Gregory Stapp LIS 5143.

900 December 10, 2007

A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Government Documents relevant to the film Pulp Fiction but of no specific importance
The 1994 film “Pulp Fiction“ has become a modern pop culture icon among American films. Among the many memorable moments and themes in the film are these listed below to which a relevant government document citation is attached. In keeping with the more modern and technological themes of today’s librarianship, all of the following government documents can be found online and therefore do not have corresponding SuDoc numbers. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically according to the “moments and themes” that inspired the search for a relevant government document.

ACCIDENTAL SHOOTINGS –
U.S. Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics. Fatal Occupational Injuries from Accidental Gunshot Wounds, 1993-2002. < http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/sh20040903ar01p1.htm> (accessed, 5 December, 2007). Much of the film’s plot for the characters Vincent and Jules centers around the accidental shooting of another character in the backseat of their car. It would seem one of the many occupational hazards of being a hit man is the occasional accidental shooting. The Bureau of Labor Statistics keeps annual statistics on occupational safety, including instances of fatal injuries from accidental gunshot wounds, though no listing for the occupational safety of hit men can be found.

ACTORS, PRODUCERS AND DIRECTORS –
U.S. Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics. Actors, Producers, and Directors. < http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos093.htm> (accessed 5 December, 2007). Director Qunetin Tarantino, and actors John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, and Uma Thurman were all catapulted to fame after the release of Pulp Fiction. Statistical information on these professions would have been useful both before and after their boost in fame. The Bureau of Labor Statistics also keeps statistical and explanatory information

about a large number of professions in the U.S. It includes links to earning potential, job outlook, working conditions, related jobs, and many other informative areas of the site.

CHOPPERS –
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Motorcycle Safety. < http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/> (accessed 5 December, 2007). The chopper first appears in the film when Marcellus chases Butch into the pawn shop. Butch later takes the chopper and makes a distinction between it and a motorcycle to his girlfriend. This section of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration web site links potential motorcyclists to a plethora of motorcycle safety, licensing and research information.

BIBLE QUOTES –

New York Times. President Quotes Bible for Defense. 19 November, 1915. < http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf? _r=1&res=9F00E4D91239E333A2575AC0A9679D946496D6CF&oref=slogin > (accessed 5 December, 2007).

What must by now be one of the most famous bible quotes of all time, Ezekiel 25:17 is quoted by the character Jules several times throughout the film. Though the quote is not actually in the Bible, the delivery of the line rings true. The New York Times, though not an official repository of government information, is among the leading newspapers in the world and has often been turned to for “the truth” about what the government is doing.

DRUG ABUSE (HEROIN) –

National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA InfoFacts: Heroin. < http://www.drugabuse.gov/infofacts/heroin.html> (accessed 3 December, 2007).

Heroin abuse is another key plot element in Pulp Fiction. Other drugs are abused and discussed as well, but it is heroin that links all of the stories together. Despite the issues evidenced at the web site listed below, heroin and heroin chic continue to be popular thematic elements in films.

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The National Institute on Drug Abuse provides detailed scientific analysis of all controlled substances, including heroin. This section of their site briefly describes the health hazards, treatment, and statistics on use among other things and provides links to other resources.

DRUG OVERDOSE (HEROIN) –
U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health – Medline Plus. Drug Abuse First Aid. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000016.htm#First %20Aid> (accessed 3 December, 2007). As part of its key element status, heroin is the key element in one of the now iconic scenes in Pulp Fiction – the scene where the character Mia overdoses on heroin. The scene was reportedly based on a real incident as seen in a documentary, but its medical accuracy is doubtful. The articles at Medline Plus from the National Library of Medicine are outstanding, objective and to the point. This article relates not only the side effects of heroin use, but the symptoms of heroin overdose and the best treatment options (in an emergent case) for the lay person waiting for medical professionals.

DRUG TRAFFICKING –
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Major Operations. < http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/major/major.htm> (accessed 5 December, 2007). The character Marcellus Wallace seems to be involved in several covert operations, among them drug trafficking. As the use and abuse of heroin is a key element in other characters’ fates, the trafficking of heroin is the driving force behind Marcellus’s fate. This chart from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration shows a number of completed, active, or inactive drug bust operations. Each link provides a tightly drawn story concerning specific details about each operation, and one could easily imagine Marcellus Wallace being listed among those recently busted for drug trafficking.

EUROPEAN CULTURE –
The European Commission. The European Culture Portal. < http://ec.europa.eu/culture/portal/index_en.htm> (accessed 30 November, 2007) 3

In the first scene with Vincent and Jules, Vincent discusses his trip to Europe and subsequent stay in Amsterdam. He talks at length about the “little differences” between culture in the U.S. and culture in Europe, creating yet another iconic scene in the movie. The European Commission established and continues to update the Europa web site to provide the international community a portal to a comprehensive network of information about the European Union. The European Culture Portal focuses specifically on the cultural aspects of the European Union, providing extensive links to just about every aspect of European Culture.

FICTION –

U.S. Census Bureau - North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). 2002 NAICS Definitions - 511 Publishing Industries (except Internet). < http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/def/NDEF511.HTM> (accessed 5 December, 2007)

The opening credits of Pulp Fiction define the term “pulp fiction” for the audience. Since the film is also about these terms separately, this bibliography will examine government documents in relation to the individual terms. The “fiction” of Pulp Fiction is obvious initially, in that it is a fiction film, but also within the story most of the characters tend toward each telling a fictional story that is part of the overall fictional story. The NAICS is the new version of the Standard Industry Classification System and exists to aid countries in analyzing industry statistical data in a more comprehensive way. Foremost in any classification system (including this one) are the definitions of the items being classified. This web site provides comprehensive definitions of products and services classified in the NAICS.

FILM INDUSTRY –

U.S. House of Representatives – 110th Congress. H.R. 3951 -To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to modify and make permanent the election to treat certain costs of qualified film and television productions as expenses. < http://www.thomas.gov/home/gpoxmlc110/h3951_ih.xml> (accessed 4 December, 2007).

The film industry of which Pulp Fiction is a part is subject to as much control and taxation as any other industry in the U.S. despite the fact that it is among the most profitable and influential industries. Movie producers are constantly

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looking for ways to control their budgets and reduce production costs, and it was the same case with Pulp Fiction. The above-listed resolution in the House of Representatives was authored to help producers control costs and to bring film and television productions back into the U.S. Accessed through the Library of Congress – Thomas web site, an online resource that provides documentation to the majority of the Congressional proceedings for the past ten years.

HIT MEN –

Federal Bureau of Investigation. Murder for Hire: Before the Trigger Gets Pulled. < http://www.fbi.gov/page2/may07/murderhire052307.htm> (accessed 2 December, 2007)

Two central characters in Pulp Fiction are the hit men Vincent and Jules. Not typically a genre of character peopled by loveable guys, these characters nonetheless come across as two of the more likeable characters in the film. Otherwise following the classic hit man mystique with their shades, black suits, and cold-blooded ability to kill on command, Vincent and Jules breathed new life into the hit man character. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) keeps close watch on organized crime and does what it can to track down people who have been hired to murder someone, including the hit men of organized crime groups. The above-cited article from the FBI discusses the FBI’s efforts to track down these types of killers, do as much as they can in prevention, and several example cases. The site also provides links to important resources within the FBI.

ILLEGAL GAMBLING –
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Sports Bribery Program. < http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/orgcrime/lcn/sports.htm> (accessed 2 December, 2007). Butch proves to be yet another iconic figure that grew out of the Pulp Fiction film. At the end of his boxing career, Butch decides to take a bribe from Marcellus to take a fall in his last fight. He takes the bribe, bets on himself to win, wins the fight, then takes the money and runs, proving what a risk everyone takes in trying to fix a fight or otherwise take part in illegal gambling. The FBI also keeps a close watch on Organized Crime when it comes to illegal gambling, another of Organized Crime’s favorite activities. This article describes

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the FBI’s efforts to investigate reports of fixed fights and other gambling law violations.

MASSAGE (FOOT) –
U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health – National Center for Biotechnology Information. The effects of foot and facial massage on sleep induction, blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate: crossover pilot study. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez? Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17950182&ordinal pos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pub med_RVDocSum> (accessed 5 December, 2007). The iconic “foot massage debate” from Pulp Fiction, another of the famous scenes from this film that people refer to again and again. No matter one’s own opinion of what a foot massage means, it’s clear that it has been a topic of much thought for both Vincent and Jules in this movie. The above-sited article on the physiological benefits of foot massage is a great example of the extraordinary wealth of health information provided by the U.S. government through web sites such as the one for U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health – National Center for Biotechnology Information.

MIRACLES –

The Congressional Record. The Missouri Miracle. <http://frwebgate4.access.gpo.gov/cgibin/waisgate.cgi? WAISdocID=22940231851+0+0+0&WAISaction=retrieve> (accessed on 5 December, 2007).

There were two miracles in the film Pulp Fiction, when Vincent and Jules were missed by multiple bullets as one person fired at them, and when Jules subsequently decided to give up the life of the hit man. Though Jules discussed his miracle in more traditional terms, the word gets used often in today’s time to mean “something extraordinary”. The above-cited entry from the Congressional Record demonstrates the casualness with which the people (including those in the U.S. government) use the term “miracle”. A search of the Congressional Record through the Government Printing Office web site produces 40 hits just for the current Congress.

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PORK / SWINE –
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Detecting and Mitigating the Environmental Impact of Fecal Pathogens Originating from Confined Animal Feeding Operations: Review. http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/pubs/600r06021/600r06021.pdf (accessed 6 December, 2007). In a scene near the end of the film, Vincent and Jules have another of their famous debates – this time about the relative cleanliness and taste of pork. Jules makes the comment that he wouldn’t want to eat an animal that is covered in its own feces. Vincent, on the other hand, loves the taste of pork and thus argues in favor of it. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) often issues reports like the above-cited one that describe its findings about potential environmental problems. The EPA web site provides the American citizenry with a wealth of information about the environment.

PRISONERS OF WAR –
Defense Prisoner of War / Missing Personnel Office. Vietnam War Resources. < http://www.dtic.mil/dpmo/pmsea/index.htm> (accessed 2 December, 2007). The character Butch’s history is relayed through a flashback scene in which Butch’s father’s Army buddy brings Butch his father’s watch. Butch’s father had been captured and made a prisoner of war in Vietnam along with his Army buddy. The two prisoners of war made a pact that if one survived the other would visit the other’s family. In Butch’s case, it was his father who didn’t survive. The network of U.S. military websites maintains a Prisoner of War / Missing Personnel web site to help keep track of those people who are still missing. The above citation links directly to the section concerning the Vietnam War, though all of the major wars from the 20th century are represented. The Vietnam section provides links to databases that indicate those accounted for and unaccounted for.

PULP –
U.S. Department of Commerce - International Trade Administration. NAFTA 10 Years Later: Paper and Pulp Products. < http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/nafta/PaperPulp.pdf> (accessed 5 December, 2007). 7

The opening credits of Pulp Fiction define that term for the audience. As noted earlier, since the film is also about these terms separately, this bibliography will examine government documents in relation to the individual terms. The term “pulp” in this instance refers to the pulp used to form paper and is representative of the mass production of material like books in the U.S. The U.S. Department of Commerce - International Trade Administration is charged with promoting the U.S. economy by promoting international trade. Part of their duties then is to report on the progress of such things as the North American Free Trade Agreement like the report linked to by the above citation.

ROBBERY–

U.S. Department of Justice – Office of Justice Programs. Table 60. Personal robbery and assault by armed or unarmed offenders, 1996 to Present. <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cvus/previous/cvus60.pdf> (accessed 5 December, 2007).

The two characters that open and close the film, Honey Bunny and Pumpkin, have an involved discussion about the sorts of robberies they prefer to perform. Again, Pulp Fiction provides its audience with an iconic scene that people continue to replay. The U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs keeps careful track of crime statistics in the U.S. to aid its own office as well as law enforcement offices throughout the country. The above-cited table shows the distribution of armed robberies by year and by time of day.

TELEVISION HISTORY –
Federal Communications Commission. Communications History - Selected Bibliography – TV. < http://www.fcc.gov/omd/history/tv/bibliography.html> (accessed 3 December, 2007). The character Mia discusses at one point her involvement in a television pilot program. Though the show she worked with was never picked up for production, it get referred to several times in the film, giving the character Mia interesting background. The Federal Communications Commission website, which has jurisdiction over 8

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the movie industry as well as the television industry, provides a detailed history of television. They also provide a bibliography of books, articles and other online bibliographies concerned with the history of television.

VIOLENT CRIME (FORCIBLE RAPE) –
U.S. Department of Justice – Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States 2005: Table 1. < http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_01.html> (accessed 2 December, 2007). Butch and Marcellus are exposed to an abhorrent situation when they are captured by the pawn shop owner and forced into a sadomasochistic situation. Marcellus is forcibly raped, and Butch barely manages to escape. One of the most horrifying scenes in recent film history, it is yet another of the scenes from Pulp Fiction that had people talking for years to come. The Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation also keep statistics on violent crime, including various types of rape. The table cited above lists statistics for 2005, the most recent data available from that site. As noted above, the FBI web site provides links to both information about what has happened as well as information for prevention.

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