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A.P.

EUROPEAN HISTORY REVIEW GUIDE Enlightenment, French Revolution & Napoleonic Era Exam 50 Multiple Choice questions + 1 Essay

ENLIGHTENMENT Chapter 15 How progress could be achieved -

people be RATIONABLE and REASONABLE through education impersism to experiment, observe, experience apply scientific principles to government, society, and human behavior Natural science methods could be used to examine all aspects of life= rational, critical thinking Use SCIENTIFIC METHOD to discover laws of human society Goal=progress=create better society and people Ideas spread through newspapers, magazines pamphlets, salons & coffeehouses= publick New genre = satire Informal gatherings usually sponsored by middle-class or aristocratic women Gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and the church-controlled universities Best known= salon Madame Marie- Therese Geoffrin Marie brought together the most exciting thinkers and artists of the time; Her social gatherings provided a forum for new ideas and an opportunity to establish new intellectual contacts In the salon, the philosophes could discuss ideas they might hesitate to put into print and thus test public opinion and even push it in new directions. Womens salons helped galvanize intellectual life and reform movements all over Europe.

Purpose of salons
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Ideas & works of various Philosophes o Voltaire -deism (deist) - advocated religious tolerance and freedom of speech &press - Government must: 1. Fight sloth and stupidity 2. Keep clergy subordinate to the government 3. allow freedom of thought and religion 4. promote material and technical progress - wrote Candide, Philosophical Dictionary(1764), the Age of Lois XIV o Immanuel Kant famous statement: "Dare to know." o Jean-Jacques Rousseau -believed society was corrupt and civilization was responsible - society threatened natural rights/ freedom -Return to state of nature/noble savage(positive connotation) - people better before civilization - wrote The Social Contract (1762) -thought people should surrender some rights to live in society=general will -general will= majority rules ( social contract between members of society) -equality based on economy (rise in social status) -economic, not political equality

o Adam Smith - believed that individual interests(even greed) harmonize with whole society -wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776) -laissez-faire= hands off - to free economy from government intervention and controlgovernment remove restraints on grain trade, and abandon duties on imports -believed division in labor in manufacturing would increase productivity and generate more wealth for society and well- being for individual Government should: -government must provide national security -civic implement- internal orders -secure framework for market activity and public works -"INVISIBLE HAND"= economy functions on its own- free trade Enlightened Despots & their reforms, both general & those for specific despots
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The Enlightened Despots( All 3) - supported law reforms - uniform law code - religious tolerance -education reform - DO NOT SUPPORT CONSTITUTION

Catherine II the Great of Russia (1762-96) -westernize Russia (the Hermitage-art museum) -Legislative commission -New Law Code -some Religious toleration for Christians -Statue for National Education -conquered new territory- from Ottomans, Poland -Pugachev's Rebelliion= nobles given more control over serfs -Maria Theresa of Austria (1740-80)

-RCC controlled by the state. - culturalized bureaucracy -improved conditions of serfdom (lowered labor obligation-"robot") -Equitable tax system - Joseph II (1770-90) BEST EXAMPLE OF ENLIGHTENMENT OF DESPOT -shared throne with Maria Theresa for 10 years -abolished serfdom -more equitable taxation - equal punishment for all crimes (regardless of social class) -Freedom of Press -religious tolerance for all, including Jews ( allowed to own property, build schools, enter professions and hold political and military offices) -uniform law codes - secret police -applauded suppression of Jesuits and required bishops to swear fidelity and submission to him, - shifted tax burden on nobles -many reforms had to be revoked to appease nobles after Joseph II died -Frederick II "The Great" of Prussia (1740-86) -new uniform law code - abolished torture - permitted religious freedom -elementary education for all social classes (modernization depended on education) - better treatment of serfs (still serfs however) - royal bank and stock exchange (manufacturing investments) -partition of Poland in 1772 -Junkers continued to expand their estates at expense of poorer peasants -encouraged agricultural innovations like Joseph Reforms didnt last long because:

1. Reforms lacked any real base of support from nobility and upper classes
2. French Revolution caused rulers to become paranoid that revolution might happen in

nations= resulted in no reforms -Goal of reforms was to raise awareness about 1. natural right 2. government more modern and efficient Motives for War of Austria Succession & Seven Years War War of Austrian Succession -Prussia wanted to take Silesia from Austria. -Prussia received assistance from their ally-France while Austria allied with Britain -Austria lost and recognized Prussia's takeover of Silesia -Charles VI signed Pragmatic Sanction (1713) Seven Years' War - Austria tries to retake Silesia and goes to war again vs. Prussia -Now Austria is allied with France(traditional enemy) while Prussia allied with Britain This is known as DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION -Austria lost again- no Silesia - War was also fought in North America (French & Indian war) & France lost territory in North America to Britain and Spain - Treaty of Hubertusburg

o Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

- reversal of longstanding alliances from Wars of Austrian Succession to 7 Years' War. -In War of Austrian Succession, Prussia allied with ally France and Austria allied with Britain - In the 7 Years' War, Austria allied with France(traditional enemy) and Prussia allied with Britain DIPLOMATIC REVOLUTION FRENCH REVOLUTION & NAPOLEONIC ERA Chapter 16 Causes of the French Revolution Social groups and their make up -1st Estate -made up of clergy "those who prayed" -100,000 people -owned 10% of land -collected tithes and held government positions -"aristocratic" clergy and poor parish priests -2nd Estate - nobility "those who fought" -400,000 people -owned 30% of land A. Nobles of the Sword- old nobility -trace nobility back multiple generations -monopoly on government, military, church positions + members of Parlements B. Nobles of the robe- new nobility - purchased titles- trace back 1-2 generations - want access to and influence in government * 1st 2 Estates are Exempt from taxes

-3rd Estate - commoners "Those who work"

A. The Bourgeoisie= merchants, professionals, business people - Approximately 360,000 people -owned 20% of land - resent privileges of nobility (similar to them in terms of ability) B. The common people-works in urban areas - Approximately 700,000 people -"wage earners" -Inflation and wages didn't keep up. C. Rural peasants -Approximately 19.2 million(90% of population) - owned/rented 40% of the land -paid taxes, tithes, seignuerial dues

Spending and why reforms didnt happen under Louis XV & Louis XVI Louis XV of France (1715-74) - need more revenue and reform of tax system 1740- new tax proposed-vingtiene(5% of income from property to be paid as tax by all) 1768- new Parlements created vingtiene instituted until 1774 Louis XVI(1715-74) -Wife= Marie Antoinette ( negative since she is Austrian and likes to spend $) -France nearly bankrupt -Wars= Austrian succession, 7 Years' War, War for American Independence - France sent troops and financial support to colonists - nobles prevented reforms(in parliaments) stopping reforms from going through

Cahiers de doleances(petition of grievance)

- striving for economic reforms and constitutional monarchy - wanted tax reform -wanted nobles' privileges to end -all reforms occurred but didn't last Liberal Phase (1789-1792)

Major events associated with this phase and their impact meeting of Estates General, Tennis Court Oath, womens march to Versailles meeting of Estates General- May 1789 - 1st Estate (300 members) - 2nd Estate (300 members) - 3rd Estate (600 members)- formed NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 1st and 2nd= same room 3rd = separate room -Although most nobles insisted on voting by order, deputies of the 3rd Estate refused to proceed on the basis. After 6 weeks of stalemate, on June 17, 1789, the deputies of the 3rd Estate took unilateral action and declared themselves and whoever would join them the National Assembly, in which each deputy would vote as an individual. - Two days later, clergy voted by narrow margin to join National Assembly. Tennis Court Oath - refuse to disband till constitution is written and wherever they meet will be a meeting; expressed the determination of the 3rd Estate to carry through a constitutional revolution Women's March to Versailles - 7,000 women + few men went to Versailles; wanted bread prices lowered - result royal family moved to Paris

Declaration of the Rights of Man/Declaration of the Rights of Woman

-guaranteed due process and the sovereignty of the people -Declaration granted freedom of religion, freedom of the press, equality of taxation, and equality before the law

Civil Constitution of the Clergy(1790) - Parish priests and bishops elected & paid by state - confiscates church lands -clergy must swear oath to constitution - clergy divided into 2 1. Refractory Clergy -refused oath -counterrevolutionaries 2. Constitutional Clergy -take oath

Actions & motives for involvement of the Parisians Nobles interests' - constitutional monarchy: guaranteed civil liberties (want control of Estate General) 3rd Estate interests' - don't want nobles' domination of Estates General

Voting controversies in the Estates-General - 1st and 2nd Estate meet in one room. -3rd Estate meet in separate room. -All meeting together voting by Head - voting by order= conserve the traditional powers of the clergy and nobility - voting by head= would give the 3rd Estate an advantage because many clergymen and even some nobles sympathized with the 3rd Estate.

Radical Phase (1792-1795) Committee of Public Safety & Reign of Terror/Maximilien Robespierre Committee of Public Safety

- responsibility to set the course for government and war increasingly fell to the 12-member men (Robespierre= one of the members) -set up by National Convention -did everything to ensure its control -sent deputies out "on mission" to purge unreliable officials and organize the war effort. - responded to food shortages and related economic problems by decreeing a planned economy- urge France to use total war against enemies Reign of Terror - lead by Maximillien Robespierre- wished to create a Republic of Virtue- where the government would teacher, or force, citizens to become virtuous republicans through a massive program of political reeducation -guillotine became the most terrifying instrument of a government that suppressed almost every form of dissent - government's campaign against its internal enemies and counterrevolutionaries Enemies of the Revolution -Vendee rebels(anyone potentially) - clergy -poor peasants

Victims & ways of dealing with counterrevolutionaries reasons for their opposition - George Jacques- David( friend of Robespierre) -Convention abolished women's political clubs -"ultra revolutionaries"-local Parisian politicians -Girondins -Vendee rebels - counterrevolutionaries executed by guillotine

Inspiring nationalism/patriotism

- people felt they weren't fighting for king but for France instead -encouraged military to actually win wars

Actions with regard to religion -"de Christianize" the Nation and inculcate revolutionary virtue -included closing churches and trying to force even those clergy who had taken oath of loyalty to abandon their clerical vocations and marry - extremists tried to establish a cult of reason to supplant Christianity - New Calendar -Committee of Public Safety halted the De-Christianization campaign because deputies feared it would turn rural, devout populations against the republic

Why the Committee of Public Safety fell - terror spiraled out of control, consuming leading Jacobin leaders(Danton, DesMoulins and Hebert) -no one felt secure in shadow of Robespierre's leadership - Robespierre might target former allies and even present members - killing off all leaders " devouring its own children" -cost 400,00 French people -July 27, 1794, Robespierre arrested and executed

Conservative Phase (1795-1799) Thermidorean Reactions -basically the reaction that happened after robespierre kept ordering deaths and basically the overthrowing of him. - violent backlash - newspapers attacked Robespierrists as "tigers thirsting for human blood" - dramatic political swing' closed the Jacobin Club

The Directory - 5 directors - Legislative Assembly divided into 1. Council of 500 2. Council of Ancients (250 members over the age of 40)

Social class that dominated this phase - middle class How the Directory stayed in power - maintained in power by Military= ends demonstrations and coups

Napoleonic Era (1799-1815) Characteristics/personality of Napoleon -emperor of Europe not just France Continental system - prohibited all commerce between Great Britain and France as well as between Great Britain and France's dependent states and allies.(boycott of British goods) - plan backfired and hurt France's economy Coalition memberships & military leaders + major battles = Trafalgar, Austerlitz, Marengo, Wagram, Borodino, Waterloo - Trafalgar 1805- British navy proved its superiority by defeating French and Spanish allies in huge naval battle off the Spanish coast in 1805. French lost many ships; renowned British admiral Lord Horatio Nelson died in battle - Austerlitz 1805- Napoleon captured Austrian soldiers and marched to Vienna to trounce the Austrians who joined new ally Russia. Considered Napoleon's greatest victory. - Marengo 1800- fought against Austria; victory that sealed Napoleon's Italian campaign - Wagram 1809- most important battle in 5th Coalition - (french, german, and italian army)Napoleon defeated Austria army - Borodino 1812- largest and bloodiest day of battle of French invasion of Russian; pivotal moment; last offensive action by Napoleon against Russia -Waterloo 1815 - fought in Belgium, put an end to Napoleon's rule banished Napoleon permanently

Napoleons reforms in France & in the areas he conquered Napoleonic Code - careers based on talent/merit -created new aristocracy= service to the state(military rewards and awards) -educational reform= new primary and secondary schools -financial reform: Bank of france; balanced the budget -new law codes- Napoleonic Code - Amnesty for old nobles(had high posts in bureaucracy) -Secret Police, censorship, spies

Joseph Fouch -minister of police -a leading figure in the Terror, kept political dissidents under constant surveillance

Nations that resisted French occupation & how they expressed their resistance Spain - Spanish clergy and nobles raised bands of peasants to fight the French occupiers. - Spanish nobles feared revolutionary reforms - church spread anti- French propaganda - Portugal

Reasons for Napoleons defeat - losing battles - Continental System failure - nationalism movement in countries invaded - Spain - coalition British undefeatable

Origins of the terms right & left

- left and right -"the left" was a reference to deputies who favored extensive change and sat together in seats to speaker's left in 1789 - "the right" refers to deputies who preferred a more cautious and conservative stanace

A.P. EUROPEAN HISTORY ENLIGHTENMENT, FRENCH REVOLUTION, NAPOLEONIC ERA EXAM ESSAY QUESTIONS

ENLIGHTENMENT Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns. Frederick the Great of Prussia -made sure that nobles dominated both the army officer corps and the civil bureaucracy - new uniform law code- abolished torture -permitted religious freedom - elementary education for all classes - better treatment for serfs (still serfs however) - royal bank and stock exchange manufacturing investment - partition of Poland in 1772 Joseph II -shared throne with Maria Theresa for 10 years -abolished serfrdom -more equitable taxation - equal punishment for all, r FRENCH REVOLUTION Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of the Estates-General (May, 1789) to the declaration of the republic (September, 1792).

Social groups and their make up -1st Estate -made up of clergy "those who prayed"

-100,000 people -owned 10% of land -collected tithes and held government positions -"aristocratic" clergy and poor parish priests -2nd Estate - nobility "those who fought" -400,000 people -owned 30% of land A. Nobles of the Sword- old nobility -trace nobility back multiple generations -monopoly on government, military, church positions + members of Parlements B. Nobles of the robe- new nobility - purchased titles- trace back 1-2 generations - want access to and influence in government * 1st 2 Estates are Exempt from taxes

-3rd Estate - commoners "Those who work" A. The Bourgeoisie= merchants, professionals, business people - Approximately 360,000 people -owned 20% of land - resent privileges of nobility (similar to them in terms of ability) B. The common people-works in urban areas - Approximately 700,000 people -"wage earners" -Inflation and wages didn't keep up. C. Rural peasants -Approximately 19.2 million(90% of population) - owned/rented 40% of the land

-paid taxes, tithes, seignuerial dues

Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution & analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grieva-3rd Estate - commoners "Those who work" A. The Bourgeoisie= merchants, professionals, business people - Approximately 360,000 people -owned 20% of land - resent privileges of nobility (similar to them in terms of ability) B. The common people-works in urban areas - Approximately 700,000 people -"wage earners" -Inflation and wages didn't keep up. C. Rural peasants -Approximately 19.2 million(90% of population) - owned/rented 40% of the land -paid taxes, tithes, seignuerial dues nces in the period 1789 to 1799. Assess the validity of the following statement as an explanation of events leading up to The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges. How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799? During French Revolution (1789-1799),

the French Revolution of 1789.

NAPOLEONIC ERA Assess the validity of the following statement, using examples referring to specific aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleons policies and attitudes. Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment. Napoleon is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot. Evaluate this assessment in terms of his policies and accomplishments. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism. The Napoleonic Era produced profound change in Europe. What were the gains and losses of the various social groupings nobility, bourgeoisie, workers, clergy, and peasants in this era? Assess who gained the most and who suffered the greatest losses in Europe in this era.

Explain how, although he was an autocrat, Napoleon helped put into practice many of the ideals of the French Revolution, in both France & in the areas of Europe he conquered.