Tourism and Development
Dr Jan Mosedale



South Africa

Contested Terminology
 Developing countries; less developed countries (LDCs); least developed countries; Third World; South; economic South. Politically correct??

 Developed countries; industrialised countries; First World; North; economic North; the „West‟



“Third World”

“Third World”
 First World: Developed

 Originally a Cold War Term  First World: U.S. and Allies  Second World: USSR and Allies  Third World: Non-Aligned

 Second World: Semi-Developed  Third World: Non-Developed

 Close similarity to Cold War meaning of Third World

First, Second & Third Worlds II
 Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and most of its dependent economies, the term Second World has largely lost its usefulness.  China remains communist in name but has freed large parts of its economy from government control as has Vietnam.  Only North Korea remains a truly Stalinist nation while Cuba tries to maintain its system unchanged despite the fall of its Soviet financiers.

Developed and Developing
 Most analysts now prefer to talk of developed or less developed economies – regardless of their political style.  Countries like Canada, the USA, Britain and Japan are regarded as developed because of their industrialized and diverse economies.  Countries like Indonesia and Egypt are regarded as developing or less developed (LDC‟s).  The world‟s least developed countries, which often lack resources – like Chad or Laos – are often described as least less developed (LLDC‟s).

Road to Development

Less Developed Countries (LDCs)
 High birth rates and population pressures  Fast rate of urbanization  Limited economic base  High unemployment  Low literacy rates  Low levels of industrial production  High rates of national debt  Dependence upon overseas aid and international finance  Low gross national product

Further differentiation of LDCs
 Least developed countries (42 countries)
 Average annual income less than $355  Literacy rates < 20%  Little industrial production



Further differentiation of LDCs
 Developing countries
 Beyond the level of least developed but still relatively poor and non-industrialised

 Newly industrialised (NICs)
 Share characteristics of both less developed and developed worlds

North and South
 In a very simple division of the world, some observers note that most of the developed countries lie in the Northern hemisphere and many of the developing countries are in the southern.  They refer to the rich countries as the North and the poor as the South.

The Newly Industrialized
 In a further division of the world, some observers note that a number of countries, particularly in East Asia, have rapidly industrialized and have now, or soon will, catch up with the developed world.  These are referred to as Newly Industrialized Countries – NIC‟s.  Those in East Asia are sometimes called the New Dragons.
The New Dragons

The yellow countries represent the North the Developed World The overall status of the former Soviet areas is somewhat unclear.

Hong Kong (SAR) Thailand Malaysia Singapore

South Korea Taiwan

What is (good) Development?
 Perceived as „modernisation‟, „progress‟, „structural change‟ (e.g. legal structures: democratisation)  Usually measured as „Economic development‟  GDP per capita; economic growth rates  Problem: averages! Economic elite within a country pushes indicator upwards.  There‟s more to development  „Human development‟  Indicators: child mortality; life expectancy; primary education attendance  UN human development index: may be low in „economically developed‟ countries e.g. SaudiArabia

GNP per capita



Life Expectancy

Access to drinking water

Literacy rate

Human Development Index

Income Equity

Population Growth Rates



Population Density (persons / square km)

Two Demographic Worlds
First is poor, young, and rapidly growing.  Less-developed countries.  Africa, Asia, Latin America  Contain 80% of world population, and will account for 90% of projected growth. Second is wealthy, old, and mostly shrinking.  North America, Western Europe, Japan.  Average age is about 40.  Populations expected to decline.


 Which moral notions? Ethics and values as lenses for looking:
      Income/GDP? Preference satisfaction Agency/capability/functioning Rights Happiness Virtues

 Which distributive principles, and what distributions are most just?

Scope of development ethics  North and South?  Beyond overseas development assistance? Status of norms: universal or relative to culture? “Thickness” of norms  The good life or minimal decency?  Self-determination plus tolerance or specific content?  Threshold plus choice?

Responsibilities for change?
 Local, national, or global

 Who decides?
 Experts vs. popular agency  Outsiders vs. insiders

 Blame for failures?
 Local, national, or global order



Tourism transforming an economy
 “… governments of most developing nations have been exhibiting an increasing interest in tourism as an attractive development option to overcome economic problems”. (Dieke 1989: 7)
 A way of obtaining hard currency and improving balance of payments  A catalyst of social change  A symbol of freedom  A mechanism for improving local infrastructure  An integral part of economic restructuring through privatisation, exposure to national and international market forces and transnational corporations  A complement to commercial development through encouraging small-scale entrepreneurial activity

Impacts of tourism in LDCs
 Development of „islands of affluence‟ in a poor society  Use of scarce national resources for tourist enjoyment  Demonstration effect  Unreliable means of measuring the true economic benefit  Commodification of culture and lifestyle  External control

 Do you think the economic benefits of tourism outweigh the costs in developing countries?  Should international organisations fund tourism projects in developing countries?  Are tourists the new „colonial masters‟?  Are certain types of tourism (mass tourism, ecotourism etc.) more pro-development (less dependency-producing) than others? Is a backpacker (who likes to be called „traveller‟) less „neo-colonial‟ than a mass tourist?  What could be done to make tourism more prodevelopment?


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