel to the optic axis. Ray 2 is drawn through the center of the lens and t f th l d continues in a straight line. this ray f t d b th l thi emerges such that it appears to have passed through the focal point on the front side of the lens.

Two converging lenses with focal lengths of 10 cm and 20 cm are positioned 50 cm apart. The final image is to be located between the lenses. at the position indicated. (a) How far to the left of the first lens should the object be? What is the overall magnification? (c) Is the image upright or inverted? .

at the position indicated. g g g p p The final image is to be located between the lenses.Two converging lenses with focal lengths of 10 cm and 20 cm are positioned 50 cm apart. (a) How far to the left of the first lens should the object be? .

(a) How far to the left of the first lens should the object be? (b)What is the overall magnification? (c) Is the image upright or inverted? ) (c) Si Since M<0. th final image is inverted M<0 the fi l i i i t d . at the position indicated. The final image is to be located between the lenses.Two converging lenses with focal lengths of 10 cm and 20 cm are positioned 50 cm g g g p apart.

upright. forms a virtual.The Size of a Magnified Image When an object is placed at the near point. and enlarged image . the angle subtended is a maximum i The near point is about 25 cm When the object is placed near the focal point of a converging lens the lens lens.

25 cm .The Size of a Magnified Image Angular magnification is defined as θ m= θ0 The angular magnification is at a maximum when the image formed by the lens is at the near point of the eye q = .

the object is at the focal point h θ0 ≈ 25 h θ≈ f mmin θ 25cm = = θ0 f .Angular Magnification 1 1 1 + = p − 25cm f h tan θ 0 ≈ θ 0 ≈ p h tan θ ≈ θ ≈ 25cm mmax h/ p 25cm 25cm θ = = = = θ 0 h / 25cm p 25cm ⋅ f /(25cm + f ) p= 25 f cm 25 + f 25 cm mmax = 1 + q The image is at infinity – the eye is most relaxed . j p Hence.

Angular Magnification The eye is most relaxed when the image is at infinity Although the eye can focus on an object anywhere between the Alth h th f bj t h b t th near point and infinity For the image formed by a magnifying glass to appear at infinity. the object has to be at the focal point of the lens The angular magnification is g g mmin θ 25cm = = θ0 f .

ƒe of a few cm . h t f l l th ƒo< 1 cm The eyepiece has a focal length.Compound Microscope A compound microscope consists of two lenses Gives greater magnification than a g single lens The objective lens has a short focal length.

L / ƒo The angular magnification by the eyepiece of the microscope is i i me = 25 cm / ƒe The overall magnification of the microscope is the product of the individual magnifications L M = Mo me = − ƒo ⎛ 25 cm ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ƒe ⎠ .Magnifications of the Compound Microscope The lateral magnification by the objective is M o = .

3 eyepiece of focal length 2.40 mm For the eyepiece as a simple magnifier. what is the magnification? For the objective: 1 1 1 + = p q f becomes 1 1 1 + = 3.50 3.A compound microscope has an objective of focal length 0 3 cm and an 0.0 cm 25. If an object is 3.5 mm M 1 = − q/ p = − = − 7.5 mm The objective produces magnification 25.0 f 2.5 cm.40 mm q 3. 25.4 mm from the objective .50 cm and overall M = M 1me = −75 .0 cm me = = = 10 0 10.00 mm q = 25.