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SUBSECTION in-Text concept questions Study guide problems Stagnation Properties Momentum Equation and Forces Adiabatic 1-D Flow and Velocity of Sound Reversible Flow Through a Nozzle Normal Shocks Nozzles, Diffusers, and Orifices Review problems Problems solved with the Pr, vr functions English unit problems PROB NO. a-j 1-13 14-23 24-31 32-39 40-60 61-70 71-81 82-84 44, 73 85-103

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17.a Is stagnation temperature always higher than free stream temperature? Why? Yes. Since kinetic energy can only be positive we have h0 = h1 + V2/2 > h1 1 If it is a gas with constant heat capacity we get T0 = T1 + V2/2Cp 1

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which this textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

17.b By looking at Eq. 17.25, rank the speed of sound for a solid, a liquid, and a gas. P s = c2 For a solid and liquid phase the density varies only slightly with temperature and constant s is also nearly constant T. We thus expect the derivative to be very high that is we need very large changes in P to give small changes in density. A gas is highly compressible so the formula reduces to Eq.17.28 which gives modest values for the speed of sound. Speed of sound: 17.c Does speed of sound in an ideal gas depend on pressure? What about a real gas? No. For an ideal gas the speed of sound is given by Eq.17.28 c = kRT and is only a function of temperature T. For a real gas we do not recover the simple expression above and there is a dependency on P particularly in the dense gas region above the critical point. 17.d Can a convergent adiabatic nozzle produce a supersonic flow? No. From Eq.17.33 and a nozzle so dP < 0 it is required to have dA > 0 to reach M > 1. A convergent nozzle will have M = 1 at the exit, which is the smallest area. For lower back pressures there may be a shock standing in the exit plane.

17.e To maximize the mass flow rate of air through a given nozzle, which properties should I try to change and in which direction, higher or lower? The mass flow rate is given by Eq.17.41 and if we have M = 1 at the throat then Eq.17.42 gives the maximum mass flow rate possible. Max flow for: Higher upstream stagnation pressure Lower upstream stagnation temperature 17.f How do the stagnation temperature and pressure change in an isentropic flow? The stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure are constant.

17.g Which of the cases in Fig. 17.17 (a-h) have entropy generation and which do not? a. There is no flow so sgen = 0. b. Subsonic flow, reversible, so sgen = 0. c. Limit for subsonic flow, reversible, so sgen = 0. d. The only supersonic reversible flow solution, so sgen = 0. e. Supersonic reversible in nozzle sgen = 0, irreversible outside. f. Supersonic reversible in nozzle sgen = 0, compression outside. g. Shock stands at exit plane, sgen > 0 across shock. h. Shock is located inside nozzle, sgen > 0 across shock.

17.h How does the stagnation temperature and pressure change in an adiabatic nozzle flow with an efficiency of less than 100%? The stagnation temperature stays constant (energy eq.) The stagnation pressure drops (s is generated, less kinetic energy).

17.i Table A.13 has a column for Poy/Pox why is there not one for Toy/Tox? The stagnation pressure drops across the shock (irreversible flow) whereas the stagnation temperature is constant (energy equation).

17.j How high can a gas velocity (Mach number) be and still treat it as incompressible flow within 2% error? The relative error in the P versus kinetic energy, Eq.17.66, becomes 1 V 2 V e = 4 c = 0.02 M = c = 4 0.02 = 0.283 o o

17.1 Which temperature does a thermometer or thermocouple measure? Would you ever need to make a correction to that? Since the probe with the thermocouple in its tip is stationary relative to the moving fluid it will measure something close to the stagnation temperature. If that is high relative to the free stream temperature there will be significant heat transfer (convection and radiation) from the probe and it will measure a little less. For very high accuracy temperature measurements you must make some corrections for these effects.

17.2 The jet engine thrust is found from the overall momentum equation. Where is the actual force acting (it is not a long-range force in the flow)? The compressor is generating the high pressure flow so the blades pushes hard on the flow and thus a force acts in the forward direction on the shaft holding the rotating blades. The high pressure in the chamber with combustion also has a net force in the forward direction as the flow leaves in the backwards direction so less wall area there. The pressure drop in the turbine means its blades pushes in the other direction but as the turbine exit pressure is higher than the ambient pressure the axial force is less than that of the compressor. High P Low P

cb

17.3 Most compressors have a small diffuser at the exit to reduce the high gas velocity near the rotating blades and increase the pressure in the exit flow. What does this do to the stagnation pressure? For a reversible flow (ideal case) the stagnation pressure is constant. However, the reason it is done is to raise the pressure in a near reversible flow (diffuser) rather than let the flow reduce the peak velocities in a less reversible fashion which would lower the stagnation pressure. 17.4 A diffuser is a divergent nozzle used to reduce a flow velocity. Is there a limit for the Mach number for it to work like this? Yes, the flow must be subsonic. If the flow was supersonic then increasing the flow area would increase the velocity.

17.5

Sketch the variation in V, T, P, and M for a subsonic flow into a convergent nozzle with M = 1 at the exit plane? V = M c = M kRT = 2Cp(To T)

Since we do not know the area versus length, we plot it versus mach number M. T, P and relative to the stagnation state is listed in Table A.12 and given in eqs.17.34-36. A small spread sheet (M step 0.1) did the calculations. Only the first part 0 < M < 1 is the answer to this question.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0

V P

Mach number

17.6

Sketch the variation in V, T, P, and M for a sonic (M = 1) flow into a divergent nozzle with M = 2 at the exit plane? V = M c = M kRT = 2Cp(To T)

Since we do not know the area versus length, we plot it versus mach number M. T, P and relative to the stagnation state is listed in Table A.12 and given in eqs.17.34-36. Only the last part 1 < M < 2 is the answer to this question.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0

V P

Mach number

17.7 Can any low enough backup pressure generate an isentropic supersonic flow? No. Only one back pressure corresponds to a supersonic flow, which is the exit pressure at state d in Figure 17.13. However a pressure lower than that can give an isentropic flow in the nozzle, case e, with a drop in pressure outside the nozzle. This is irreversible leading to an increase in s and therefore not isentropic. 17.8 Is there any benefit to operate a nozzle choked? Yes. Since the mass flow rate is constant (max value) between points c and d in Fig. 17.12 a small variation in the back pressure will not have any influence. The nozzle then provides a constant mass flow rate free of surges up or down which is very useful for flow calibrations or other measurements where a constant mass flow rate is essential.

17.9 Can a shock be located upstream from the throat? No. The flow adjust so M = 1 at the throat. 17.10 The high velocity exit flow in Example 17.7 is at 183 K. Can that flow be used to cool a room? Being that cold it sounds like it could. However when the flow enters a room it eventually would have to slow down and then it has the stagnation temperature. If you let the flow run over a surface there will be a boundary layer with zero velocity at the surface and again there the temperature is close to the stagnation temperature. 17.11 A convergent-divergent nozzle is presented for an application that requires a supersonic exit flow. What features of the nozzle do you look at first? You look at the cross section area change through the nozzle. At the throat M = 1 so in the divergent section the velocity increases and the ratio A/A* determines how the flow changes. The exit area can then tell you what the exit mach number will be and if you can have a reversible flow or not.

17.12 To increase the flow through a choked nozzle, the flow can be heated/cooled or compressed/expanded (four processes) before or after the nozzle. Explain which of these eight possibilities will help and which will not. The mass flow rate through a choked nozzle is given by Eq.17.42. Since k and R are constant it varies with the upstream stagnation properties Po and To. After nozzle: Any downstream changes have no effects. Before nozzle: Upstream changes in Po and To has an influence. a. Heat This lowers mass flow rate (To increases) b. Cool This raises mass flow rate (To decreases) c. Compress. Raises Po and To opposite effects. Isentropic: Po new = Po rp

k+1

and

To new = To (rp)

k-1 k

Po new / To new = (rp) 2k [Po / To] > [Po / To] So the mass flow rate increases d. Expand. Lowers Po and To opposite effects. Assume isentropic, then mass flow rate decreases.

17.13 Suppose a convergent-divergent nozzle is operated as case h in Fig. 17.17. What kind of nozzle could have the same exit pressure but with a reversible flow? A convergent nozzle, having subsonic flow everywhere assuming the pressure ratio is higher than the critical.

Stagnation Properties

17.14 A stationary thermometer measures 80oC in an air flow that has a velocity of 200 m/s. What is the actual flow temperature? We assume that the thermometer measures the stagnation temperature, that is the probe (bulb, thermistor or thermo-couple junction sits stationary). h0 = h1 + V2/2 1 1 = 0 V2/2Cp 1

17.15 Steam leaves a nozzle with a pressure of 500 kPa, a temperature of 350C, and a velocity of 250 m/s. What is the isentropic stagnation pressure and temperature? Stagnation enthalpy from energy equation and values from steam tables B.1.3 2502 h0 = h1 + V2/2 = 3167.7 + 2000 = 3198.4 kJ/kg 1 s0 = s1 = 7.6329 kJ/kg K It can be linearly interpolated from the printed tables Computer software: (ho, so) To = 365C, Po = 556 kPa

17.16 Steam at 1600 kPa, 300oC flows so it has a stagnation (total) pressure of 1800 kPa. Find the velocity and the stagnation temperature. The stagnation state has the same entropy as the inlet state so: 1: 1600 kPa, 300oC has h = 3034.83 kJ/kg, s = 6.8844 kJ/kg-K Stagnation: 1800 kPa, s0 = 6.8844 kJ/kg-K has T01 = 316.5oC, h01 = 3066.155 kJ/kg

V2/2 = h01 - h1 = 3066.155 3034.83 = 31.325 kJ/kg 1 V1 = 2 (ho1 - h1) = 2 31.325 1000 = 250.3 m/s

17.17 An object from space enters the earths upper atmosphere at 5 kPa, 100 K, with a relative velocity of 2000 m/s or more . Estimate the object`s surface temperature. ho1 - h1 = V2/2 = 20002/2000 = 2000 kJ/kg 1 ho1 = h1 + 2000 = 100 + 2000 = 2100 kJ/kg table is 200 K. => T = 1875 K The value for h1 from ideal gas table A.7 was estimated since the lowest T in the

17.18 The products of combustion of a jet engine leave the engine with a velocity relative to the plane of 400 m/s, a temperature of 480C, and a pressure of 75 kPa. Assuming that k = 1.32, Cp = 1.15 kJ/kg K for the products, determine the stagnation pressure and temperature of the products relative to the airplane. Energy Eq.: ho1 - h1 = V2/2 = 4002/2000 = 80 kJ/kg 1

To1 - T1 = (ho1 - h1)/Cp = 80/1.15 = 69.6 K To1 = 480 + 273.15 + 69.6 = 823 K Isentropic process relates to the stagnation pressure Po1 = P1(To1/T1)k/(k-1) = 75(823/753.15)4.125 = 108 kPa

17.19 Steam is flowing to a nozzle with a pressure of 400 kPa. The stagnation pressure and temperature are measured to be 600 kPa and 350oC, respectively. What are the flow velocity and temperature? Stagnation state Table B.1.3: ho1 = 3165.66 kJ/kg, so1 = 7.5463 kJ/kg K State 1: 400 kPa, s1 = so1 = 7.5463 kJ/kg K 7.5463 - 7.3788 T1 = 250 + (300 250) 7.5661 - 7.3788 = 294.7oC 7.5463 - 7.3788 h1 = 2964.16 + 7.5661 - 7.3788 (3066.75 2964.16) = 3055.9 kJ/kg Energy equation gives V2/2 = ho1 - h1 = 3165.66 3055.9 = 109.76 kJ/kg 1 V1 = 2 (h o1 - h 1) = 2 109.76 1000 = 468.5 m/s

17.20 A meteorite melts and burn up at temperatures of 3000 K. If it hits air at 5 kPa, 50 K how high a velocity should it have to experience such a temperature? Assume we have a stagnation T = 3000 K h1 + V2/2 = hstagn. 1 Use table A.7, hstagn. = 3525.36 kJ/kg, h1 = 50 kJ/kg V2/2 = 3525.36 50 = 3475.4 kJ/kg 1 V1 = 2 3475.4 1000 = 2636 m/s (remember convert to J/kg = m2/s2)

17.21 Air leaves a compressor in a pipe with a stagnation temperature and pressure of 150C, 300 kPa, and a velocity of 125 m/s. The pipe has a cross-sectional area of 0.02 m2. Determine the static temperature and pressure and the mass flow rate. ho1 - h1 = V2/2 = 1252/2000 = 7.8125 kJ/kg 1 To1 - T1 = (ho1 - h1)/Cp = 7.8125/1.004 = 7.8 K T1 = To1 - T = 150 - 7.8 = 142.2 C = 415.4 K P1 = Po1(T1/To1)k/(k-1) = 300(415.4/423.15)3.5 = 281 kPa AV P1AV1 281.2(0.02)(125) . m = AV = v = RT = 0.287(415.4) = 5.9 kg/s

1

17.22 I drive down the highway at 110 km/h on a day with 25C, 101.3 kPa. I put my hand, cross sectional area 0.01 m2, flat out the window. What is the force on my hand and what temperature do I feel? The air stagnates on the hand surface : Use constant heat capacity Tstagn. = T1 + C = 25 + p V2/2 1 0.5 1102 (1000/3600)2 = 25.465C 1004 h1 + V2/2 = hstagn. 1

Assume a reversible adiabatic compression Pstagn. = P1 (Tstagn./T1)k/(k-1) = 101.3 (298.615/298.15)3.5 = 101.85 kPa

17.23 A stagnation pressure of 108 kPa is measured for an airflow where the pressure is 100 kPa and 20C in the approach flow. What is the incomming velocity? Assume a reversible adiabatic compression 108 To1 = T1 (Po1/P1)(k-1)/k = 293.15 (100)0.2857 = 299.67 K V2/2 = ho1 - h1 = Cp (To1 - T1) = 6.543 kJ/kg 1 V1 = 2 6.543 1000 = 114.4 m/s

1 2

cb

To the left a Pitot tube, blue inner tube measures stagnation pressure and yellow outer tube with holes in it measures static pressure. To the right is a stagnation point on a wall relative to the free stream flow at state 1.

17.24 A 4-cm inner diameter pipe has an inlet flow of 10 kg/s water at 20oC, 200 kPa. After a 90 degree bend as shown in Fig. P17.24, the exit flow is at 20oC, 190 kPa. Neglect gravitational effects and find the anchoring forces Fx and Fy. D = 0.04 m = 4 D2 = 0.001257 m2 . m 10 0.001002 Vavg = = 0.001257 = 7.971 m/s A Now we can do the x and y direction momentum equations for steady flow and the same magnitude of the velocity, but different directions X-dir: Y-dir: . . 0 = m Vavg 1 + Fx m 0 + (P1 Po) A . . 0 = m 0 + Fy m (Vavg 2) + (P2 Po) A

. Fx = m Vavg 1 (P1 Po) A = 10 7.97 100 0.001257 1000 = 205 N . Fy = m Vavg 2 (P2 Po) A = 10 7.97 90 0.001257 1000 = 193 N

Fy y x

Fx

17.25 A jet engine receives a flow of 150 m/s air at 75 kPa, 5C across an area of 0.6 m2 with an exit flow at 450 m/s, 75 kPa, 600 K. Find the mass flow rate and thrust. . m = AV; = P/RT 75 . m = (P/RT)AV = ( ) 0.6 150 = 0.9395 0.6 150 0.287 278.15 ideal gas = 84.555 kg/s . Fnet = m (Vex- Vin) = 84.555 (450 - 150) = 25 367 N

Inlet

High P

Low P exit

cb

Fnet The shaft must have axial load bearings to transmit thrust to aircraft.

17.26 How large a force must be applied to a squirt gun to have 0.1 kg/s water flow out at 20 m/s? What pressure inside the chamber is needed? d mV . F = dt = m V = 0.1 20 kg m/s2 = 2 N Eq.17.21: vP = 0.5 V

2

17.27 A jet engine at takeoff has air at 20oC, 100 kPa coming at 25 m/s through the 1.0 m diameter inlet. The exit flow is at 1200 K, 100 kPa, through the exit nozzle of 0.4 m diameter. Neglect the fuel flow rate and find the net force (thrust) on the engine. 1 = 4 D2 = 0.7854 m2; 2 = 4 D2 = 0.1257 m2

RT 0.287 293.15 v1 = P = = 0.8409 m3/kg; v2 = 3.444 m3/kg 100 0.7854 25 . m = AV/v = 1V1/v1 = 0.8409 = 48.0 kg/s . mv2 48.0 3.444 V2 = A = 0.1257 = 1315 m/s 2 Now we can do the x direction momentum equation for steady flow and the same mass flow rate in and out X-dir: . . 0 = m V1 + Fx + (P1 Po) A1 m V2 (P2 Po) A2

17.28 A water turbine using nozzles is located at the bottom of Hoover Dam 175 m below the surface of Lake Mead. The water enters the nozzles at a stagnation pressure corresponding to the column of water above it minus 20% due to losses. The temperature is 15C and the water leaves at standard atmospheric pressure. If the flow through the nozzle is reversible and adiabatic, determine the velocity and kinetic energy per kilogram of water leaving the nozzle. gZ 9.807 175 P = gZ = v = = 1714.5 kPa 0.001001 1000 Pac = 0.8 P = 1371.6 kPa

2 vP = Vex/2 Vex =

2vP

Vex =

2 Vex/2

17.29 A water cannon sprays 1 kg/s liquid water at a velocity of 100 m/s horizontally out from a nozzle. It is driven by a pump that receives the water from a tank at 15C, 100 kPa. Neglect elevation differences and the kinetic energy of the water flow in the pump and hose to the nozzle. Find the nozzle exit area, the required pressure out of the pump and the horizontal force needed to hold the cannon. 0.001001 . . m = AV = AV/v A = mv/V = 1 100 = 1.0 10-5 m2 . . . . 2 Wp = mwp = mv(Pex - Pin) = mVex/2

2 Pex = Pin + Vex/2v = 100 + 1002/2 1000 0.001 = 150 kPa . F = mVex = 1 100 = 100 N

17.30 An irrigation pump takes water from a lake and discharges it through a nozzle as shown in Fig. P17.30. At the pump exit the pressure is 700 kPa, and the temperature is 20C. The nozzle is located 10 m above the pump and the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. Assuming reversible flow through the system determine the velocity of the water leaving the nozzle. Assume we can neglect kinetic energy in the pipe in and out of the pump. Incompressible flow so Bernoulli's equation applies (V1 V2 V3 0) v(P3 - P2)+ (V2 - V2)/2 + g(Z3 - Z2) = 0 3 2 9.807(10) = 700 - 1000(0.001002) = 602 kPa v V2/2 = v(P3 - P4) 4 P3 = P2 V4 = 2v(P3 - P4) = 2 0.001002 502.1 1000 = 31.72 m/s g(Z3 - Z2)

17.31 A water tower on a farm holds 1 m3 liquid water at 20C, 100 kPa in a tank on top of a 5 m tall tower. A pipe leads to the ground level with a tap that can open a 1.5 cm diameter hole. Neglect friction and pipe losses, and estimate the time it will take to empty the tank for water. Incompressible flow so we can use Bernoulli Equation. Pe = Pi; Vi = 0; Ze = 0; Zi = H V2/2 = gZi Ve = 2gZ = e . m = AVe = AVe/v = m/t t = t = mv/AVe = V/AVe 1 = 571.6 sec = 9.53 min 1.77 10-4 9.9 2 9.807 5 = 9.9 m/s

17.32 Find the speed of sound for air at 100 kPa at the two temperatures 0C and 30C. Repeat the answer for carbon dioxide and argon gases. From eq. 17.28 we have c0 = kRT = c30 = c0 = c30 = c0 = c30 = 1.4 0.287 273.15 1000 = 331 m/s

For Carbon Dioxide: R = 0.1889 kJ/kg K, k = 1.289 1.289 0.1889 273.15 1000 = 257.9 m/s 1.289 0.1889 303.15 1000 = 271.7 m/s

For Argon: R = 0.2081 kJ/kg K, k = 1.667 1.667 0.2081 273.15 1000 = 307.8 m/s 1.667 0.2081 303.15 1000 = 324.3 m/s

17.33 Find the expression for the anchoring force Rx for an incompressible flow like in Figure 17.6. Show that it can be written as Vi Ve [(Pi Po)Ai + (Pe Po)Ae] Rx = Vi + Ve Apply the X-dir momentum equation for a steady flow . . 0 = Rx + (Pi Po)Ai - (Pe Po)Ae + mVi mVe Bernoulli equation for the flow is 0.5( Ve Vi ) + v (Pe Pi) = 0 Continuity equation gives . m = AiVi /v = AeVe /v Solve for Rx from the momentum equation . Rx = m (Ve Vi) + (Pe Po)Ae (Pi Po)Ai AiVi 2v (Pi - Pe) = v + (Pe Po)Ae (Pi Po)Ai Vi + Ve Multiply in and use continuity equation for second term Rx = = 2 [P A V PeAeVe ] + (Pe Po)Ae (Pi Po)Ai Vi + Ve i i i 2 [P A V PeAeVe + 1(Pe Po)AeVe 1(Pi Po)AiVi 2 2 + Ve i i i Vi + 2(Pe Po)AeVi 2(Pi Po)AiVe] Now put the first four terms together Rx = 2 [ 1(Pi Po)AiVi 1(Pe Po)AeVe 2 Vi + Ve 2 + 2(Pe Po)AeVi 2(Pi Po)AiVe] = = 2 [ 1(P Po)Ai(Vi Ve) + 1(Pe Po)Ae(Vi Ve)] 2 Vi + Ve 2 i Vi Ve [ (Pi Po)Ai + (Pe Po)Ae] Vi + Ve

1 1 1 1 2 2

Ve Vi =

2v (Pi - Pe) Vi + Ve

17.34 Estimate the speed of sound for steam directly from Eq. 17.25 and the steam tables for a state of 6 MPa, 400C. Use table values at 5 and 7 MPa at the same entropy as the wanted state. Eq. 17.25 is then done by finite difference. Find also the answer for the speed of sound assuming steam is an ideal gas. Eq.17.25: c2 = ( P )s = (P)s s = 6.5407 kJ/kg K

7 MPa, s v = 0.04205 m3/kg; = 1/v = 23.777 kg/m3 5 MPa, s v = 0.05467 m3/kg; = 1/v = 18.2909 kg/m3 7000 - 5000 c2 = 23.777 - 18.2909 = 364.56 1000 From Table A.8: Cp = c = 603.8 m/s

Cv = Cp - R = 2.0652 0.4615 = 1.6037 kJ/kg K k = Cp/Cv = 1.288; c = kRT = R = 0.4615 kJ/kg K (from A.5) Now do the speed of sound from Eq.17.28 1.288 0.4615 673.15 1000 = 632.6 m/s

c2 =

(P)s = -v (P)s v

2

Superheated vapor water at 400oC, 6000 kPa CATT3: v = 0.04739 m3/kg, s = 6.541 kJ/kg K At P = 6200 kPa & s = 6.541 kJ/kg K: T = 405.1oC, v = 0.0462 m3/kg At P = 5800 kPa & s = 6.541 kJ/kg K: T = 394.8oC, v = 0.04866 m3/kg 6.2 - 5.8 c2 = -(0.04739)2 0.0462 - 0.04866 => c = 604 m/s

) MJ = 0.36517 10 kg

m2/s2

Cv = Cp - R = 2.0652 0.4615 = 1.6037 kJ/kg K k = Cp/Cv = 1.288; c = kRT = Now do the speed of sound from Eq.17.28 1.288 0.4615 673.15 1000 = 632.6 m/s

17.36 If the sound of thunder is heard 5 seconds after the lightning is seen and the weather is 20C. How far away is the lightning taking place? The sound travels with the speed of sound in air (ideal gas). Use the formula in Eq.17.28 L = c t = kRT t = 1.4 0.287 293.15 1000 5 = 1716 m

For every 3 seconds after the lightning the sound travels about 1 km.

17.37 Find the speed of sound for carbon dioxide at 2500 kPa, 60oC using either the tables or the CATT3 software (same procedure as in Problem 17.34) and compare that with Eq.17.28. From Eq. 17.25: c2 =

(P)s = -v (P)s v

2

Superheated carbon dioxide at 60oC, 2500 kPa CATT3: v = 0.02291 m3/kg, s = 1.521 kJ/kg K At P = 2600 kPa & s = 1.521 kJ/kg K: T = 63.02oC, v = 0.02221 m3/kg At P = 2400 kPa & s = 1.521 kJ/kg K: T = 56.9oC, v = 0.02365 m3/kg 2.6 - 2.4 c2 = -(0.02291)2 0.02221 - 0.02365 => c = 270 m/s R = 0.1889 kJ/kg K

) MJ = 7.8983 10 kg

m2/s2

Now do the speed of sound from Eq.17.28 1.289 0.1889 333.15 1000 = 284.8 m/s

17.38 A jet flies at an altitude of 12 km where the air is at -40oC, 45 kPa with a velocity of 900 km/h. Find the Mach number and the stagnation temperature on the nose. From Table A.5: k = Cp/Cv = 1.4; c = kRT = R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

Now do the speed of sound from Eq.17.28 1.4 0.287 233.15 1000 = 306 m/s V = 900 km/h = 900 (km/h) 1000 (m/km) /3600 (s/h)= 250 m/s M = V / c = 250/306 = 0.817 h0 = h1 + V2/2 1 T0 = T1 + V2 / 2Cp = -45 + 1 2502 = -13.9oC 2 1004

17.39 The speed of sound in liquid water at 25oC is about 1500 m/s. Find the stagnation pressure and temperature for a M = 0.1 flow at 25oC, 100 kPa. Is it possible to get a significant mach number flow of liquid water? V = M c = 0.1 1500 = 150 m/s h0 = h1 + V2/2 1 Bernoulli Eq.: P = V2/2v = 1 1502 = 11.25 106 Pa = 11.25 MPa 2 0.001 1502 = 27.7oC 2 4180

Remark: Notice the very high pressure. To get a higher velocity you need a higher pressure to accelerate the fluid, that is not feasible for any large flow rate.

17.40 Steam flowing at 15 m/s 1800 kPa, 300oC expands to 1600 kPa in a converging nozzle. Find the exit velocity and area ratio Ae / Ai. Solve the problem with the steam tables. Inlet state: vi = 0.14021 m3/kg, hi = 3029.21 kJ/kg, si = 6.8226 kJ/kg-K Exit state: (Pe,se = si) ve = 0.15371 m3/kg, he = 3000.995 kJ/kg Energy Eq.: V2 / 2 + hi = V2 / 2 + he ; i e V2 = V2 + 2(hi he) e i

Ve = 15 15 + 2000(3029.21 3000.995) = 238 m/s Same mass flow rate so 0.15371 15 Ae/Ai = (ve/vi)(Vi/Ve) = 0.14021 238 = 0.06909 If we solved as ideal gas with constant specific heat we get (k = 1.327) Te = Ti (Pe/Pi)

(k-1)/k 0.2464

= 573.15 (1600/1800)

= 556.76 K

15 15 + 2 1872(573.15 556.76)

17.41 A convergent nozzle has a minimum area of 0.1 m2 and receives air at 175 kPa, 1000 K flowing with 100 m/s. What is the back pressure that will produce the maximum flow rate and find that flow rate? P* 2 k = (k+1)k-1 = 0.528 Po Find Po: h0 = h1 + V2/2 = 1046.22 + 1002/2000 = 1051.22 kJ/kg 1 T0 = Ti + 4.4 = 1004.4 K from table A.7 P0 = Pi (T0/Ti)k/(k-1) = 175 (1004.4/1000)3.5 = 177.71 kPa The mass flow rate comes from the throat properties P* = 0.528 Po = 0.528 177.71 = 93.83 kPa T* = 0.8333 To = 836.97 K * = P* 93.83 3 * = 0.287 836.97 = 0.3906 kg/m RT Critical Pressure Ratio

V = c = kRT* = 1.4 1000 0.287 836.97 = 579.9 m/s . m = AV = 0.3906 0.1 579.9 = 22.65 kg/s

17.42 A convergent-divergent nozzle has a throat area of 100 mm2 and an exit area of 175 mm2. The inlet flow is helium at a stagnation pressure of 1 MPa, stagnation temperature of 375 K. What is the back pressure that will give sonic condition at the throat, but subsonic everywhere else? For this flow we have helium with kHe = 1.667, so we cannot use the tables for air. We need the solution to the curve labeled c in Fig. 17.13. For critical flow at the throat we have from Table 16.1 last column P* = 0.4867 Po = 486.7 kPa Now we need to find the conditions where the area ratio is AE/A* = 175/100 = 1.75 that is solve for M in Eq. 17.43 given the area ratio. This is nonlinear so we have to iterate on it. Here (k+1)/2(k-1) = 2 so look also at Fig. 17.10 for the general shape. M = 0.4 A/A* = (1/0.4) [ 0.75(1 + 0.3333*0.42) ]2 = 1.5602 M = 0.3 A/A* = (1/0.3) [ 0.75(1 + 0.3333*0.32) ]2 = 1.9892 M = 0.35 A/A* = (1/0.35) [ 0.75(1 + 0.3333*0.352) ]2 = 1.7410 M = 0.34 A/A* = (1/0.34) [ 0.75(1 + 0.3333*0.342) ]2 = 1.7844 Now do a linear interpolation for the rest to get ME = 0.348 ; Eq. 17.35 PE/Po = [1 + 0.3333*0.3482 ]-2.5 = 0.9058 PE = 0.9058 1000 = 906 kPa

17.43 To what pressure should the steam in problem 17.40 expand to reach Mach one? Use constant specific heats to solve. Find stagnation properties T0 = T1 + V2/2Cp = 573.15 + 152/(2 1872) = 573.21 K 1 P0 = P1 (T0/T1)k/(k-1) = 1800 (573.21/573.15) From Eq.17.35 we get ( k = 1.327)

k/(k1) 4.058 k-1 P = P0 [ 1 + 2 M2 ] = 1800.765 [1 + 0.1635] = 974 kPa

4.058

= 1800.765 kPa

17.44 A jet plane travels through the air with a speed of 1000 km/h at an altitude of 6 km, where the pressure is 40 kPa and the temperature is 12C. Consider the inlet diffuser of the engine where air leaves with a velocity of 100 m/s. Determine the pressure and temperature leaving the diffuser, and the ratio of inlet to exit area of the diffuser, assuming the flow to be reversible and adiabatic. V = 1000 km/h = 277.8 m/s, h1 = 261.48 kJ/kg, ho1 = 261.48 + 277.82/2000 = 300.07 kJ/kg To1 = 299.7 K, Po1 = P1 (To1/T1)k/(k-1) = 40 (299.7/261.15)3.5 = 64.766 kPa h2 = 300.07 - 1002/2000 = 295.07 kJ/kg T2 = 294.7 K, v1 = RT/P = 0.287 261.15/40 = 1.874 m3/kg

P2 = Po1 (T2/To1)k/(k-1) = 64.766 (294.7/299.7)3.5 = 61 kPa v2 = RT2/P2 = 0.287 294.7/61 = 1.386 m3/kg A1/A2 = (v1/v2)(V2/V1) = (1.874/1.386)(100/277.8) = 0.487

17.45 Air flows into a convergent-divergent nozzle with an exit area of 1.59 times the throat area of 0.005 m2. The inlet stagnation state is 1 MPa, 600 K. Find the backpressure that will cause subsonic flow throughout the entire nozzle with M = 1 at the throat. What is the mass flow rate? This corresponds to case c and is a reversible flow. AE/A* = 1.59 Look at top in Table A.12 (M < 1)

ME = 0.4 and PE/Po = 0.8956 PE = 0.8956 Po = 0.8956 1000 = 896 kPa To find the mass flow rate we need the throat conditions, see Table 17.1, 2 T* = T k+1 = 600 0.8333 = 500 K v* = RT*/P* = 0.287 500 / 528.3 = 0.2716 m3/kg c* = kRT* = 1.4 0.287 500 1000 = 448.22 m/s 0.005 448.22 . m = A*c*/v* = = 8.251 kg/s 0.2716

17.46 A nozzle is designed assuming reversible adiabatic flow with an exit Mach number of 2.6 while flowing air with a stagnation pressure and temperature of 2 MPa and 150C, respectively. The mass flow rate is 5 kg/s, and k may be assumed to be 1.40 and constant. Determine the exit pressure, temperature, exit area, and the throat area. From Table A.12: ME = 2.6

PE = 2.0 0.05012 = 0.1002 MPa Critical properties from Table 17.1 T* = 423.15 0.8333 = 352.7 K P* = 2.0 0.5283 = 1.057 MPa c* = 1.4 1000 0.287 352.7 = 376.5 m/s v* = RT*/P* = 0.287 352.7/1057 = 0.0958 m3/kg . A* = m v* / c* = 5 0.0958 / 376.5 = 1.272 10-3m2 AE = A* (AE/A*) = 1.272 10-3 2.896 = 3.68 10-3m2 TE = To (TE / To) = 423.15 0.42517 = 179.9 K

17.47 An air flow at 600 kPa, 600 K, M = 0.2 flows into a convergent-divergent nozzle with M = 1 at the throat. Assume a reversible flow with an exit area twice the throat area and find the exit pressure and temperature for subsonic exit flow to exist. To find these properties we need the stagnation properties from the inlet state From Table A.12: Mi = 0.2: Pi/Po = 0.9725, Ti/To = 0.99206 AE/A* = 2 Po = 600 / 0.9725 = 616.97 kPa, To = 600 / 0.99206 = 604.8 K This flow is case c in Figure 17.13. From Table A.12: PE/Po = 0.9360, TE/To = 0.98127 PE = 0.9360 Po = 0.936 616.97 = 577.484 kPa TE = 0.98127 To = 0.98127 604.8 = 593.5 K

17.48 Air at 150 kPa, 290 K expands to the atmosphere at 100 kPa through a convergent nozzle with exit area of 0.01 m2. Assume an ideal nozzle. What is the percent error in mass flow rate if the flow is assumed incompressible? Pe k-1 Te = Ti ( P ) k = 258.28 K

i

V2/2 = hi - he = Cp (Ti - Te) = 1.004 (290 - 258.28) = 31.83 kJ/kg e Ve = 252.3 m/s; RTe 0.287 258.28 ve = P = = 0.7412 m3/kg 100 e

0.01 252.3 . m = AVe / ve = 0.7413 = 3.4 kg/s Incompressible Flow: vi = RT/P = 0.287 290/150 = 0.55487 m3/kg V2/2 = v P = vi (Pi - Pe) = 0.55487 (150 - 100) = 27.74 kJ/kg e . => Ve = 235 m/s => m = AVe / vi = 0.01 235 / 0.55487 = 4.23 kg/s . m incompressible 4.23 . = 3.4 = 1.25 about 25% overestimation. mcompressible

17.49 Find the exit pressure and temperature for supersonic exit flow to exist in the nozzle flow of Problem 17.47. We assume a reversible as the possibility which is case d in Figure 17.13. To find these properties we need the stagnation properties from the inlet state From Table A.12: Mi = 0.2: Pi/Po = 0.9725, Ti/To = 0.99206 Po = 600 / 0.9725 = 616.97 kPa, To = 600 / 0.99206 = 604.8 K From Table A.12: AE/A* 2, PE/Po = 0.09352, TE/To = 0.50813 PE = 0.09352 Po = 0.09352 616.97 = 57.7 kPa TE = 0.50813 To = 0.50813 604.8 = 307.3 K This is significant lower P and T, but then we also have M = 2.2

17.50 Air is expanded in a nozzle from a stagnation state of 2 MPa, 600 K to a backpressure of 1.9 MPa. If the exit cross-sectional area is 0.003 m2, find the mass flow rate. This corresponds to case c and is a reversible flow. PE/Pox = 1.9/2.0 = 0.95 Table A.12: ME = 0.268 TE = (T/To)E To = 0.9854 600 = 591.2 K cE = kRTE = 1.4 1000 0.287 591.2 = 487.4 m/s VE = MEcE = 0.268 487.4 = 130.6 m/s vE = RT/P = 0.287 591.2/1900 = 0.0893 m3/kg . m = AEVE/vE = 0.002435 130.6/0.0893 = 3.561 kg/s

17.51 A 1-m3 insulated tank contains air at 1 MPa, 560 K. The tank is now discharged through a small convergent nozzle to the atmosphere at 100 kPa. The nozzle has an exit area of 2 105 m2. a. Find the initial mass flow rate out of the tank. b. Find the mass flow rate when half the mass has been discharged. a. The back pressure ratio: PB/Po1 = 100/1000 = 0.1 < (P*/Po)crit = 0.5283 so the initial flow is choked with the maximum possible flow rate. ME = 1 ; PE = 0.5283 1000 = 528.3 kPa TE = T* = 0.8333 560 = 466.7 K VE = c = kRT* = 1.4 1000 0.287 466.7 = 433 m/s vE = RT*/PE = 0.287 466.7/528.3 = 0.2535 m3/kg . m1 = AVE/vE = 2 105 433/0.2535 = 0.0342 kg/s b. The initial mass is m1 = P1V/RT1 = 1000 1/(0.287 560) = 6.222 kg with a mass at state 2 as m2 = m1/2 = 3.111 kg. Assume an adiabatic reversible expansion of the mass that remains in the tank. P2 = P1(v1/v2)k = 100 0.51.4 = 378.9 kPa T2 = T1(v1/v2)k-1 = 560 0.50.4 = 424 K The pressure ratio is still less than critical and the flow thus choked. PB/Po2 = 100/378.9 = 0.264 < (P*/Po)crit ME = 1 ; PE = 0.5283 378.9 = 200.2 kPa TE = T* = 0.8333 424 = 353.7 K VE = c = kRT* = 1.4 1000 0.287 353.7 = 377 m/s 210-5(377)(200.2) . m2 = AVEPE/RTE = = 0.0149 kg/s 0.287(353.7)

17.52 A convergent-divergent nozzle has a throat diameter of 0.05 m and an exit diameter of 0.1 m. The inlet stagnation state is 500 kPa, 500 K. Find the back pressure that will lead to the maximum possible flow rate and the mass flow rate for three different gases as: air; hydrogen or carbon dioxide. There is a maximum possible flow when M = 1 at the throat, 2 2 k 2 1 T* = k+1 To; P* = Po (k+1)k-1; * = o (k+1)k-1 . m = *A*V = *A*c = P*A* k/RT* A* = D2/4 = 0.001963 m2 k 1.400 1.409 1.289 T* 416.7 415.1 436.9 P* 264.1 263.4 273.9 c 448.2 1704.5 348.9 * 2.209 0.154 3.318 . m 1.944 0.515 2.273

a) b) c)

AE/A* = (DE/D*)2 = 4. There are 2 possible solutions corresponding to points c and d in Fig. 17.13 and Fig. 17.17. For these we have Subsonic solution Supersonic solution ME PE/Po ME PE/Po a) b) c) 0.1466 0.1464 0.1483 0.985 0.985 0.986 2.940 2.956 2.757 0.0298 0.0293 0.0367

PB = PE 0.985 500 = 492.5 kPa all cases point c a) b) c) PB = PE = 0.0298 500 = 14.9 kPa, point d PB = PE = 0.0293 500 = 14.65 kPa, point d PB = PE = 0.0367 500 = 18.35 kPa, point d

17.53 Air is expanded in a nozzle from a stagnation state of 2 MPa, 600 K, to a static pressure of 200 kPa. The mass flow rate through the nozzle is 5 kg/s. Assume the flow is reversible and adiabatic and determine the throat and exit areas for the nozzle.

Mach # Velocity Area 2.0 MPa P Density 0.2 MPa

2 k P* = Po k+1k-1 = 2 0.5283 = 1.056 MPa 2 T* = To k+1 = 600 0.8333 = 500 K v* = RT*/P* = 0.287 500/1056 = 0.1359 m3/kg

c* =

1.4 1000 0.287 500 = 448.2 m/s . * * A* = mv /c = 5 0.1359/448.2 = 0.00152 m2 M* = 1.701 = V2/c* 2

kRT* =

Column with mach no. based on throat speed of sound. V2 = 1.701 448.2 = 762.4 m/s T2 = To (T2/To) = 600 0.5176 = 310.56 K v2 = RT2/P2 = 0.287 310.56/200 = 0.4456 m3/kg . A2 = mv2/V2 = 5 0.4456 / 762.4 = 0.00292 m2

17.54 Air flows into a convergent-divergent nozzle with an exit area of 2.0 times the throat area of 0.005 m2. The inlet stagnation state is 1 MPa, 600 K. Find the backpressure that will cause a reversible supersonic exit flow with M = 1 at the throat. What is the mass flow rate? This flow is case d in Fig.17.17 the only reversible supersonic flow. AE/A* = 2 see Table A.12 (M > 1) ME = 2.2 and PE/Po = 0.09399 PE = 0.09399 1000 = 94 kPa To find the mass flow rate we need the throat conditions, see Table 17.1, 2 T* = T k+1 = 600 0.8333 = 500 K

k * = P 2 k-1 = 1000 (0.833333)3.5 = 528.3 kPa P o k+1

* =

17.55 What is the exit pressure that will allow a reversible subsonic exit flow in the previous problem? This flow is case c in Fig.17.17 (and c in Fig. 17.13) the only reversible subsonic flow with M = 1 at the throat. AE/A* = 2 see Table A.12 (M < 1) PE/Po = 0.9360, TE/To = 0.98127 PE = 0.9360 Po = 0.936 1000 = 936 kPa ( TE = 0.98127 To = 0.98127 600 = 588.8 K )

17.56 A flow of helium flows at 500 kPa, 500 K with 100 m/s into a convergentdivergent nozzle. Find the throat pressure and temperature for reversible flow and M = 1 at the throat. We need to find the stagnation properties first ( k = 1.667 ) T0 = T1 + V2/2Cp = 500 + 1002/(2 5193) = 500.963 K 1 P0 = P1 (T0/T1)k/(k-1) = 500 (500.963/500) From the analysis we get Eqs.17.37-38 2 2 k/(k-1) 2.5 P* = P0 k + 1 = 502.41 1.667 + 1 = 244.7 kPa 2 2 T* = T0 k + 1 = 500.963 1.667 + 1 = 375.7 K

2.5

= 502.41 kPa

17.57 Assume the same tank and conditions as in Problem 17.51. After some flow out the nozzle flow changes to become subsonic. Find the mass in the tank and the mass flow rate out at that instant. The initial mass is m1 = P1V/RT1 = 1000 1/(0.287 560) = 6.222 kg The flow changes to subsonic when the pressure ratio reaches critical. PB/Po3 = 0.5283 Po3 = 189.3 kPa v1/v3 = (Po3/P1)1/k = (189.3/1000)0.7143 = 0.3046 m3 = m1v1/v3 = 6.222 0.3046 = 1.895 kg T3 = T1(v1/v3)k-1 = 560 0.30460.4 = 348 K PE = PB = 100 kPa ; ME = 1 TE = 0.8333 348 = 290 K ; VE = kRTE = 341.4 m/s 210-5(341.4)(100) . m3 = AVEPE/RTE = = 0.0082 kg/s 0.287(290)

AIR P e

cb

17.58

A given convergent nozzle operates so it is choked with stagnation inlet flow properties of 400 kPa, 400 K. To increase the flow, a reversible adiabatic compressor is added before the nozzle to increase the stagnation flow pressure to 500 kPa. What happens to the flow rate? Since the nozzle is choked the mass flow rate is given by Eq.17.42. The compressor changes the stagnation pressure and temperature. Isentropic: Po new = Po rp and To new = To (rp)

k-1 k k+1

Po new / To new = (rp) 2k [Po / To] so the mass flow rate is multiplied with the factor k+1 5002.4 2k = 4002.8 = 1.21 (rp )

17.59

A 1-m3 uninsulated tank contains air at 1 MPa, 560 K. The tank is now discharged through a small convergent nozzle to the atmosphere at 100 kPa while heat transfer from some source keeps the air temperature in the tank at 560 K. The nozzle has an exit area of 2 105 m2. a. Find the initial mass flow rate out of the tank. b. Find the mass flow rate when half the mass has been discharged. a. Same solution as in 16.52 a) b. From solution 16.52 b) we have m2 = m1/2 = 3.111 kg P2 = P1/2 = 500 kPa ; T2 = T1 ; PB/P2 = 100/500 = 0.2 < (P*/Po)crit The flow is choked and the velocity is: TE = T* = 0.8333 560 = 466.7 K

VE = c =

kRT* =

AIR P e

cb

17.60

Assume the same tank and conditions as in Problem 17.59. After some flow out the nozzle flow changes to become subsonic. Find the mass in the tank and the mass flow rate out at that instant. The initial mass is m1 = P1V/RT1 = 1000 1/(0.287 560) = 6.222 kg Flow changes to subsonic when the pressure ratio reaches critical. PB/Po = 0.5283 ; P3 = Po = PB/0.5283 = 100/0.5283 = 189.3 kPa m3 = m1P3/P1 = 1.178 kg ; T3 = T1 TE = T* = 0.8333 560 = 466.7 K

VE = c =

kRT* =

Normal Shocks

17.61

The products of combustion, use air, enter a convergent nozzle of a jet engine at a total pressure of 125 kPa, and a total temperature of 650C. The atmospheric pressure is 45 kPa and the flow is adiabatic, with a rate of 25 kg/s. Determine the exit area of the nozzle. The critical pressure Table 17.1: Pcrit = P2 = 125 0.5283 = 66 kPa > Pamb The flow is then choked.

V2 = c2 =

17.62

Redo the previous problem for a mixture with k = 1.3 and molecular mass of 31. The critical pressure Table 17.1: Pcrit = P2 = 125 0.5457 = 68.2 kPa > Pamb The flow is then choked. T2 = 923.15 0.8696 = 802.8 K The gas constant is R = 8.31451 / 31 = 0.2682 kJ/kg-K

V2 = c2 =

17.63

At what Mach number will the normal shock occur in the nozzle of Problem 17.52 flowing with air if the back pressure is halfway between the pressures at c and d in Fig. 17.17? First find the two pressures that will give exit at c and d. See solution to 16.8 a) AE/A* = (DE/D*) = 4 For case c: Actual case:

2

PE = 492.5 kPa

* Ax/Ay = 1.298

ME = 0.2807 ;

PE/Poy = 0.94675

PE = (PE/Poy) (Poy/Pox) Pox = 0.94675 0.54015 500 = 255.7 kPa Repeat if Mx = 2.5

17.64

Consider the nozzle of Problem 17.53 and determine what back pressure will cause a normal shock to stand in the exit plane of the nozzle. This is case g in Fig. 17.17. What is the mass flow rate under these conditions? We assume reversible flow up to the shock Table A.12: PE/Po = 200/2000 = 0.1 ; ME = 2.1591 = Mx Shock functions Table A.13: My = 0.5529 ; Py/Px = 5.275 PB = Py = 5.275 Px = 5.275 200 = 1055 kPa . m = 5 kg/s same as in Problem 17.53 since M = 1 at throat.

17.65

A normal shock in air has upstream total pressure of 500 kPa, stagnation temperature of 500 K and Mx = 1.2. Find the downstream stagnation pressure. From the normal shock relations in Section 17.8 found in Table A.13 we get

Mx = 1.2:

Po y/Po x = 0.9928

Po y = 0.9928 Po x = 0.9928 500 = 496.4 kPa Remark: The stagnation temperature would be unchanged (energy equation).

17.66

How much entropy per kg flow is generated in the shock in Example 17.9? The change in entropy is Ty Py sgen = sy - sx = Cp ln T R ln P

x x

= 1.004 ln 1.32 - 0.287 ln 2.4583 = 0.27874 0.25815 = 0.0206 kJ/kg K Notice that function could have been tabulated also.

17.67

Consider the diffuser of a supersonic aircraft flying at M = 1.4 at such an altitude that the temperature is 20C, and the atmospheric pressure is 50 kPa. Consider two possible ways in which the diffuser might operate, and for each case calculate the throat area required for a flow of 50 kg/s. a. The diffuser operates as reversible adiabatic with subsonic exit velocity. b. A normal shock stands at the entrance to the diffuser. Except for the normal shock the flow is reversible and adiabatic, and the exit velocity is subsonic. This is shown in Fig. P17.67. a. Assume a convergent-divergent diffuser with M = 1 at the throat. Relate the inlet state to the sonic state P1/Po = 0.31424 ; P*/Po1 = 0.5283 0.5283 0.8333 P* = 0.31424 50 = 84 kPa ; T* = 0.71839; 253.2 = 293.7 K c* = kRT* = 1.4 1000 0.287 293.7 = 343.5 m/s v* = RT*/P* = 0.287 293.7/84 = 1.0035 m3/kg b.

. A* = mv*/c* = 50 1.0035/343.5 = 0.1461 m2 Across the shock we have

My = 0.7397 ; Py = 50 2.12 = 106 kPa ; Ty = 253.2 1.2547 = 317.7 K 0.5283 P* = 0.6952 106 = 80.6 kPa 0.8333 T* = 0.9011 317.7 = 293.7 K, c* = 343.5 m/s v* = 0.287 293.7/80.6 = 1.0458 m3/kg A* = 50 1.0458/343.5 = 0.1522 m2

17.68

A flow into a normal shock in air has a total pressure 400 kPa, stagnation temperature of 600 K and Mx = 1.2. Find the upstream temperature Tx, the specific entropy generation in the shock and the downstream velocity. From Table A.12:

Mx = 1.2 has

Tx = 0.7764 To = 0.7764 600 K = 465.84 K From Table A.13: Ty/Tx = 1.128, Py/Px = 1.5133, My = 0.84217 The change in entropy is Ty Py sgen = sy - sx = Cp ln T R ln P x x = 1.004 ln 1.128 - 0.287 ln 1.5133 = 0.12093 0.11890 = 0.00203 kJ/kg K From the shock relations we had Ty = 1.128 Tx = 1.128 465.84 K = 525.47 K

Vy = My cy = My

kRTy = 0.84217

17.69

Consider the nozzle in problem 17.42 flowing air. What should the backpressure be for a normal shock to stand at the exit plane? This is case g in Fig.17.17. What is the exit velocity after the shock? Reversible flow up to the shock with M = 1 at the throat. Px o = Po, Tx o = To, Table A.12: AE/A* = 175 / 100 = 1.75

Now we can do the normal shock from Table A.13 Mx = 2.042 My = 0.5704, Py/Px = 4.6984, Ty/Tx = 1.7219 Ty = 1.7219 Tx = 1.7219 0.5454 Tx o = 1.7219 0.5454 375 = 352.2 K Py = 4.6984 Px = 4.6984 0.12 Px o = 4.6984 0.12 1000 = 563.8 kPa

Vy = My cy = My

kRTy = 0.5704

Mx My A* AE

17.70

Find the specific entropy generation in the shock of the previous Problem. Reversible flow up to the shock with M = 1 at the throat. Px o = Po, Tx o = To, Table A.12: AE/A* = 175 / 100 = 1.75

Now we can do the normal shock from Table A.13 Mx = 2.042 My = 0.5704, Py/Px = 4.6984, Ty/Tx = 1.7219 The change in entropy is Ty Py sgen = sy - sx = Cp ln T R ln P

x x

17.71

Steam at 600 kPa, 300C is fed to a set of convergent nozzles in a steam turbine. The total nozzle exit area is 0.005 m2 and they have a discharge coefficient of 0.94. The mass flow rate should be estimated from the measurement of the pressure drop across the nozzles, which is measured to be 200 kPa. Determine the mass flow rate. Inlet B.1.3 Exit: (Pe, se,s) hi = 3061.6 kJ/kg, si = 7.3724 kJ/kg K Pe = Pi 200 = 400 kPa, se,s = si = 7.3724 kJ/kg K

he,s = 2961 kJ/kg and ve,s = 0.5932 m3/kg, Ve,s = 2 1000(3061.6 - 2961) = 448.55 m/s . ms = AVe,s/ve,s = 0.005 448.55/0.5932 = 3.781 kg/s . . ma = CDms = 0.94 3.781 = 3.554 kg/s

17.72

Air enters a diffuser with a velocity of 200 m/s, a static pressure of 70 kPa, and a temperature of 6C. The velocity leaving the diffuser is 60 m/s and the static pressure at the diffuser exit is 80 kPa. Determine the static temperature at the diffuser exit and the diffuser efficiency. Compare the stagnation pressures at the inlet and the exit. Stagnation T at the inlet To1 = T1 + V2/2Cp = 267.15 + 2002/(2000 1.004) = 287.1 K 1 Energy Eq. gives the same stagnation T at exit To2 = To1 T2 = To2 - V2/2Cp = 287.1 - 602/(2000 1.004) = 285.3 K 2 To1 - T1 T1 To2 - T2 T2

ex

k-1 Po1 - P1 = k P1

Po1 - P1 = 18.25 Po1 = 88.3 kPa Po2 - P2 = 1.77 Po2 = 81.8 kPa

k - 1 Po2 - P2 = k P2

ex

17.73

V = 1000 km/h = 277.8 m/s,

To1 = 299.7 K,

Po1 = P1 (To1/T1)k/(k-1) = 40 (299.7/261.15)3.5 = 64.766 kPa Same as problem 17.44, except D = 0.80. We thus have from 17.44 ho1 - h1 = 300.07 - 261.48 = 0.8

h3 = 292.35 kJ/kg, T3 = 291.9 K

h 01 02 3 2 1 s

h3 - h1

h3 - 261.48

Po2 = P3 = P1 (3/1)k/(k-1) = 40 (291.9/261.15)3.5 = 59.06 kPa To2 = To1 = 299.7 K h2 = 300.07 - 1002/2000 = 295.07 kJ/kg

T2 = 294.7 K,

P2 = Po2 (T2/To1)k/(k-1) = 59.06 (294.7/299.7)3.5 = 55.68 kPa v2 = RT2/P2 = 0.287 294.7/55.68 = 1.519 m3/kg A1/A2 = (v1/v2)(V2/V1) = (1.874/1.519) (100/277.8) = 0.444

17.74

A sharp-edged orifice is used to measure the flow of air in a pipe. The pipe diameter is 100 mm and the diameter of the orifice is 25 mm. Upstream of the orifice, the absolute pressure is 150 kPa and the temperature is 35C. The pressure drop across the orifice is 15 kPa, and the coefficient of discharge is 0.62. Determine the mass flow rate in the pipeline. 0.4 15 k-1P T = Ti k P = 308.15 1.4 150 = 8.8 K i vi = RTi/Pi = 0.5896 m3/kg Pe = 135 kPa, Te = 299.35 K, ve = 0.6364 m3/kg . . mi = me Vi / Ve = (De/Di)2 vi/ve = 0.0579 hi - he = V2(1 - 0.05792)/2 = Cp(Ti - Te) e

Ve s = 2 1000 1.004 8.8/(1 - 0.0579)2 = 133.1 m/s . m = CD AV/v = 0.62 (/4) (0.025)2 133.1 / 0.6364 = 0.06365 kg/s

17.75

A critical nozzle is used for the accurate measurement of the flow rate of air. Exhaust from a car engine is diluted with air so its temperature is 50C at a total pressure of 100 kPa. It flows through the nozzle with throat area of 700 mm2 by suction from a blower. Find the needed suction pressure that will lead to critical flow in the nozzle and the mass flow rate. P* = 0.5283 Po = 52.83 kPa, T* = 0.8333 To = 269.3 K v* = RT*/P* = 0.287 269.3/52.83 = 1.463 m3/kg c* = kRT* = 1.4 1000 0.287 269.3 = 328.9 m/s . m = Ac*/v* = 700 10-6 328.9/1.463 = 0.157 kg/s

17.76

Air is expanded in a nozzle from 700 kPa, 200C, to 150 kPa in a nozzle having an efficiency of 90%. The mass flow rate is 4 kg/s. Determine the exit area of the nozzle, the exit velocity, and the increase of entropy per kilogram of air. Compare these results with those of a reversible adiabatic nozzle. T2s = T1(P2/P1)(k-1)/k = 473.2 (150/700)0.286 = 304.6 K

V2s2 = 2 1000 1.004(473.2 - 304.6) = 338400 J/kg V22 = 0.9 338400 V2 = 552 m/s

h2 + V2/2 = h1 T2 = T1 - V2/2Cp 2 2 T2 = 473.2 - 5522/(2 1000 1.004) = 321.4 K ; v2 = 0.287 321.4/150 = 0.6149 m3/kg A2 = 4 0.6149/552 = 0.00446 m2 = 4460 mm2

321.4 150 s2 - s1 = 1.0035 ln473.2 - 0.287 ln700 = 0.0539 kJ/kg K

17.77

Steam at a pressure of 1 MPa and temperature of 400C expands in a nozzle to a pressure of 200 kPa. The nozzle efficiency is 90% and the mass flow rate is 10 kg/s. Determine the nozzle exit area and the exit velocity. First do the ideal reversible adiabatic nozzle s2s= s1= 7.4651 kJ/kg K, h1= 3263.9 kJ/kg

T2s = 190.4C ; h2s = 2851 kJ/kg

Now the actual nozzle can be calculated h1 - h2ac = D(h1 - h2s) = 0.9(3263.9 - 2851) = 371.6 kJ/kg h2ac = 2892.3 kJ/kg, T2 = 210.9C, v2 = 1.1062 m3/kg

V2 = 2000(3263.9 - 2892.3) = 862 m/s . A2 = mv2/V2 = 10 1.1062/862 = 0.01283 m2

17.78

Steam at 800 kPa, 350C flows through a convergent-divergent nozzle that has a throat area of 350 mm2. The pressure at the exit plane is 150 kPa and the exit velocity is 800 m/s. The flow from the nozzle entrance to the throat is reversible and adiabatic. Determine the exit area of the nozzle, the overall nozzle efficiency, and the entropy generation in the process. ho1 = 3161.7 kJ/kg, so1 = 7.4089 kJ/kg K P*/Po1 = (2/(k+1))k/(k-1) = 0.54099 P* = 432.7 kPa At *: (P*,s* = so1) h* = 2999.3 kJ/kg, v* = 0.5687 m3/kg

h = V2/2 V* = 2000(3161.7-2999.3) = 569.9 m/s . m = AV*/v* = 350 10-6 569.9/0.5687 = 0.3507 kg/s

he = ho1 - V2/2 = 3161.7 - 8002/2 1000 = 2841.7 kJ/kg e Exit: Pe, he: ve = 1.395 m3/kg, se = 7.576 kJ/kg K . Ae = mve/Ve = 0.3507 1.395/800 = 6.115 10-4 m2 sgen = se - so1 = 7.576 - 7.4089 = 0.167 kJ/kg K

17.79

A convergent nozzle with exit diameter of 2 cm has an air inlet flow of 20C, 101 kPa (stagnation conditions). The nozzle has an isentropic efficiency of 95% and the pressure drop is measured to 50 cm water column. Find the mass flow rate assuming compressible adiabatic flow. Repeat calculation for incompressible flow. Convert P to kPa:

P = 50 cm H2O = 0.5 9.8064 = 4.903 kPa

0

Ve 2 /2 = Ve2s/2 = 0.95 4154.5 = 3946.78 ac

Ve ac = 88.85 m/s

Te ac = Ti -

Ve 2 /2 ac Cp

Pe e ac = RT =

p

17.80

The coefficient of discharge of a sharp-edged orifice is determined at one set of conditions by use of an accurately calibrated gasometer. The orifice has a diameter of 20 mm and the pipe diameter is 50 mm. The absolute upstream pressure is 200 kPa and the pressure drop across the orifice is 82 mm of mercury. The temperature of the air entering the orifice is 25C and the mass flow rate measured with the gasometer is 2.4 kg/min. What is the coefficient of discharge of the orifice at these conditions?

P = 82 101.325/760 = 10.93 kPa 0.4 k-1 T = Ti k P/Pi = 298.15 1.4 10.93/200 = 4.66 vi = RTi/Pi = 0.4278 m3/kg, ve = RTe/Pe = 0.4455 m3/kg Vi = VeAevi/Aive = 0.1536 Ve

Ve =

17.81

A convergent nozzle is used to measure the flow of air to an engine. The atmosphere is at 100 kPa, 25C. The nozzle used has a minimum area of 2000 mm2 and the coefficient of discharge is 0.95. A pressure difference across the nozzle is measured to 2.5 kPa. Find the mass flow rate assuming incompressible flow. Also find the mass flow rate assuming compressible adiabatic flow. Assume Vi 0, vi = RTi/Pi = 0.287 298.15/100 = 0.8557 m3/kg Incompressible flow: Ve,s2/2 = hi - he,s = vi(Pi - Pe) = 2.1393 kJ/kg

Ve,s = 2 1000 2.1393 = 65.41 m/s . ms = AVe,s/vi = 2000 10-6 65.41/0.8557 = 0.153 kg/s . . ma = CDms = 0.1454 kg/s

h = CpT = 1.0035 2.15 = 2.1575 = Ve,s2/2 Ve,s =

ve,s = 0.287 296/97.5 = 0.8713 m3/kg . ms = AVe,s/ve,s = 2000 10-6 65.69/0.8713 = 0.1508 kg/s . . ma = CDms = 0.1433 kg/s

Review Problems

17.82

Atmospheric air is at 20C, 100 kPa with zero velocity. An adiabatic reversible compressor takes atmospheric air in through a pipe with cross-sectional area of 0.1 m2 at a rate of 1 kg/s. It is compressed up to a measured stagnation pressure of 500 kPa and leaves through a pipe with cross-sectional area of 0.01 m2. What are the required compressor work and the air velocity, static pressure, and temperature in the exit pipeline? C.V. compressor out to standing air and exit to stagnation point.

. . . . m ho1 + W c = m(h + V2/2)ex = mho,ex . . mso1 = mso,ex Pr,o,ex = Pr,o1

To,ex = 463 K, ho,ex = 465.38 kJ/kg, ho1 = 209.45 kJ/kg . . Wc = m(ho,ex - ho1) = 1(465.38 - 209.45) = 255.9 kW

2 Pex = Po,ex(Tex/To,ex)k/(k-1) Tex = To,ex - Vex/2Cp . m = 1 kg/s = (AV)ex = PexAVex/RTex

. Now select 1 unknown amongst Pex, Tex, Vex and write the continuity eq. m

Vex = 2Cp(To,ex - Tex) . m = 1 kg/s = Po,ex(Tex/To,ex)k/k-1A 2Cp(To,ex - Tex)/RTex

solve for Tex/To,ex (close to 1) Tex = 462.6 K Vex= 28.3 m/s, Pex = 498.6 kPa

17.83

The nozzle in Problem 17.46 will have a throat area of 0.001272 m2 and an exit area 2.896 times as large. Suppose the back pressure is raised to 1.4 MPa and that the flow remains isentropic except for a normal shock wave. Verify that the shock mach number (Mx) is close to 2 and find the exit mach number, the temperature and the mass flow rate through the nozzle. (a) From Table A.12: ME = 2.6

PE = 2.0 0.05012 = 0.1002 MPa T* = 423.15 0.8333 = 352.7 K P* = 2.0 0.5283 = 1.057 MPa c* = 1.4 1000 0.287 352.7 = 376.5 m/s v* = 0.287 352.7/1057 = 0.0958 m3/kg A* = 5 0.0958/376.5 = 1.272 10-3m2 AE = 1.272 10-3 2.896 = 3.68 10-3m2 TE = 423.15 0.42517 = 179.9 K Assume Mx = 2 then My = 0.57735, Poy/Pox = 0.72088, AE/A* = 2.896 x

* Ax/A* = 1.6875, Ax/Ay = 1.2225, x * AE/Ay = 2.896 1.2225/1.6875 = 2.098

PE = 0.94171 0.72088 2.0 = 1.357 MPa, OK close to the 1.4 MPa . TE = 0.98298 423.15 = 416 K, m = 5 kg/s

17.84

At what Mach number will the normal shock occur in the nozzle of Problem 17.53 if the back pressure is 1.4 MPa? (trial and error on Mx) Relate the inlet and exit conditions to the shock conditions with reversible flow before and after the shock. It becomes trial and error. Assume Mx = 1.8 My = 0.6165 ; Poy/Pox = 0.8127 AE/A* = A2/A* = 0.002435/0.001516 = 1.6062 x Ax/A*x = 1.439 ; Ax/A*y = 1.1694

* * AE/Ay = (AE/A*)(Ax/Ay)/(Ax/A*) = x x

PE = (PE/Poy)(Poy/Pox)Pox = 0.8323 0.8127 2000 = 1353 kPa < 1.4 MPa So select the mach number a little less Mx = 1.7 My = 0.64055 ; Poy/Pox = 0.85573

* Ax/A*x = 1.3376 ; Ax/Ay = 1.1446 * * AE/Ay = (AE/A*)(Ax/Ay)/(Ax/A*) = x x

PE = (PE/Poy)(Poy/Pox)Pox = 0.853 0.85573 2000 = 1459.9 kPa Now interpolate between the two Mx = 1.756 and we check My = 0.6266 ; Poy/Pox = 0.832

* Ax/A*x = 1.3926 ; Ax/Ay = 1.1586 * AE/Ay = 1.6062 1.1586/1.3926 = 1.3363

17.44

A jet plane travels through the air with a speed of 1000 km/h at an altitude of 6 km, where the pressure is 40 kPa and the temperature is 12C. Consider the inlet diffuser of the engine where air leaves with a velocity of 100 m/s. Determine the pressure and temperature leaving the diffuser, and the ratio of inlet to exit area of the diffuser, assuming the flow to be reversible and adiabatic. RT 0.287 261.15 V = 1000 km/h = 277.8 m/s, v1 = P = = 1.874 m3/kg 40 h1 = 261.48 kJ/kg, Pr1 = 0.6862 ho1 = 261.48 + 277.82/2000 = 300.07 kJ/kg

To1 = 299.7 K, Pro1 = 1.1107

The ratio of the pressures equals the ratio of the Pr functions when s = constant Po1 = P Pro1/ Pr1 = 40 1.1107/0.6862 = 64.74 kPa h2 = 300.07 - 1002/2000 = 295.07

T2 = 294.7 K, Pr2 = 1.0462

P2 = 64.74 1.0462/1.1107 = 61 kPa v2 = RT2/P2 = 0.287 294.7/61 = 1.386 m3/kg A1/A2 = (v1/v2)(V2/V1) = (1.874/1.386)(100/277.8) = 0.487

17.73

Repeat Problem 17.44 assuming a diffuser efficiency of 80%. RT 0.287 261.15 V = 1000 km/h = 277.8 m/s, v1 = P = = 1.874 m3/kg 40 h1 = 261.48 kJ/kg, Pr1 = 0.6862 ho1 = 261.48 + 277.82/2000 = 300.07 kJ/kg

To1 = 299.7 K, Pro1 = 1.1107

Same as problem 17.44, except D = 0.80. We thus have from 17.44 ho1 - h1 = 300.07 - 261.48 = 0.8

h3 = 292.35 kJ/kg, Pr3 = 1.0129

h 01 02 3 2 1 s

h3 - h1

h3 - 261.48

h2 = 300.07 - 1002/2000 = 295.07 kJ/kg T2 = 294.7 K, Pr2 = 1.0462 P2 = Po2 Pr2 / Pro2 = 59.04 1.0462/1.1107 = 55.6 kPa v2 = RT2/P2 = 0.287 294.7/55.6 = 1.521 m3/kg A1/A2 = (v1/v2)(V2/V1) = (1.874/1.521) (100/277.8) = 0.444

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