Branch: CSE

Staff-in-Charge: K.KIRUBA RANI


Ohm’s Law Temperature remaining constant, the potential difference (E) across the ends of a conductor is proportional to the current (I) flowing through it. Mathematically, V=IR

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) "The algebraic sum of all currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero" ΣIin = ΣIout Similarly, at any instant the algebraic sum of all the currents at any circuit node is zero. SI = 0 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL) "The algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero" ΣE = ΣIZ
Similarly, t any instant the algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed circuit is zero:

ΣE - ΣIZ = 0 Series and Parallel Resistor Combinations There are two basic ways in which to connect more than two circuit components: Series and Parallel. • For analysis, series resistors/impedances can be replaced by an equivalent resistor/ impedance. • Parallel resistors/impedances can be replaced by an equivalent resistor/ impedance. Series Resistance Two elements are in series if the current that flows through one must also flow through the other.
SERIES Req = R1 + R2 + R3



Req is equivalent to the resistor network on the left in the sense that they have the same i-v characteristics.

Parallel Resistance Two elements are in parallel if they are connected between (share) the same two (distinct) end nodes. R1 R2 Inductors Series and parallel inductances

1 1 1 1 = + + Req R1 R2 R3

Where, L = Inductance in henrys Capacitors Series and Parallel Capacitances

Where, C = Capacitance in farads Mesh current method The Mesh Current Method uses simultaneous equations, Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, and Ohm's Law to determine unknown currents in a network. It differs from the Branch Current method in that it does not use Kirchhoff's Current Law, and it is usually able to solve a circuit with less unknown variables and less simultaneous equations. Steps to follow for the .Mesh Current method of analysis: 1. Draw mesh currents in loops of circuit, enough to account for all components. 2. Label resistor voltage drop polarities based on assumed directions of mesh currents. 3. Write KVL equations for each loop of the circuit, substituting the product IR for E in each resistor term of the equation. Where two mesh currents intersect through a component, express the current as the algebraic sum of those two mesh currents. 4. Solve for unknown mesh currents (simultaneous equations). 5. If any solution is negative, then the assumed current direction is wrong!

6. Algebraically add mesh currents to find current in components sharing multiple mesh currents. 7. Solve for voltage drops across all resistors (E=IR). Node voltage method The node voltage method of analysis solves for unknown voltages at circuit nodes in terms of a system of KCL equations. This analysis looks strange because it involves replacing voltage sources with equivalent current sources. Node voltage rules: 1. Convert voltage sources in series with a resistor to an equivalent current source with the resistor in parallel. 2. Change resistor values to conductance. 3. Select a reference node(E0) 4. Assign unknown voltages (E1)(E2) ... (EN)to remaining nodes. 5. Write a KCL equation for each node 1,2, ... N. The positive coefficient of the first voltage in the first equation is the sum of conductances connected to the node. Repeat for coefficient of second voltage, second equation, and other equations. These coefficients fall on a diagonal. 6. All other coefficients for all equations are negative, representing conductances between nodes. The first equation, second coefficient is the conductance from node 1 to node 2, the third coefficient is the conductance from node 1 to node 3. Fill in negative coefficients for other equations. 7. The right hand side of the equations is the current source connected to the respective nodes. 8. Solve system of equations for unknown node voltages.

• Thevenin’s theorem implies that we can replace arbitrarily complicated networks with simple networks for purposes of analysis. Method of drawing duality (or) dual network: a) Place a dot in each independent loop of the given network. It is applicable only for computing voltage and Current responses. the other sources are replaced by their respective internal resistances. resistances (impedances) and open output terminals can be replaced by a single current source in parallel with single resistance (impedance). c) All the dots are connected by dotted lines crossing all the branches. Super Position Theorem is not valid for power responses. where the value of current source is equal to the current passing through the short circuit output terminals and the value of the resistance (impedance) is equal to the resistance seen into the output terminals. Maximum Power transfer Theorem: The maximum Power transferred to a load resistor occurs when it has a value equal to the resistance of the network looking back at it from the load terminals (all sources being replaced by their respective internal resistances). This corresponds to the reference node of the dual network. The dotted lines should cross only one branch at a time.NETWORK THEOREMS: Thevenin's Theorem: • Any circuit with sources (dependent and/or independent) and resistors can be replaced by an equivalent circuit containing a single voltage source and a single resistor. Super Position Theorem: In a linear. . d) The dual elements will form the branches connecting the corresponding nodes in the dual network. Norton's Theorem: Any circuit with voltage sources. For the networks to be duals it is necessary that the variables & elements of one network should also be the duals of variables & elements of other networks. These dots placed inside the loops correspond to the independent node in the dual network. bilateral electric circuit that is energized by two or more sources the current in any resistor is equal to the algebraic sum of the separate currents in the resistor when each sources acts separately. While one source is applied. lumped element. Duality: Two electrical networks which are governed by the same type of equations are called duality. b) A dot is placed outside the given network.

A star network of three resistances RA.Star-Delta Transformation: The Star-Delta transformation techniques are useful in solving complex network. RBC and RCA by the above equations: In general terms: Rdelta = (sum of Rstar pair products) / (opposite Rstar) Delta-Star Transformation A delta network of three impedances RAB. RB and RC connected together at common node N can be transformed into a delta network of three resistances RAB. RB and RC connected together at common node N by the following equations: In general terms: Rstar = (adjacent Rdelta pair product) / (sum of Rdelta) . RBC and RCA can be transformed into a star network of three impedances RA.


Transient response: The storage elements deliver their energy to the resistances. hence the response changes with time. the response depends upon the nature of the circuit.. Transient Time: The time taken for the circuit to change from one steady state to another steady state is called the transient time.+an-1 s +an the order of the system is equal to ‘n’. it is called natural response. and is referred to the transient response.e. the current and voltages change from one state to another state is called transient state. Natural response: If we consider a circuit containing storage elements which are independent of sources. The behavior of the voltage or current when it is changed from one state to another state is called transient state. If the system is governed by nth order differential equation. Laplace Transform: The Laplace transform of any time dependent function f(t) is given by F(s). Q(s) = a0 sn + a1 s n-1+ a2 s n-2 + ……. Where S→A complex frequency given by S=σ + jω Inverse Laplace Transform: Inverse Laplace transforms permits going back in the reverse direction i. than the system is called nth order system. gets saturated after sometime.UNIT-II TRANSIENT RESONANCE IN RLC CIRCUITS Transient State: If a network contains energy storage elements. Order of a System: The order of the system is given by the order of the differential equation governing the system. from s domain to time domain. . with change in excitation.

Bandwidth The Bandwidth is defined as the frequency difference between upper cut-off frequency (f2) and lower cut-off frequency (f1). then Driving Point impedance The ratio of the Laplace transform of the voltage at the port to the laplace transform of the current at the same port is called driving point impedance.Initial Value Theorem The initial value theorem states that if x (t) and x’ (t) both are laplace transformable. then Final Value Theorem The final value theorem states that if x (t) and x’ (t) both are laplace transformable. Resonance Resonance is defined as a phenomenon in which applied voltage and resulting current are in phase. Q factor The quality factor. Selectivity Selectivity is defined as the ratio of bandwidth to the resonant frequency of resonant circuit. Transfer Point impedance The ratio of the voltage transform at one port to the current transform at the other port is called transfer point impedance. Series Resonance in RLC circuit . is the ratio of the reactive power in the inductor or capacitor to the true power in the resistance in series with the coil or capacitor. At these frequencies the power from the source is half of the power delivered at the resonant frequency. Half Power frequencies The upper and lower cut-off frequencies are called the half-power frequencies. • The gain of a highly resonant circuit attains a sharp maximum or minimum at its resonant frequency. Resonant Circuit • The circuit that treat a narrow range of frequencies very differently than all other frequencies are referred to as resonant circuit. Q.

• With the help of adjustable capacitive reactance. Types of Tuned circuits  Single tuned circuit  Double tuned circuit Single tuned circuit In RF circuit design. • Parallel resonance is also known as Anti resonance. At f = f0. If f > f0. If f < f0 the current I leads the resultant supply voltage V and so the circuit behaves as a capacitive circuit at the frequencies which are less than f0. Reactance curves The graph of individual reactance versus the frequency is called Reactance Curve. which effectively fulfills maximum power transfer condition. At resonance series RLC circuit acts as a voltage amplifier. • At anti resonance the parallel resonant circuit acts as current amplifier. tuned circuits are generally employed for obtaining maximum power transfer to the load connected to secondary or for obtaining maximum possible value of secondary voltage. Double tuned circuit • In double tuned circuits. the voltage and current are in phase. Parallel Resonance • A parallel circuit is said to be in resonance when applied voltage and resulting current are in phase that gives unity power factor condition. At resonance inductive reactance is equal to the capacitive reactance. Series resonance circuit is always driven by a voltage source with very small internal resistance to maintain high selectivity of the circuit. impedance matching is possible if the coupling is critical. The circuit behaves as pure resistive circuit at the resonant frequency with unit power factor. a variable capacitor is used at input as well as output side. the current I lags the resultant supply voltage V and so the circuit behaves as an inductive circuit at the frequencies which are more than f0. . sufficient or above.• • • • • • • In series RLC circuit resonance may be produced by either varying frequency for given constant values of L and C or varying either L and C or both for a given frequency. • The magnitude matching can be achieved by adjusting mutual inductance to the critical value. A single tuned circuit is used for coupling an amplifier and radio receiver circuits. • It is also possible to adjust phase angle such that impedance at generator side becomes resistive.

Classification of Energy Band 1. • The process of adding impurity atoms to the intrinsic semiconductor is called doping.containing three valance electrons • Extrinsic semiconductors are classified as. ANTIMONY (Sb) . Conduction band 2. Intrinsic Semiconductors. Intrinsic Semiconductors • A Semiconductor which is in its extremely pure form is known as an intrinsic semiconductor.g. It is also known as impurity semiconductor. • The purpose of adding impurity is to increase either the number of free electrons or holes in a semiconductor. it displaces some of its atoms. Extrinsic Semiconductors. N-type Semiconductor P-type Semiconductor N-type Semiconductor • A small amount of pentavalent impurity is added to a pure semiconductor is known as N-type Semiconductor. Valence band Classification of semiconductors 1. • The total current inside the semiconductor is the sum of currents due to free electrons and holes.containing five valance electrons Trivalent impurity atoms . 2. • Two types of impurity atoms are added to the semiconductor. E. ARSENIC (As). Extrinsic Semiconductors • The conductivity can be increased by the addition of a small amount of suitable metallic impurity. • If potential difference is applied across intrinsic semiconductor. Pentavalent impurity atoms .UNIT-III SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES Energy Bands The range of energies possessed by an electron in a solid is known as Energy band. the electrons will move towards the positive terminal while the holes will drift towards the negative terminal. Forbidden band 3. • When a pentavalent impurity is added to a pure semiconductor.

Hence σ = (nµn + pµp )E For a pure semiconductor n = p = ni . Gallium (Ga). it is necessary to know the concentration of free electrons n and the concentration of holes p. P-type Semiconductor • A small amount of trivalent impurity is added to a pure semiconductor is known as P-type Semiconductor. • In P-type semiconductor. These particles move in opposite direction in an electric field. Nc = 2 2πmn KT 3/2 h2 . Therefore holes in a P-type semiconductor are known as majority carriers and electrons as minority carriers. Conductivity of a semiconductor Each hole-electron pair created two charge carrying particles is formed. where ni – intrinsic semiconductor CARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR In order to calculate the conductivity of a semiconductor. σ = Conductivity of semiconductor E= applied electric field q = Charge of electron or hole. Concentration of Electrons (n) The number of electrons in the conduction band. Hence the current density J = σE Where n . One is negative of mobility µn (free electron) and the other is positive of mobility µp (hole). • E. Indium (In).• In N-type semiconductor. n = Nc e.g. Boron (B) etc. Aluminium (Al). major part of the current flows due to the movement of holes. major part of the current flows due to the movement of Electrons. Therefore electrons in an N-type semiconductor are known as majority carriers and holes as minority carriers.(EC –EF)/KT Where. p = magnitude of free electrons & holes respectively.

Nv = 2 Energy Gap (EG) The energy required to break a covalent bond in a semiconductor is known as energy gap. Jp = . The Energy gap at any temperature is given by. EG = EGO – βT Drift Current Drift current is defined as the flow of electric current due to the motion of the charge carriers under the influence of an external electric field applied across the semiconductor material.q Dn dn/dx Diffusion Length (L) The average distance that a charge carrier can diffuse during its lifetime is called as diffusion Length L.q Dn dn/dx A/cm2 Total Current Density Total current is the sum of drift current and diffusion current.qpµpE. The total current density for P-type semiconductor Jp = . Diffusion current density due to holes. Jn = . the charge carriers have the tendency to move from the region of higher concentration to that of lower concentration of the same type of charge carriers. p = Nv e.q Dp dp/dx The total current density for N-type semiconductor Jn = . .Concentration of holes (p) The number of holes in the conduction band.qnµnE.(EF –EV)/KT Where. This movement of charge carriers takes place resulting in a current called diffusion current.q Dp dp/dx A/cm2 2πmp KT 3/2 h2 Diffusion current density due to electrons. Diffusion Current In a semiconductor material.

This process is called diffusion. P-type material has high concentration of holes. Thus a barrier is set up against further movement of charge carriers. (i) (ii) Forward biasing Reverse biasing The N-type material has high concentration of free electrons and.Theory of PN Junction Diode When a P-type semiconductor s joined to a N-type semiconductor the contact surface is called PN junction or PN diode. The mobile charges have been depleted in this region.3 V. It is known as depletion layer.The potential barrier is of the order of 0. This is called Potential barrier or Junction barrier (VB). there is a tendency for the free N-type of diffuse over to the P-side and holes from the P-side to the N-side. .1V to 0. At the junction. The voltage across PN junction can be applied in two ways.

whereas under reverse biased condition breakdown of the junction occurs. depletion layer will be thin and consequently breakdown occurs at lower reverse voltage and further. Symbol Anode V-I Characteristics of Zener diode Cathode The operation of zener diode is same as that of ordinary p-n diode order forward biased condition.  Avalanche breakdown  Zener breakdown .ZENER DIODE A zener diode is a special purpose diode that is operated in reverse-biased conditions. If the diode is heavily doped. The breakdown voltage can be selected with the amount of doping. Breakdown voltage depends upon the amount of doping. Its operation depends on the zener breakdown phenomenon. the breakdown voltage is sharp. The sharp increase in current under breakdown condition is due to the following two mechanisms.


Now. When the reverse voltage is increased width of the depletion layer increases at the same time the electrons due to force of attraction by the plates acquire some high velocity and during their motion inside the diode they collide with the electrons in covalent bonds and bring them out. When reverse voltage increased at once electric field the electrons which are present in the covalent bond are brought due to strong force of attraction. In reverse bias under heavy doping condition the width of the depletion layer will be very thin strong electric field exists inside the diode. Zener breakdown When doping is heavy then in reverse bias even-before the minority charge carries acquire sufficient velocity the breakdown occurs and is known as Zener breakdown. suddenly a large amount of current flows.  Clippers in wave-shaping circuits. In Zener diode first zener breakdown occurs and later avalanche breakdown. .Avalanche breakdown When doping concentration is less like in ordinary diode then under reverse biased condition a small amount of reverse saturation current flows and is constant as long as the temperature is constant. Nothing but Breakdown occurs. Due to this multiplication process a large current flows and this kind of breakdown is called Avalanche multiplication or breakdown. Applications of Zener diodes  Voltage regulator  Fixing reference voltages in electronic circuits such as power supplies and transistor biasing.  Square wave generation. Once when this breakdown occurs the diode gets damaged.

the transistor works in one of the three regions. Smaller in size 2. Transistor Biasing • Applying external voltage to a transistor is called biasing.UNIT-IV TRANSISTORS Introduction of transistors Transistor is a semiconductor device that can amplify electronic signals such as radio and television signals. Low operating voltage 4. Collector & Base: Emitter : To supply majority charge carriers. it is necessary to correctly bias the two pn junctions with external voltages.  Cut-off region.No. • In order to operate transistor properly as an amplifier. Collector: To collect majority charge carriers. Sl.  Active region. No filament and no need of power for heating filament 3. Higher efficiency Types of the transistor  Unipolar Junction Transistor  Bipolar Junction Transistor Construction of the transistor  n-p-n transistor  p-n-p transistor n-p-n transistor It is formed by sand witching p-type semiconductor between two n-type. • Depending upon external bias voltage polarities used. Base: It passes most of the injected charge carriers to the collector.  Saturation region. 1 2 Region Active Cut-off Emitter Base Forward biased Forward biased Collector Base Reverse biased Reverse biased Operation of a transistor acts as an amplifier acts as an open switch . p-n-p transistor It is formed by sand witching n-type semiconductor between two p-type. Terminals for the transistor  Emitter  Collector  Base Functions of Emitter. Advantage of the transistor 1.

then the ratio of IC to IE is called dc alpha (αdc). Operation of PNP transistors • • • • • • • Forward bias causes the holes in the P-type emitter to flow towards the base. Collector-base junction is reverse biased. to emitter current IE. • Emitter current IE flows in the input circuit. • ac alpha refers to the ratio of change in IC to change in IE. Reduces the potential barrier at the junction Holes cross the junction & penetrate into the N-region.3 Saturation Forward biased Operation of NPN transistors Reverse biased acts as an closed switch • • • • • • Emitter is forward biased & as a result large forward current flows across the emitter junction due to flow of majority carriers. Output is connected between collector &base. Collector current IC flows in output circuit. Current conduction in the external circuit is by electrons. Types of configuration  Common Base configuration  Common Emitter configuration  Common Collector configuration Common Base configuration • Input is connected between emitter & base. Rest of the holes drift across the base and enter the collector region and are swept away by the negative collector electrode. • The ratio of collector current IC. . Field immediately collects the diffused electrons which enter the collector junction. hence a small amount of the holes recombine with free electrons of N-regions. This constitutes base current IC. Width of the base region is very thin & lightly doped. Current conduction I PNP transistors is by movement of holes. Collector is reverse bias and creates a strong electrostatic field between base &collector. • If there is no input ac signal. This constitutes emitter current IE. a few electrons combine & neutralize Rest of the electrons of the injected electrons diffuse into the collector region and is collected by the collector electrode. This constitutes base current IB & is very small. Injected electrons diffuse into the collector region due to the extremely small thickness of the base. is called the Current amplification factor (α). • Emitter-base junction is forward biased. Flow of electrons into the base region when confronted with the holes.

the curve is just like a forward-biased PN junction. • Base current IB flows in the input circuit. Input Characteristics • The curve drawn between Emitter current and Emitter – Base voltage for a given value of collector-Base voltage is known as input Characteristics. This is because of the effect called early effect or Base width modulation. Characteristics of CB configuration The performance of transistors. causes the input current IB to be lower for a given level of VBE . • The collector current varies with VCB for very low voltage but transistor is never operated in this region. • Input resistance is larger in CE configuration than in CB configuration. when connected in a circuit. • The rate of change in collector current IC. is called amplification factor (β). Common Emitter configuration • Input is connected between base & emitter. • For a given value of VEC.Such curves are known as Static characteristic curves. Collector-base junction is reverse biased. Collector current IC flows in output circuit. Input Characteristics • The curve drawn between Base current and Base – Emitter voltage for a given value of collector-emitter voltage is known as input Characteristics. • With an increase in the value of VCB.c. Output is connected between collector & emitter. • An increment in the value of VCE. α can be increased by making base thin and lightly doped.• The higher the value of α. voltage and power gains are quite high and output to input impedance ratio is moderate. better the transistor. currents and voltages of a transistor. to change in emitter current IE. This is because the input current IB increases less rapidly with increase in VBE . • For a given value of VCB. Output Characteristics . Output Characteristics • The curve drawn between Collector current and Collector – Base voltage for a given value of emitter current is known as output Characteristics. • Emitter-base junction is forward biased.it conducts better. • CE is commonly used because its current.the curve is just like a forward-biased PN junction diode. This is because of the effect called early effect. may be determined from their characteristic curves that relate different d.

• With increases in input current IB. • With base current IB equal to VCO. • The base-collector voltage VBc is increased in equal steps and the corresponding increase in IB is noted. • As a result of this multiplication. • The Collector forms the terminal common to both the input and output. This indicates that output resistance in case of CE configuration is less than that in CB configuration. the emitter current IE is zero. • The current increases abruptly and large changes in current accompanies small changes in voltage. • Output characteristics in CE configuration have some slope while CB configuration has almost horizontal characteristics.• The curve drawn between Collector current IC and Collector – emitter voltage VCE for a given value of base current IB is known as output Characteristics. VEC is kept at a suitable fixed value. • Base current flows in the input circuit. Input Characteristics • To determine the input Characteristics. Emitter current flows in output circuit. Output is connected between collector & emitter. the transistor passes through the active region and finally reaches saturation. • At a high voltage BVCBO. • It is represented by the symbol BVCBO (for CB configuration). • This breakdown voltage is a characteristic of the transistor alone. the multiplication factor M becomes infinite and the region of breakdown is then attained. so no current flows in the load resistor RL. the current becomes MICO in which M is the factor by which the original current ICO is multiplied by the avalanche effect. • This is repeated for different values of VEC. Common Collector configuration • Input is connected between base & collector. Breakdown in Transistors • Avalanche Multiplication • Reach-Through (or) Punch through Avalanche Multiplication • The maximum reverse bias voltage which can be applied before breakdown between collector and base terminals of the transistor under the condition that the emitter is open-circuited. Reach-Through (or) Punch through . • Breakdown occurs because of the avalanche multiplication of current ICO that crosses the collector junction.

Features of FET The FET has several advantages over the conventional transistor.• It results from Early effect (i. Field Effect Transistor (FET) • FET is a semiconductor device which depends for its operation on the control of current by an electric field. • So.) as a result of increase in VCB and as the doping of the base is substantially smaller than that of the collector and the penetration of the transition region into the base is larger than into the collector • Since the base is very thin. it is also known as voltage-controlled device. • When VGG applied and VDD=0 • When VDS applied and VGG=0 • When VDD applied and VGG is applied. • At this point. the transition region spreads completely across the base to reach the emitter junction. • It is less noisy than a tube of a Bipolar Transistor. • The current in FET is carried by the majority carriers. it is called as Unipolar device. • The JFET consists of a P-type or N-type silicon bar. Types of FET • Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) • Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) (or) Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) Construction of JFET • JFET is a three terminal semiconductor device in which current conduction is by one type of carrier either Electrons or holes. So. it is known as P channel JFET. typically many mega ohms. • It exhibits a high input resistance. • Its operation depends upon the flow of majority carrier only. This is called Reach-through. a large current flows from the emitter to collector. • The output characteristics of FET are controlled by Input voltage and not by the Input current. • The bar is made up of N-type material which is known as N-channel JFET and if the bar is made up of P-type material. Operation of JFET FET works under the three conditions. • It exhibits no offset voltage at zero Drain current. • It is relatively immune to radiation. • It has thermal stability. normal transistor action ceases and the emitter and collector are effectively shorted. • One end of the channel is called the source and the other is called the drain. . • Hence.e.

there is no direct electrical connection between the gate terminal and the channel of a MOSFET increasing the input impedance of the device. • The gate is also connected to a metal contact surface but remains insulted from the n-Channel by a very thin layer of dielectric material.  VDS– Drain Source voltage. • The source and drain terminals are connected through metallic contacts the n-doped regions linked by an n-channel. Characteristics of JFET • A family of curves that relate the current and voltage are known as characteristics curve. Types of MOSFET • Depletion – type MOSFET • Enhance – type MOSFET Construction of MOSFET • Two highly doped n regions are diffused into a lightly doped p type substrate. • The gate of a MOSFET is insulated from the channel. gate and drain. • Because of this. instead the gate of the MOSFET is insulated from the channel by a silicon dioxide layer.Where.  Transfer characteristics  Drain characteristics Characteristics Parameters of JFET The parameters of JFET are • Transconductance • Drain resistance • Drain conductance • Amplification factor Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) • MOSFET is a three terminal device. • There are the two important characteristics of a JFET. Silicon Dioxide. Characteristics of MOSFET .  VDD– Drain supply voltage. Those terminals are source. • The MOSFET differs from the JFET is that it has no pn junction structure. • Thus. • This layer act as one parallel plate capacitor. • These two highly doped regions are represents source and drain. the MOSFET is also known as an IGFET (Insulated gate FET). In some cases substrate is internally connected to the source terminal. • The MOSFET is a second category of FET.  VGG – Gate supply voltage.

The different characteristics of a D-MOSFET are  Drain characteristics  Transfer characteristics .

• As a result the energy level in the n-side decreases when compared to the unbiased state.  Used as microwave oscillator.  Used as an amplifier. • Voltage range over which it can be operated is 1 V or less. • Hence tunneling takes place from p to n-side. Operation • When a tunnel diode is under unbiased condition then there will not transfer of electrons from n-side to p-side hence the net current will be zero. there is no isolation between the input and output circuit. .  Used as logic memory storage device. Applications  Tunnel diode is used as Ultra-high speed switch. This diode has negative resistance region. • Now. • As reverse bias is increased this current increase. Advantages • High speed operation • Ease of operation • Low noise • Low cost • Low power Disadvantages • It is two terminal device. Due to which it is used as an oscillator. Tunneling The process that an electron from n-side of a pn diode directly penetrates through the junction into the p-side of diode is called tunneling.  Used in relaxation oscillator. This diode is uses the tunneling phenomenon. there will be some empty state in valence band of p-side quite opposite to the empty conduction band. It is a quantum –mechanical behaviors. • When the diode is reverse biased under this condition the electrons from n-side are attracted by the positive plate and hence move away from the junction.UNIT-V SPECIAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Tunnel Diodes • • • • When the impurity concentration is of the order of one part to 103 parts then tunnel diode is formed.

 Used as SPST and MPST switches.  Used as T-R switch.  It is used in High frequency. Applications  Used as a tuning device in receivers. • The I-region has typically resistivity of 10 Ωm. This results in improved switching time.  Used as photo detectors in fiber optic systems. Applications of PIN Diode  Used as pulse and phase shifter. cathode (K) and the gate (G). • At relatively low voltage the reverse current saturates and then remains constant. • At the saturation point the maximum junction capacitance is obtained and a point just above avalanche the minimum junction capacitance is obtained. There are three terminals called anode (A). PIN diodes are used in microwave switches. J3. In PIN diode high resistivity intrinsic layer is sandwiched between the P and N regions. It is also called as varicap or voltacap.  Used in amplitude modulation. • Therefore there are two conditions which are limiting the reverse voltage swing and the capacitance variation.  It is used in adjustable band-pass filter  It is used in FM modulation.  It is used in automatic frequency control devices. • Quite often instead of I-region we actually use either a high resistivity P-region is called π region and the high resistivity N-region is called γ region. SCR • • • SCR consist of four semiconductor layers forming a PNPN structure. It has three PN junctions namely J1. • It is rising rapidly at avalanche point. . It is used as a variable reactance capacitance. Characteristics of Varactor diode • The diode conducts normally in the forward direction. J2.PIN Diode It has highly improved switching time in comparison with a PN diode.  It is used in parametric amplifier.  Used as attenuator and duplexer. • • • Varactor diode • • • Varactor diode is a specially manufactured reverse biased PN junction diode with a suitable impurity concentration profile.

• When the applied reverse voltage is small. a certain critical voltage called forward break over voltage (VBO). • It has found that most of the voltage will drop across junction J1 only. • The applied forward voltage is increased.The anode terminal is taken out from P1 layer.  Gate triggering  Forward break over voltage  Light triggering  Rate-effect Latching • . • Two types of V-I characteristics  Forward Characteristics  Reverse Characteristics Forward Characteristics • It is the current drawn between anode-cathode voltage (VAK) and anode current (IA) at different gate current. it is in ‘OFF’ and no current flows through the SCR. • Now we plot a graph with anode current and anode cathode voltage. SCR characteristics • It is the relationship between the anode –cathode voltage and anode current at different gate current. • Increase the applied voltage across the SCR in small suitable steps at each step. the junction J1 and J3 are reverse bias and junction J2 is forward bias. supplies VAA and VGG . • Note the anode current for each steps. and the gate (G) terminal from the P2 layer. • Adjust the gate current to any suitable value. It conducts the current in forward direction only. Reverse Characteristics • The reverse characteristic is obtained by reversing the connections of the d.c. and there is no current flow through the device. At this case the SCR switched ‘ON’ position. from OFF position by anyone of the following methods.It reaches at the junction J2 breakdown. the SCR is OFF. • If the SCR is reverse bias. • Adjust the gate current to zero value by keeping the switch open. • Increase the reverse applied voltage in suitable steps. Turning ON (Triggering) SCR The SCR can be turned ON. Operation of SCR • SCR is forward bias with a small voltage. • Note the anode current & plot the graph.

In this. • It also exhibits a negative resistance characteristic which allows it to be used as an oscillator. Turning OFF One of the following methods is applied to turn OFF the SCR. • SCR size is very compact. is known as latching. • Reversing polarity of anode-to-cathode voltage called as Gate turn OFF switch (GTO). the current through SCR is reduced below the holding current. Changing anode current by means of momentarily series or parallel switching arrangement. even when the gate signal is removed. UniJunction Transistor (UJT) • UniJunction transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device consisting of only one PN junction. it has ability to control large ac power with a small signal. • It differs from ordinary PN diode in the sense that it has three terminals namely Emitter.Once the SCR is turned ON. • However. Applications of SCR  Power control device  Relay control  Regulated power supplies  Static switches  Motor control  Battery charges  Heater controls  Phase controls  For speed control of DC shunt motor Advantages of SCR • SCR controls large current in the load by means of a small gate current. Applications of UJT  Non sinusoidal oscillator  Timing circuits  Saw tooth generators . it starts to conduct and remains in conduction state even when the gate signal is removed. This ability of the SCR to remain conducting. • The second method is anode current interruption. • Switching speed is high. • The behavior of UJT differs from other transistors like BJT and FET in the sense that it has no ability to amplify. Base1 and Base 2. • Third method is forced commutation.

• It has two main terminals namely Main terminal 1 and Main terminal 2. power ON and OFF. when light source is removed. switch) • A DIAC is two terminal semiconductor device and three layer bidirectional device. • It has a window and lens which focuses light on the gate junction area. • The two leads are connected to p-region of silicon separated by an n-region.c. but does not turn OFF. • The TRIAC is the combination of two SCR’s connected in parallel but in opposite direction. Triggering device for SCR and TRIAC  Switching circuits  Voltage regulated supply Diac (Diode A. • It can be triggered ON by a light input on the gate area. • The anode of one SCR is connected to the cathode of another SCR.C. switch) • TRIAC is a three terminal semiconductor switching device which can conduct in either forward or reverse direction. • It consists of two four layer switches in parallel and the switches are P1N1P2N2 and P2N1P1N4. Applications of TRIAC  Heater control  Phase control  Light dimming control  Static switch to turn a. • The LASCR acts like a latch. . which can be switched form of it’s OFF to ON state for either negative or positive polarity of applied voltage.C. • The diodes are P1N1P2N2 and P2N1P1N3. It consists of two 4-layer diodes connected in parallel in opposite direction.     Applications of DIAC Temperature control Triggering of TRIAC Light dimming circuits Motor speed control Triac (Triode A. • The gates are connected together.  Speed control of motor. Light Activated SCR (LASCR) • LASCR is similar to that of a SCR except the light triggering. • The TRIAC has two main terminals namely main terminal1 and main terminal2 and one Gate terminal.

Photodiode • It is a light sensitivity device used to convert light signal into electrical signal. which depends on the semiconductor material.• • • To reduce the holding current. then a single photon is able to generate an identical second photon. • The carrier inversion is the first requirement of lasing. • It is also called Photo detector. encodes and light detectors systems. • This photon multiplication is the key physical mechanism of lasing. • The current is proportional to the intensity of light and the frequency of the light falling on the junction of the photo diode. The optical feedback and the confinement of photon in an optical resonator are the second basic requirement of lasing. . Applications of LASCR  Optical light controls  Phase control  In relays  Motor control LASER DIODE • The term Laser comes from the acronym for light amplification for stimulated emission of radiation. • The hole-electrons pairs are created. Phototransistor • The photo transistor is a light detector. amorphous solid or semiconductor. Depending on its size a LASCR is capable of handling larger amount of current. the PN photodiode junction is reverse bias. when. • The movement of the hole-electron pairs in a properly connected circuit results in current flows. • The light energy fall on the junction through lens. • Two commonly used Laser structure  PN homojunction laser  Double hetrostructure laser Laser Action • The light traveling through a semiconductor. • It is used in demodulator. it can be turned OFF. It can be handled by a photo transistor or a photo diode. liquid. • The photon energy is given by the band gap. • The Laser medium can be a gas. • It is achieved at the PN junction by providing the conduction bandwidth electrons from the N-doped side and the Valence band with the holes from the P-doped side.

• Hence.  Surface . • It is made of thin layer of semiconductor material (cadmium sulfide). the current is dependent mainly on the intensity of light entering into the lens and the voltage applied to the external circuit.emitting LED • Surface emitting LED’s emit light perpendicular to the PN junction plane. Principle and Working • Injection luminescence is the principle used in LED’s. Photoconductive sensors • Photoconductive sensor is also called as Light Depending Resistor (LDR). • Edge-emitting LED emits light parallel to the PN in the plane. These are called photovoltaic devices. • It is used in light meters. • The photovoltaic cells are produced more power. • It emits light in both visible and IR region. It has three terminal. and it produces a voltage. • There is no light falls on the sensor the resistance is very high and the current is low. when the voltage increases and the intensity of light falling on the semiconductor junction of this photovoltaic cell increases. it produces a very low current. as in solar cells. In phototransistors.emitting LED  Edge . Before applying to control circuit the current should be amplified. • When LED is forward biased. the voltage drop across R is high. • It consists of a piece of semiconductor material (silicon or germanium). The base current is supplied by the current created by the light falling on the Basecollector photodiode junction. • LED structure can be divided into two categories.• • • • • • • It combines a photodiode and phototransistor. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) • An LED is a semiconductor p-n junction diode which converts electrical energy to light energy under forward biasing. but only two leads are generally used (emitter and collector). Photovoltaic sensors • It is a light-sensitive semiconductor device. Because. . A lens focuses the energy on the base-collector junction. The phototransistor cannot be directly used in control applications. It is used in control circuits to control the current. • The amount of light output is directly proportional to the forward current. the majority charge carriers moves from p to n and similarly from n to p region and becomes excess minority carriers.

• LCD is a passive type display device used to display alpha numeric character and is seven segment display. in which the digits are displayed by the transmission (or) deflection of the incident light. Applications of LED • Used for numeric display in pocket calculators. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) • Liquid crystal display is not a semiconductor device as LED. • even at very low voltage. • Therefore. • Its cost is very low. • Used for applying input power to lasers. • It has long life time. The light thus produced is emitted from the p-n junction of the diode. • Molecules in ordinary liquids have random orientation but in a liquid crystal they are oriented in a definite crystal pattern. watches calculators etc. it doesn’t radiate light energy.. • Used in image sensing circuits. • It operates LED’s are available in different colours at low cost. • Used for entering information into optical computer memories • Used for solid video displays. • Response time of LED is very fast in the order of 10 9 seconds. with very low power consumption. LCD’s require an external (or) internal source of light so that it can either transmit (or) reflect the incident light.• • These excess minority carriers diffuse through the junction and recombines with the majority carriers in n and p region respectively to produce light. • Its intensity can be controlled easily. • It can be operated at a wide range of temperature (0-70˚) C. • LCD’s display the light. • Types of LCD’s o Dynamic Scattering Displays. Advantages of LED • They are smaller in size. o Twisted nematic display (or) Field effect display Advantages of LCD • Low power is required • Good contrast • Low cost Disadvantages of LCD • Speed of operation is slow • LCD occupy a large area .

when used on d.c.  Used for numerical display in pocket calculators.  Used for image sensing circuits.  Analog quantities can also be displayed as a number on a suitable device.g. they are used with a. suppliers.  Used for solid state video displays.c.• LCD life span is quite small.) Digital multimeter. Applications of LCD  Used as numerical counters for counting production items. Therefore. (e. .

i) Norton’s theorem ii) Thevenin’s theorem. Determine the expression of resonant frequency and bandwidth of a series resonant circuit. State and explain Kirchhoff’s laws 3. with a suitable example. Describe the operation of Zener diode and explain its characteristics. A bridge network formed by four arms is as AB=2Ω. A voltage of 120 V is applied across the entire circuit. 9. 3. Derive the relationship to express three delta connected resistances into star. A resistance R is connected in series with a parallel circuit comprising two resistances of 12 and 8Ω. A resistance of 12Ω is connected in series with the combination. EC2151 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTRON DEVICES SEM:II Branch: CSE Staff-in-Charge: K. secondary side capacitance C2 = 0. Two resistances 15Ω and 20Ω are connected in parallel. Explain the loop analysis of analyzing a given network. voltage across 12Ω resistance and power consumed in all the resistances. Derive the expression of maximum value of E0 and I0. UNIT – III Explain the PN junction diode. CD=4Ω. A battery source of 9V is connected with internal resistance of 1 Ω between A and C such that A is +ve and C is –ve. 4. 3. Explain the diode current equation. 8.KIRUBA RANI ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS UNIT – I 1. Explain voltage division & current division method using suitable example. Derive the expression for transition capacitance and diffusing capacitance. Find the current in each resistance. Derive the expression for the half power bandwidth of a parallel resonant circuit. the applied voltage in a primary coil E g = 20 volts (Rg=0). State and explain Superposition theorem. Explain different methods of breakdown in PN junction diodes. . State and explain Thevenin’s theorem. 7. A 6 Ω resistance is connected between B and D. R1=R2= 5Ω. 6. 5. What is Q-factor? Find values of Q-factor for an inductor and capacitor. Calculate current through 6Ω resistance by. 5. 5. 2. M =20μ H. 2. Calculate the value of R. L1=L2= 32 μH.5μ F. UNIT – II 1.RAJALAKSHMI INSTITUTE OF THCHNOLOGY Kuttambakkam (PO). 4. In a single tuned resonant circuit. 4. Chennai-602 107. Define the following terms: i) Mesh ii) Loop iii) Node iv) Branch 2. 10. 1. DA=5Ω. Determine the resonant frequency and the output voltage at this frequency. BC=3Ω. The total power dissipated in the circuit is 700 watts when the applied voltage is 200V.

UNIT – IV Describe Common Emitter configuration and its characteristics. Draw the equivalent circuit of UJT and explain its operation. 2.1. 4. 1. Explain the breakdown in transistor. Explain the operation of TRIAC and DIAC. 5. 6. With the help of suitable diagrams explain the working of different types of MOSFET. UNIT –V Explain the operation of PIN diode. 2. 5. 3. Explain the Characteristics of JFET with the help of neat sketches. 3. 4. Explain the following terms: i) Photoconductive sensor ii) Photo emissive sensor Describe the operation of LED and LCD. Write short notes on light activated SCR. Describe the transistor switching times. .

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