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Primary characteristic of indigeneity
‘strong sense of unity with the environment’
a relationship with the environment that has endured over time; distinctive culture and custom distinctive system of knowledge environmental sustainability Unique language
Indigenous Peoples: Definition Issues
The concept of indigenous is not capable of a precise, inclusive definition that can be applied in the same manner to all regions of the world – Erica-Irene Daes (Chairperson of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations) “Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those, which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of the societies and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their cultural partners, social institutions and legal systems” - United Nations special Rapporteur Martinez Cobo
The noble savage
A contrasting view of indigenous people that survives today: Does civilization actually improve the quality of human life? Negative affects of European colonialism coupled with local experiences with the industrial revolution drew into question the benefits of civilization. From a romanticists perspective “primitive” people lived a fuller more egalitarian life. They were untouched by the corrupting influence of civilization and industrialization.
The Lost/stolen Generation
In Australia, Aboriginal people were seen to both a people without history and a people without a future. From 1885 to the 1970s the Australian government took aboriginal children from their families and placed them in European homes and foster care.
Indigenous people and citizenship rights
Until 1993 Aboriginal people had land rights because within their culture they had “no fixed abode, fields or flocks, nor internal hierarchical differentiation” Into the 1960s Aborigines had extremely limited citizenship rights (like the right to vote) and the government maintained an extremely paternalistic attitude toward Aborigines, like making it illegal for them to consume alcohol.
Framework for Indigenous Tourism
Occurs within context of global tourism industry Dominated by non-indigenous actors Characterised by temporal and spatial dimensions of the environment Part of broader external environment
Commodification (or commoditization) is the transformation of goods and services (or things that may not normally be regarded as goods or services) into a commodity. When we apply this to a culture, it means that parts of the culture; artefacts, clothing, dance, music, folklore, architecture, heritage and geographic landscapes; are being packaged and offered for sale.
Loss of Culture
Many indigenous cultures feel that they suffer a form of culture loss because they do not control the commodification of their culture through tourism. Culture can be seen as a form of intellectual property… meaning that it is owned by an individual or group, and no-one has the right to take or use it without the permission of the owners.
This means that tourism that is focussed around, and profits from, indigenous cultures without their consent or approval could be theft (financial and intellectual) and can also be very offensive. Interactions with dominant cultures also means the spread of dominant values and beliefs, some of which may contradict the values of the indigenous group and cause conflict within the culture.
Reduction of Culture
They also run the risk of reducing their culture to a single element.
Loss of Land
Another concern is when tourist industries hamper indigenous culture’s ability to carry on their way of life.
For example, In 2002, the Botswana Bushmen were forcibly expelled from the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), part of their traditional ancestral lands and essential to maintaining a sustainable lifestyle. This area sees huge revenues from Eco-tourism and safaris. After going to court, their land was reinstated in 2006. Despite the court ruling, the government has since banned them from accessing a borehole, which they rely on for water.
With an increase in tourists, comes an increase in garbage, pollution, resource use, infrastructure development, etc., all of which can upset the balance between humans and environment and could potentially affect indigenous people in a negative way.
It can be a positive, however, if it takes place on their own terms, serves their interests and promotes the image they wish to share about themselves and their culture. Many cultures want to share and interact with other groups, but few want to be just a sideshow attraction.
Common Concerns of Indigenous Peoples
Cultural and linguistic preservation Land rights Ownership and exploitation of natural resources Political determination and autonomy Cultural/Intellectual property rights Commodification of culture (eg. haka, koru, moko) Environmental degradation Poverty Health discrimination
Indigenous Tourism: key features
Connected with indigenous culture, values and traditions - focuses on indigenous knowledge of culture and nature Tourism products owned and operated by indigenous people - based on indigenous land and cultural identity, controlled from within by indigenous groups Typically involves small tourism businesses owned by tribes or families 4Hs - Includes indigenous habitat, heritage, history and handicrafts
(Smith V. 1996)
Based on Swain (1989); Parker (1993); Hinch & Butler (1996); Smith (1996)
Control of Tourism
“For Maori or iwi tribes the key issue in tourism is control, not
Maori Involvement in Tourism 1800’s
• Maori involvement in NZ’s tourism industry has a history of over 140 years (in particular in Rotorua) • First hotels and guiding operations in the district were either wholly or party owned and operated by Maori. They acted as guides, accommodation providers and entertainers to tourist • Dept of Tourist and Health Resorts est. 1901 – the first Govt dept in the world. Linked with trade, Tourism and overseas funds … saw Maori culture as important to economic growth of tourism in the region
“If the relationship between tourism and culture is to be sustainable, however, tourism will have to be developed in harmony with community interests. It will have to protect and preserve traditional cultures, fostering sensitivity to and appreciation for cultural practices (Moscardo, 1999; Sofield, 1991). It is therefore essential that indigenous peoples maintain ownership and control over product development and cultural experiences
Maori Tourism Icons: Rotorua
“Showpiece of Maoridom” Maori Arts and Craft Institute est. 1963 by Act of Parliament to preserve Maori culture Concerns were voiced about culture exploitation for touristic purposes Creation of 3 main attractions – thermal reserve, centre where arts and performance were regularly on view, and the carving school Re-branded TE PUIA (2006) as 3 distinct marketable products $17million upgrade includes: (new visitor centre, 500 seat restaurant, new innovative interactive attraction, interpretive walks, carving & weaving schools)
Maori Tourism Icons: Whalewatch Kaikoura
Maori tourism operations such as Whalewatch Kaikoura and Tamaki Tours were benchmark success stories for MT development in the 1990s http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=VmNqtJRmbGA http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=B9_WKOIOobQ
DEFINITIONS of Maori Tourism
There has been a lack of a recognised definition of Maori tourism due to the conceptual difficulty in defining a Maori tourism business and product. The concept encompasses different elements: ‘Maori culture and identity’, ‘tourism’, ‘business’, and ‘product’. Therefore – relative lack of understanding of Maori participation in the tourism industry
Demand for Maori Cultural Tourism
Te Ahu Mai – he whao tapoi Maori (Dec 2004)
MOT has 2 categories: - Maori in Tourism (people related) - Maori Cultural Tourism (activities related involving Maori culture)
20% international visitors experience Maori culture during their stay in New Zealand report highlighted what travellers think about Maori cultural products Identified opportunities for MT operators provided specific guidance for development Maori cultural products rates more favourably than products of other indigenous cultures overall satisfaction tended to be highest where there was physical & emotional involvement with the particular activity being experienced Clear message that better translation and explanation will help engage the visitor and increase the satisfaction levels “Maori culture is the one thing that sets us apart from other countries” (domestic traveller)
Maori Tourism Today – what is it?
The analogy of the past was that Maori were merely Passengers in the back of the bus. Today, Maori own The bus – and the Company (Dover
Samuels – Associate Minister Tourism, 2004)
Kaupapa (traditional Māori ways of doing, being, and thinking ) Maori
Manaakitanga - Hospitality Kaitiakitanga - Stewardship Wairuatanga - Spirituality Tau utu utu - Reciprocity Whanaungatanga - Family Aroha - Love
Tourism NZ Strategic Plan
“The principles of kaitiakitanga (guardianship) and manaakitanga (hospitality) are the basis for a uniquely New Zealand approach to sustainability. By delivering on these principles, the tourism sector will provide hospitality to its visitors while protecting and managing our culture and environment”.
The Culturally significant landscape
Symbolic – intangible historical associations May be natural or modified Significant to iwi – ‘turangawaewae’ & ‘kaitiakitanga’ (‘a place to stand’ & stewardship) NZ’s landscape under increasing pressure – recreational and leisure needs of national and international visitors Traditional interactions altered with Treaty settlements – political associations; ownership and management issues Sense of place (Relph 1976) - Pepeha
Interpretation of the Cultural Landscape
The interpretation of Maori perspectives of the environment is therefore considered a way of strengthening iwi relationships with traditional resources and historic heritage (Keelan 1996)
The increased use of this taonga as subject matter in interpretive material widens the audience from a traditional Maori base to other community members, and, consequently, visitors to the area DoC – NZ government’s primary land manager encouraged to preserve & protect values held by Maori
Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (2007) Tourism and indigenous peoples: issues and implications. Butterworth-Heinemann Ryan, C. (2005) Indigenous tourism: the commodification and management of culture. Elsevier Whitford, M., Bell, B. and Watkins, M. (2001) Indigenous Tourism Policy in Australia: 25 Years of Rhetoric and Economic Rationalism. Current Issues in Tourism 4(2-4): 151-181. Hall, C.M. and Mitchell, I. and Keelan, N. (1993) The implications of Maori perspectives for the management and promotion of heritage tourism in New Zealand. GeoJournal 29(3): 315-322.
NEDC, British Columbia
Financial Viability Customer Service Innovative Practices Exposure (recognition within the Nuu-chah-nulth and other communities) Years of Operation Environmental Footprint Nature of Product/Service Cultural Preservation Contributions to society
Business, Indigenous in Business, Australia
Hardship endured Financial obstacles overcome Social obstacles overcome Company financial viability Fiscal application to company Positioning in the marketplace Potential future growth in the marketplace Ingenuity and creativeness in the market place Contribution to Australia and its social fabric Contribution to the community
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