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Topic 1: Elementary Matters

Assessment: Reference: Relevance:

Tute test Chemistry, Chapters 1 & 2 Fundamental to Chemistry


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CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Chemistry

Matter

Mass
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THREE STATES OF MATTER

Dense, ordered

Not as rigid

Large distance b/w molecules


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SUBSTANCES & MIXTURES


Pure substance matter with constant composition,
distinct properties

Mixture 2 or more substances, which retain their


individual identity

ELEMENTS & COMPOUNDS


Element substance that is in its simplest form,
cant be chemically separated

Compound atoms of 2 or more


elements chemically united fixed composition Chemical means are required to reduce a compound to its constituent elements

MIXTURES
Homogeneous
Composition same throughout

Heterogeneous

Common examples

Individual components remain separated Examples: 6

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Classify each (& explain) as an element, compound or as a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture

Sea water Helium gas Sodium chloride Bottle of soft drink Milkshake Air Concrete

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Measured and observed but no change to identity or composition Examples? Conductivity Density Melting point Boiling point Thiele tube for micro-boiling points

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
To observe the property, a chemical change must be done Changed to a different form by a chemical reaction Examples? Combustion (burnt in air) Acid/base reaction

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Do the following involve a chemical or physical change?

Helium gas leaks out of a balloon A torch beam gets dimmer & goes out Frozen orange juice is reconstituted with H2O Growth of plants depends on photosynthesis A teaspoon of salt dissolves in a bowl of soup

Extensive
Value depends on how much matter is measured Eg: Volume Mass

vs

Intensive
Value is independent of quantity of matter Eg: Density Temperature Colour softness
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More definitions!
Solution:
a mixture by dissolving a solute in a solvent eg. sugar or salt in water

Concentration: the amount of solute dissolved in a


given amount of solvent eg. 10 g salt in 100 mL water

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Scientists & Their Methods


Scientific method: systematic approach gathering data quantifying (quantitative) observing - qualitative hypothesis (tentative explanation)

Law concise statement


same observation under same conditions, always!

Theory unifies laws


and facts underlying them

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1.3

Classify the following as quantitative or qualitative;

(a) sun is approx 93 million miles from earth

(b) Leonardo da Vinci was better painter than Michelangelo

(c)

Ice is less dense than water

(d) Butter is tastes better than margarine

(e) A stitch in time saves nine 13

ATOMIC THEORY
All matter is comprised of atoms

Simplest structural unit Properties characteristic to the element

Three simple particles make one atom unique from another


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STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM


Bohr Model - protons - + ve charge
neutrons - no charge electrons - ve charge In the centre is the nucleus - contains protons & neutrons Most volume is in the electron cloud We often discuss the inner electrons and the valence, or outer electrons, which are often responsible for chemical bonding and reactivity. Most mass is in the nucleus p - 1.672 10-27 kg n - 1.675 10-27 kg e - 9.1 10-31 kg 15

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The diameter of a helium (He) atom is about 1 x 102 pm. Suppose that you could line up He atoms side by side. Approx how many atoms would it take to make the distance from end to end 1 cm?
1 pm = 10-12 m 1 cm = 10-2 m
1 atom 1012 pm 1 m No. atoms 1 10 2 pm 1 m 100 cm cm

This problem uses the factor-label method to get the units right. This will be covered later on. 16

CHARACTERISING AN ATOM (OR ELEMENT)


Use the number of protons (p) and neutrons (n) contained in the atom
Mass No. (p + n)

A Z
Atomic no. (p) Number of neutrons = A-Z

Element symbol

X
In a neutral atom p = e 17

ISOTOPES
Same number of protons but different number of neutrons

1 1H

2 1H
1 extra neutron

35 17 Cl

37 17 Cl
2 extra neutrons

1 proton 1 electron 0 neutrons

1 proton 1 electron 1 neutron

17 protons 17 electrons 18 neutrons

17 protons 17 electrons 20 neutrons

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2.16 Indicate the no. protons, neutrons & electrons in each of the following species:
15 7N

7 p, 7 e, 8 n

130 56

Ba 2+

33 16 S 63 29 Cu

186 74 W
35 17

Cl

84 38 Sr

202 80 Hg

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THE PERIODIC TABLE


- table to organise and group elements - contains a lot of information on chemical and physical properties

Check out the Periodic Table from about.com

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Some important aspects


Group II - alkaline earth metals Group VII - halogens Group I - alkali Group VIII metals noble gases

Transition metals

Semiconductors

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ROWS or PERIODS

increasing number of valence electrons same value of n (stay within same shell)

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Organisation within the Periodic Table GROUPS

Same number of valence electrons Increasing n (more electrons to fill shells further from the nucleus) The Roman numeral and letter designations give the electron configuration for the valence electrons

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1.14 Give the chemical symbols for the following elements

Potassium Chromium Barium Sulphur Mercury Tin

Boron Plutonium Argon

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1.13 Give the names of the following elements - If you want more, Ive put a crossword on blackboard

Li F P Cu As Zn Cl

Pt Mg U Al Si Ne

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What you should be doing now


Print off your timetable for the unit! Revise concepts used in the lecture, check your understanding of atoms Start on the tutorial problems, mark down any points that you wish to raise during the tute class

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Using the Chemistry Study Booklets The chemistry subject unit covers a lot of material over a range of topics. The topics have been chosen to give you an excellent foundation, whether it is for further chemistry study or to serve as providing background knowledge that will be useful in other units. All references apply to the prescribed text: Chemistry by Raymond Chang 10th Edition. These study sheets have been designed to: Indicate the important concepts within each topic Provide a quick reference to the corresponding section in your text. List problems you should attempt over three stages: o o o after the topic lecture for working through in the tutes/at home during study to test your understanding further

Youll find these sheets attached at the back of each set of lecture notes. Worked solutions are also available for all of the for study problems on blackboard. Attempt all questions independently and use these solutions to help you determine where you are having difficulties and if you understand the approach to solving problems of different levels of difficulty. Remember to talk with your tutor, use the discussion boards and be active in the tutorials; the earlier in the semester you establish these learning skills, the better! This should be an excellent resource for you and your study, but be aware that the only complete source of theory that you have is your lecture notes!

HES1490-HES1510 Study Booklet Questions Only

Topic 1

Elementary Matters
This topic is an introductory unit covering the following areas (which may be predominantly revision for you): the building blocks of chemistry: atoms states of matter atomic number, mass number, atomic mass and isotopes trends of the periodic table

Section in Text

Page

Section Example

Suggested Problems Lecture notes 1.3 For Study 1.4 Extra Practice 1.53

1.3

Scientific Method Matter: Substances and Mixtures

1.4

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Elements and Compounds Key Concept - Figure 1.5

1.16

1.5

1.15

1.5 1.6

13 14

The Three States of Matter Properties of Matter: - Physical - Chemical Atomic Theory Structure of the atom: electron, proton, neutron Key Concept: Figure 2.9 Properties of atoms: atomic number (Z), mass number (A), isotopes A (Mass No.) = no. protons + no. neutrons = Z(atomic no.) + no. neutrons Periodic Table You will be given a periodic table in class 2.1

Revision only 1.12 2.7 1.11 2.10 2.11 1.8

2.1-2.2

42

2.16

2.13 2.14 2.15 2.17

2.69

2.3

49

2.4

51

1.13 1.14

2.21 2.22 2.26

HES1490-HES1510 Study Booklet Questions Only