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What is Political Instability?
“Political instability is described as a condition of a country where a government has been toppled, or is controlled by factions following a coup, or where basic functional pre-requisites for social-order control and maintenance are unstable and periodically disrupted” (Cook 1990). Multifaceted and complex character Impact in various countries worldwide is multilevel and multidimensional.

Terrorism, political instability and tourism in the Middle East
Dr Jan Mosedale Global Tourism

Introduction
Political stability and political relations influences the image of destinations in tourist-generating regions (Hall and O’Sullivan,1996) Media portrayal: books, magazines, newspapers, satellite and cable links has a substantial influence. Examples of political strife that cause problematic concerns in the attraction of visitors are:
Warfare coups political strikes or protests

“Any evidence of domestic turmoil is likely to result in a decision not to visit that country. “ Ankomah and Crompton (1990, p19)

Israel – Palestine conflict

Jewish Claims
Biblical Promise

Palestinian Claims
Demographic imperative

Historical imperative

Relevance of biblical claim questioned

Need for homeland due to persecution

Why should Arabs pay price for European based persecution?

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1923–1948: The British Mandate

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History of a conflict
> 1923: Ottoman Syria 1923–1948: The British Mandate 1948: Creation of Israel 1948-1949: Arab –Israeli War

History of a conflict
> 1923: Ottoman Syria 1923–1948: The British Mandate 1948: Creation of Israel 1948-1949: Arab –Israeli War 1967: The Six Day war

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History of a conflict
> 1923: Ottoman Syria 1923–1948: The British Mandate 1948: Creation of Israel 1948-1949: Arab –Israeli War 1967: The Six Day war 1987-1993: Intifada I 2000-2005: Intifada II 2003: The Security Fence/Wall

History of a conflict
> 1923: Ottoman Syria 1923–1948: The British Mandate 1948: Creation of Israel 1948-1949: Arab –Israeli War 1967: The Six Day war 1987-1993: Intifada I 2000-2005: Intifada II 2003: The Security Fence/Wall Intifada III (?)

Relationship between politics and tourism
“The political aspects of tourism are interwoven with its economic consequences…tourism is not only a “continuation of politics” but an integral part of the world’s political economy. In short, tourism is, or can be, a tool used not only for economic but for political means” (Edgell, 1990).

Security in tourism
Security as a concept is central to tourism Not just as a result of 9-11, but also because of shifts in American and UK foreign policies Concerns about religious and political fundamentalism Security concerns affect tourism decision- making and economic, political confidence Security concerns are not new Tourism industry is highly vulnerable to changes in security

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Political instability
The political nature of tourism receives only scant attention in the research literature Issues of political stability and political relations are very important in determining the image of destinations Safety and security are the price of entry to destinations

Terrorism in the Middle East
Remember: safety, security and peace are the price of entry to a destination Historical overview:
July 22, 1968: PLO terrorists hijacked an Israeli airliner flying from Rome to Tel Aviv This marked the advent of modern international terrorism: first hijacking designed to terrorise a nation into changing its policy and to force world attention on a cause. December 21, 1988: bomb on PanAm flight 103 from London to New York (Lockerbie disaster)

Effects of Terrorism
Egypt – Late 1970s, Islamic Extremist Group Activity Egyptian Islamic extremist group works toward establishing an Islamic state Specifically targeted and launched attacks against Egypt’s tourism industry since 1992. Egypt removed from programs of international tour operators Experienced a 22 per cent drop in international visitors, 30 per cent drop in tourist nights and 43 per cent decrease in tourism receipts.

Terrorism and tourism in the Middle East
Bombings in Dhahran, Tel Aviv, and Jerusalem dominated terrorist incidents in the Middle East in 1996:nearly doubled the number of terrorist casualties to 837 from 445 in 1995 Violence in Egypt continued, in Cairo, 18 tourists were shot and killed in 1997 Tourism in the Middle East has been hampered by regional political instability Negative external perceptions of the region (through western media) Patterns of development fail to exploit the full potential of tourism as a catalyst for sustainable tourism development

Effects of War
The First Gulf War, 1990 Massive impact on tourist visitation to the Middle East Broader impact on international tourism because of potential for terrorist attacks

Destination Image and terrorism
Tourist destination images are a crucial factor in the decision-making process of tourists The mere existence of an image in a person’s mind is more important than whether it is a true representation of the place or not.

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Images are formed based on information sources such as the media, word-of-mouth Influence factors (among others) are political incidents and wars

Summary (I)
Political instability and war can increase the perception of risk at a destination Political instability generates negative publicity, which results in an inevitable decrease in tourist arrivals Risk perception can influence tourist decisionmaking and destinations can be severely affected. Policymakers from tourism destination countries need to be aware of how political instability is perceived

Summary (II)
Middle East region highlights close relationship between tourism, politics and unrest Illustrates the fragility of tourism Periods of instability perpetuate image problems long after Absence of conflict would lead to normalised relations and both cross border tourism and investment in region

Workshop
Egyptian Revolution 2011:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east12502189 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xttXeAR_H7k& feature=fvst

You have just been put in charge of the Egyptian Tourism Office. What strategies are you going to employ to further promote international tourism to the country after the recent political unrest?

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