Alhamdulillah, praise to Allah (S.W.T), with His will, we finally completed this project, drain cleaning machine. First of all, a special thank goes to our supervisor, Dr. Sharul Sham bin Dol. The supervision and support that you gave, truly help us in doing this project. Although your time with us was limited due to your time constraint and your problems, we really appreciate the time you spend with us before. You advices and ideas were really helpful in making our project, the drain cleaning machine become successful. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. Our grateful thank also goes to Dr. Suhaimi Hassan for spending his time for fabrication of our drain cleaning machine. Your advices and recommendation for our project really helps us for Pre-SEDEX presentation. The project would be not successful if there is no guide and recommendation from you. Not forgotten, the two panels that judges our project during Pre-SEDEX, thank you very much for your advices and comments. We will noted the points so that there will be no more same mistakes when we doing the project in the future. The last and foremost, thank you to our parents, family and friends for supporting us. Without your support either for financial or motivation, we will not be able to finish this project. Thank you very much to all.


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In this Engineering Team Project, the project was done to produce a machine, which is called Drain Cleaning Machine. The idea is based on our observation towards problems faced by people to clean drains at their house by using conventional method (ordinary brush). Observations were conducted from type of drain, drain cleaning problems, design of the machine and economical consideration of the machine. From an online shop in the web, this machine was still not famous in the market of Malaysia and still not available in certain places. Moreover, the available machines were for large drains and there is no water supplied from the machine. Therefore, our machine was specifically for an open drain sized 0.3m width and 0.15 depths with a water supply that can straight away cleaning dirt after we brushed it. The design of the machine was made ergonomically in order to ease women to use it as well. It is specifically designed to be lightweight, easy to handle and affordable. The specifications of the machine will be explained later in the next chapter. As the result of our experiment, the machine takes only 30 minutes to completely clean the drain compared to the conventional method (using ordinary brush and manpower to scrub) that takes about more than one hour to completely clean the drains. Therefore, it is proven that the machine can save time and manpower. From economic views, this machine is affordable because the cost for making this project is only RM 199.60. As the conclusion, this project is useful for people doing their chores in cleaning drains. With the aid of water supply, the effectiveness of this machine will be more. It will give a great implication to our daily lives as our work will be easier and save time and money too.


No 1 2 3 Subjects Background of project Identification and definition of problem 3.1Objective 3.2Scope 4 Project management 4.1Gantt Chart 4.2Task allocation 5 6 7 8 9 10 Literature review Theory Procedure / Methodology Engineering analysis Business / economic analysis Results and discussion 10.1 Result 10.2 Discussion 11 Conclusion Recommendation 12 13 References Appendices 39 40-43 38 12-20 21-22 23-26 27-30 31-32 33-37 10-11 Page numbers 5-6 7-8 9


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drain cleaning machine is hardly to find in Malaysia. In Nigeria. The significant of open drains can be seen during heavy rains. clogged drains usually lead to flash flood during heavy rain in cities where natural water reservoir is unavailable. This is why maintaining open drainage system is important because people are able to be in contact with them unlike closed drainage system. we will design a drain cleaning machine that could clean and unclog open drains easily.PROJECT BACKGROUND Open drains are the most common means of transporting wastewater in most countries. we do not need to take out the sludge in the drain. High pressured water is use to break any accumulated clog that prevent water to flow.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 1. our machine is different from any drain cleaning machine in the market. Flash flood does not only blocking roads but also cause rubbish from the drains to float and also contamination towards people. Therefore. By this action. the price is expensive and the function only for brushing dirt and not be able to unclogged rubbish and watering the dirt after cleaning. 93% of the population had parasitic infection and water borne due to contaminated open drains. From our research through websites. There are few aspects that we analyzed in making this machine such as: ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 5 . A rotating brush is inserted to ensure efficient cleaning impact to the drain compare to one direction of normal brush and also break any obstacle that clog the drain. In this project. This machine is the combination of the conservative brush which is used to clean drain and a water jet. If we search through markets.

and horse power – to ensure the speed of brush is bigger than friction force as it will affect the effectiveness of the brush.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 • The depth and width of the drain – this is to ensure that the brush can be rotated perfectly • The motor speed. Cleaning drain is not a difficult task anymore for human. With the invention of this drain cleaning machine with water jet. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 6 . it will gives advantages to society especially whose dealing with this business. torque.

we also detected a few problems. These problems might cause some delay or imperfections in our project.For example. It acts as a channel to transport waste water from houses or storm water . A blocked drain could trigger flash flood in town during heavy rain . The other team members from other engineering disciplines are assigned with tasks which are related to them. the spokesman to the The Straits Times . These tools are not effective and time consuming to complete a simple task.IDENTIFICATION AND PROBLEM DEFINITION Open drain can be seen almost everywhere especially in housing area. Tools that are usually used to clean open drains are brush with stick that needs a lot of energy and hoe that is used to pick up rubbish that blocked the drain. there are some difficulties in evenly assigning the tasks that need to be done.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 2. Singapore . In term of workforce on developing the prototype.is believed to be caused by clogged drain at the ground level said the Phyllis Cheong. Knowledge limitation is also a problem since mostly all the team members have extensive knowledge and experience in engineering. the flash flood occurred this year in Raffles City Mall. Task Constraint This team project consists of mostly Mechanical Engineering disciplines. The problems are as below: I. II. Resources Constraint Page 7 ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 .Maintaining an open drain is important because it is directly in contact with human and can be a medium to transmit disease unlike closed drain. Therefore. The problem is there are no efficient tools to maintain and clean open drain like the closed drain.

We went from shop to shop to get lower price for some of our equipments. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 8 . Assignments and tests for other subjects consume a significant amount of time causing less time for the ETP. Extensive demonstration using expensive equipment is impossible so other alternatives must be identified. Time Constraint We have time constraint since we are taking other subjects. III.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 The ETP budget is set at maximum RM 200 for all teams. We have to cope with other subjects and the Engineering Team Project (ETP).

3. Firstly.3m width x 0. Secondly. To create a drain cleaner machine that could unclog drains without the need to remove them out from the drains. we still can use this machine.1 OBJECTIVE This project focuses on cleaning and unclogging open drainage system. As long as the power supply is not run out. it is suitable for any adults. risks for flash flood to occur would be reduces as the drains are not clogged with rubbish. it is made for man and woman.2 SCOPE OF PROJECT There are four scopes in producing this prototype. Furthermore.OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF PROJECT 3. there is no distance limitation for this machine. The duration for battery life is approximately 4 hours. The last scope is to make an agronomic. Therefore. installation of water pump to supply water to the rotating brush helps to break the clog into smaller pieces and allow them to flow easily with the water. There are several main objectives for this project: i. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 9 . Using power supply to rotate the brush. Rotating brush breaks through clogged obstacles and unclogged them.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 3. Therefore. ii. The rotating brush alone is not enough to make the clogs particles to flow. more force is exerted on the drain surface which results in better result than using human force alone. we would like to produce a drain cleaning machine that is specifically for open drains of housing area of size 0. To design a machine that is able to clean open drains efficiently and effectively. easy and comfortable to use machine. This is to ensure the machine could work efficiently to that particular drain.15m depth.

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 4.1)Gantt Chart Table 1 : The table below shows that project planning of the group with respect to the week starting from week 2 until week 14.PROJECT MANAGEMENT 4. Week Number 1 Activities ETP Briefing Group organization & brainstorming Assessment & choose of title of project Consult supervisor Data collection for proposal Finalize proposal Proposal submission Design solution Cost analysis for the system design Work on progress report Designing process and prototype Purchase required tools and materials Progress report submission Implementing the process of project Construction of prototype Prototype testing Submission of FORM 03 Posters designing Consult supervisor Final check on the prototype Preparing and presenting slides EDX Submission of UTP claim form Oral presentation Submission of final report 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Mid Semester Break (8 – 11 March 2012) Page 10 . This is to make sure every work will be done and finished on time.

Prepare mechanism for the brush to rotate with the shaft .2) Task Allocation Table 2 : The table below shows the task allocation for each member of the group. Design backpack for water tank Fabricate the water pump system so that the flow of the water could be controled Aishah Sakinah Analysis Petroleum engineering • • • • Nor Amalia Chemical engineering Do research on material used such as what type of steel suitable for the prototype Perform analysis on machine Record analysis Report ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 11 . Draw machine using software • Fabrication of Ikhwan water pump Mechanical Engineering • Suntha Mechanical engineering • • Design the mechanical system for the pump and water outlet Decide the best arrangement for the prototype when combining with mechanical and electrical part. Unit Person charge in Department Task Fabrication of Syafiq brush and shaft part Mechanical Engineering • • Farizul Mechanical Engineering • • Design the structure of the brush and shaft part. Do research on the most suitable type of brush and also material for the front part.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 4.

research has been conduct ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 12 . equipments or tools that being used is brush. hoe and broom. To fulfill the cordless design of the machine.1 Literature Review There is several research has been made. time consuming and poor cleaning results.2 Motor Motor is a crucial part where it produces kinetic energy to do work. The design features that being studied is the ergonomics. fatigue. This can be done by brushing the drain by hand to clean the dirt in the drain. motor. 5. battery. Machines or tools such as grass cutter all the way to water jet is made as an examples because of its availability on the market and their design meets most of the consumer requirements and parts and design from the machines can be applied to the drain cleaning machine.1. water pump and the materials used. very limited cleaning range. In this method.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5. 5. This part is very important because the drain cleaning machine in order to work it needs a motor to rotate the brush since the design of the machine is to clean out the drain by rotating brush. shovels.1. machine’s mechanisms. However. this method had various weaknesses such as ergonomics (human factors) in difficulties of cleaning the drain. the research are more towards the design of the machine as it being influenced by other machines that share the similarity on its parts. but since there is not equivalent machines that can clean open drains that currently available in the market.LITERATURE REVIEW 5.1 Conventional method The conventional method is a method where the drain is cleaned by the person.

This sequence will create continuous rotating motion. so the commutation will against the armature. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 13 . In this position. The magnetic field was created whether from a permanent magnet or an electromagnet called twister. When the armature rotate at 90˚. This motor is chosen because the battery can only provide direct current and its reliability. When both magnetic field are the same pole. Connected to the armature is an internal commutation where current flow through carbon brushes. the armature is pulled at counter clockwise and keep rotating until exceed 90˚. Commonly motor that being used in such machines is the 12V DC motor where it powered by direct current. it is under the influence of the opposition pole from the permanent magnet.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 towards other cordless tools such as cordless power drill and battery powered grass cutter. however the rotating armature can cause the brush is fade and create arc inside the motor. magnetic field in the internal commutation is charged. making it continue to rotate further than 90˚. it will against each other and rotate counter clockwise. The DC current is supplied to the brush where it will flow to the commutation and armature thus creating a magnetic field. Armature later then being pulled to the opposite pole and continue to rotate more than 90˚ and the poles the armature being charged so the both fields against each other. where the opposite poles is tendency to pull each other. DC motor works by the principle where an electric current through an armature that being twisted by wire and the armature is placed in one magnetic field. The magnet pole on the commutation is the same with the magnet pole on the armature.

Torque and speed is linear. Torque output is less. Motor control is easier. Brushed DC motor Advantages: • • • Low cost. Disadvantages • • Motor size is big. Brushless DC motor Advantages: • Do not have any brush.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Type of DC motor: 1. Figure 2 : Brushed DC motor ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 14 . 2. • • Price is quite expensive. • Motor cools faster. Figure 1: brushless DC motor Disadvantages • Require complicated computer control. so the friction is small. Excessive heat can weaken the motor.

water tank. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 15 . The casing also must have and ergonomic and suitable weight to ease the operator to use. • • Cannot accelerate fast. water pump and other parts of the machine. Motor speed is slow. battery and inverter. one is for brush gun part and bag part. Figure 3 : Stepper DC motor 5.3 Casing Casing functions is to house the motor. Stepper DC motor Advantages: • Motor is stabile. The bag casing is to house the water pump. The bag casing also must be design to light and strong enough to house the equipment and comfort for the operator to carry on their back. shaft and motor. The handle part is to house the motor. Motor is using lot of power even there is no load on the motor. it can handle various loads. shaft. bearing. bearing.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 3. • Torque output is high even at low speed Disadvantages: • Not efficient.1. The handle casing must rigid enough to withstand the torque produce by the motor. There is to main casing for the drain cleaning machine.

1. it has less friction coefficient. The advantages of this bearing are it can support the axial and radial loads with less friction.1. One of the rings is in fixed position. Chemical reaction that create electron is called electrochemical reaction. The concept is the rotating brush is used to polish the work item by hitting the side and the surface of the brush to the work item. other balls will also rotate. and the load will distributed through the balls. When a ring is rotated. The use of bearing is to reduce rotating friction and withstand the axial and radial loads. It has less cost compared to other types of bearing.5 Brush Brush idea is taken from the concept from the polishing machine.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5. Ball bearing functions by using two rings that have balls in the middle. There is ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 16 .6 Battery Battery in general is a tin that filled with chemical that can produce electron. When the balls rotate. Ball bearing also still can operate even the load alignment is not precise. The common bearing is being used is the ball bearing. 5.1.4 Bearing Figure 4 : Bearing Bearing is a type of mechanism that has rotating element to separate moveable parts inside the bearing. 5.

Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) and lead acid battery.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 two terminals on the battery. Electron are collected on the negative terminal. The speed of producing electron by this chemical reaction controls the volume of electrons that flow between the terminals. This is the cause where battery that had been kept for so long still has power. In order to produce a cordless machine. which positive and negative terminal. chemical reaction produces electrons. Inside the battery. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 17 . where is if load are connected to the battery such as light bulb or motor. Electrons that will flow inside the wire must through from negative to positive terminal to make the chemical reaction happen. There is two types of battery that being used on the cordless machines. electron will flow from negative terminal to positive terminal. battery is needed to generate the machine. Battery had to be rechargeable and can supply power for sufficient period of time before it needs to be recharge.

analysis and calculation had been made. The design features are explained in this topic. finally one final design has been agreed.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5. 1 2 14 3 13 4 12 11 10 9 8 7 5 6 Figure 5 : design features of prototype of drain cleaning machine Descriptions: Table 3 : The table below shows descriptions for numbering inside the figure above.7 Study Result After conducting research.1. 1) Brush ` 4) Switches 7) Bag casing 10) Battery 13) Nozzle 2) Shaft 5) Power window motor 8) Inverter 11) Water pump 3) Casing 6) Handles (middle and upper) 9) Hose 12) Pipe ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 18 .

2. so it can easily reach by finger. The difference of this design is inside the body there is shaft to transmit the kinetic energy from motor to brush. and brush. This body construction is rigid enough support the repulsive force by operators’ hand. The middle handle concept is taken from grass cutter machine because this type of design can give comfortable grip and can support the body of the machine making it easy to lift or sway. Other advantages is self discharge rate is less compared to other rechargeable battery. The switches also are positioned next to the upper handle.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 5. The design is chosen because support the repulsive force from hand while operator using this machine.Handles After conducting several researches. handles design concept are taken from the handle of the cordless drill machine and grass cutter machine. The main reason this battery is chosen because of the price is cheap and its availability.Body (brush gun part) The concept of body is taken from the grass cutter machine. Power it can produces last longer. Body is consist of square hollow tube and joint to it is the housing of the power window motor to prevent the motor to rotating along with the shaft. 3. Next to the upper handle is the housing of the power window motor so it can keep away the motor from moisture or soaking of water from the drain. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 19 . Connected to the shaft are power window motor.Battery Battery that been chosen to power this machine is the lead acid type battery.1.8 Design Features 1. ball bearings. screw.

The design can give more cleaning power and the round shape of the design can cover the curvature most types of drain. this type of design is the most efficient for rotating brush.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 4.Brush Brush is the most critical part where it is the cleaning mechanism. Brush concept is taken from the polishing machine. As discussed before. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 20 .

The brush system for this project needed circular motion in order to clean the drain.THEORY The theory that had been used for this Engineering Team Project (Drain Cleaning Machine) was dynamics. velocity and acceleration.1 Dynamics Dynamics is defined as a moving particle or object which subjected to displacement. Fluid static is defined as fluid at rest. Fluid also can be classified as compressible and non-compressible fluid. The dynamic component used in this project is angular motion. This angular motion concept is used in this project especially in constructing the brush and shaft component. gas and plasmas. 6. fluid (water) has been used as on cleaning agent to wash away the dirt after the cleaning process. Dynamic is an opposite component of static. Fluid mechanics can be categorized into three different studies. which are fluid statics. fluid kinematics is study of fluid in motion and fluid dynamic is defined as study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. Fluid can be classified as liquid. 6. Meanwhile fluid mechanics is defined as the study of fluid and force on them. In order to provide water that ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 21 . fluid mechanics and basic electrical theory. It also can be defined as movement in circular or movement that has curve. which does not vary with time. so angular theory is used to develop the design and also the analysis for the brush.2 Fluid Mechanics Fluid is defined as is a substance that continually deforms under an applied shear stress. fluid kinematics and fluid dynamics. Angular motion is a movement that increases or decreases the angle between two points.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 6. In this Drain Cleaning Machine project. where it varies with time compare to static.

These equations also used to determine the appropriate battery voltage needed and how many battery needed. These equations are used to determine the power needed for the pump and the motor to operate. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 22 . Other theory that is used is Bernoulli Equation. The important Pascal equation that used in the project is P = pgh.3 Electrical Electrical theory that had been used in this project is basic equation such as V = IR and P = voltage x current. 6. Pascal Law is inherited in the project. This equation is used to determine the size and the height of the water bottle to be used in the project.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 has sufficient pressure and velocity to wash away the dirt. Pascal Law states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid that is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure ratio remains the same. Pascal Law used especially in this project to design the water compartment. This equation is used to calculate and to determine the velocity of water needed and what kind of pump needed to fulfil the requirement.

PROCEDURE/METHODOLOGY Current problems Problem Definition Identify needs Identify potential problems and solutions Supervisor’s advice Research on topic Internet. Testing Finalization /Experimentation Working prototype Presentation Group presentation Compilation of final report Figure 6 : Methodology of project ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 23 .DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 7. Library Data Analysis Identify alternatives Decision Making Confirmation of topic Conceptual Design Design Sketches Feasibility studies Practicability of design Detailed design Fabrication of design Specification.

Set criteria – Cost efficient. together with its modification and recommendation. practical. 5. weight and agronomical view. 7. Analysis – All the advantages and disadvantages of the project has been analyzed. Decision – A final decision and initiative has been set. user friendly and portable. 6. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 24 . size. Identify need – make the current drain cleaning machine as reference and improve them in terms of price. able to be completed within time allocated. based on the constraints and criteria of the project to present and produce the proposed project. 4. Set constraint – Time given to complete the project. Research – Conduct research to find the most suitable type of material needed for the overall design. 2. and cost needed to purchase the equipments. 8.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 1. marketable. Specification – specification of the prototype is made for detailed project report once everything has been finalized and confirmed. 3. Define problem – Survey about the current drain cleaning machine that still not available in certain area in Malaysia and its disadvantages by discussing with experts in the field of construction. lecturers together with sources from the internet.

there was a bolt been welded to connect the brush with the plate a casing to power window is made to overcome torque steer then. Next is the procedure of the process. we divide into two tasks.1 Brush Gun plastic brush was dismantled and combined into round shape the brush was attached with the round plate and tightened by cable tight A hollow round bar is welded with bearing and the plate as jointer to shaft casing At the end of the hollow round bar. One task is for making brush gun and the other is for making water pump carrier.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 In assembling the prototype. The round plate is welded to ease loosen up the tightened Figure 7: Procedure of making brush gun ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 25 . 7. the power window is attached by welding to the hollow square.

2 Water pump carrier A 5.5L bottle cap is being drilled according to the diameter of water pump nozzle rear bottle been drilled to insert the water filter the bottle cap and water pump nozzle were glued together bag frame for the carrier was made. This bag was used for give comfort to users. inverter and water pump were placed in the frame a recycle bag was cut and fixed on the vertical side of the frame and being tight by bolt and nut.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 7. a nozzle was attached and tightened Figure 8: Procedure of making water pump carrier ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 26 . plywood been rivetted on the surface of the bag frame battery. a cover zinc was resize and been cut to make a hole at the center of the bottle for water inlet the zinc and bottle been placed and rivetted the bottle was tightened by a wire net to prevent it from moving a steel pipe was desgned to attach together with sink pipe valve at the end of the steel pipe.

P = Current x Voltage = 9 x 12 = 117 W Brand : Mitsuba Voltage : 12 V Current : 1.51 A Torque : 3 N.75 N Angular velocity = Power / Torque =P/T = 18.67 rpm Brand Voltage Current Power : Shanda SD-3200 : 12 V : 2.04 rad/s Brush rotation speed. N = (ω x 60) / 2π = (6.1 Data Gathering and Analysis Table 4 : The table below shows hardware used and its specification No.5 m 4 Water pump ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 27 . 2 Motor 3 Brush Big brush diameter Small brush diameter Torque Force Force for big brush = 20m = 8m = Force x Radius = Torque / Radius = 3 / 10 = 0. 1 Tools/Hardware Battery Specification Brand : GP Rechargeable Voltage : 12 V Current :9A Power.12 W Battery life when the machine is operating: Life = Power of battery / Power of motor = 117 / 18.12 / 3 = 6.51 x 12 = 18.45 = 6 hours and 45 minutes.12 = 6.3 N Force for small brush =3/4 = 0.5 A = Current x Voltage = 2.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 8.m (with load) By calculation: Power.04 x 60) / 2π = 57. Qmax = 2000 l/h Hmax = 1.5 x 12 = 30 W Battery life when the machine is operating: Life = Power of inverter / Power of motor = 150 / 30 =5 = 5 hours.ENGINEERING ANALYSIS 8. P = Current x Voltage = 1.

2000L/h H = 1. For drilling 5.5 cm 1.5 aH 150 W 45 cm x 25 cm 25 cm x 25 cm 45 cm x 25 cm 25cm x 25 cm - 2. angle Page 28 ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 .5 inch 3. 30 W. No.2 Tools required Table 5 : The table below shows tools and hardware used in this project and their descriptions. Can be use for cutting metals of rectangular shape.0 m 12 V Steel brush and plastic brush 1 ft x 2 ft To cut metals like mid steel. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Tools/Hardware Hand grinder Hand driller Riveter Pliers Multi tools Solder Metal saw Bottle Aquarium water pump Battery On/off switch Power inverter DC to AC Square hollow bar Plywood Washing machine nozzle Sink valve Epoxy metal glue Hot wire PVC glue Screw and nut Hollow round bar Clipper Rivet Power window Bearing Round plate Brush Handle (bicycle handle) Steel plate Recycle bag Shaft casing Aluminium cover Plastic rope Cable tight Disk cutter Description To cut or remove extra metal after the metals are cut with disk cutter. It is also used for tidying up welded metal.5 L 220 V.5 m 6V 4.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 8.

we used disk cutter for cutting hollow pipe stainless steel and round bar. In the MIG process. hollow bar and etc.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 iron shaped.3 Software Table 6 : The table below shows software used in this project No 1 2 3 Name of software Microsoft Office Word Microsoft Office Power Point Solid Work 2007 Description For documentation purposes For preparing slides shows for presentation To design 2D and 3D schematic diagram of prototype 8. this MIG was used to weld motor housing. battery housing and shaft. In this project. our project provides some good features.4 Specification of project Table 7 : The table below shows the specifications of the drain cleaning machine Specification Aesthetical value Cost Design Function Material Description Attractive and interesting Cheap and affordable to all people Easy to handle by man and woman Cleaning and unclogged drain Easy to deal with. 36 MIG welding machine 8. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 29 . cost effective. For assembling this drain cleaning machine. This machine is used for welding work piece according to the thickness of our work piece. lightweight In contrast to the normal drain cleaning machine in the market nowadays. Below are the features comparisons between a normal drain cleaning machine and our project. It is also used for cutting metals at angle of 45°. high availability. electrode will melt and mixed with melted metal to produce weld pool. 60° and 90°.

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 8. The machine is also easy to handle for adults both man and woman because the weight is lighter than other machines like grass cutter machine.5 Project benefits The benefits of our machine are. It does not contain any harmful material or dangerous tools attached. people would be afforded to have the drain cleaning machine. Therefore. Therefore. it is cheap and affordable because of low cost of production. it is safe to use for adults. Furthermore. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 30 . it is very practical to women.

00 2.00 6.00 199.80 1.00 TOTAL 36.60 The other parts of the machine are available in laboratory and our own material.1 Capital Cost Considerations The cost of a unit drain cleaning machine is approximately RM 199. 1 Item Aquarium water pump 1 Quantity Price per item (RM) 28.00 5.60. we fabricated most of the body parts of our prototype by our own. there were still other operational costs during making this prototype as the breakdown listed below: ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 31 .00 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rechargeable battery Power inverter Switch Portable plug Battery charger Light socket PVC glue Steel brush Plastic brush 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18. 9.80 1.00 5.00 90.00 1.00 6. However. The equipments needed to fabricate our prototype are available in the lab and also we used our own equipments. Below is the cost breakdown for a unit of drain cleaning machine.80 26.2 Operational Cost Consideration Since we have access to the laboratory provided by university.00 2. Table 8 : The table below shows the cost of project No.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 9.00 3.00 90.00 Total (RM) 28.00 1.00 3.80 26.BUSINESS / ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 9.

we just used the available materials provided in the laboratory and materials that can be obtain near Uiversiti Teknologi PETRONAS only. we listed the alternative material for the project in the future so that it will have a better performance and more effective.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Table 9 : The table below shows the cost of operational Amount No. This is due to time constraints and the price of our required materials was higher.3 Alternative Materials For our current project. Table 10: The table below shows the alternatives of materials No Part of machine Materials used now Alternative material Alloy/ carbon fibre Advantages 1 Plate for brush gun casing Steel More lightweight 2 3 Bag frame Power supply Steel Battery Carbon fibre/ alloy Solar power More lightweight Save energy (green concept) ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 32 . Therefore. 1 2 3 4 Installation Labors Service (per year) Transportation TOTAL Description (RM) 150 50 100 50 RM 350 9.

To completely clean the drain.1 Less time taken to clean the drains compared to conventional method When using this machine. it takes about 1 hour to completely clean but still.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 10.1. the time taken to clean a 5 meter drain only takes 5 minutes. we only need 30 minutes. the result was not the same as using this drain cleaning machine.RESULTS AND CALCULATION 10.1 RESULTS 10. The cleaner will need to put out dirt from the drains manually while when using this drain cleaning machine. Figure 9 : the result of experiment on dirty drain ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 33 . the water supply will straight away wash the particular area to clean it. Compared to conventional method. which we used an ordinary brush manually to scrub the drains.

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Figure 10 : A man scrub dirt in the drain by suing conventional method (ordinary brush) Figure 11: the man trying to put out the dirt from drain after scrubbing it Figure 12: The dirt (contain of moss) was put out manually by hand ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 34 .

This is proven that the machine is lightweight and easy to handle.1.3 Features of the machine In contrast to the normal drain cleaning machine in the market nowadays.2 Suitable for all people especially women Figure 13: A woman can easily handle the machine As we can see in the picture. the girl could easily handle the machine. our project provides some good features. Below are the features comparisons between a normal drain cleaning machine and our project. 10. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 35 .1.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 10.

Others equipments such as motor and water pump may also differ. A bigger drain size will need bigger brush . As drain size could vary from small to big.m.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Features Mobility Normal drain cleaning machine Wheel-type machine.67 rpm is not high enough because the power window motor used is not design for the drain cleaning machine but to move car window.51 Ampere current . and the power produced is approximately 18. The actual flow rate at the nozzle would slightly differ from the result because of friction inside the pipe. The length of the machine brush is also depends on the drain ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 36 . the flow rate is 2000L/h with minimum head.2 DISCUSSION Based on the result on specifications. the motor rotation which is 57. we can see that the machine could last for approximately 5 hours . Difficult to move in a small area User friendly Suitable for man only Yes. alteration of brush size is needed depending on the drain size.The batteries need 4 hours to be fully charged. From the result shown.In this machine 12 V batteries are used with 1. The water pump diameter is approximately equal to the nozzle so we calculate the flow rate from the water pump . The torque calculated from the power window motor is 3 N.12 Watt. Both man and woman can use it easily Weight Safety Price More Safe Expensive Less Safe Cheap The prototype Portable. On the water pump part. For this machine we are focusing on small drain size. just carry on the back 10.

The total weight of the machine is around 8kg . The more time allocate to clean the drain the better the result observed. Long duration of using the machine will not cause any harm to the user. While fiber brush can be for normal cleaning. but the weight of the water tank part is around 3kg. However it might have some disadvantages such as need to carry heavy batteries and water tank at the back. the effect of using brush and machine is observed.Both activities are conducted in constant time. but this design ensures the weight does not exert extreme pressure on the user. which is 15 minutes faster and with better result. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 37 . We also compare the time required to clean 5 meters drain with brush and drain cleaning machine. There are also two types of brush which are steel brush and fiber brush. The machine is design fully portable to ease the user. This machine is also ergonomic due to the sponge installed at the backpack. Steel brush is more suitable to be used on tough stain.So this machine can be carry easily even by woman. Instead of limitations caused by hose connected to water supply and continuous electric supply. The machine takes less time to complete the job. When using brush there are still some dirt and moss left on the side of the drain.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 depth. this design overcomes these limitations and user can now clean their drain wherever they want. Secondly. This portability is our main advantage over other machines such as water jets. while when using machine with steel brush the moss is cleaned completely .

we used hollow square bar which is heavier. lighter materials. For the shaft’s casing and backpack frame. This drain cleaning machine uses two 12V rechargeable batteries which can stay about 3 hours for combination of brushing and water jet. Suggested improvements are a long-life battery. Meanwhile in order to get the variable speed of power window rotation.5L. We suggesting that aluminium is used for lighter material that increased the handling also to overcome the torque steer.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 11. for better future we recommend continuously water supply that make the flow rate moves continuously and reduce the weight of the machine. Since our project used limited amount of water which is 5. Furthermore by using other means such as solar power to run the system would be more eco-friendly. a servo motor and solar power. continuously water supply. We have found that by using two main functions which is consist of water jet and brush gun to clean the drain is more achievable and successful. servo motor is suggested because we used constant speed for power window which is 6. By using battery that can stay longer much better for this machine such as 2 24V rechargeable batteries or more than that to make it portable and stay longer. By doing some improvements such as continuously water supply and using solar power for this machine will enhance the progress of the systems.04 rad/s.CONCLUSION Drain cleaning machine provides efficient way to clean the drains and lower cost in operating and purchasing. ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 38 .

flow of fluids and bernoulli’s equation. Myszka. pp 153 • • R.Velocity Analysis. Hibbeler.C. “Mechanics of Material”.com/product_view/id/2055869. 8th ed in SI units. 2011. REFERENCES • Robert L. retrieved on 15th March 2012. Mott. “Applied Fluid Mechanics”.tradekey.DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 12.pp 171 • Drain cleaning available in Malaysia . 6th ed. “Machines and Mechanisms”. Chapter 6. 2000. David H. chapter 6. 3th ed. 2005. 2006. from http://www.htm ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 39 .

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 14. Drawing of the drain cleaning machine Figure 14: drawing of parts of the machine Figure 15: : drawing of parts of the machine ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 40 . APPENDICES I.

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Figure 16: : drawing of parts of the machine Figure 17 : the isometric. top and side view of prototype of drain cleaning machine ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 41 .

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Figure 18: description of drain cleaning machine Figure 19: description of drain cleaning machine ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 42 .

DRAIN CLEANING MACHINE ETP02 Figure 20: Figure 17 : the isometric. top and side view of prototype of drain cleaning machine (with optional brush) ENGINEERING TEAM PROJECT JAN 2012 Page 43 .

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