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College of Engineering University of South Florida

The Present/Future of Process Control


Carlos A. Smith, Ph.D. BIENVENIDOS!

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Outline

1. Challenges
2. Control 3. Concluding Remarks

Challenges
Process structures are becoming increasingly complex and interactive mainly for performance (environmental, quality, and energy) efficiency. The possible numbers of constraint sets is large with interactive processes.

The more complex and interactive a process is, the more difficult its control.

Challenges

Control is still viewed as a black box that solves all varieties of instruments, valves , and process problems!

Control
Without a doubt, the PID controller will remain for the foreseeable future the workhorse at the bottom layer of regulatory control.
PID controller is very robust.

Regulatory structure is still poorly done, and in cases with major design or configuration errors.

Control

Proper controller tuning is the largest, quickest, and least expensive improvement one can make in the basic control system to decrease process variability.
Blevins, T.L., McMillan, G.K., Wojsznis, W.K., Brown, M.W., Advanced Control Unleashed, ISA Press, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2003

Yet most loops in plants are not properly tuned, and many are in manual!
Time consuming Need expert knowledge Involves risky open-loop tests
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Control
Without a doubt, the present and future of process control depends on Understanding the process is the key to good process control.

Control
Increased computer and software technology
Allowing control algorithms to monitor the control loop performance daily and issue reports

Most companies will install PID control monitoring software and move toward automated optimization test sequences for tuning
The cost of any of these is about US$100-200 per loop (depending on the number of loops).

Control

PROCESS CONTROL MONITORING

Control
Some Statistics As many as 75% of the control loops actually increase
variability

Causes
30% of DCS control loops are improperly configured 85% of control loops have sub-optimal tunings 15% of control valves are improperly sized

Control
OBJECTIVES OF CONTROL MONITORING Ensure the process variables are within

specified limits Identify abnormal operation and diagnose the root cause Identify abnormal situations in time to effect corrective action before the process is seriously upset

Control
Control Performance Monitoring Software
It is designed to monitor and diagnose the performance of your PID Control Loops

It can tell you which loops Are not tuned properly Are oscillating, and with what period Have valve stiction Etc.

Control
Does not automatically tune or repair your loops

Will indicate what may be wrong with the tuning, such as too much integral action, etc.

Control
Increased computer and software technology

(continued),

Allowing more capability for rigorous dynamic simulations which can be used to perform extensive testing and tuning (of new control loops prior to going online), for operator training, and to better understanding of the processes. This improved understanding is key for better control.

Control
Increased computer and software technology (continued), Allowing engineers to easily capture dynamic data and perform model identification necessary for tuning feedback controllers, feedforward, decoupling, optimization, etc.

Feedforward and Model Predictive Control (MPC) applications will increase due to the modeling tools.
Companies will move toward MPC monitoring to ensure MPC utilization (similar to regular PID controllers).

Control
Increased computer and software technology

(continued),
Increasing the use of multivariable control algorithms. These algorithms are some times difficult to justify and although possible to use in large processes, they require well-trained individuals to implement them Are being designed to be scaled (up & down) easily with minimum programming Starting to incorporate objective functions and can perform optimization

Control
Increased computer and software technology
(continued),

Allowing

us to use the tools of Artificial Intelligence. Fuzzy Logic


Neural Networks

Concluding Remarks
Monitoring capabilities of control performance

Improved data analysis

Concluding Remarks Increase applications of Feedforward Control Model Predictive Control Fuzzy Logic Control

Concluding Remarks

Understanding the process is the key to good process control.

Concluding Remarks

MUCHAS GRACIAS!