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International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmactool
Investigation on wear behaviour of cryogenically treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts in turning
Simranpreet Singh Gill a,n, Jagdev Singh a, Harpreet Singh b, Rupinder Singh c
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Beant College of Engineering and Technology, Gurdaspur 143521, Punjab, India School of Mechanical, Materials and Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar 140001, Punjab, India c Department of Production Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana 141006, Punjab, India
a r t i c l e in f o
Article history: Received 18 August 2010 Received in revised form 6 October 2010 Accepted 8 October 2010 Available online 20 October 2010 Keywords: Shallow cryogenic treatment Deep cryogenic treatment Tungsten carbide inserts Orthogonal cutting ISO 3685-1993 Flank wear
Cryogenic treatment has been ascribed as a way of improving the cutting life of tungsten carbide turning inserts. Most of the research conducted till date has not reported any effort to excavate the effect of cryogenic treatment on the performance of coated tungsten carbide inserts in terms of adhesion strength of coatings deposited on tungsten carbide substrate. In order to understand the effect of cryogenic treatment on the adhesion strength of coatings, a comparative investigation of the wear behaviour and machining performance of cryogenically treated coated tungsten carbide inserts in orthogonal turning has been carried out in this study. The commercially available TiAlN coated square shaped tungsten carbide inserts (P25) were procured and subjected to cryogenic treatment at two levels À 110 1C (shallow treatment) and À 196 1C (deep treatment) of temperature independently. The criterion selected for determining the turning performance was based on the maximum ﬂank wear (0.6 mm) as recommended in ISO 3685-1993. The results showed that shallow cryogenically treated coated tungsten carbide inserts performed signiﬁcantly better as compared with deep cryogenically treated and untreated inserts. Major outcome of the present study includes a substantial decrease in tool life of deep cryogenically treated inserts as compared to untreated inserts indicating the destructive effect of deep cryogenic temperature ( À 196 1C) on TiAlN coated inserts which is further supported by VDI-3198 indentation test. & 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction The life of cutting tools plays a major role in increasing productivity and consequently is an important economic factor. Machining is intrinsically characterized by generation of heat and high cutting temperature. At such elevated temperature, the cutting tool if not enough hot hard may wear out rapidly resulting in increased cutting forces, dimensional inaccuracy of the product and shorter tool life. In order to increase the life of cutting tools, the major innovations in cutting tool technology have been the introduction of thin hard ﬁlm surface coatings on cutting tool materials that help to prevent the tools from oxidation and abrasion. The application of hard, wear resistant coating on cutting tools began in the mid-1960s and today nearly 70% of cutting tools are coated. Thus, coatings have become an integral part of modern cutting tool materials, and a considerable research and development effort is expended on the development of new coating techniques and materials for improved cutting tools. The majority of tools and inserts presently used in various metal cutting
n Corresponding author. Tel.: + 91 9855729555; fax: + 91 1874 221463/ + 91 1874 221464. E-mail address: email@example.com (S.S. Gill).
operations are cemented carbide coated with a material consisting of nitrides (TiN, TiAlN, CrN, etc.), carbides (TiC, CrC, W2C, WC/C, etc.), oxides (Al2O3) or combinations of these [1–4]. Coating cemented carbide with TiC, TiN, TiAlN and Al2O3 dramatically reduces the rate of ﬂank wear . In the present study metastable TiAlN with fcc structure coated tungsten carbide inserts were used. The recent interest in TiAlN coatings to enhance the high temperature performance of PVD coated tools has diverse the interest in alternative coating technologies. TiAlN thin ﬁlm intensiﬁed the wear resistant coatings for high speed machining due to their high hardness, excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance. The presence of Al in TiAlN coatings overcomes the oxidation problems due to the presence of a superﬁcial layer of Al2O3 formed at high temperatures [6–8]. A primary contributor to the wear resistance of the coating materials is that they are all much less soluble in steel than tungsten carbide at metal cutting temperatures . Cryogenic treatment, the discipline upon which the present study is based, can be considered a recent development [10–17]. Cryogenic treatment is the process of cooling a material to temperatures far below room temperature in order to enhance the cutting life through morphological changes that occurs during treatment. Scientiﬁc research on cryogenic treatment has been spotty, and only a few academic papers have been published especially on coated tungsten carbides. It is anticipated that
0890-6955/$ - see front matter & 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.10.003
6% increase in tool life. with the temperature being monitored by computerized control.8 mm . Stewart  applied cryogenic treatment to C2 tungsten carbide (WC-6% Co) inserts and compared with untreated carbide inserts to determine if tool wear could be reduced during turning tests with medium density ﬁberboard (MDF). 2. The review of the literature reveals the potential of use of cryogenic treatment in improving the performance of tungsten carbide inserts in machining of steels . Materials and methods The tool material selected for the present investigation was TiAlN coated tungsten carbide insert which is the most extensively used cutting tool material in today’s metal cutting industry. Yong et al. Also. It is important to mention that all the four corners of every insert were used in turning tests. in contrary to steels. 1 shows the heat treatment cycle used to treat the inserts. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 morphological changes resulted by cryogenic treatment coupled with wear resistance properties of hard coatings can further enhance the cutting life of tungsten carbide inserts. the inserts were cooled down and heated up slowly.S. there is no martensite phase in tungsten carbide. Bryson  attributed the wear resistance. Fig. Seah et al. In this study. But the available results in the literature pertaining to wear behavoiur of tungsten carbide inserts subjected to cryogenic treatment are not lucid enough to propose any logical basis for evaluating the performance of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts. improves ﬂank wear resistance. and links these changes to the corresponding enhanced tool life. Kao  also reported increase in abrasion wear resistance of sintered tungsten carbides inserts after cryogenic treatment. two tempering cycles consisting of heating to 150 1C were followed to relieve the stresses induced during cryogenic (SCT and DCT) treatment. They conﬁrmed that. Further. Gallagher et al. post-cryogenic treatment adhesion strength of surface coatings on tungsten carbide inserts substrate is not reported in open literature till date. to and from the shallow cryogenic temperature ( À 110 1C) and deep cryogenic temperature ( À 196 1C). Similarly. Hot rolled annealed steel stock (C-65) of initial diameter 90 mm and length 700 mm was orthogonally turned on CNC turning machine (MSC-ZL25MC. over a 4 and 7 h period.  showed that cryogenic treatment no doubt improves the resistance to chipping of tools and to a less signiﬁcant extent. ISO speciﬁcation) were procured. The authors claimed that the use of coolant coupled with cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide inserts further improved the tool life. However. as such. 4 turning run were performed to get the average values of tool ﬂank wear and workpiece surface roughness. and lower toughness. An attempt has been made to critically examine the effect of cryogenic treatment coupled with hard surface coating on the wear behaviour and machining performance of tungsten carbide inserts over a range of cutting speeds. any improvement in tool life or wear resistance would be due to other mechanisms. Tool signature of the used inserts is presented in Table 1. improved resistance to plastic deformation during cutting. the coated tungsten carbide inserts were cryogenically treated under dry condition where the inserts being treated were not exposed to the liquid nitrogen to eliminate the risk and damage of thermal shock. After this. The current study is therefore aimed to study the wear behaviour of cryogenically treated single-point coated tungsten carbide inserts. Mori Seiki. From this study they concluded that cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide inserts increased the number of Z—phase particles. Yong et al. Bryson  also warned that under certain conditions. A few researchers have studied the impact of cryogenic treatment on tungsten carbide inserts. SCT and DCT) in dry machining conditions.5 1C/min. but heavy duty cutting operations with long periods of heating of the cutting tool will not beneﬁt from it. They also concluded that considerable increase in life of cryogenically treated tools can be attained for interrupted machining mode as compared with continuous machining mode.  implemented the cryogenic treatment on cobalt bonded tungsten carbide (Co–WC) inserts and found that the treated inserts were superior to those of the untreated as received inserts at high cutting speeds. This gave an average heating/cooling rate of 0. Work by Quek  also agreed with the ﬁndings of these authors. Both the tool force data and observation of the cutting edges indicate that tool wear was reduced.9–38. in order to avoid thermal shocks from rapid cooling and heating. Studies so far have shown that the cutting speed is the Table 1 Tool signature of the used tungsten carbide inserts. Orthogonal rake angle (g) Cutting edge inclination angle (g1) Orthogonal clearance angle (a1) Principal cutting edge angle (j) Auxiliary cutting edge angle (j1) Nose radius À 61 À 61 61 751 151 0. Also for each cutting speed and insert group. In the recent study. The commercially available square shaped coated tungsten carbide inserts of speciﬁcation SPUN 12–03–08 (P25. and hence the increase in tool life. Three different groups of inserts were obtained as non-treated (NT) inserts with no extra treatment. He postulated that the cryogenic treatment appeared to have an effect upon the cobalt binder by changing phase or crystal structure.  did comparative investigation of the wear behaviour of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts in dry and wet orthogonal turning conditions to excavate the affect of coolants on the performance of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts. a theory which they supported with photographs taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). shallow cryogenically treated (SCT) inserts and deep cryogenically treated (DCT) inserts. He believes that cryogenic treatment also acts to relieve the stresses introduced during the sintering process by which carbide tools are produced. They stated that tools under mild cutting conditions stand to gain from cryogenic treatment.26 S. Sandvik Coromant. so that more cobalt binder was retained during cutting. Average values of maximum ﬂank wear and surface roughness of workpiece were recorded at each cutting speed after each predeﬁned machining interval to minimize any possible error. cryogenic treatment would have little or no effect on carbide tools. The group of inserts (4 TiAlN coated inserts) meant for SCT was subjected to cooling at À 110 1C and held at this temperature for 18 h and gradually brought back to room temperature.  cryogenically treated tungsten carbide milling inserts and found 28. The tool holder used for machining was ISO CSBPR–2525–M12 (Sandvik Coromant). the group of inserts (4 TiAlN coated inserts) meant for DCT was subjected to cooling at À196 1C and held for 38 h and gradually brought back to room temperature. They assigned this as a reason for reducing transverse rupture strength hence greater resistance to chipping. of carbide tools to the improvement in the holding strength of the binder after cryogenic treatment. g (carbide of cubic lattice) and Z (multiple carbides of tungsten and at least one metal of the binder) phases within the tungsten carbide (WC) inserts caused by the cryogenic treatment. Gill et al. Each group contained 4 inserts and all four corners of the each square insert were used at each selected cutting speed resulting in four turning runs per insert. respectively. b (cobalt binder). such as when reprocessed carbides are used. Japan) by the coated tungsten carbide inserts belonging to all three groups (NT.  analyzed the microstructural alterations of a (tungsten carbide). Also. Tungsten carbide inserts respond signiﬁcantly well to the cryogenic treatment. Gill et al.
The cutting life of TiAlN coated inserts subjected to deep cryogenic treatment was reduced by about 4% and 40% as compared with non-treated and shallow cryogenically treated inserts. Hence. The tool lives of tungsten carbide inserts for all the selected cutting speeds are given in Table 2. inserts was about 25.1.5% over non-treated inserts. 3. 150 and 180 m/min) thus enhancing the working life of the cutting inserts up to some extent. f. respectively.1 mm/rev and depth of cut. 2–5. Since the width of ﬂank wear was not regular along the cutting edge. it is clear that the shallow cryogenically treated tungsten carbide inserts performed signiﬁcantly better as compared to similar non-treated and deep cryogenically treated inserts. shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated turning inserts as shown in Figs. 2. was measured using an inverted metallurgical microscope (DM ILM. From the graph shown in Fig. 2 for cutting speed 110 m/min. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 27 200 °C 150 °C 100 °C Room Temp. VDI3198 indentation tests were conducted to evaluate the interfacial adhesion strength of TiAlN coating on tungsten carbide substrate before and after cryogenic treatment. Germany) after each predeﬁned machining interval. shallow and deep cryogenically treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts resist wearing more effectively at relatively higher cutting speeds (130. Results and discussions After performing the experimental work as detailed in Section 2 of present paper. All the cutting tests were performed at feed rate. The inserts were inspected under the scanning electron microscope (F-200 FEI. 2–5). Quanta. Gill et al. Fig. 4. i. Leica. 0 °C 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 –110 °C –196 °C Time (hr) Deep cryogenic treatment: Shallow cryogenic treatment Fig. Growth of maximum ﬂank wear with machining time at cutting speed of 130 m/min. The reported increase in tool life for shallow cryogenically treated Fig. 150 and 180 m/min based on preliminary turning tests. the performance of deep cryogenically treated inserts was worst whereas shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed signiﬁcantly well. Progression of tool ﬂank wear The maximum ﬂank wear (VBmax) values of the inserts were measured at ﬁxed intervals. followed by feed and depth of cut.e. At lower cutting speed of 110 m/min. of 1 mm. the maximum ﬂank wear. 130. VBmax. most dominate factor inﬂuencing tool life.S.29].S. Holland) to excavate the possible wear mechanism. 3. However. Three curves have been plotted for maximum ﬂank wear (VBmax) at each cutting speed one each for non-treated. only the cutting speed was varied in four steps as 110. This signiﬁcant decrease in tool life of . 3. after 5 min for all the turning tests. of 0. As reﬂected in the graphs (Figs. Fig. the results were recorded and are discussed in the following subsections. Growth of maximum ﬂank wear with machining time at cutting speed of 110 m/min. the performance of deep cryogenically treated inserts was marginally better than shallow cryogenically treated inserts for higher cutting speed of 150 and 180 m/min. The method of measuring tool ﬂank wear in this study was in accordance to ISO 3685-1993. This ﬁnding is in contrary to the popular published literature which reported enhancement of cutting life of coated and uncoated deep cryogenically treated inserts . 1. in that order [28. Growth of maximum ﬂank wear with machining time at cutting speed of 150 m/min. ap. Thermal treatment cycle used to treat the TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts.
3. both non-treated and deep cryogenically treated inserts performed equally well for initial approximately 15 min of machining. This is contrary to the observations made for relatively lower cutting speeds (Figs. 4 and 5. 2. It is anticipated that after initial 8–9 min of machining.42 deep cryogenically treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts at lower cutting speeds can be attributed to the fact that the deep cryogenic temperature ( À 196 1C) may have adversely affected the interfacial adhesion bonding of TiAlN coating on the tungsten carbide insert substrate.37 180 34.5% and 18%. The non-treated and shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed equally well for initial approximately 25 min of machining and for longer duration of machining.56 130 43. For short duration machining at lower cutting speeds. 5. Also. but the damage occurred during initial phase of machining in terms of failure of TiAlN coating ultimately reduced the cutting life of inserts. Consequently. deep cryogenically treated inserts resisted ﬂank wear relatively well till the TiAlN coating got delaminated from the ﬂank face of deep cryogenically treated inserts which was also the case for cutting speed of 110 m/min. This trend is similar to the ﬂank wear trend for cutting speed of 110 m/min. Data analysis suggest that more favourable results in term of long tool life can be expected by using deep cryogenically treated inserts for high speed continuous machining . 4 and 5. a clear difference in performance was recorded for shallow cryogenically treated inserts as shown in Fig. shallow cryogenic treatment is recommended for TiAlN coated tungsten carbide turning inserts only when longer duration of machining at lower cutting speeds is desired.88 57. shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed better as evident in Fig. the insert resist ﬂank wear effectively during lateral phase of machining.43 47. Also. the rate of progression of ﬂank wear on deep cryogenically treated inserts increased more rapidly as compared to non-treated and shallow cryogenically treated inserts.47 66. This may be attributed to the effectiveness of deep cryogenically treated tungsten carbide substrate TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts especially under continuous machining mode at relatively higher cutting speed. Type of insert Cutting speed (m/min) 110 Non-treated Shallow cryogenically treated Deep cryogenically treated 49. As clear from graph shown in Fig. It is interesting to note that even at relatively higher cutting speed of 130 m/min. it is well known fact that cryogenic treatment is not a surface treatment rather it positively affects the whole mass of the insert material. Therefore.S.11 44. it can be concluded that non-treated and shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed marginally well as compared to deep cryogenically treated inserts during initial stage of machining for higher cutting speeds. After 25 min of machining. the rate of progress of ﬂank wear on non-treated inserts increased as compared to deep cryogenically treated insert which ultimately resulted in overall higher cutting life of deep cryogenically treated inserts. the choice of implementing the shallow cryogenic treatment should be made keeping in mind the economical viability of the machining.94 41. During the later stage of machining. Gill et al. For next 20 min of machining. After critical analysis of the graphs presented in Figs. 2. In contrast to wear behaviour at cutting speed 110 m/min. Being treated at deep cryogenic temperature ( À 196 1C).36 42. respectively). the shallow cryogenic treatment is recommended only for long duration turning operations because for short duration cuts it might not be economically feasible as the advantage gained is relatively less. Hence. the deep cryogenically treated inserts performed better as compared to non-treated inserts in the last phase of machining for cutting speed of 130 m/min.18 150 38. However. 3. Table 2 Tool life (min) for maximum ﬂank wear VBmax ¼0. Also. all the three types of inserts (irrespective of the type of cryogenic treatment) performed more or less equally up to ﬁrst 8–9 min of machining. the application of shallow cryogenic treatment may not provide acceptable results in terms of ﬂank wear resistance. Also the percentage increase in tool life reported for shallow cryogenically treated inserts over non-treated inserts was about 24% whereas deep cryogenically treated insert reported decrease of 20% in cutting life of insert as compared to shallow cryogenically treated inserts. After this. Evidently. it is clear that the percentage increase in tool life of deep cryogenically treated inserts over nontreated insert is about 9% at cutting speed of 130 m/min which is in contrary to corresponding decrease of about 4% for cutting speed 110 m/min.86 48. the TiAlN coating might have ruptured from the ﬂank face of the deep cryogenically treated inserts resulting in drastic reduction in cutting life of inserts. the non-treated and shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed almost equally well for initial approximately 25 min of machining as was for cutting speed 110 m/min though the overall cutting life of tools is comparatively short at cutting speed of 130 m/min. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 Fig. Hence. The maximum possible increase in tool life at lower cutting speeds can be gained by the application of shallow cryogenic treatment. the shallow and deep cryogenically treated inserts performed relatively well as compared to non-treated inserts the later being the more effective in resisting ﬂank wear. Growth of maximum ﬂank wear with machining time at cutting speed of 180 m/min. the inserts might have behaved like uncoated deep cryogenically treated inserts. This trend of wear behaviour can be attributed to the ineffectiveness of nontreated inserts during long duration of machining at relatively higher cutting speed. once the TiAlN coating got removed from the ﬂank face. the maximum percentage increase in tool life decreases as cutting speed was raised up to 150 and 180 m/min (about 19. the non-treated inserts resisted ﬂank wear more effectively as compared to deep cryogenically treated inserts. But after about 35 min of machining. From graph shown in Fig. shallow cryogenic treatment appears to be effective in reducing tool wear even at higher cutting speed but the extent of improvement is relatively less as compared with lower cutting speed. The cutting life of inserts kept on decreasing as we increased the cutting speed further as 150 and 180 m/min as shown in graphs presented in Figs.28 S.74 48.6 mm. 2 and 3) where shallow cryogenically treated inserts performed relatively well even during later stage of machining.
76%. ‘‘chipping’’ and ‘‘fatigue’’ of a mechanical origin. the tool life for each cutting speed was obtained. Gill et al. the size of ﬂank wear crater on shallow cryogenically treated insert is relatively small as compared to ﬂank wear crater of non-treated insert which is also evident from the graph shown in Fig.S. It is apparent that the cryogenic treatment neutralized the adverse effect of possible higher tool– chip interface temperatures during continuous dry machining by reducing the temperature thus helped in restricting ﬂank wear of cutting inserts.783) inserts. Among the various wear patterns. 6 that the shallow cryogenic treatment is more effective in increasing tool life at lower cutting speeds whereas deep cryogenic treatment is more effective at higher cutting speeds though the gain in tool life is trivial . shallow cryogenic treatment gives improvements in tool life for long duration machining whereas for short duration machining cryogenic treatment is not recommended as the gain achieved might not be signiﬁcant. It is apparent from the graph shown in Fig. It is established in the previously published literature that cryogenic treatment contribute signiﬁcantly in cooling the tool tip by dissipating heat to the surroundings by enhancing the thermal conductivity of the inserts . originated due to aggressive dry cutting. It was the higher local temperature at some distance from the cutting edge that adversely wore the TiAlN coating leading to the initial exposure of the tungsten carbide substrate. For relatively lower cutting speeds. 6. Moreover. Hence.74% increase in tool life of deep cryogenically treated uncoated tungsten carbide inserts for cutting speed 110. Gill et al. Once the TiAlN coating got worn-off. only ﬂank wear of the tools is discussed in the present paper. Tool life of cutting inserts vs.13%. it is clear that a little plastic deformation of tool material occurred during machining but it seemed to be relatively insigniﬁcant. Thus. the shape of ﬂank wear is more symmetric. respectively. It is suggested that higher thermal conductivity of inserts coupled with surface coating enables lower tool–chip interface temperature and dissipate heat more rapidly. the principal ﬂank wear is the most important because it raises the cutting forces signiﬁcantly and the related problems. Tool ﬂank wear mechanism Tool wear initially starts with a relatively faster rate due to what is called break-in wear caused by abrasion and micro-chipping at the sharp cutting edges . the plastic deformation occurred on non-treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts indicates its relatively poor thermal conductivity.2. economical feasibility evaluations must be done before opting for deep cryogenic treatment of inserts otherwise in general shallow cryogenic treatment is recommended for TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts. or by ‘‘thermal fatigue’’ caused by temperature ﬂuctuations. SCT and DCT). 12. 150 and 180 m/min. This may be one of the reasons for relatively superior surface roughness of the machined surface of the workpiece in case of shallow cryogenically treated inserts in comparison to non-treated and deep cryogenically treated inserts.983) and deep cryogenically treated (regression coefﬁcient R2 ¼0. The wear would then propagate through plastic deformation since the exposed tungsten carbide substrate had lower mechanical. Hence. 7c shows the SEM images of shallow cryogenically treated insert after 20 min of machining at cutting speed 180 m/min. Plastic deformation refers to ﬂowing out of material under high pressure and temperature conditions. severe plastic deformation of TiAlN coating as well as tungsten carbide substrate can be observed for non-treated insert. 3. quantitative and engineering analyses of cutting forces are beyond the scope of present study and can be taken for future research. The surface roughness of machined workpieces was veriﬁed quantitatively and is discussed in the later part of this paper. Metaphors of the ﬂank face were obtained using scanning electron microscope. 7b. Overall it appears that the ﬂank wear of shallow cryogenically treated inserts occurred dominantly through attrition and abrasion wears whereas plastic deformation was the major wear pattern for non-treated insert. This damage can be characterized by ‘‘fracture’’. plastic deformation can be restricted up to some extent by enhancing the thermal conductivity of the coated inserts. they reported that the coolant is more effective in reducing tool wear at relatively higher cutting speeds. cutting speed on double logarithmic scale to base 10. by shifting the machining mode from dry to wet. In Fig. that the performance of shallow cryogenically treated inserts is consistent as the dispersion of data points along the linear regression line for shallow cryogenically treated inserts (regression coefﬁcient R2 ¼0. As clear from Fig. 5. 6. 130.  reported 7. It can also be analyzed from the graph shown in Fig. The high compressive stress through cutting and rubbing actions deformed the TiAlN coating plastically. Chipping marks are present on ﬂank wear land of the insert however of less intensity which might indicate the enhanced toughness of the insert material due to morphological changes occurred during shallow cryogenic treatment. Fig. . Setting a maximum ﬂank wear (VBmax) of 600 mm as tool life criterion. It is important to mention that even higher tool lives can be attained by applying coolant at tool tip during machining. Hence. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 29 though the reported increase in cutting life over shallow cryogenically treated insert is merely about 2.96% and 17. this observation is also supported by the smaller cutting forces recorded on the cutting inserts and lesser vibrations felt during turning by shallow cryogenically treated inserts. The TiAlN softened as its hardness decrease at high cutting temperature . at which the resistance to chipping due to cryogenic treatments was most prominent. 7d. thereby causing lesser scope for plastic deformation of the tool. Also. the inserts would be more susceptible to wear. 7d. it can be inferred that cryogenically treated TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts might be more suitable for a particular set of cutting conditions. In addition. in order to perceive differences in the ﬂank wear. chemical and thermal properties than the coating. 5 for machining time of 20 min. These were taken for inserts used at the highest cutting speed tested (180 m/min).992) is less as compared to dispersion of data points along the linear regression line for non-treated (regression coefﬁcient R2 ¼0. From SEM image shown in Fig. Evidently.S. Plots of cutting speed and tool life on double logarithmic scale to base 10 for all the inserts tested are shown in Fig. Fig.5%. However. Fig. 7 shows the ﬂank wear patterns on ﬂank face of the inserts and close range SEM images after 20 min of turning for all the three types of inserts (NT. 6.
EDX spectrum (Fig. 7. Thus. 4 and 5) can be attributed to the enhanced wear resistance properties of the tungsten carbide substrate which resulted from metallurgical changes occurred during deep cryogenic treatment. From the SEM shown in Fig. The graywhite patches seen in the picture are the naked tungsten carbide substrate from where the TiAlN coating got delaminated during machining. the size and spread of ﬂank wear increased and micro-chipping wear can also be seen for deep cryogenically treated coated insert. Once the coating got delaminated from the tungsten carbide substrate.30 S. 8a. To conﬁrm the constituents of these ﬂakes. 8a. On the other hand. The amount of about 6. Flank wear patterns and close range SEM metaphors of (a and b) non-treated. many surface cracks can be seen in TiAlN coating.S. chemical and thermal properties of the coating that determine the tool’s resistance to wear. Fig. it was the mechanical. As observed in Fig. occurred during machining. 7e shows the SEM images of deep cryogenically treated insert after 20 min of machining at cutting speed 180 m/min. Surface analysis conﬁrmed the presence of all coating elements. which are not homogeneously distributed due to deformation of TiAlN coating.84% (at) of oxygen indicates the presence of Al2O3 and TiO2 oxides in the coating. Since this ﬁnding is contrary to the results of many previously published papers. 7. It is suggested that the deep cryogenic treatment must have destroyed the ability of coated inserts to resist wear by weakening the adhesion bonding of hard TiAlN coating to the tungsten carbide substrate. The marginally superior performance of deep cryogenically treated coated inserts for high cutting speed long duration machining (Figs. . Also.7f. The TiAlN coating was the actual contacting substance of the tool in both tool–chip and tool–workpiece interaction areas. cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) were also presented which conﬁrms that these elements transferred from the tungsten carbide substrate by atomic diffusion. Gill et al. (c and d) shallow cryogenically treated and (e and f) deep cryogenically treated inserts for cutting speed 180 m/min and machining time 20 min. Abrasion wear marks are visible at ﬂank wear land (Fig. Ti. the inserts performed like deep cryogenically treated uncoated inserts. 8a) image was obtained from the ﬂank face of the deep cryogenically treated insert so as to locate surface defects in TiAlN coating if any. although the shallow cryogenically treated coated inserts performed signiﬁcantly well but deep cryogenic treatment adversely affected the performance of TiAlN coated inserts at all cutting speeds tested. loosely bounded ﬂakes of TiAlN coating can be seen. 8b) was also obtained at a point indicated by cross-hair in Fig. tungsten (W). As evident from the graphs shown in Figs. 2–5 and micrographs in Fig. it is important to understand the mechanism by which the deep cryogenic treatment adversely affected the inserts. To conﬁrm this theory. In addition. a close range SEM (Fig. coating cracks could also take place when deformation mismatch occurred due to different coefﬁcient of thermal expansion between the two. Al and N. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 a Plastic deformation WC substrate b TiAlN coating c Plastic deformation d Chipping Abrasion marks e Micro chipping f Abrasion marks Fig. 7f).
3.27] summarize the changes occurred as following: hard phase particles of tungsten carbide are reﬁned into their most stable form via the phenomenon of spheroidization. The stresses of manufacture. The conical Rockwell C intender was forced into the coating with a load of about 1500 N. To conﬁrm these suggestions. In the present investigation. The TiAlN coating cracking at the periphery of the Rockwell indents conﬁrms the character of the compound strength of coating–substrate . the Rockwell C indentation tests as prescribed by the VDI 3198 norm were conducted on the nontreated and cryogenically treated (SCT and DCT) TiAlN coated tungsten carbide inserts to evaluate their respective interfacial coating–substrate adhesion strength. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 31 Fig. These are in addition to the larger carbide particles present before cryogenic treatment. 8. the elements are indicated. permanently.S. Gill et al. (b) a typical EDX spectrum from TiAlN coating. the effect of cryogenic treatment on TiAlN coating material is beyond the scope of present work. This reduces the risk of stress-induced fractures.S. stress free conﬁguration. However.3. [26. The ﬁne eta (Z) carbide particles precipitate during the cryogenic treatment. VDI-3198 indentation test for TiAlN coating The well-known Rockwell C indentation test is prescribed by the VDI 3198 norm. From the above discussion it can be concluded that deep cryogenic temperature must have made the TiAlN coating prone to delamination during sever machining stresses and temperature by dwindling the adhesion bonding. Several changes in the microstructure of the tungsten carbide appear to be the contributing factor in improvement of tungsten carbide inserts durability as a result of cryogenic treatment. as a destructive quality test for coated materials . These micro-stresses are the leading cause of early carbide fracture. (a) SEM image of ﬂank face of deep cryogenically treated insert. and bonding to the substrate are relieved throughout the material. These ﬁne particles act as ﬁllers along with the larger particles to form a denser. Also residual stresses in the material resulted due to sintering of tungsten carbide inserts are relieved during cryogenic treatment. VDI-3198 indentation test which is used to characterize the adhesion of thin coatings on various substrates was also performed. Rockwell indentation hardness testing equipment with 1201 cone angle and 200 mm radius diamond stylus was used. It also aligns the hard phase carbide particulate structure into a durable. more coherent and much tougher matrix in the material. Gill et al.
Hence. Obviously. Gill et al. It conﬁrms the good adhesion of the TiAlN coating to the tungsten carbide substrate and allows one to classify the investigated coatings as HF1 grade. Hence to identify the nature of deformation. 4. The percentage improvement in tool life of . though some faint radial microcracks can be seen but delamination was absent as evident in Fig. Other major outcomes of the present study are listed as follows: 1. 9f. 9a) and shallow cryogenically treated (Fig. systems. / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 51 (2011) 25–33 Fig. Conclusions In contrary to popular published literature. The shallow cryogenic treatment can signiﬁcantly enhance the cutting life of TiAlN coated tungsten carbide turning inserts. (c and d) shallow cryogenically treated insert. As evident in Fig. Optical and SEM micrograph of Rockwell C indents were taken and are shown in Fig. the SEM image clearly showed the multiple radial and diagonal microcracks along with signiﬁcant TiAlN coating delamination for deep cryogenically treated insert. 9e) insert indicated surface coating deformation but the nature and type of deformation was not clear. SEM micrograph shown in Fig.S. 9. the justiﬁcation for the same is beyond the scope of the present work and can be taken up for further studies. however. 9d. the extreme low deep cryogenic temperature had adversely affected the coating– substrate interface adhesion bonding.32 S. it can be considered as acceptable failure of TiAlN coating with HF3 grade.53% for shallow cryogenically treated inserts. it has been proved in the present study that cryogenic treatment performed at very low temperature of À196 1C (deep cryogenic temperature) adversely effects the adhesion strength of TiAlN surface coating deposited on tungsten carbide inserts. SEM micrograph of Rockwell C indent were also obtained. 9. Though the HF4 grade falls in acceptable failure mode category as per VDI 3198 norm. but it indicates the relatively poor adhesive strength of TiAlN coating on tungsten carbide substrate in case of deep cryogenically treated insert. For shallow cryogenically treated inserts. the deep cryogenic treatment does not always improve the wear performance of coated tungsten carbide inserts. 9b shows only pile-ups at some areas but no microcrack or delamination of TiAlN coating occurred in case of non-treated insert. 9c) coated inserts were not able to report any cracks or delaminations whereas optical micrograph of deep cryogenically treated (Fig. The coating with this type failure mode can be classiﬁed as of HF4 grade. The recorded maximum tool life enhancement over untreated inserts in the present study is 25. (e and f) deep cryogenically treated insert. Hence. The optical micrographs of indents for non-treated (Fig. Optical and SEM micrographs of indents made on TiAlN coating: (a and b) non-treated insert.
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