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Pope Clement V, successor of Pope Benedict XI was trying to avoid the anarchy then prevalent in Rome. He resided in Avignon, a Southern France which was under papal authority. After Clement V, many popes still resided in Avignon until 1377, when Pope Gregory XI decided to move back to Rome. After the death of Gregory XI, the cardinals elected an Italian pope, because they feared the Roman mobs. Angered by this quick movement by the cardinals, French cardinals elected their own pope. This movement is known as . (The Great Schism.) 2. After the , this council met to resolve the issue of having 2 separate popes. They elected Pope Alexander V, but other pope-contestants would not recognize Alexander V as a pope, leaving them 3 popes. This council is known as . (Council of Pisa) 3. Another council met from 1414 – 1418 to resolve the issue. The council elected Pope Martin V. All the sides recognized Pope Martin V, ending the issue of having multiple popes in Christianity. Pope Martin V settled in Rome. This council is known as . (Council of Constance) Heresy 4. This man was first to translate the bible into English. He was a scholar who taught at Oxford University. He rejected the church doctrine; he also denounced corruption of the clergy. He had followers called the Lollards. Who is this man . (John Wycliffe) 5. This man was a teacher at Prague, embraced ideas of the man mentioned in the previous question. He refused the Habsburg rule; he gave the Bohemians feeling of nationality. He wanted a vernacular bible. He also believed that sacraments were necessary. He was later called up by the Council of Constance, he was guaranteed safety, but when he reached the court room, he was tried immediately and burnt at the stake for heresy. Who is this man? . (John Hus) Italian Renaissance 6. Name 4 important city states during the Italian Renaissance. , , , and . (Genoa, Milan, Florence, Venice) 7. This family ruled Florence while it was in its prime. They are known to have supported many artists such as Michaelangelo. Most famous and important of the family member who ruled Florence are Giovanni di Bicci, Cosimo, and Lorenzo the Magnificent. Name this ruling family of Florence . (De Medici) 8. This dictator of Florence is known to have cause the decline in Florence, he was a Franciscan friar, and exercised strict and puritanical rule over the city. He was overthrown and burnt at the stake. Name this dictator of Florence. . (Savonarola) 9. This is a famous ruling family of Milan. After the death of the last Visconti, a previous ruling family in Milan, this man declared duke of Milan. He was son of a condottiere, a mercenary. Name this family. . (Sforzas) 10. This pope was known as the Warrior Pope . (Julius II) 11. This pope was member of the Borgia family. . (Alexander VI) 12. This pope is known for his effort to preserve ancient Roman structure. . (Pius II) 13. This pope was from the Medici family. . (Leo X)
14. The Tuscan triumvirate was first three major writers wrote their pieces in Italian rather than in Latin. Name these 3 major writers of the Early Italian Renaissance. , , and . (Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio) 15. Dante Alighieri is commonly known as Dante. He is famous for Divine Comedy, an epic poem written in Italian. Divided into three parts. He goes through 3 places. Name these 3 places and their guides through the places. . , , and – . (Inferno – Virgil, Purgatory – Virgil, Paradise – Beatrice). 16. In Dante’s Divine Comedy he mentions the perfect, idealistic woman, who is she? . (Beatrice) 17. Francesco Petraca, known as Petrarch, is known for his love poems towards this wealthy lady, who he cannot talk to nor see face to face for he was a commoner and she was of the wealthy class. Who is she? . (Laura) 18. The third and last of the Tuscan Triumvirate, is Giovanni Boccaccio. He is famous for his book, a collection of witty and often bawdy tales told over a period of ten days by a group of ten young people escaping Florence during the Black Death. Petrarch interested Boccaccio in search for the lost documents of Greeks. He learned Greek language, which Petrarch didn’t know. What is his most famous book? . (Decameron) 19. This write was the most important writer in politics. He rejected the traditional Christian view that the state is subject to divine law. He wanted a secular state. Name this author of The Prince. . (Niccolo Machiavelli) 20. This humanist and papal diplomat wrote The Book of the Courtier. He believed that a gentleman should know both Greek and Latin and should have affluent writing style in both the classical languages and the vernacular. Name this author of The Book of the Courtier. . (Baldassare Castiglione) 21. He is most famous for his goldsmiths and silversmiths work. He is also famous writer. He wrote the Autobiography about himself. He is most famous for his art works such as Perseus with the Head of Medusa. Name this artist. . (Benvenuto Cellini) 22. This scholar claimed that the Donation of Constantine was a forged document. He stated that the document supposing to be written in the fourth century was actually written in the eighth century. On the doctrine, Roman Emperor Constantine had given the rule of Italy to Pope Sylvester I, but in reality, the pope’s claim to central Italy was based on the Donation of Pepin. Name this scholar. . (Lorenzo Valla) 23. This artist is a contemporary of Dante, and is often regarded as the fist artist of the Italian Renaissance. He was trained in the Byzantine style, which had dominated medieval Italian art. He was most famous for St. Francis of Assisi on the Basilica of St. Francis in Assisi. He is most famous for his frescoes. Name this artist. . (Giotto) 24. After the death of the previously mentioned artist, there are not many famous art and artists until this person. A Florentine painter. His famous works includes The Holy Trinity, and The Tribute Money. Name this artist . (Masaccio) 25. This Florentine painter is most famous for his works such as The Birth of Venus, Primavera, and The Adoration of the Magi. Name this artist . (Sandro Botticelli) 26. This is the most famous artist of all times. He is known to have sketched the world’s first helicopter and tanks. His most famous works includes La
Gioconda (Mona Lisa), The Last Supper, The Virgin of the Rocks, and Lady with an Ermine. Name this artist . (Leonardo da Vinci) 27. He is most famous for his work School of Athens where the central 2 figures are Plato and Aristotle. His other famous works includes Madonna with the Goldfinch, and Baldassare Castiglione. Name this artist. . (Raphael) 28. This artist hated the previous artist; he is known to have attempted to kill him before. He worked on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel such as The Last Judgment, Creation of Adam. His other famous works includes David (in marble), Moses, and Pieta. Name this artist. . (Michaelangelo) 29. This sculpture is known for the bronze doors of the baptistery in Florence. His most famous work is The Gates of Paradise. Name this sculptor . (Lorenzo Ghiberti) 30. He is most famous for his work of David (in bronze), but his other famous workds includes condottiere, Mary Magdalene and St. George. Name this sculptor. . (Donatello) 31. This architect is most famous for his piece left in the Florence Cathedral’s dome, or more commonly known as the Il Duomo. Name this architect. . (Filippo Brunelleschi) 32. This architect has worked for Pope Julius II, who gave him the task of rebuilding St. Peter’s basilica. After his death, Raphael and Michaelangelo both worked on the basilica for some time as architects. His most famous piece includes Tempietto. Name this architect . (Donato Bramante) 33. There are the brothers whose most famous works are St. Francis in Ecstacy and The Agony in the Garden. Name this brothers , . (Gentile Bellini, Giovanni Bellini) 34. This painter of Venice is most famous for his religious paintings, such as The Assumption of the Virgin, Pesaro Altarpiece, Bacchus and Ariadne, and Venus of Urbino. Name this painter . (Titian) The Northern Renaissance 35. The most important contribution made from the Northern Renaissance was the Printing Press made by this man. He was the first to make metal movable type. About 1456, this man produced his first printed edition of the Bible. Who is this man? . (Johannes Gutenberg) 36. This man, a Dutch lay preacher, organized the Brothers of the Common Life in the late 14th century, a religious organization that stressed personal virtues of Christianity rather than the doctrine. Name this leader of Brothers of the Common Life . (Gerard Groote) 37. Possibly the most famous person in the Brothers of Common Life is this man. He wrote books such as Adages, and Praise of Folly. He was born in Rotterdam, Holland, he was educated in a school conducted by the Brothers of the Common Life, who introduced him to the Greek and Latin classics. He coined the term “Erasmian humanism” and it is based on his belief that the Christian religion offered humanity sound guidelines for its moral conduct and that religion and learning were inextricably bound together. While he criticized the Roman Catholic Church, he wasn’t a Protestant. He opposed Martin Luther’s beliefs very strongly. Name this person. . (Erasmus of Rotterdam) 38. This is another artist brothers. There are famous for their works such as Ghent Altarpiece, Arnolfini Wedding, The Adoration of the Lamb, and Man in a Red Turban. Name this artist brothers
, (Hubert and Jan Van Eyck) 39. A famous Flemish painter, he is known for his works such as The Ship of Fools, Death and the Miser, and The Garden of Earthly Delights. Name this artist. . (Hieronymus Bosch) 40. He was also a Flemish Painter who worked mainly in Antwerp and Brussels. He is best known for his earthy and lively paintings of the activities of ordinary people, especially peasants. His famous works includes Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, Hunters in the Snow and Peasant Dance. Name this Flemish artist. . (Pieter Bruegal the Elder) 41. This Nuremberg artist is one of the major German Renaissance artists, most highly regarded for his woodcuts and engravings, which portray both religious and classical subjects. His famous works are The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Self-Portrait in a Fur Coat, The Knight, Death and the Devil, and Melancholia I. Name this artist. . (Albrecht Durer) 42. This artist worked in the German Rhineland under the patronage of the powerful archbishop of Mainz. He painted many religious works. His most famous work is The Isenheim Altarpiece. Name this artist . (Matthias Grunewald) 43. He was most famous for painting portrait of King Henry VIII. . (Hans Holbein the Younger) 44. This man studied medicine and the classics and was ordained to the priesthood. He wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel. He attacked the failings of French society and the Church in his two books while advocating rational reform. Name this person. . (Rabelais) 45. He was from a weathly family. He father was Catholic, but his mother was Spanish Jewish descent. He studied law and served as mayor of Bordeaux. He won his fame as an essayist. He published his first edition of Essays in 1580.He invented the format of the essay. Name this person. . (Montaigne) 46. He was the first important figure in the development of literature during the English Renaissance. He was familiar with the works of major Latin poets. He was influenced by Italian literature. His most famous work is The Canterbury Tales. Name this person . (Geoffrey Chaucer) 47. He was England’s greatest humanist. He became Lord Chancellor for Henry VIII. His most famous work is Utopia. Name this person . (Thomas More) 48. He was regarded by his contemporaries as the leading poet of the age. His unfinished masterpiece the Faerie Queen was based on an Italian model. Name this English Poet. . (Edmund Spenser) 49. He was a skilled playwright and poet, he produced a number of outstanding works during his brief career. His major dramas includes Tamburlaine the Great, Doctor Faustus, and The Jew of Malta. Name this English Playwright. . (Christopher Marlowe) 50. He is most famous English writer, his most famous works includes The Taming of the Shrew, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Antony and Cleopatra. Name this person . (William Shakespeare) 51. This cardinal of Spain later became archbishop of Toledo, he wanted higher education level of the Spanish clergy. He sponsored Complutensian Polyglot Bible. Name this Spanish cardinal. . (Cardinal Francisco Ximenes).
52. He was a contemporary of Shakespeare; both men died in 1616. His major work is Don Quixote. Name this Spanish playwright. . (Miguel de Cervantes) 53. This man wrote virtually every literary form, he wrote more than 1,500 dramas, of which some 500 survive. Name this Spaniard . (Felix Lope de Vega) 54. He was the greatest painter of the Spanish Renaissance. His most famous works includes View of Toledo, The Burial of Count Orgaz, and Agony in the Garden. Name this Spanish artist. . (El Greco) Rise of Monarch (England) 55. This war was named after a flower, because the houses/families that fought in this war had a flower for their symbol. King Henry VI was murdered, and Edward IV succeeded him. He was a capable leader, but he died mysteriously, and his brother Richard III succeeded him. Richard III went on a Battle of Bosworth Field against a man mentioned below and was defeated and killed; the death of Richard III ended this war. Name this war. . (War of the Roses) 56. This person received the English throne by successfully defeating the former king in a battle. He reacted quickly to ensure his throne by marrying a daughter of Richard III. He was also the first king of his family/dynasty. He raised revenues from the rich middle class by regulating trade and monopolies. This money allowed him to build an army, which kept the nobility in order. He also created the Star Chamber, or a court where juries were not present. Name this king of England during 1457 – 1509. . (Henry VII) 57. This man is very well known for his break from the Catholic Church and creating the Anglican Church. He is son of the previously mentioned king and 2nd king in the dynasty. He was arranged to have marriage with his older brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. He did not love her, therefore he wanted a divorce. Also, she could not bore him a male heir. But Pope Clement VII refused the divorce, because he needed Charles V of Holy Roman Empire to keep fighting his wars for him. His lord chancellor, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey denied his attempt to divorce Catherine of Aragon. He fired his lord chancellor and replaced him with Thomas More. The new archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer granted the divorce. He married Anne Boleyn, his second wife, out of 6 wives. He is also known to have passed Act of Supremacy which states that king is superior to the Pope. He took away the church land and monasteries. Who is this man? . (Henry VIII) 58. He was a son of #8 and ruled England. He was a child of #8 by his third wife, Jane Seymour; he succeeded Henry VIII at age 10. During his reign, England became very Protestant; he replaced the previous Six-Articles with the FortyTwo Articles, which had influences of Calvinistic ideas. English clergy could now marry. Who is this man? . (Edward VI) 59. After #9’s death, child of Catherine of Aragon, attempted to restore Roman Catholicism in England. She married King Phillip III of Spain by proxy, which later caused trouble as Phillip II claimed his share to the English throne by marriage to this ruler of England. Who is this woman? . (Queen Mary, Bloody Mary) 60. She is the daughter of Anne Boleyn, and also the last of her dynasty. She tried to settle the religious conflict in England by passing the new Act of Supremacy, which repealed the pro-Catholic laws of Bloody Mary’s reign and re-established the Anglican Church. There were many revolts attempted against her. Duke of Norfolk was one of the people who revolted against this person. This revolt costed 200-300 people’s lives. She also had trouble from Scotland, Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart). Mary Queen of Scots were
involved in number of murder attempts against this person. Who is this woman? . (Elizabeth I) Rise of Monarch (France) 61. This man increased the centralization of royal administration and finances and strengthened the army. He is known to have hired the Italian artist Leonardo Da Vinci. With the Concordat of Bologna, he granted the Pope right to collect annates from the Gallican church. Who is this man? . (Francis I) 62. He claimed the French throne along with two other people who had the same name. He was one of the leaders of the Huguenots, He escaped death from the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, when Catholic mobs started to kill Huguenots in Paris. After coming to power, he changed his name to Henry IV. He issued the Edict of Nantes, the document was about religious toleration that guaranteed civil and religious freedom to the Huguenots. His finance minister, the Duke of Sully, reformed the tax collection system to make it more equitable and efficient, stimulated trade, and fostered prosperity. All of this led to an increase in the prestige and power of the monarchy. Who is this leader of the Huguenot who became the King of France? . (Henry of Navarre) Protestant Reformation 63. He was the leader of the Protestant Reformation, author of the 95 theses. Name this person. . (Martin Luther) 64. In 1517, he started to sell indulgences around Wittenberg. The doctrine states that a sin will not be removed, but rather a remission of temporal punishment due to sin. The profit made from selling of indulgences went to funding the St. Peter’s Basilica. Name this Dominican friar who is famous for selling indulgences. . (Johann Tetzel) 65. This diet first attempted to stop Luther from spreading his ideas, but Luther refused and quoted “Here I stand. I cannot to otherwise.” Charles V of Holy Roman Empire declared Luther an outlaw. Then Frederick the Wise of Saxony gave Luther shelter. What is the name of this council? . (Diet of Worms) 66. Luther believed in only 2 sacraments name them. And . (Baptism and Holy Communion) 67. In 1530, Luther was summoned to this council to state his faith. They declared it unacceptable. This became known as the Confession of Augsburg. Name this council. . (Diet of Augsburg) 68. Following the council, a number of Lutheran princes established this league against the Holy Roman Empire. Name this league. . (Schmalkaldic League) 69. Translate this Latin phrase “Cuius region, eius religio.” . (Whose region. His religion) 70. He hoped that the Catholic Church would reform itself by realizing their own mistakes. In 1519, he led the church in Zurich in break from Roman Catholicism. He believed that only baptism and holy communion were acceptable. In 1531, he was killed by Catholic forces during a civil war. Name this Swiss religious leader. . (Ulrich Zwingli) 71. He was born in France, he was kicked out of France because they were a strong Catholic country, and he moved to Geneva. His religion banned card playing, gambling, dancing, theartergoing, consumption of alcohol and swearing. Name this religious leader who has a namesake religion. . (John Calvin)
72. These were the radicals of the Protestant Reformation. They became especially influential in Western Germany, but their groups appeared in other countries, including the Netherlands, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Russia, and England. They rejected infant baptism. They oppose the taking of oaths and bearing of arms and they also oppose the close relationship between religious and political authorities. They believed that church should be totally separated from the state. They were active in Germany’s Peasants’ Revolt. Name this religious group . (Anabaptists) 73. He was a German Anabaptist who preached not only a thorough religious reform but also the overthrow of the existing political and social order. He was executed. Name this religious leader. . (Thomas Munzer) The Catholic Reformation 74. This council argued against the Protestant beliefs and restated the Catholic beliefs of Confirmation, penance, Matrimony, Holy Orders, and extreme unction (the anointing of the sick). They rejected Luther’s view of supremacy of the Bible, instead they said that source of the Christian faith were to be found both in the Bible and in the traditions of the Church. Name this council . (Council of Trent) 75. This soldier from Basque was injured in a battle against the French and had a religious conversion. He would not fight for glory of the Spanish king, but will fight for greater glory of God. He and his followers took vows of poverty and chastity. He also wrote The Spiritual Exercises. Name this Spanish soldier and his group. And (St. Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits) 76. This Spanish admiral, a half brother of Philip II of Spain, went on a battle against the Turks and claimed victory at Battle of Lepanto. After the battle he wished to invade England and marry Mary Queen of Scots and rule England under Philip II, but lost the battle to English and Dutch privateers and pirates along with the Protestant Wind. Name this Spanish admiral (Don Juan of Austria) 77. Philip II of Spain sent this person to rule Netherlands or keep them in order, but instead of keeping them in order, the Netherlands rebelled against him. Name this person who had a reign of terror in Netherlands. (Duke of Alva) Thirty Years’ War 78. List the four periods of the Thirty Year’s War , , , and . (Bohemian Period, Danish Period, Swedish Period, French Period) 79. The first period of the Thirty Years’ War, was caused by this specific event which involved throwing 2 Catholic messengers of Holy Roman Empire out of the window. Name this event. . (Defenestration of Prague) 80. Holy Roman Empire led an army against the first phase against this king also known as the Winter King. He was placed as a king because he was a Calvinist. He was defeated by Ferdinand II of Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. Who is this man? . (Frederick V of Palatinate) 81. During the second phase, this king entered a war against Holy Roman Empire to annex German lands for his son. Ferdinand II of Holy Roman Empire hired this mercenary to fight the war for him. The mercenary army (50,000) pillaged German villages until they reached this kingdom and destroyed their forces. Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored all the Catholic states in Germany that had been secularized before the peace of Augsburg. Who is this king and the mercenary? , . (Christian IV of Denmark, Albert of Wallenstein).
82. During the Third phase of the Thirty Years’ War, this leader was involved in a war against the previously mentioned mercenary against the Holy Roman Empire. The king was paid by Cardinal Richelieu to go to war against the Habsburgs. He offered subsidies to encourage the king to go to war. The king was Lutheran and was eager to help the Protestant cause. He fought the before mentioned mercenary leader and defeated his army. In the process of defeating the mercenary, the king was killed and the mercenary was executed for plotting against the Holy Roman Empire. His victory led to Peace of Prague which revoked the Edict of Restitution. Name this king. . (Gustavus Adolphus) 83. The fourth and last phase of the war ended the Thirty Years’ War. This French advisor to the king’s goal was to limit the power of the Habsburg as much as possible. He launched attacks on the Spanish Habsburg. This advisor attacked the Spanish Habsburgs, weakened it and then sent a large force against the Holy Roman Empire which balanced the war. Ferdinand II died, and his son Ferdinand III succeeded him, he tried to make peace with France but couldn’t do so, because of this advisor. The treaty to end the war was not signed until the death of this advisor and French conquest of Bavaria. Name this advisor to the king. . (Cardinal Richelieu) 84. This treaty ended the Thirty Years’ War. Through this treaty, Sweden, Brandenburg, and France all gained territory. It recognized Holland and Switzerland as independent states, and weakened the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor. In religious tolerance, Catholic and Lutheran were already recognized religion in Europe, and Calvinism was added onto the list. This treaty divided the Holy Roman Empire into fragmented city-states. Capitalism Revived 85. This city state in Italy conquered its neighboring city state and monopolized trade with the East. Name this City state famous for their canals (Venice) 86. The northern Europe was dominated by this trading league. It included about 80 German towns on North and Baltic Sea. They dealt in raw materials. Name this league. . (Hanseatic League) 87. Name all the families known for their banking business. And (de Medici and Fuggers) 88. What technology enabled sailors to sail further without getting lost? , , (Compass, astrolabe, chronometer) 89. This Greek geographer’s work was used extensively by sailors for not many maps were available. Name this geographer. . (Ptolemy) 90. This Venetian journeyed to China and established a good relationship with Kublai Khan. He made the trade with the East possible. Name this explorer. . (Marco Polo) 91. This prince of Portugal established a sailing school on an island off the coast of Africa. Name this Prince. . (Prince Henry the Navigator) 92. This Portuguese explorer attempted to reach India, but only got around to Cape of Good Hope. Name this Portuguese explorer. . (Bartholemew Diaz) 93. This Portuguese explorer finally reached India and landed on Goa. He had an Arab sailor’s help. Name this Portuguese explorer . (Vasco Da Gama) 94. This Portuguese sailor set out for India, but took a wrong turn and landed on Brazil. Name this Portuguese sailor who claimed Brazil for Portugal . (Pedro Cabral) 95. This sailor was a Genovese seaman, but nobody would sponsor him in sailing directly to China and Japan, for they have already established a trade route to
India and through India many countries were able to trade with China. He was sponsored by Spain to sail directly towards Japan, but landed on the Americas. Name this sailor who re-discovered the Americas. . (Chrsitopher Columbus) 96. Pope Alexander VI, a Spaniard established this line that divided the colonies among Spain and Portugal. He divided the colonies in favor of the Spanish, Portugal only received Brazil. Name this line. (Papal Line of Demarcation) 97. Ponce de Leon discovered Florida 98. Vasco de Balboa was the first to see the Pacific Ocean, which he called the South Sea. 99. Hernan Cortes conquered Aztec for Spain, Pizarro conquered Incas for Spain. 100.Francisco de Coronado explored he Southwest United States, going as far as Kansas 101.Ferdinand Magellan set out on a voyage in search of the elusive route west by sea to Asia, and he still has a strait named after him. He was the first person to attempt a circumnavigation of the world. 102.America is named for Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine sailor. I’m sorry for not having review for Enlightenment and Glorious Revolution, but that is available in Barron’s Guide and Palmer & Colton, and in Modern European History.
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