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man has expressed his feelings and his aesthetics in clay. Major types of pottery include earthenware. and remains a major industry today. The definition used by archaeologists tends to exclude ceramic objects such as figurines which are made by similar processes. Pottery is one of the oldest human technologies and art forms. Being one of the oldest crafts. or made on a potter's wheel. . The place where such wares are made is also called a "pottery" (plural "potteries"). It is not only to be looked at. but are not vessels. but also to be handled carefully. Pottery is the measure of a country's civilization. and perhaps the same people. A piece of pottery has a visual message in its shape and color. It is the most sensual of all arts.Introduction Pottery is the ceramic ware made by potters. stoneware and porcelain."Pottery" can also refer to the material of which the pottery ware is made.

. No wonder then that pottery has been called the lyric of handicrafts. Pottery is the measure of a country's civilization. A piece of pottery has a visual message in its shape and color. It is not only to be looked at. he instinctively creates things out of it. It is the most sensual of all arts. Being one of the oldest crafts.Tradition When man came to know the beauty of a pot thrown on the wheel and its decoration. the simplest has been soft and malleable clay. man has expressed his feelings and his aesthetics in clay. pottery took on a new meaning for him… Among the various media chosen by man for expressing his joy through art. But. music or literature. Nimble fingers mould the most beautiful form and expression. but also to be handled carefully. Lyrical because of its irresistible and universal appeal. it is the association of religion with this art that has given it a deeper significance and another dimension too. Clay is such a fascinating medium that if a lump of it is given to a child.

These forms of antique pottery are rudimentary creations. people were artistically inclined. There is proof of pottery being constructed in two ways. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have thrown up ancient pottery such as terracotta figures of a dancing girl and other female figures. There are also figures of dogs with collars. These potters are claimed to be wonderful masters of their trade. elephants. birds. There are more than a million potters in India. deer. rhinoceros. rams. The real beginning of Indian pottery began with the Indus Valley Civilization. feline and bovine creatures. a figurine of a cart being drawn by oxen or buffalos.History Pottery making was the earliest vocation of mankind and there are so many traces of this earliest vocation that are being excavated and given proper treatment. male figures. water buffalos. handmade and wheelmade. no doubt. . yet they are proof that even as early as 3300 BC.

Earthenware . Bottles. Explorations in the tombs of Egypt show that pottery making was very much present in the 3000 BC. Persia. and Babylonia. jars and jugs for carrying and storing water represent their artistic sense. Generally useful objects were made. Originally it was used in Egypt. like jars for holding liquids or plates and bowls where food could be kept. These objects tell us a lot about the lives of those ancient people. Earthenware pottery is one of the oldest and widespread of the arts created of clay and made hard with heat.Origin of Pottery It is difficult to ascertain the discovery of the potter's wheel.

This was made in China as early as 1400 BC (Shang dynasty) and in Japan during the 13th century (Kamakura period) . white or black. .Classification of pottery The term “Pottery” is generally used to mean all the products that the potter produces by using his art. earthenware may be used as a general term to denote all kinds of pottery. o Porcelain. brown. Sometimes.This was made in China during the T'ang dynasty (AD 618–907) Stoneware is hard and translucent. Stoneware. The color of the body can be red. Pottery can be largely divided into 3 categories: o o o Earthenware-This is a form of pottery fired at relatively low temperatures to avoid the clay from getting vitrified or glassy. sometimes even opaque. gray.

Hopefully. which have been produced from a single mould. porcelain and studio pottery belong to the realm of art. Rectangular kilns for firing the product were in use. it is doubtful if it will ever destroy the potter's inherent and women alike. India has more than a million potters. pottery has been excavated showing that potter's place was quite an important one in society. While pottery and earthenware are distinctly utilitarian and often decorative. new generations will perceive the worth of pottery. . craft of pottery was originated. The craft was well advanced. There is evidence of pottery making. most of it is completely hand-modeled. Despite the hi-tech that has invaded the Indian scenario. Except for a few examples of Indian ceramics. They are exquisite masters . a tradition carried over to the 20th century.Indian Pottery It was during the period of Harappa civilization.C) The place of the potter in the craft tradition of India is unique. Indus Valley (3300-1300 B. At Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Seals and grain and water containers were made that were put to use effectively. both handmade and wheel-thrown. from all over India.

clay is often made into thin rolls and then coiled. These are then smoothened with water. For instance. to make a clay human figure. An alternative way of making handmade pottery is by molding the clay by hand. and how much. While crafting pottery by hand.Handmade Pottery All pottery is handmade. Even the slightest slip can upset the process of creation. . However. so the term handmade pottery states the obvious. The potter has to know exactly where to apply pressure. the craftsman would make the arms and legs and head separately and then attach them to the torso. it is to be noted that there are two types of handcrafted pottery: o o Pottery made on a potter's wheel Pottery molded by hand Throwing a pot on a potter's wheel demands a great deal of skill and dexterity. A master potter knows how to control the clay he shapes on the wheel.

is finer and lighter than primary clay. dense. 46% silicon oxide. and pure. . and 14% water. Primary clay is heavy. clay may be generally described as 40% aluminum oxide. This secondary clay. a mixture of sediment. primary and secondary. There are two types of clays. Secondary or sedimentary clay is formed of lighter sediment that is carried farther in water and deposited.Raw Material Its primary mineral is kaolinite. Primary clay is found in the same place as the rock from which it is derived—it has not been transported by water or glacier and thus has not mixed with other forms of sediment. Varying additives give the clay different characteristics.

another group pinpoints the year as 2400 BC.Pottery Wheel The pottery wheel is the instrument on which the pot is thrown. Pottery wheels are of various kinds. there are three types of potter's wheels: o o o The tabletop pottery wheel Standing pottery wheel The one that is placed on the floor Table top wheel Standing wheel . There is a fair amount of debate regarding the date the potter's wheel was invented. Based on the Position they are to be used in. While one school of thought believes that 6000 BC is the correct date of origin.

The treadle pottery wheel is a more recently developed pottery wheel. It is easier to operate than the kick pottery wheel because the left foot is used to rock a treadle. and prices. using a long stick. the motion of the foot is hardly a hindrance to their work. The electric wheel uses electric power to spin. it is to be acknowledged that for those who are very accustomed to the manual potter's wheel. special children's pottery wheels are also available. For children. Electric wheel . this is perhaps also the reason they are not really favored by traditional artisans who believe that operating the wheel manually. rather than in a kicking motion. Kick wheel The kick wheel works by kicking the flywheel in a specific rhythm. The pottery wheel is available in a number of sizes. they are of four types: o o o o Kick wheels for pottery Treadle wheels Electric wheels Those that are set in motion by hand. speeds. weights. and has the advantage of not demanding any manual interference. Treadle wheel Power pottery wheels have made the process of throwing a pot simpler. Thus.Depending on the Manner in which these wheels for pottery are used. However. This powers the wheel head. the potter can cntrate completely on the work his hands are doing. however. is an art in itself. when using this pottery wheel.

and shortening it. Thereafter. This is the third step in pottery throwing. so that it does not become too wide or the clay does not become too thin around it. Once this is done. sky is the limit. For if it is not positioned appropriately. suing the fingers. A fine needle may be used as a pottery tool at this step. The process of throwing a pot is an art that takes patience and practice to perfect. The final step in pottery throwing is separating the pot from the wheel.Pottery Throwing The process of creating a pot on a potter's wheel is called pottery throwing. The opening is created by using just the right amount of pressure. This must be done gently. It is important that it sticks well. both hands are used to reposition it to the center. while the other raises it. Usually one hand supports the wall. The next step in throwing a pot is raising a column of clay. The line is simply held firmly at the base of the pot. Pressure must be used to make the clay obey your hands. o o o o o o Centering the clay is the first and most important step in molding it. that it can be worked on. To do this. the piece will not be balanced and will be very difficult to handle. The penultimate step in throwing a pot is shaping the top edge of the pot. the sides are raised cautiously and uniformly. an opening is made in the clay mass. Once mastered. The trick is to throw the clay as close to the center as possible. one must use a wire line or a thread. . It is only once the clay mass is collected and made uniform in this manner. Then. the rotating wheel causes it to slice through the clay.

painted or adorned in any other manner. Once fired. There are different types of kilns used for firing pottery. the pottery is placed on a hearth. the clay objects become hard. This is done in a pottery kiln. Top-Hat Kiln In this pottery kiln. Kept in sun for drying. Some of these are: The Traditional Kiln This is no more than a trench dug in the earth. and a cover is lowered over it. Once fired and cooled.Pottery Kiln Once the pottery clay has been molded. The final characteristics of the piece of pottery depend on the temperature at which it is fired. The pottery is then fired and allowed to cool. It is surrounded by a brick cone. the ceramic is glazed . creating a single mass. . before firing Bottle Kiln This is a coal-fired kiln. A pottery kiln is an oven whose temperature is controlled to achieve a desired effect. and filled with pots and fuel. The heat in the pottery kiln causes the clay particles to become semi-solid and flow into each other. it is ready to be fired.

Microwave Kilns These employ microwave energy in combination with gas or electric energy . Electric Kilns These are pottery kilns that are fairly easy to use. They maybe front loading or top loading. Industrial Pottery Kilns These mostly use natural gas. It is basically a long tunnel that has a firing box at one end and a chimney of sorts at the other. The latter could be sectional or a single piece kiln. And with different controls. They come in various shapes to suit the potter's needs. also with various heights and crosssections.Anagama Kiln This potter's kiln is an ancient kiln of Japan. They often have a safety vent. They have sophisticated temperature and rateof-cooling controls.

Low R&D for product innovation. Use of traditional technique and technology. Abundance of craftsperson. Good storing vessel because of breathing abilty. Strong linkages with other key regional clusters. . Lack of incentive for export.SWOT Analysis Strength:      Easily available raw-material. Low cost. Weakness:      Fragile. Transportation difficulty.

 Large export potential. Threats:  Use of plastic and fiber as a stronger material.  Low priced import from China.Opportunities:  Rising domestic demand.  Changing consumer preference. .  Huge potential for mainstream design.

The beauty of form. colors and texture varies across the length and breadth of the country. India has more than a million potters.C. lends the medium a high degree of adaptability. They are exquisite masters. it is doubtful if it will ever destroy the potter's inherent creativity. The fabled richness of the Bhoomata or Mother Earth. as excavations of pottery in Mohenjo-Daro (2500 B. The place of the potter in the craft tradition of India is unique.Conclusion The potter's craft dates back to antiquity in India. Despite the hi-tech that has invaded the Indian scenario. With a hope that new generation will perceive the worth of pottery.) shows. The artistic work in the delicate shapes indicates that they are pieces of excellent craftsmanship. .

” . Using breathing property of the ware to make something unrivaled.Design Direction “Adding unique utilitarian value to the craft. other than antiquity and tradition.

wikipedia.Bibliography .india-crafts.

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