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1.1 Network Roll Out For 2G &3G.
This project is based on the telecommunication. The network planning is not only to define the initial network roll-out targets, but also to provide moving targets to the continuous process that
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Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G
takes the whole life time of the network. Before the2G and 3G network is launched, all the work is focused on estimating how the network should look like. After the network launch customer intake and behaviour will decide the network development direction. The most demanding tasks are to gather all the required information for the planning work and making the network roll-out decisions based on all these estimations, operator demands and assumptions of future costs. Cost estimations are usually very sensitive to the changes in basic assumptions and it is crucial that all assumptions are recorded to the network roll-out plan. Network roll out is the foundation to establish a 2G& 3G network. In this project we will design a network theoretically as well as practically. the whole planning of a network give details about the frequency need, type of media required , type of antennas , orientation ,how was the clutter in that area, How many sites we need to establish a good network etc………
Pre-Planning: Define network services, basic network configuration parameters…
Main Planning: Site survey, digital map, link budget, coverage plan, capacity plan…
1.2 Aim of network rollout
The main aim of radio network planning is to provide cost effective solution in terms of coverage and quality. The process of radio network planning starts with collecting the parameters such as network requirement of coverage and capacity. These inputs are used to make a theoretical coverage and capacity plan.Coverage planning would be defined as the coverage area services probability and related signals strength.Capacity planning would include subscribers and traffic behavior in a region. The requirement of radio planner is to cover 100% of the area but usually it is impossible. So efforts are made to design a network that covers all the regions that may have good traffic and to have coverage hole with no traffic zone.
1.3 SOFTWARE USED
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Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G
• MCOM • ASSET • EFT • TEMS PLANNER 1.3.1 MCOM:
Mobile Communications Network Application (MCOM) was first introduced as a Mapbasic application tool to create a graphical representation of a mobile network in MapInfo. Starting version 3.0, MCOM has become a stand-alone application. Using OLE Automation technology, MCOM acts as an OLE client with MapInfo running in the background. This allows MCOM to have the flexibility and versatility to integrate new functions that MapBasic cannot provide. In this latest version, you get the similar user-interface as in MapInfo plus the additional ND/NPI tools. MCOM’s features can be categorized into following groups: • Cell Planning Tools • Drive Test Analysis Tools [GSM only] • STS Analysis Tools
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G
System Requirements For Mcom
MCOM2001 requires MapInfo application to be installed in your PC with a minimum physical memory of 32Mb. It has been tested for both Window 95/98 and NT Operating Systems.
1.3.2 TEMS PLANNER
TEMS CellPlanner Universal is an advanced tool for designing and planning 2G, 2.5G, and 3G networks.Designed and developed by Ericsson, TEMS Cell-Planner Universal provides superior planning capabilities to save time and money during network deployment. TEMS CellPlanner Universal meets the needs of today’s complex radio networks. It features open interfaces, a new more flexible architecture, and support for all major technologies. It also utilizes unique, patented algorithms for accuracy and speed. The modular platform makes it easy to customize and add new functionality. TEMS CellPlanner Universal provides a flexible system configuration and an efficient working environment. Operators can choose stand-alone configuration for quick and easy planning in the field; no database installation is required. Choosing network configuration allows multiple users, as part of a team, to share network data and simultaneously plan a common network. This team approach is regulated by a unique system of security features for safe and secure handling of data. Here is the view of TEMS planner :
Some important features of Tems planner: • • 2G and 3G co planning Gsm/gprs/edge support
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G
• • •
Quality performance indicator Propagation modeling Geographical information system
1.3.3 EFT (ERICSSON ENGINEERING TOOL)
During the initial phases of the network design process, a reliable radio wave propagation tool is necessary. This need continues to exist even for the most mature radio networks. One of the primary responsibilities of an RF engineer is to improve the radio network when required to do so. This could be the result of growth or decreased performance. Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET) is based on experience and continual development adapted to a rapidly changing technology. EET is based on Planet by Mobile Systems International Ltd. (MSI). It is a UNIX open-windowsbased software package designed to simplify the process of planning and optimizing a cellular network. Some important features of asset tool are as follow: • Network dimensioning • Frequency planning • Predicting EET can import radio survey files which can be used to tune the prediction model for the area where the network is to be planned. Data can be imported and exported to OSS
Asset is also a rf planning tool .it is a GUI support tool. This software is used to design a network . it provides a step by step procedure to design a network . following can be done by using ASSET. • •
Adding site and site database Analysis for all sites. Use to analysis network with and without frequency hopping turn-on Used for predictions for coverage Frequency re use pattern Layer configurations Coverage threshold and types
• • • •
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Easy to export and import data from different softwares.
1.4 ABOUT TELECOM AND TELECOM DEPARTMENTS
The Indian telecommunication industry is the world's fastest growing industry with 791.38 million mobile phone subscribers as of February 2011. It is also the second largest telecommunication network in the world in terms of number of wireless connections after China. Basically we will discuss about the wireless communication. The wireless communication works on the policies of TRAI.
1.4.1 Telecom Regulatory Authority Of India (TRAI)
The entry of private service providers brought with it the inevitable need for independent regulation. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was, thus, established with effect from 20th February 1997 by an Act of Parliament, called the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, to regulate telecom services, including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government. TRAIs mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in manner and at a pace, which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society. One of the main objectives of TRAI is to provide a fair and transparent policy environment, which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition. In pursuance of above objective TRAI has issued from time to time a large number of regulations, orders and directives to deal with issues coming before it and provided the required direction to the evolution of Indian telecom market from a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market. The directions, orders and regulations issued cover a wide range of subjects including tariff, interconnection and quality of service as well as governance of the Authority. The TRAI Act was amended by an ordinance, effective from 24 January 2000, establishing a Telecommunications Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) to take over the adjudicatory and disputes functions from TRAI. TDSAT was set up to adjudicate any dispute between a licensor and a licensee, between two or more service providers, between a service provider and a group of consumers, and to hear and dispose of appeals against any direction, decision or order of TRAI.
1.4.2 Departments of telecom
1. NSS (Network Switching Centre)
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Telecom team: responsible for installation and commissioning of site and also for acceptance test.5 Network planning project organization: • • Network planning team: network pre planning and post planning and giving site proposal as an output. BSS (Base Station System) 3. Any customer complaints or queries from any other department have to go through this for evaluation. Fuel availability. Construction team: responsible for construction work of site and stability check. Planning 6. It involves all daily routines like Preventive Maintenance. Page 7 • • MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 . notification for which are then are sent to the concerned regions.optimization etc.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 2. These people if required also do any reconfiguration. The data collected by the planning team is send to the BSS department . Weather proofing. 1. OMC-R (Operations and Maintenance for Radio) 4. drive tests. etc. Site acquisition team: responsible for actual site location finding via technical survey. lease contract etc. EFD is the front desk for the Engineering department. BSS is involved in the maintenance of the GSM Network. over which all the calls of the customers are routed in the Network. OMCR is there for the maintenance and operations of the radio. Performance NSS is involved in the maintenance of the Switch. Planning Department is involved in the planning of the sites . Any alarms in the Network are raised in OMCR. Performance department is there to keep a check on the Network performance and to enhance the performance whenever required time by time. Network rollout project comes under the PLANNING and BSS department.survey. Power availability. Site Expenditures. EFD (Engineering Front Desk) Network 5.
All the planning is done by the operator if they had the desired knowledge the risk factor is that the operator might not have the full knowledge of the equipments of the vendor. 1. market share. 1. Capacity planning 3.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Network Optimization team: responsible for pre-launching optimization phase. It start with current market situation analysis like competitors. Operator is involve in defining the network planning criteria after the roll out finish the care phase has to be out sourced but it can be done by those who has sufficient knowledge. nature of targeted user and average use of that services. Frequency planning MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 8 . Network planning consultancy: . services. Target is to generate revenue for this has to provide coverage capacity and quality. network coverage area. Coverage planning 2. Dimensioning • Detailed planning 1.6 Network planning project There are three types of network planning project. 2.for planning function of a particular aspect of the job. traffic behavior. 3. 1. This is done for the new technology to come these are different from the equipment vendor.7 Planning criteria and targets: The target is to plan the network in a cost effective way. • Pre planning: 1.
potential customers 3. Verification 3. Parameter planning Network • Optimization 1. Financial limitation 5.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 2. Coverage department 2. Quality department 4. Future deployment plans MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 9 . Acceptance test 2. user profile • Customers Requirements 1. traffic 4. competitors analysis 2. network coverage 5. Quality check • Market Analysis 1. Neighbor planning 3. Capacity department 3.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 10 .
After 2G was launched. starting with SMS text messages. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog.1 ABOUT 2G 2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted. 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels. and 2G introduced data services for mobile.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 2. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991. the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 11 .
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 12 .2 ARCHITECTURE Mobile The GSM mobile station (or mobile phone) communicates with other parts of the system through the base-station Base station system SIM (SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE) The sim determines the identity number and calls billed to subscriber. 3G. The sim communicates directly to the VLR and indirectly to HLR BSS Base transceiver station (BTS). 2. 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world. The base transceiver station is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) Base station controller (BSC). 2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2. 2. The base transceiver station (BTS) handles the radio interface to the mobile station.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system.75G. and 4G. Physically it is chip. The sim is the database on the user side. however.5G.which user must insert into the mobile phone before it can be used.
When a mobile station roams into a new mobile services switching center (MSC) area. It provides functions such as handover. including a subscriber's service profile. Network Subsystem Mobile services switching center (MSC). The EIR database contains information on the identity of mobile equipment to prevent calls from stolen. unauthorized or defective mobile stations.3 NETWORK ROLLOUT PROCESS Network rollout can be described briefly as all the activities involved in determining which sites will be used for the radio equipment. Planning means building a network able to provide service to the customers wherever they are MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 13 . It also performs such functions as toll ticketing. The home location register stores permanent data about subscribers. The AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The BSC provides the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. The authentication center (AUC) also protects network operators from fraud. The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. Visitor location register (VLR). The VLR database contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the mobile services switching center (MSC) in order to service visiting subscribers. and how the equipment will be configured. network interfacing. cell configuration data and control of RF power levels in base transceiver stations. reducing the need for interrogation of the home location register (HLR). which equipment will be used. Home location register (HLR). A number of BSCs are served by a MSC. 2. the visitor location register (VLR) connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. and activity status. location information. Equipment identity register (EIR). The HLR database is used for storage and management of subscriptions. Authentication center (AUC). common channel signaling and others.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network In order to ensure coverage and to avoid interference. every cellular network needs planning. Flow chart of network planning Begin Network requirement Nominal cell planning Site survey selection Frequency planning Parameter planning Detailed network planning System tuning End 2. The analysis should produce information about the geographical area and the expected need of capacity. The types of data collected are: • Cost MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 14 .3.1 STEP 1: NETWORK REQUIREMENTS The cell planning process starts with traffic and coverage analysis.
The nominal cell plan is a graphical representation of the network and simply looks like a cell pattern on a map. e.3.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network • Capacity • Coverage • Grade of Service (GoS) • Available frequencies • Speech Quality Index • System growth capability The traffic demand (i. However.3. is included in tenders. coverage and interference predictions are usually started. a nominal cell plan is produced. The final cell plan is then produced. how many subscribers will join the system and how much traffic will be generated) provides the basis for cellular network engineering. call charges. Such planning needs computer-aided analysis tools for radio propagation studies. Ericsson’s planning tool known as the Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET). Quite often a nominal cell plan.e. the dimensioning of the RBS equipment.4 STEP 4: SYSTEM DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION Once we optimize and can trust the predictions generated by the planning tool. The former is important because it is necessary to assess the real environment to determine whether it is a suitable site location when planning a cellular network. At this stage. 2.2 STEP 2: NOMINAL CELL PLAN Upon compilation of the data received from the traffic and coverage analysis. and MSC is performed.2 STEP 3: SURVEYS (AND RADIO MEASUREMENTS) The nominal cell plan has been produced and the coverage and interference predictions have been roughly verified. 2.g. and price of mobile stations 2. Now it is time to visit the sites where the radio equipment will be placed and perform radio measurements.3. BSC. together with one or two examples of coverage predictions. a lot of work lies behind it Nominal cell plans are the first cell plans produced and form the basis for further planning. The latter is very important because even better predictions can be obtained by using field measurements of the signal strengths in the actual terrain where the mobile station will be located. As MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 15 . Geographical distribution of traffic demand can be calculated by using demographic data such as: • Population distribution • Car usage distribution • Income level distribution • Land usage data • Telephone usage statistics • Other factors such as subscription charges.
System installation. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 16 . it is continually evaluated to determine how well it meets the demand.3.6. this plan is later used during system installation. There are two basic approaches to solve the frequency assignment problem. This is called system tuning.3. the system reaches a point where it must be expanded so that it can manage the increasing load and new traffic. It involves: • Checking that the final cell plan was implemented successfully • Evaluating customer complaints • Checking that the network performance is acceptable • Changing parameters and performing other measures (if needed) The system needs constant retuning because the traffic and number of subscribers increases continuously. 2. a coverage analysis is performed and the cell planning process cycle begins again. Therefore it is always related to interference predictions.5 STEP 5 FREQUANCY PLANNING The main goal of the frequency-planning task is to increase the efficiency of the spectrum usage. • Frequency reuse patterns • Automatic frequency allocation Some software’s are used with automatic frequency allocation algorithms for finding the optimum solutions. STEP 6: SYSTEM TUNING After the system has been installed. and testing are performed following final cell planning and system design. keeping the interference in the network below some predefined level. In addition.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network the name implies. Eventually. a document called Cell Design Data (CDD) containing all cell parameters for each cell is completed. At this point. 2. commissioning.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3.1 Network requirements MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 17 .
the land usage (forest. depending on the scenario a computation should be done.e. So WinProp can be used together without any further costs for topographical databases.) at the receiver pixel can be used for a specific additional loss to be added to the receiver pixel. different losses for different frequency bands. dense urban. Databases can be purchased in different resolutions from several distributors. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 18 . i. Following types of data is available • • • Topographical Database 3D Vector Building Databases 3D Indoor Databases Topographical Database The topography has a significant influence on the accuracy of the propagation model. open area. suburban.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • • • Database Antenna patterns Path loss predictions Network 3.. urban. traffic.. In WinProp this loss can be defined frequency dependent.. Topographical datbase To increase the accuracy of the prediction. Shadowing by hills is quite important and therefore highly accurate databases are required.1. the USGS(United States Geological Survey) has been offering topographical databases for a large area of the earth (except the polar regions) This data can directly be converted with WinProp to WinProp's data format.1 Database: Several types of databases are available.
These vector databases should therefore be used in (dense) urban areas to get the highest accuracy in the path loss predictions. Clutter / Morpho / Land Usage 3D Vector Building Databases Vector databases are the most accurate type of building databases for urban scenarios.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Besides the loss at the reciver pixel the clutter database can also be used to define the ground properties (for ground reflection or scattering) Topographical data is than converted into clutter file format. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 19 . So that analyzer can estimate all the related information of that particular region .
The databases should have the following features: • • • • • Polygonal shape of each object Arbitrary number of corners can be converted . Upon installation.. indoor walls can be considered additionally (this is optional). WinProp uses full 3D vector databases (palanr objects with polyginal shape) for its accurate propagation models to describe the scenario (walls. Flat / planar objects Individual characterization of material properties for each wall Additional subdivisions (e.2 Antenna patterns Each antenna has a unique radiation pattern...also defined as polygonal cylinder Additional consideration of topography possible (either building height relative to ground level or absolute to sea level). buildings) in the database should be compatible to the following requirements: • • • • • • • Polygonal cylinders Arbitrary number of corners (supported during conversion) During computation WinProp uses inrternally max. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 20 . 3.e. However.). 256 corners and removes redundant corners if necessary.. it only applies to the free-space environment in which the test measurement takes place. If CNP for combined urban/indoor analysis is selected.g.WinProp uses internally max. In CNP mode also non-falt-rooftops can be modeled. max 256 subdivisions per wall possible) with individual material properties possible. 3D Indoor Databases In indoor environments an accurate description of the walls and objects inside the buildings is very important.. the pattern becomes more complex due to the extra factors affecting propagation under field conditions.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 3d vector building database Network The objetcs (i. 256 corners and removes redundant corners if necessary. windows.1.. as a function of angle with respect to the direction of maximum power in a log-polar diagram. doors. The pattern is representative of the antenna’s performance in a testenvironment.This pattern can be represented graphically by plotting the received time-averaged power. Thus the real effectiveness of any antenna is measured in the field. Flat rooftop (uniform height of building) Individual characterization of material properties for each building Vegetation blocks (parks and trees) .
HALF-WAVE DIPOLE ANTENNA: A half-wave dipole antenna may also be used as a gain reference for practical antennas. the isotropic antenna exists only as a mathematical concept. Whereas the isotropic antenna’s three dimensional radiation pattern is spherical. The patterns displayed are those of a directional antenna. Since all practical antennas exhibit some degree of directivity. the manufacturer’s data sheet must be consulted. the dipole antenna’s three dimensional pattern is shaped like a donut. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 21 . beam width (vertical and horizontal). The half-wave dipole is a straight conductor cut to one-half of the electrical wavelength with the radio frequency signal fed to the middle of the conductor. When choosing an antenna for a specific application.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network ISOTROPIC ANTENNA: An isotropic antenna is a completely non-directional antenna that radiates equally in all directions. Figure illustrates the radiation pattern of the half-wave dipole which normally is referred to as a dipole. The isotropic antenna can be used as a reference to specify the gain of a practical antenna. The gain of an antenna referenced isotropically is the ratio between the power required in the practical antenna and the power required in an isotropic antenna to achieve the same field strength in the desired direction of the measured practical antenna. The data sheet contains information including antenna gain. The directive gain in relation to an isotropic antenna is called dBi. and graphs showing the vertical and horizontal patterns. The antenna’s gain is approximately 15 dBd.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3. Propagation Scenarios • • • Satellite scenario Rural scenario Urban scenario Page 22 MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 .3 Path loss predictions: For the installation of mobile radio systems. The radio path loss will also affect other elements such as the required receiver sensitivity.. signal path loss is a particularly important element in the design of any radio communications system or wireless system. which are the basis for the high-level network planning process. especially their gain.1. The path loss predictions are required for the coverage planning. wave propagation models are necessary to determine the propagation characteristics. and the antennas. The radio signal path loss will determine many elements of the radio communications system in particular the transmitter power. height and general location. the form of transmission used and this planning process includes the prediction of the received power in order to determine the parameter sets of the base transceiver stations (or access points). the determination of multipath effects as well as for interference and cell calculations.
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 23 . Diffractions around corners as well as waveguiding in corridors (due to multiple reflections) are dominating the propagation inside buildings. Urban scenario: Propagation of electromagnetic waves in urban scenarios in the frequency range above 300 MHz is influenced by reflections and diffractions at the buildings. Therefore a detailed vector data base of the buildings is required. Antenna gains for the satellite transmitters are considered in the path loss predictions.g.000 km) and their longitude. All LEOs and navigation satellites are described either by the Two Line Element method or for the GPS satellites. Indoor scenario: Propagation of electromagnetic waves inside buildings in the frequency range above 600 MHz is influenced mainly by the walls (and large furniture elements).Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • • Indoor scenario Time variant scenario Network Satellite scenario: Geostationary satellites are defined by their height (e. The vector data of the buildings must not be considered in such scenarios Generally the usage of topography and land usage without any further vector building data is recommended if the transmitting antenna (basestation) is located on a hill (or very tall building/mast) and if the propagation in the vertical plane between Tx and Rx is dominating. 36. The satellite radio transmission to the mobile terminal is strongly affected by the variation of the received signal power because of the presence of fading phenomena Rural scenario: Propagation of electromagnetic waves in areas with a low density of buildings depends mainly on the topography and the land usage(clutter).
Propagation tests are conducted at different frequencies. The locations of transmitters. receivers.e. and obstacles are time-variant (i. antenna heights. Formula to match these curve are then generated and used as models. The increasing demand for mobile multimedia and safety applications in timevariant environments requires new concepts for the development of such wireless systems. airports or city centers Stations and underground stations with moving trains Airports with moving airplanes Elevators inside buildings Car-to-car communications The main difference in such applications compared to the classical network planning is the time variance of these scenarios.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Time variant scenario: Wireless communications in time variant ad-hoc networks is very challenging. Doppler shifts and the directional channel impulse response are mandatory results when simulating such time-variant scenarios. Propagation model: Propagation models are essentially curve fitting exercises. and locations over different periods and distances. These effects influence the propagation and lead to time variant channel impulse responses. moving). Some of the major propagation models are: • Long-distance propagation model • Longley-Rice model (irregular terrain model) • Okumara • Hata • Cost 231-Hata (similar to Hata: for 1500-2000 MHz band) MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 24 . Time variant scenarios can be found in several environments: • • • • • • car-to-car (or car-to-infrastructure) communication scenarios used for driving assistance systems MESH and sensor networks in time-variant scenarios Wi-Fi hotspots in railroad stations. The receive signal data is analyzed using mathematical tools and are fitted to an appropriate curve.
To find the path loss in the particular area we have a tool asset. By filling the parameters values from k1to k7 we can calculate the path loss Where the parameters from k1 to k7 are as follow: k1/k2 – attenuation intercept and slope k3 – mobile antenna height correction factor k4 – mobile antenna height multiplying factor k5 – BTS antenna height multiplying factor MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 25 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Wolfish-Ikegami Cost 231 • Wolfish-Xia JTC • XLOS (Motorola proprietary model) • Bullington • Du Path loss model • Diffracting Screens model Network Which model should be used: Cell planners using various planning tools have their favourite models.
call charges. Coverage Planning 3. Tools are the software packages that help for planning the network. antennas. how many subscribers will join the system and how much traffic will be generated) provides the basis for cellular network engineering.diffraction loss (model-dependant) Clutter loss – Clutter attenuation adjustment Network 3. The analysis should produce information about the geographical area and the expected need of capacity. Geographical distribution of traffic demand can be calculated by using demographic data such as: Population distribution Car usage distribution Income level distribution Land usage data Telephone usage statistics • Other factors such as subscription charges.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G k6 – Hata multiplying factor k7 . Planning process can be divided into three parts: 1.e. Some of the software packages used in cellular network planning is • Networking planning system (NPS/X) • Network measurement system (NMS/X) developed by Nokia Cellular planning with NPS/X is based on utilization of digitized map and measurement results. The design database includes the parameters of the base stations. Parameter Planning • • • • • MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 26 .2 PRE PLANNING OF COVERAGE AND CAPACITY: The cell planning process starts with traffic and coverage analysis. The types Of data collected are: • • • • • • • Cost Capacity Coverage Grade of Service (GoS) Available frequencies Speech Quality Index System growth capability The traffic demand (i. Capacity Planning 2. and price of mobile stations All the above mentioned data will be collected using the network planning tools. propagation models and system parameters.
and BTS) as well as some additional elements (antennas. 3. The steps for calculating the network capacity are • Find the maximum no of carriers per cell that can be reached for the different regions based on the frequency reuse patterns and the available spectrum.3. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 27 . BSC. The operator normally supplies the input data. The main result is an estimation of the equipment necessary to meet the following requirements.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3. • Capacity • Coverage • Quality ND gives an overall picture of the network and is used as a base for all further planning activities. The technical parameter and characteristics of the equipment to be used are another very important part of the input. • Calculate the capacity of the given cell using blocking probability and the number of carriers.3 CAPACITY PLANNING Network dimensioning Network Dimensioning (ND) is usually the first task to start the planning of a given cellular network.1 Network dimensioning input The inputs are • Capacity related Spectrum available.3. Subscriber growth forecast Traffic density map Traffic per subs) • Coverage related Coverage regions Area type’s information • Quality related MS classes Blocking probability Location probability Redundancy Indoor coverage. The former requires knowledge of subscriber calling habits (average traffic per subscriber) while the latter is more general.2Capacity calculation The capacity of a given network is measured in terms of the subscribers or the traffic load that it can handle. This includes the basic network modules (MSC. cables…) 3. but use of defaults is also possible.
because they have not been verified in the field. Omni cells can be used in rural MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 28 .Cell area B . Erlangs = n X t / 3600 • n = no of calls attempted • t = total duration in seconds 3.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Finally the sum of all cell capacities gives the network capacity. The BTS locations are theoretical in this phase.Reuse factor A . which is agreed with the operator. The result we get is the traffic capacity in Erlangs. Spectrum efficiency = S / (n X A X B) S .Total spectrum available n . which can easily be transferred into the number of subscribers.Channel bandwidth Network Erlang B table To calculate the capacity of the given cell using blocking probability and the number of carriers we need the well-known Erlang B table or formulas and the no of traffic channels for different number of carriers.4 COVERAGE PLANNING: The first step in coverage planning is to create a preliminary plan based on the calculated number of base stations from the dimensioning phase. The usage of omni and/or sectorised antennas is part of the planning strategy.
rods traffic density. indoor) • Antenna (tower height limitations) • Preferred antenna line system specifications • Preferred BTS specification Activities such as propagation modeling. morphography (area types). 3.1 Coverage predictions The possibilities for rough coverage calculations based on propagation curves formulas. All the preliminary BTS locations are gone through in the order the actual BTS locations are found and the coverage areas are always recalculated. in-car. In this type of presentation it is easy to see possible gaps in the coverage area.2 Digital maps There are different types of information that can be digitized and used for coverage predictions. field strength predictions and measurements are usually referred to as coverage planning. The segment can be drawn on the map as a geographically logical area. The objective of coverage planning phase in coverage limited network areas is to find a minimum amount of cell sites with optimum locations for producing the required coverage for the target area.4. When finding the actual base station locations it is important to reach the planning requirements. so the pixel size from 5m to 25m is reasonable. therefore many computeraided tools based on digital maps usage have been developed to improve the quality of the predictions. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 29 . The basic input information for coverage planning includes: • Coverage regions • Coverage threshold values on per regions (outdoor. especially when the later interference estimation needs to be accurate. The next step is to start to find actual base station locations. The common way to show the calculated coverage for a certain area is to view a composite plot with specified thresholds. These average values are not enough for the detailed network planning. Coverage planning is normally performed with prediction modules on digital map database. Information about the buildings and streets is essential. When calculating the cell coverage with a planning tool the calculation range has to be wide. As stated before for base stations having sectorised antennas. The most important from the network planning point of view are topography (terrain heights). each consisting of some base stations located close by. The streets can be stored and used in vector format. with the particular base stations inside the area. The aim is to find actual BTS locations segment by segment and to finalize the preliminary coverage plan one area at a time. For the micro cell modeling. which is a task of the site acquisition team. more information and heighten resolution maps should be used. which is required in a dense urban environment. 3. The coverage and capacity requirement needs to be reached with the actual BTS locations. it is easier to give coverage to precise locations.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network or other sparsely inhabited areas. When the actual BTS location has been found the preliminary location changes and the plan is updated and the cell coverage areas are calculated again using the new parameters. What makes it complicated are the many practical requirements and especially the transmission that need to be arranged. Normally the plan is divided into smaller segments.4. where there are not high capacity requirements. To find an optimal BTS location is an essential but complicated task.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 30 .
double-clicking the project file in Windows Explorer will launch MCOM and open the file. together with one or two examples of coverage predictions.1Creating a new project file 1. 2. 5. At this stage. This project file contains general information of the project. MCOM Project has .mcm). enter Network name and Country Select the Map Projection type. which will be used in creating map data. first create a new MCOM Project file (*.2. You can open a project file from File menu or Open Project button in the Main Toolbar.2. For quick starts. type a name for the project.1 NOMINAL CELL PLANNING: Upon compilation of the data received from the traffic and coverage analysis. On the File menu.2Getting started with MCOM To get started with MCOM. 4. 4. coverage and interference predictions are usually started. links the corresponding MapInfo workspace files and STS databases. click New or Click New In Project Properties Dialog. 6. The nominal cell plan is a graphical representation of the network and simply looks like a cell pattern on a map.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 4. a nominal cell plan is produced. a lot of work lies behind it .mcm extension. 7. Following is the procedure of cell planning using the MCOM : 4. However. is included in tenders. n) Select the type of network: GSM or TDMA Select the Frequency Group file Click OK In the File name box. Quite often a nominal cell plan. 4. 3. The project file also contains customised settings. Nominal cell plans are the first cell plans produced and form the basis for further planning.2Getting Network Data into MCOM MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 31 .
the second step is to extract network data such as the site. click Import Wizard • Select ‘Import EET Site Database’ in the import types list and click Next • Select the EET Site database and flag type files and click Next. Msite. 2.3 Working with Cell-Planning Tools MCOM2001 provides a geographical presentation of a mobile network using the MapInfo engine. 3.tab. • Import Carrier and Neighbour data from one or more BSC dump files. carrier and neighbour databases into MCOM. [TDMA only] • Import MCOM Version 2 MapInfo Database files (e.tab) • Import Site data from EET's Site Database.tab and Mniegh. Importing Site data from EET's Site Database.g.1 Redrawing the Sites on the map 1. MCOM2001 provides an easy way to import the site database directly from EET’s Site Database. 5. Site data. you can choose to update the BSC and CI fields in MCOM2001 Site database from the Carrier database • clicking Create New Folder button. Carrier data & Neighbour data) and click Next • Select the output directory and click Next • Select the size of the antenna and carrier font • Enter the Offset for X and Y if required • For Carrier file import. MCOM offers a user-friendly Import Wizard to help you to perform these tasks. 4. either from the OSS or FIOL terminals.tick the ‘Preserve Thematic Layer’ checkbox Page 32 MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 . • Import Map Vector Data Importing MCOM Text Database • On the Cell-Planning menu.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network After creating the project file. either from the OSS or FIOL terminals. 4. • Select the import files (Site data. [GSM only] • Import Carrier and Neighbour data from one or more MSC dump files.Mcarrier.3. click Import Wizard • Select MCOM2001 Data Text file in the import types list. the following import types are supported: • Import MCOM Text Database files. for more information about this format. Carrier data and Neighbour data. In the Import Wizard. Since most Ericsson customers use EET or TCP as their Cell Planning Tool. Following are the steps: • On the Cell-Planning menu. 4. In the Cell-Planning menu. click Redraw Sites Select the new Antenna size Select the new Carrier Font size Select the new STS Label Position If you want to keep the same Thematic layer after redrawing.
User can also select a group of cells required to be redrawn using the ‘Redraw Selection’ tool button. site database dialog box 4. You can view the Site Database control from Cell-Planning…Site Database or clicking the Site Database tool button Following are the functions in the Site Database control: Add New Sites—After entering the new site Id. a new site with a single cell will added to MCOMSite database. Once deleted.2 Managing Site Database MCOM2001 offers a Site Database control for you to add new site.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 6. edit an existing site or delete a site. This new cell also does not contain any carrier data until you edit the site in the Edit Site control. Find the site—Once click MCOM will centre the map to the selected site Edit Site—Once clicked. Click OK In the Redraw Sites dialog box. . Delete Site—Delete the selected Site in the list box.3.3. The Edit Site dialog can be displayed from the Site Database or using the ‘Click-on Map Edit Site’ tool button Following are the functions in the Edit Site control: MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 33 .3 Edit the Site Data You can edit all any site information using the Edit Site control. MCOM will remove the carrier data and STS label data from the MCOM Database. 4. " choose to not to redraw certain object by ticking the ‘No Redraw’ checkbox 2. user can Network 1. This new cell do not has any Site object until provide the coordinates in the Edit Site control. the Edit Site control will be displayed. " use the existing size value in the database field ‘Ant_size’ or ‘Font_size’ 3.
click Edit Carrier 1. Press ‘Apply’ to move the site. MCOMSTS database 4. Add. click a new location on the map to get the latitude and longitude. 2.4 Carrier data of a cell From the main menu: In the Cell-Planning menu. Edit the Carrier data 4. Click OK to take effect Edit site data base dialog box MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 34 . Click OK to take effect From the toolbar: 1.3. Double-click the cell which you want to edit its’ Carrier data 3.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • • • • Network Change the Site information such as Site Id. After clicking the ‘Position Site’ button. delete or Edit the cell information Commit All—Save all changes made in the MCOMSite. click the carrier text that you want to edit 2. Carrier Database Dialog will appear. Edit the Carrier Data 3. Click Edit Frequency Tool button On the map. Site name Move the site using ‘Position Site’ function. MCOMCarrier.
The common components are BS (Base station) cable loss.) Up Link equ.4 LINK BUDGET PLANNING Linkbudget is a calculation to balance the uplink and downlink signal strength. ERP. PApwr . i. Loss = Mob. MS (Mobile station) antenna gain. The losses/gain due to the following components equally affect both up & down links. MS cable loss.Other losses = -102 dBm (mobile recv. Gain. BS antenna gain. 4. 40 dBm at the output of the combiner results in a balanced path.e. so these components have negligible effect on the path balance equation. Down Link equ. BS connector loss. In mobile communication environment the mobile ERP is the limiting factor.usually at the fringe of a cell.Div. Up link limited. Accompanying table is provided to illustrate above calculations.) Combining the above equations PApwr -Comb. Sens. PApwr in the table is before MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 35 . Body/polarization loss.Other losses = -104 dBm (Base recv.Comb.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The above figure shows the nominal cells. Gain*. The effect of this calculation is basically applicable only in places where the signal level is very low (below -95dbm) . Mob.102+104 = 33 dBm + 4 dB + 2 dB = 39 dBm * RBS 918 uses Max ratio combining scheme (MRCB) for which 4 dB Diversity gain is Conservative Since PA output power is adjusted insteps of 2 dB by BSTPWRRED parameter. Sens. Loss. ERP + Div.
2 dbm ERP BS comb.1 dB. for Hybrid combiner = 4. loss BS cable loss BS connector loss BS antenna gain MS antenna gain MS cable loss BS diversity gain Fade margin Body polarization Max path loss Path imbalance MS/BS rcv sens.F Link Budget for FILTER combiner Note: Enter all losses as negative values Uplink downlink MS/BS transmit pwr 33 43 dbm MS/BS transmit 33 48.2 0.2 -102 db db db dbd db db db db db db dbm MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 36 .8 dB.2 -104 -4. -3 -1 13 0 0 4 -6 -4 140 -0.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network the combiner. R.8 -3 -1 13 0 0 -6 -4 140. Attenuation factor for Filter combiner = 2.
capacity estimation. channel configuration . Then after parameter planning is done this includes :. Final radio planning consist of coverage plan. parameter plan. acceptance test and verification. After site selection .frequencies are allocated to each site keeping in mind there shouldn’t be interference. Radio network survey: MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 37 .handover parameters. power control parameter and other desired network parameters. area definition.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 5.1 SITE SURVEY SELECTION: The survey for a site is done so as to find the best cell site location. power budget calculation. interference analysis.cell services.
These types of sites are basically search for the capacity addition. Different permits are usually necessary. a planning permit from the local council planning committee. Masts or towers almost always require planning permits and in many cases they are subject to permits from civil aviation or military authorities (i. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 38 . obstruction lighting may be needed). it is necessary to adapt the cell plan according to these locations. Nominal site following data will given to the rf engineer • • • Latitude and longitudes of that place which has been selected for the site . For this reason.The site must be accessible to installation personnel and heavy trucks and if there is no road leading to the site.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The cell planning process results in a cell plan with nominal site positions. the following must also be taken into account: • Access roads . Search ring : In case the given points are not available then that the area around the given latitude and longitude is the search ring. Hot spots : two or three latitudes or longitudes for the same place. He/she will have to go a place and find the two or three hot spots for the site. So that rf engineer will search out new place.2 SITE REQUIREMENTS The proposed network design shows only approximate site locations. The on-site cell planning work that takes place is called the “Radio Network Survey”. There are two type of site surveys • Anchor site survey • Sharing site survey ANCHOR SITE: anchor site is of two type : nominal site and blind site. a helicopter might be needed for material transports and for mast or tower installation.e. Besides the need for the permits. it is important that the cell planner has a basic knowledge of the locations that can be used. 5. SHARING SITE: survey for already established site where we want add our network. Blind site: For the survey of blind site the there will be no data given to rf engineer. Permission to use the site or a lease contract must be agreed upon with the owner of the site. e. Normally this search ring is of 50 to 300 mtrs. If the operator has access to existing locations. The exact site position depends on the possibilities to construct a site on the suggested location.g.
and space for transport network interface products. or a self-supporting tower. The term “tower” usually refers to a self-supported structure. The first case is 2 Mbit/s PCM with 75 ohm unbalanced or 120 ohm balanced lines. • Space requirements .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Network Material transport and storage . preferably a cable ladder. the second case is 1.A number of Pulse Coded Modulation(PCM) transmission lines are needed. Two types of transmission network standards may occur. Cables can be installed on cable ladders above ground from the antenna or through underground cable ducts. • Antenna support structures . • Antenna feeder routes . feeder cable paths from an antenna supporting structure fall into two categories. Outdoors. 5.For an outdoor site it is necessary that the ground area is large enough for the radio base station and tower or mast foundation.5 Mbit/s PCM using 100ohm balanced lines. The antenna feeder may also be placed in available cable chutes inside the building. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 39 . The existing buildings must then be adapted in such a way that the real positions are established and replace the nominal positions.The site must have an area suitable for efficient unloading and handling of goods.3BASIC CONSIDERATIONS It is likely that the system operator has a number of alternative buildings which may be used in the cellular network planning phase. Power cables must be installed and a mains power source must be found in the vicinity of the site if mains power is not available at the site. One reason for this is to reduce the initial cost.1 POSITION RELATIVE TO NOMINAL GRID The initial study for a cell system often results in a theoretical cell pattern with nominal positions for the site locations. a guyed mast. The following aspects of site selection must be studied: • Position relative to nominal grid • Space for antennas • Antenna separations • Nearby obstacles • Space for radio equipment • Power supply/battery backup • Transmission link • Service area study • Contract with the owner 5.3. the antenna feeder paths must have proper cable support facilities. They can consist of several short pipes on a roof. while the term “mast” refers to a structure supported with guy wires.Indoors. power outlet. the RBS equipment room must fulfill a number of requirements concerning mains power connection such as grounding.These must be provided. For an indoor site. • Transmission access .
one cell planning criterion is to provide margins for these types of obstacles.4 m (horizontal) and 0.3 ANTENNA SEPARATIONS There are two reasons for antennas to be separated from each other and from other antenna systems: • To achieve space diversity • To achieve isolation The horizontal separation distance to obtain sufficient space diversity between antennas is 12-18 λ or 4-6 m for GSM 900 and 2-3 m for GSM 1800/1900. (NOTE: The fresnel zone is the area in open space that must be practically free of obstructions for a microwave radio path to function properly. If space can be found within a maximum deviation of 15% from the predicted height the original predictions can be used with sufficient accuracy.The predicted antenna height should be used as a guideline when the on site study starts.3. If it is possible to install the antennas at a higher position than the predicted position. Typical values of separation distances between antennas to obtain sufficient isolation (normally 30 dB) are 0. a line-of-sight path is required.5 SPACE FOR RADIO EQUIPMENT MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 40 . 5. isolation. the operator must ensure that there is no risk for co-channel interference. diversity and/or interference. If optimal coverage is required. It is also possible for more than one existing site to be used for a specific nominal position.3. This can be the case if space is limited in some directions. There are also cell planning reasons for placing antennas at different heights. 5.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The visit to the site is to ensure the exact location (address/coordinates and ground level).2 m (vertical) for GSM 900.3.4 NEARBY OBSTACLES One very important part in the Radio Network Survey is to classify the close surroundings with respect to influence on radio propagation. The first fresnel zone is approximately five meters at this distance (for 900 MHz). This includes coverage. 5. A planning criterion is to have the first fresnel zone free from obstacles. It is not necessary that all antennas in one particular cell have the same height or direction. This means the lower part of the antenna system has to be five meters above the surroundings 5.3. That is.) It is not possible to follow this guideline because the path between the base and the mobile subscriber is normally not line-of. In city areas.2 SPACE FOR ANTENNAS The radio propagation predictions provide an indication on what type of antennas can be used on the base station and in what direction the antennas should be oriented.sight. some degree of fresnel consideration is required in the immediate vicinity of the microwave radio RF envelope/field. new predictions must be carried out based on this position. it is possible to have cells on the same base station with different antenna heights. If the antennas are to be installed at a lower position than predicted. it is necessary to have the antennas free for the nearest 50-100 m. In traditional point-to-point communication networks.
5. Coverage predictions must be checked with respect to critical areas. 5. or copper cable. The recorded files can be imported into EET and displayed on the map.3. For this purpose. and a tape recorder are among the equipment contained in the unit. fiber cable. The residual values (i. Space for battery back-up may be required.e.4. sufficient space should be allotted for future expansions. 5.6 POWER SUPPLY/BATTERY BACKUP The equipment power supply must be estimated and the possibility of obtaining this power must be checked. The radio network survey includes a brief study with respect to this matter. Detailed transmission planning is not included in this course. Results can be presented with respect to median value. for each channel.4.1 PATH LOSS PARAMETERS A radio survey involves installation of a transportable test transmitter somewhere in the area be measured. and number of “measuring squares” along the test routes. if these disadvantages can be accepted. a measuring receiver with antenna. samples are taken at an adjustable speed.4 RADIO MEASUREMENTS 5. can also be displayed. e. This can be carried out via radio link.7 TRANSMISSION LINK The base station must be physically connected to the BSC.3.2 TIME DISPERSION MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 41 . standard deviation. Normally. 5.3.g. A more detailed analysis takes place when the location is chosen to be included in the cellular network. a contract for site leasing. other locations for the equipment can be considered. In addition. Ericsson has designed a computerized measurement system. 5. Signal level can be measured on a number of channels and.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Radio equipment should be placed as close as possible to the antennas in order to reduce the feeder loss and the cost for feeders.3. 5. a control and processing unit. If there is a difference. the difference between the prediction and the measurement. Even though cost is a major consideration in the site acquisition process. However. cost is not discussed as a factor in this course.samples are taken several times per wavelength traveled.9 CONTRACT WITH THE OWNER The necessary legal documentation must exist between the land owner and the proposed site user.8 SERVICE AREA STUDY During the network survey it is important to study the intended service areas from the actual and alternate base station locations. the path loss parameters in the prediction model can be adjusted according to the measurements. The data is pre-processed before it is stored on either the hard drive or a diskette and presented offline after the survey. A locating unit.
time dispersion measurements must be taken to verify that time dispersion is actually causing the poor quality. to accept it with reservations.4. 5.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Measurements must be performed to verify the time dispersion predictions. RF Engineers recommends that radio spectrum measurements and a subsequent interference analysis be performed. or to reject the site and find another one.3 INTERFERING TRANSMITTERS For sites where a number of other radio transmitters are collocated. the signal is received and the pulse response is evaluated in a controller.5 PROCEDURES FOR THE SURVEY Rf survey is done so as to find the best cell site location.civil criteria and commercial viability. the time delay and the carrier to reflection ratio can be found. The equipment used for time dispersion measurements consists of a transmitter and a receiver. In addition. The transmitter sends a short pulse. Time dispersion measurement equipment 5. Preliminary radio network design MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 42 . if there are quality problems. The end result of a radio spectrum measurement is to accept the site from an interference point of view. These include a computer controlled spectrum analyzer and computer programs for calculating interference levels at different frequencies. Keeping in mind. In this way.
5.1 Survey pictures: MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 43 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Define the search ring for the nominal point Go to the nominal point Enter the building and go to the top roof Take photographs of the clutter as asked by the vendor Take notes and describe the nominal point Result 5.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network at 30 deg deg at 60 deg at 90 At 120 deg at 150 deg at 180 deg At 210 deg at 240 deg at 270 deg At 300 deg at 330 deg at 360 deg MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 44 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 5.2SURVEY FORMS MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 45 .5.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 46 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 5. 5.3 SHARING SURVEY STEPS: Nominal data about the site like planned height.5. stability and planned antenna height and planned orientation if there is no space in shelter outdoor BTS can be purposed Check the microwaves orientation and also on which lack of tower is mounted Take the photographs at 360 degree angle of the clutter so that orientation can be finalized.4 STEPS FOR BLIND SURVEY: Go to the lat. Check the shelter space. Fill the given form and make the report as per the format.5. latitude. Go to the latitude longitude and check the presence of the site. long Find the hot spots in the defined search ring MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 47 .longitude and planned orientation is given.
approximate population.of floors in that building Length Of Feeder Cabel = height of antenna + 5m MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 48 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 5. All the information should be gathered and filled properly so as to have no confusion. Major things to be note: 1) Obstacles 2) High tension line 3) Power grid 4) Water tank 5) Railway lines 6) Vegetation 7) Water bodies Height Of The Building =G+3N where G is the height of ground floor and N is the no. Our site should be near to the +ve clutter so that maximum coverage can be provided. major competitor. But we should also considered the second highest building so that the coverage can be given to the top floor of the highest building. After this orientation of GSM antenna should be estimated. While performing the survey information should be collected like type of area. All the buildings with the basement has to be taken care of so that tilt can be finalized. types of clutter.6 PROCEDURE FOR SITE SELECTION Maximum height of the building is to be consider so that we can find where we need to mount the GSM antenna.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 49 .
915/935 .1 FREQUENCY ALLOCATION Figure shown earlier lists the band allocations for each of the different GSM based networks.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 6. theses can be scanned by using mcom tool MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 50 . the whole frequency band will not be used from the outset.1910/1930 -1990 MHz Following figure show the frequency allocated to each site .960 MHz 1710 . NETWORK TYPE GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 FREQUENCY BAND UL/DL 890 . In many countries.1785/1805 -1880 MHz 1850 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G
6.2 CHANNEL CONCEPT
The carrier separation in GSM is 200 kHz. That yields 124 carriers in the GSM 900 band. Since every carrier can be shared by eight MSs, the number of channels is 124 times eight = 992 Channels. These are called physical channels. The corresponding number of carriers for GSM 800 and GSM 1900 are 374 and 299, respectively.
6.3 LOGICAL CHANNELS
On every physical channel, a number of logical channels aremapped. Each logical channel is used for specific purposes, e.g., paging, call set-up signaling or speech. There are eleven logical channels in the GSM system. Two of them are used for traffic and nine for control signaling. Traffic CHannels (TCH): there two types of traffic channel • Full rate channel, Bm This channel can be used for full rate or enhanced full rate speech (13 kbit/s after speech coder) or data up to 9.6 kbit/s.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G •
Half rate channel, Lm This channel can be used for half rate speech (6.5kbit/s after speech coder) or data up to 4.8 kbit/s.
Control channels: nine different types of control channels are used
Broadcast Channels (BCH): • Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) Used for frequency correction of the MS, downlink only. Synchronization Channel (SCH) Carries information about TDMA frame number and Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) of the BTS, downlink only. Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Broadcasts cell specific information to the MS, downlink only
Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH): • Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) Used for signaling during the call set-up or registration, up and downlink. • Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) Control channel associated with a TCH or a SDCCH, up and downlink. On this channel the measurement reports are sent on the uplink, and timing advance and power orders on the downlink. • Fast Associated Control CHannel (FACCH) Control channel associated with a TCH, up and downlink.FACCH works in bit-stealing mode
6.4 FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
Different frequency bands are used for GSM 900, GSM 1800,and GSM 1900. In some countries, operators apply for the available frequencies. In other countries (e.g. the United States),operators purchase frequency bands at auctions.
The distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies is known as duplex distance. The duplex distance is different for the different frequency bands Standards GSM900 GSM1800 GSM1900
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Duplex distance 45mhz 85mhz 90mhz
The distance between adjacent frequencies on the uplink or the downlink is called channel separation. The channel separation is 200 kHz, regardless of the standard chosen from the ones mentioned above. This separation is needed to reduce interference from one carrier to another neighboring frequency.
The main goal of the frequency-planning task is to increase the efficiency of the spectrum usage, keeping the interference in the network below some predefined level. Therefore it is always related to interference predictions. There are two basic approaches to solve the frequency assignment problem. • Frequency reuse patterns • Automatic frequency allocation Some software’s are used with automatic frequency allocation algorithms for finding the optimum solutions. The frequency allocation is generally guided by the following information: • Channel requirement on cell basis according to the capacity planning • Channel spacing limitations according to BTS specification • Quality of service requirement which is conserved to acceptable interference probability • Traffic density distribution over the service area • Performance of advanced system features (frequency hopping, IUO, etc….) The frequency allocation is based on cell-to-cell interference probability estimation according to the network topology, field strength distribution and traffic load.
This results in customized frequency performance of the selected radio network elements The starting point of automatic frequency allocation is much better, since the exact site coordinates and BTS characteristics are available. Usage of propagation model based on digital maps, we are able to obtain interference predictions very near to reality.
6.5.1 Frequency Reuse
A frequency used in one cell can be reused in another cell at a certain distance. This distance is called reuse distance. The advantage of digital system is that they can reuse frequencies more efficiently than the analogue ones, i.e. the reuse distance can be shorter, and the capacity increased. A cellular system is based in reuse of frequencies. All the available frequencies are divided into different frequency groups so that a certain frequency always belongs to a certain frequency group. The frequency groups together form a cluster. “A cluster is an area in which all frequency groups are used once, but not reused.”
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 53
The most common reuse patterns in GSM is “4/12” and “3/9”. ……. A2. Problem with C/A might appear in certain parts of a cell. Example: channel assignment of 24 frequencies in a 3/9-cell plan. D1. B1. C1. This assumes that the base station has three cells connected to it.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The frequencies can be divided into different frequency groups. Frequency groups channels A1 1 10 19 B1 2 11 20 C1 3 12 21 A2 4 13 22 B2 5 14 23 C2 6 15 24 A3 7 16 B3 8 17 C3 9 18 3/9 frequancy re use patteren MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 54 . 4/12 means that the available frequencies are divided into 12 frequency groups. The frequency groups are often assigned a number or name such as A1. which in turn are located at 4 base stations sites.. This introduces the terms reuse patterns and reuse grids. D3. 3/9 means that the available frequencies are divided into 9 frequency groups located at 3 sites. arising from adjacent frequencies in neighboring cells.
5. 4/12 frequency group asset 6. Numbering of D cells allows carriers to be allocated so that no adjacent carriers are used in physically adjacent cells. each tri-sectored to give a 12 cell Cluster.2 INTERFERENCE There are three types of interference:a) co-channel interference b) adjacent channel interference c) intermodulation/noise interference MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 55 .4 sites.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3/9FREQUA NCY REUSE PATTERN Example of 4/12 pattern In 4/12 .
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 56 .6 Time dispersion Some interference effects may be caused from the reflected signals if received outside the equalizer window. The reference interference ratios for BS and all types MSs are the following: • Co channel interference: C/Ic <= 9 dB • First adjacent channel interference: C/Ia1 <= -9 dB • Second adjacent channel interference: C/Ia2 <= -41 dB Co channel interference The carrier to interference (C/I) ratio at a given mobile receiver can be calculated as follows: C/I = C / (I1 + I2 + ……. This happens only when the difference between direct path and the reflection path is larger than the equalizer window (about 4. 6.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G The carrier to interference ratios for co..5 km) and the reflected signal is strong enough. interference can be caused if the neighbouring cells signal level is 9dB higher than the serving cell. if the serving cells signal level is only 9dB higher than the interfering signal. bit error rate or residual bit error rate is met.and adjacent channels are specified as : Network C/I = 9dB minimum (co-channel) C/I = -9dB minimum (adjacent channel) The definition for co-channel interference in GSM system is that a cell on the same channel can cause interference. Due to fading an additional 12 dB margin has been added to support good quality call:C/I = 21 dB (co-channel) C/I = 3 dB (adjacent channel) There are various methods of combating interference :a) Down tilting Antenna b) Reducing Antenna height c) Reducing power of BTS/MS d) Using uplink/downlink adaptive power control e) Using uplink/downlink DTX (Discontinuous transmit) f) Frequency hopping g) Sectorising sites h) Using smaller beamwidth antenna i) Improving on the frequency plan j) Optimising the various handover parameters k) Microcells Interference calculations The reference interference ratio is defined in GSM as the interference ratio for which the required performance in terms of frame erasure. For regular grid case it is possible to simplify the calculations by using the popular path loss expressions. +Ik) Where k is the number of co channel interfering cells. For adjacent channels.
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 57 . The results are presented as a matrix with elements giving the minimum slowed channel difference (in this case only 0 and 1) for every pair of BSs. the multiple interferences cannot be calculated. the pair cannot operate in the same channel. say 6 dB to the reference interference ratio. Since the frequency plan is still to be done. If the percent of the interfered area is larger than a given predefined level (depending on the required service quality).7 Digital maps based co channel interface From the coverage areas calculated by the help of digital maps it is quite easy to obtain the expected interference areas. The probability of future multiple interference can be reduced by adding some margin.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The reflection outside the equalizer window should be regarded as an independent co channel interferer. therefore the same reference C/I <= 9 dB should be used. Thus the process works for every pair of BS checking the ratio between the two-signal pixels. 6.
Instead of a continuous interferer there are several interferers that affect only a short time each and with different intensity.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 6. so that given carrier can hop MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 58 .e. 6. The worst case is when ms is stationary or moves at slow speeds because the interleaved coding does not bring any benefit to reception. Rayleigh fades are the sum of a lot of reflected and phase shifted signals. It enables each TRX to change frequency on successive time slots. The number of frequencies used in the hopping sequence is the same as the number of TRXs in the sector.8.3Synthesized hopping Synthesized hopping is available in configurations. which have at least 2 TRX per sector. With frequencies spaced sufficiently apart they can be considered completely independent (no correlation). at least 4. is called interference diversity.8 Frequency hopping Frequency hopping (FH) is changing the frequency of information signal according to a certain sequence. FH can also decrease the overall C/I value in the network anf thus improve QOS 6. The gain.1 Frequency hopping behavior: Lognormal fading and Rayleigh distributed fast fading can decrease the speech quality.8. When the ms moves of high speed the difference between its positions during the reception of two successive bursts of the same channel (i. 6.2 Baseband hopping Baseband hopping occurs between TRXs in BTS. The switching of TRXs is on a per timeslot basis ands enables a particular TCH to hop from one carrier to another. Both random and cyclic hopping can be used. The transmission frequency may change at each time slot or burst and remains constant during the transmission of a burst. Thus Rayleigh fading does then not damage all the bursts containing the parts of one code word in the same way. which comes from interference averaging. In this case FH does not help except if there is interference.615 ms) is sufficient to decorrelate Rayleigh fading variations on the signal.8. The digital (baseband) and analogue (RF) parts of the TRX are separated from each other. In the other hand frequency hopping averages the interference directed towards each base station. This phenomenon is called frequency diversity. The fading at different frequencies is not the same and become more and more independent when the difference in frequency increases. In this case FH “simulates ms movement” and thus the reception quality. Methods like power control and DTX (discontinuous transmission) affect only a single interference source and benefits can be distributed to the whole network by using FH.
This low rate flow is sufficient to encode the background noise. the source must be able to indicate when transmission is required or not. The carrier on which the BCCH IS transmitted must remain at fixed frequency to enable the MS to measure correct signal strength. which is generated for the listener to avoid him thinking that the connection is broken.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network quickly onto many different frequencies. This function is called Voice Activity Detection (VAD). Typically transmission is effective 60% of the time. which decreases the interference. At the reception side. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 59 . Both random and cyclic hopping can be used. This is done by lower speech encoding bit rate than when the user is effectively speaking. the listener’s ear must not be disturbed by the sudden disappearance of noise and the decoder must therefore be able generate some Comfort noise when no signal is received. In order to implement such a mechanism. In the case of speech. the coder must detect weather or not there is some vocal activity. and which may be used independently in the MS to BTS and in BTS to MS.9 Discontinuous transmission (DTX) The transmission is disconnected when no information flow happens in signal. DTX is an option controlled by the operator. 6. The low rate encoding corresponds to a decreased effective radio transmission of one frame each 20 ms to one such frame each 480 ms.
A fast system is less stable than a slower system. measurements indicate that adjustments are necessary. The ping-pong effect can be caused by fading. frequency hopping.10 PARAMETER PLANNING When a new system is built or when new cells are added or changed in an existing system. The default values provide a good basis to start with. Hysteresis A hysteresis is used to prevent the ping-pong effect. a cell or a location area in the network. or by non-linearities in the receiver. All parameters are permitted to be set within a certain range and usually have a default value. The offset is a cell-to-cell relation and is always unsymmetrical. Identification Parameters used to identify. Offset An offset is used to make a cell appear better (or worse) than it really is by increasing/decreasing measured signal strength. The data from all such documents is then converted into Data transcript Tape (DT) and loaded into the corresponding BSC. e. Control of Radio Network Features Other parameters are used to control radio network features like Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). or subcell. for example.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 6. This document is called Cell Design Data (CDD). Several parameters should not be changed at the same time because it is more complicated to know which parameter setting change effected the system. Penalties MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 60 . the cell planner provides the operator with a document for each cell containing data for insertion of the cell in the radio network. and power control.g. Parameters can be changed later if. Timers and Filters There are some timers and filters which can be set by parameters. The reason for having so many parameters is so the operator can adjust and tune the network to fit their specific requirements. Some of the parameters are system specific and some are set per site. Depending on the timer settings or length of filters. meaning several consecutive handovers between two cells. A fast system is necessary if micro cells are used because handovers are frequent in this case. the MS zigzagging between the cells. The hysteresis is a cell-to-cell relation and is always symmetrical. the system responds faster or slower to the change. A DT tape contains not only CDD information but also other data needed for the complete configuration of the BSC. cell.
used frequencies and power levels. and access can be set. and common control channels (CCCH). There is two types of logical channels carried over the timeslots: Common channels and dedicated channels Common channels The common channels are used for signaling and ca be divided into broadcast channels (BCH). There are three different broadcast control channels (BCCH). Call set up signaling and location updating procedures are performed on stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH). GSM radio path GSM is system using time division multiple access (TDMA) frame structure. The MS requests a signaling channel on a random access channel (RACH). This is to avoid handback in case of an urgent handover or to avoid several repeated handover attempts in case of signaling failure. while the fast associated control channel (FACCH) is used to transmit the handover commands to the MS.615 ms and consists of 8 timeslots. Thresholds Thresholds for cell ranking. The signaling channel is allocated to the MS by using Access grant channel (AGCH) Dedicated channels The dedicated channels are divided into dedicated control channels and traffic channels. Both SDCCH and TCH have a parallel slow associated control channel (SACCH) which is used for transfer of measurement results from MS to BTS and power control commands from BTS to MS. Radio path measurements The radio path measurements are used to keep the connection in good quality and therefore to trigger power changes and handover if needed. call release. neighboring cells. In case of a call setup the connection is transferred into a traffic channel (TCH). The TDMA frame has duration of 4. frequency correction. The paging channel (PCH) is used when BTS wants to contact the MS. Both MS and BTS measure signal level and quality (bit error ratio). The Broadcast channels send information on the cell properties such as synchronization. The common control channels are used when establishing a signaling connection between the MS and BTS.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The penalties are used to punish a cell in the locating algorithm. During the short messages are transmitted over SACCH channel. it appears worse then it really is. continuously sending information from BTS to MS. In addition to that MS measures the signal levels of all adjacent BCCH frequencies even though it is able to report only six best measurements. Power control and handover MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 61 . When a cell is punished.
threshold comparison. decision making. The HO decision is based in signal strength (RXLEV). Like with PC it is possible by changing the HO related cell parameters to affect the HO algorithm at all stages: preprocessing.7s 1…. After the averaging the BSC makes comparisons with the thresholds related to both power control (PC) and hand over (HO) algorithms. The intra-BSC handover to performed autonomously by the BSC.. If there is an inter-BSC handover to be performed. The periodic checks occur every power budget (HO period PGBT) or umbrella (HO period Umbrella) period. The parameters. The BSC does not support the measurement preprocessing in the BTS. Another possible criterion is the power budget (PBGT) or umbrella condition fulfillment from an adjacent cell. UMBRELLA). averaging and threshold comparison for level. Similarly to the pc it is controlled by the level (RXLEV) and quality (RXQUAL) in both UL and DL.128 Page 62 . Handover strategies and parameters The HO decision process may be triggered in different situations. BSS Parameters The following figure showing the example of general parameters on how the structure of the network is defined BTS BS identity code (ncc&boc) BTS ID MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 0…. quality (RXQUAL) and distance measurements. The BSC does the preprocessing of the measurement samples namely the book keeping and the averaging. The BSC is able to maintain a table of maximum 32 measurements results for up to 32 adjacent cells per call. The HO command is given over FACCH.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The BTS sends the raw measurement results received from the MS (downlink) and the results of its own measurements (uplink) to the BSC every SACCH multiframe period. The main principle when making HO caused by radio criteria is that the new server should be better than the current one. quality and distance are similar to PC but only one threshold associated. The BSC determines the RF output power of the MS and the BTS on the basis of the results received from the pc threshold comparison process. In addition to these it depends in the distance and some periodic checks (PGBT. In order to be performed the periodic checks require some data for the neighboring cells: the comparison process uses the calculated PGBT (n) or AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) for neighboring cells instead of fixed thresholds. the BSC sends the list of performed cells to the MSC and MSC performs the handover according to that list... Handovers can be done to TCH and SDCCH. which uses TCH temporally. The intra BTS handover can occur either to a timeslot in a new carrier or to a different timeslot in the same carrier. Only one type of periodic can be used per cell.
LAC design should be based on two criteria. B) There should be as few LAC updates as possible.9 1.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Cell ID Location Area ID mcc Number Of Blocks For Access Grant No Of Multiframes Between Paging Number Of Retransmission No Of Slot Spread Trans Max Queue Length Time Limit Call Time Limit Handover Queuing priority call Queuing priority handover Ms Priority Used In Queuing Queue Priority Used Radio Link Timeout IMSI Attach Detach 1……65535 0…999 lac0…65535 0……7 2…….4. The main aim should be to have an approximate equal distribution of traffic between the different LAC. This is dependent on the geographical area.2.7 3-12.20.11 LAC Design The basic function of Location Area Code (LAC) is to indicate to MSC which area a particular mobile is in. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 63 . too many LAC updates would cause congestion on SDCCH channel and take up the processing capacity of MSC. a)The LAC design should be done in such a way that MSC would be able to locate a MS a quickly and with as little processing as possible.16.50 0……100% 1……30s 1……30s 1……14 1……14 Y/N Y/N 4……64 Y/N Network 6. If the whereabouts of the mobile was unknown then system wide paging would have to take place which is inefficient. should be avoided. As remote area have less traffic.14. The system need to know this for paging purposes especially for incoming calls for the mobile. LAC design on a single high traffic highway as shown below where many LAC updates would occur. Since LAC updates is done on SDCCH channel in idle mode and is processed in MSC.32. its LAC area should be bigger in comparison with urban area.25.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 64 .
MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 65 . The data collected during the survey is used in detailed planning of the network. Here is the procedure of the detailed site design. 1.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 7. The tool used for the detailed planning is ASSET tool of planning.1 DETAILED NETWORK DESIGN: Detailed network design begins after the survey. Adding sites-: For a new project user will need to firstly lay down MSC and BSC in hierarchical order. the panel at the left side of the ASSET window. This tool will gives the final design to the BSS department for the construction.
7. It has all the details of the sites under BSC. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 66 . After site creation following window will appear.1 The above window shows the addition of MSC.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3add site 2add bsc 1add msc Fig. BSC to the particular site.
2 site data base of bsc 2. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 67 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Fig 7. Following window will add cell to the site. Fig7. In every site there are three cells normally.3 cells creation under a site.
4 cell configuration 4. After cell creation we will add the data which is to be implemented. azimuth required for the particular cell . Fig 7. neighbors of that particular cell. Fig 7.4 adding general information to a sector of a cell MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 68 . feeder length etc. Then we wil add cel configuration. type of feeder used. carriers and antenna /trx.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 3. Next we will add the hoping. In cel configuration we wil add the type of antenna used.
7. Fig 7. For any modification click on setting ->option Eg. 6. prediction models. minimum signal level at which a cell is considered to be serving cell.6 change carriers MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 69 . After adding all the data to cell we will analysis it and if required we will change or modify it . the analysis part is done by array creation this is done by using ASSET tool.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 5.5 array creation for analysis In analysis part we will analysis the frequency hoping. we want to change the carriers the following window will appear. Fig.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 70 .
2 ERICSSON ENGINEERING TOOL (EET) During the initial phases of the network design process. EET is based on Planet by Mobile Systems International Ltd. a group of sites. or all sites. the group name. or by color coding the coverage areas according to the frequency groups. it is time to begin the installation of the network equipment. A height path profile can be displayed between any two points on the map. After predicting. The advantage of having both prediction and array steps in this procedure is that it speeds up the calculations.2 FREQUENCY PLANNING EET allows the allocation of channels or frequency groups to a cell. This could be the result of growth or decreased performance. The frequencies can be displayed by labeling the cell with the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). 8. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 71 .2. The frequency assignments are stored in the carrier database. It is possible to predict one site. All information about the sites is stored in the site database. The result of the prediction is the pathloss from the sites. It is possible to do this manually or automatically. As a time-saving measure. It is a UNIX open windowsbased software package designed to simplify the process of planning and optimizing a cellular network. 8. arrays for coverage and interferences (C/I and C/A) can be created.3 PREDICTING When the sites are created it is time to initiate a prediction. This need continues to exist even for the most mature radio networks.1NETWORK DIMENSIONING In the software . we can begin to optimize the performance of the radio network as it is being built up. (MSI). a group of sites.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 8. One of the primary responsibilities of an RF engineer is to improve the radio network when required to do so. or all sites. a reliable radio wave propagation tool is necessary.2. This is very useful for microwave link planning. The major benefit of using these tools comes not only from their initial use but through their continued use to monitor and improve network performance. Some of the more important features of EET are discussed in the following sections 8. it is easy to create new sites or move old ones. It is possible to make changes to one site.1 SYSTEM TUNNING After an initial cell plan has been compiled and approved. 8. Here we will use these tools.2. Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET) is based on experience and continual development adapted to a rapidly changing technology. The signal strength and interference levels are calculated for each pixel.
It can also be used for radio coverage measurements. additionally.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network If the user would like to change. TEMS consists of a mobile station with special software. EET can import radio survey files which can be used to tune the prediction model for the area where the network is to be planned. and optionally a GPS receiver . Both layer two and layer three messages can be monitored and recorded. TEMS can be used both for field measurements and post processing. On the other hand. a portable PC. Data can be imported and exported to OSS. It is possible to import data from a test mobile and display the information on the map. 8. Creating arrays is just a matter of adding dB.2. there is no need for a new prediction because the change does not affect the pathloss. predictions are more complicated. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 72 . so it is not very time-consuming. The mobile can be used both in active state and idle mode.g. the output power at one site. Furthermore. The user only has to create a new array. 8.4 TOOLS Using EET. The traffic can be displayed with different colors for different amounts of Erlangs/km or the user can highlight the cells that do not meet the specified GoS. the user can spread traffic on the map to plan for capacity. depending on the SIM card. e. it can be use in any GSM network.3 TEST MOBILE SYSTEM (TEMS) The TEst Mobile System (TEMS) is a test tool used to read and control the information sent over the air interface between the base station and the mobile station in a GSM system.
FICS can also convert to EXCEL and word processing packages. it is possible to display RxLev. Rxqual. e. the measured handovers can be compared with the predicted cell boundaries. e. The TEMS measurements can be imported to EET with the use of File and Information Converting System (FICS). BSIC. control. and ARFCN. For the serving cell. The information can be displayed in real-time or recorded and replayed. RxLev. TX power. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 73 . When the satellite signals are shadowed by obstacles. It is possible to lock on a single frequency.g. For the six strongest neighboring cells. The GPS receiver gives the position of the measurements. and storage of the measurements. and ARFCN. Base Station Identity Code (BSIC).Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The MS can simulate GSM 900 power class 2 to 4. TA. it is possible to display.g. the GPS system may be used for dead reckoning. The MS can test each time slot on a selected frequency to verify that all TCHs are available and functioning. The PC is used for presentation. This means that the measurements can be displayed on the map so that.
2 TEMS RECEIVER The recommended receiver is TEMS Light equipment. This is a TEMS mobile station connected to a small Fujitsu PC operated with a pen. Additionally.4 HOT SPOT FINDER It is important to deploy microcells where the heaviest traffic is located (also known as “hot spots”). If TEMS Light is not available. The output power is adjustable between 17 and 27 dBm. TEMS Pocket cannot be operated from a computer. The TEMS Transmitter is a small unit that transmits in the GSM downlink band.3. a Test TransMitter (TTM) can also be used. it is suitable (however not mandatory) to use one or several TEMS Transmitters. 8. The potential traffic is estimated by looking at the measurement reports for the mobiles in the surrounding cells. In absence of TEMS Transmitters. the regular transmitter can be used for this function. and engineering of a network from one central location. planning. An even faster coverage verification can be made by using TEMS Pocket. One way to find suitable locations for microcells is Hot Spot Finder. it acts as a dummy cell. There is also an audible warning to indicate a low signal. the standard TEMS equipment or a Test Measurement Receiver (TMR) can be used.1TEMS TRANSMITTER For the generation of test signals. The TEMS Light program is a reduced version of normal TEMS but with the possibility to log fixpoints by marking them with the pen on a scanned map.5 OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEM (OSS) The GSM Operations Support System (OSS) is a UNIX based tool that enables the supervision. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 74 .3. Different locations and antenna types and positions can be tested prior to the implementation of the microcell. 8. A complete editable BCCH is transmitted while the other 7 time slots contain an unmodulated carrier. The mobiles in the surrounding cells will treat the Finder as a neighbor and include BCCH/BSIC combination signals in the measurement reports. This is a test mobile station with some TEMS functions available on the mobile display. The Hot Spot Finder is a GH388 mobile modified to transmit a BCCH/BSIC combination signal. Areas where the signal may be weak are checked by locking TEMS Pocket to the used Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) and Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) and reading the signal from the display. Basically. This is a narrow band Continuous Wave (CW) transmitter with a maximum output power of 43 dBm.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 8. 8. The information in the log files is displayed on the scanned map as color marks associated with a window containing more information about each mark.
a poorly managed infrastructure will most likely be reflected by dissatisfied customers and a subsequent loss of revenue. Normally. there is a multitude of radio related parameters that need to be set in several different network elements in a consistent manner in order to achieve a well-balanced.5 CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION (CNA) One of the most important aspects of managing a cellular radio network is that of managing the individual cells. Cell parameters are validated at the time of the entry. The purpose of the Cellular Network Administration (CNA) feature is to provide a user-friendly interface from which a user can manage the cells in an efficient and controlled manner. properly functioning radio network.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Oss main window 8. Hence. Parameters can be copied from one cell and pasted into another. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 75 . It is also possible to create profile areas collecting all cell parameters commonly used for different types of cells. Default parameters are used when the operator does not enter a parameter value. The cells represent the infrastructure from which the mobile subscriber accesses the network.
1 CELLULAR NETWORK ADMINISTRATION INTERFACE (CNAI) The Cellular Network Administration Interface (CNAI) is an external interface to Cellular Network Administration. to exchange information with the CNA database. EET. The CNAI allows for an external cell planning tool. Cell planning data can be used as an example.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network This particular feature helps to reduce the possibility of incorrect cell parameters and increases the efficiency of personnel as the number of cells in the network increases as shown in figure. and transfer back the new cell data in a simple manner. This avoids time-consuming manual entry. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 76 .g. e. reengineer the new cell data.5. 8. The data is exchanged between the two via ASCII coded text files. The OSS interacts with the Ericsson Engineering Tool (EET). The essence of this interface is to provide simplified data import and export capabilities to CNA for ease of user handling of the data transfer mechanism. Such external systems can retrieve data from the actual radio network.
however. The Way Forward solution concept has been developed in cooperation with GSM operators to ensure the fulfillment of customer needs and requirements.g.6 SYSTEM GROWTH If the number of subscribers in a system continues to increase. features. when the system capacity needs to be expanded. Increase the frequency band (e. it is preferable not to work with an unnecessarily small cell size. There are several ways to do this: 1. tightening of the reuse pattern by means of Multiple. Make the cells smaller and smaller After a description of the regular procedure for adding new sites (cell split). However. Make frequency re-use tighter (e. 8. The system is started using a large cell size. a smaller cell size means more sites and a higher cost for the infrastructure. The Way Forward is a that combines a number of techniques. going from a 4/12 re-use pattern to a 3/9 re-use pattern by implementing frequency hopping) 4. at some point it becomes necessary to increase the capacity of the system.1CELL SPLIT It is clear that a smaller cell size increases the traffic capacity. it is adapted to the local environment and the customer’s individual requirements.g. What is needed is a method that matches cell sizes to the capacity requirements. Obviously.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 8. and service products. the cell size is decreased in order to meet the new requirements. Each time The Way Forward is implemented. Re-use Pattern (MRP) is briefly discussed. The following procedures (cell split and multiple re-use patterns) are directly involved in The Way Forward method 8. This normally also calls for using different cell sizes in different areas.7 THE WAY FORWARD For increased capacity in GSM radio networks is also known as “The Way Forward”. Together they provide substantial capacity gain in GSM mobile telephone networks without the need for additional radio frequency spectrum. a GSM 900 operator might buy GSM 1800 licenses) 2. These methods of adapting to system growth will directly affect the cell planning process. The focus of The Way Forward lies on tight frequency reuse and the implementation of micro cells which together provide almost unlimited possibilities of capacity expansion. This method is called cell split. Implement half-rate 3. and is illustrated in Figure 1 through Figure 4. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 77 .7.
g. but additional sites are now required. but the number of cells are three times as many as before. the old sites are still used in the new cell plan. Next step is to introduce three cells per site (Figure -2). Now the number of sites is still the same. As seen from the figure. 1 to 4 (Figure -4). (Figure-3). e. The following step is to do a cell split of. Figure-1 cell split phase 0 MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 78 . the largest possible cell size is used considering coverage range (Figure -1). using the original sites and feeding the cells from the corners. This represents a cell split of 1 to 3.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Initially.
The antenna directions on the site that existed before the split must be changed by 30 degrees MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 79 . After the split. and the cell area is three times smaller. the capacity is three times higher per area unit.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network FIGURE -2 cell split phase1 Fig:3 cell split 1:3 (phase 2) Cell split 1 to 3 (Figure-3) requires three times as many cells.
There is no need to change the antenna directions in a 1:4 cell split. the capacity is four times higher per area unit. After the split.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Fig-4 cell split 1:4(phase-3) Cell split 1 to 4 (Figure-4) requires four times as many sites. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 80 . and the cell area is four times smaller.
Internet and broadband data. International Telecommunication union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation systems. In 1998 Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was formed to continue the technical specification work. Core Network. In Europe European Telecommunications Standard Institute(ETSI) was responsible of UMTS standardisation process.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network NETWORK ROLLOUT FOR 3G 9. Terminals. Iur and Iu Interfaces UTRAN Operation and Maintenance requirements MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 81 . Services and System Aspects and GERAN. 3GPP Radio Access group is responsible of: Radio Layer 1. 3GPP has five main UMTS standardisation areas: Radio Access Network. 2 and 3 RR specification Iub. paging. referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). messaging.1 About 3G 3G Systems are intended to provide a global mobility with wide range of services including telephony.
Development of service capabilities and service architecture for cellular. Core network signaling between the core network nodes. fixed and cordless applications. Core network aspects of the lu interface and Operation and Maintenance requirements 3GPP Terminal group is responsible of: Service capability protocols Messaging Services end-to-end interworking USIM to Mobile Terminal interface Model/framework for terminal interfaces and services (application) execution Conformance test specifications of terminals. and maintenance of overall architecture.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G BTS radio performance specification Conformance test specification for testing of radio aspects of base stations Specifications for radio performance aspects from the system point of view 3GPP Core Network group is responsible of: Network Mobility management. which provide the capability for information transfer between access points.2 UMTS Services UMTS offers teleservices (like speech or SMS) and bearer services. delay variation and bit error rate. 9. Packet related issues. Both connection oriented and connectionless services are offered for Pointto-Point and Point-to-Multipoint communication. evolution. Charging and Accounting Network Management and Security Aspects Definition. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. including radio aspects 3GPP Services and System Aspects group is responsible of: Definition of services and feature requirements. Definition of interworking functions between the core network and external networks. call connection control signalling between the user equipment and the core network. Offered data rate targets are: 144 kbits/s satellite and rural outdoor MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 82 . Bearer services have different QoS parameters for maximum transfer delay.
video telephony.3 UMTS Architecture A UMTS network consist of three interacting domains. Core Network (CN). Personal service environment means that users are consistently presented with the same personalised features. UMTS systems (including satellite) Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) MSC/VLR or SGSN Location Area Routing Area (PS domain) UTRAN Registration Area (PS domain) Cell MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 83 . network gaming. webcast) Interactive class (web browsing. The UTRAN provides the air interface access method for User Equipment. UMTS also has improved network security and location based services. Here is the list of system areas from largest to smallest. downloading) Network UMTS will also have a Virtual Home Environment (VHE). All equipment has to be modified for UMTS operation and services. Core network also contains the databases and network management functions. Base Station is referred as Node-B and control equipment for Node-B's is called Radio Network Controller (RNC). 9. database access) Background class (email. SMS. It is a concept for personal service environment portability across network boundaries and between terminals. wherever the user may be located. video on demand. video gaming) Streaming class (multimedia. The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS. User Interface customisation and services in whatever network or terminal. routing and transit for user traffic. It is necessary for a network to know the approximate location in order to be able to page user equipment. UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and User Equipment (UE).Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 384 kbits/s urban outdoor 2048 kbits/s indoor and low range outdoor UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic: Conversational class (voice. The main function of the core network is to provide switching.
3. 1) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) 2) temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) 3) Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI) 4) Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) 5) Mobile station ISDN (MSISDN) 6) International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 84 . Terminals work as an air interface counter part for Node-B and have many different types of identities.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Sub cell Network 9. Most of these UMTS identity types are taken directly from GSM specifications.1User Equipment The UMTS standard does not restrict the functionality of the User Equipment in any way.
9. PS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the PS domain only and may only operate services of the PS domain.3.2 Radio Access Network Wide band CDMA technology was selected to for UTRAN air interface.3. this does not prevent CS-like services to be offered over the PS domain (like VoIP).3Core Network The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. However. Some network elements. CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to the CS domain only and may only operate services of the CS domain. and the MS is capable of simultaneously operating PS services and CS services. Visitor location register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) handles circuit switched connection and packet connection protocol AAL5 is designed for data delivery. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). WCDMA has two basic modes of operation: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). In UMTS. Codes are used for synchronisation and scrambling. UTRAN interfaces are shown on UMTS Network page. VLR and AUC are shared by both domains. like EIR. in addition to channelisation. The functions of Node-B are: Air interface Transmission / Reception Modulation / Demodulation CDMA Physical Channel coding Micro Diversity Error Handing Closed loop power control 9. Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC). MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 85 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G 7) International Mobile Station Equipment Identity and Software Number (IMEISV) Network UMTS mobile station can operate in one of three modes of operation: PS/CS mode of operation: The MS is attached to both the PS domain and CS domain. UMTS WCDMA is a Direct Sequence CDMA system where user data is multiplied with quasi-random bits derived from WCDMA Spreading codes. The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is defined for UMTS core transmission. HLR.
Number Portability DataBase (NPDB) will be used to enable user to change the network while keeping their old phone number. Transmit diversity.1 Static Calculation Static Calculation is a similar approach to that taken in ASSET for GSM planning.5. 9. MSC. Gateway Location Register (GLR) may be used to optimise the subscriber handling between network boundaries. • Simulation Statistical processes and an iterative system status calculation used to analyse the performance of the network configured within the planning tool.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network The architecture of the Core Network may change when new services and features are introduced. A statistical analysis of the network is used to derive design thresholds.2 Simulation There are two types of simulation that might be used for radio planning MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 86 . It is important the we understand the differences between these methods to understand: • their merits and demerits • likely advantages of tools employing them The aim of this section is to understand the alternatives and how/when they might be used. 9.5 NETWORK PLANNING METHODS This section includes a comparison of the different methods of analysis that could be carried out to analyze a UMTS network. VLR and SGSN can merge to become a UMTS MSC.5. Repeating an analysis gives the same result. Smart Radio…) 9. In UMTS the following mechanisms must be accounted for: • Soft handover gain (typically ~5dB at the cell edge) • Interference Margins (both intra cell and inter cell) • Control and signaling overheads • Fade Margins (to design to a given coverage probability) • Special technique margins (Adaptive antennas. There are basically two possible types of 3rd Generation planning methods • Static Calculation A deterministic algorithm is used to analyse the performance of the network configured within the planning tool. Repeating an analysis may give different results.
9. A snapshot is an instance in time. The ability of each terminal to make its connection to the network is calculated through an iterative process. A mobile list is generated and solved for the first timeslot.6COMPARISON OF METHODS MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 87 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Network Static Simulations Static simulations analyse the performance of a ‘snapshot’ of the network. In each snapshot a mobile or terminal list is generated. The performance of the network is then analysed from the results of the snapshots carried out. no available channels. Dynamic Simulations Dynamic simulations simulate UEs moving through the network in successive timeslots. Dynamic simulations look at mobiles moving through the network. One or more snapshots of the network are taken. maximum Node B power reached. • New mobiles are simulated coming into the network and terminating their calls. with UEs in statistically determined places. uplink/downlink interference). The simulation may consider time to be split into: • • • • • chip periods bit periods timeslots (SNR considered) Successive timeslots are then simulated dependant upon the results of the previous timeslot. Various failure mechanisms will typically be considered (maximum mobile power. low pilot Ec/Io.
Extremely long if on multiple runs performed for statistical validity Complexity TimeTaken 9.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G STATIC ANALYSIS STATIC SIMULATIONS DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS Network Not very – particularly with global margins (IS-95 experience) Relatively straightforward to use once configured Shortest – as ‘quick’ as for GSM. Reasonable – but doesn’t deal with the dynamic network performance Probably quite high Accuracy assuming no bad assumptions are made to speed it up More difficult to Difficult to judge configure and more Results.4 NETWORK ROLL OUT PROCESS For 3G MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 88 . complicated results. Moderate – depending number of terminals .
With 3G. designing a cellular network is like doing a puzzle without any instructions. you have the added complication of both the operator and customers holding back some of the pieces and planners having to force pieces to fit together because the edges are a bit rough! Flow chart for the process Initial network dimensioning Create nominal plan Define search areas Identify site option Site selection Site acquisition Detailed site design Site construction MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 89 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network At the best of times.
the site design elements must be considered. STEP 2: CREATE NOMINAL PLAN The creation of a nominal plan involves the positioning of a hexagonal gridover the desired coverage area . It is highly advantageous in both time and cost if the acquisition agent and the site designer work in parallel as this can rule out any unfeasible sites with regard to structural suitability. then it will be possible to attain an idea of the predicted capacity of the planned network. This has the effect of increasing the constant pressures of identifying smaller search areas. council planners and property owners are far more concerned with the aesthetic issues for future developments than with the previous GSM cellular sites. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 90 . but the difference will be that the main traffic type for the next five years is estimated to be medium to high speed data. Hence. After these site options have been agreed. Following this. it will then be possible to detect any ‘hot-spots’ that may require cell splits and any under-utilized cells that may not be required and could possibly be removed. STEP 3: DEFINING SEARCH AREAS Due to the requirements of the system it is likely that for UMTS (3G)networks a larger number of sites will be required than with previous cellular networks. known as a site option.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network STEP 1: INITIAL NETWORK DIMENSIONING This will be in most parts similar to previous cellular networks. not low speed (8-16 kbit/s) speech. following this the site acquisition process can be started. This then means that when the options are presented they consist of three practical alternatives. new packet switched services conveyed by the GPRS/packet core network will have an effect on dimensioning. and consequently a reduction in the availability of suitable buildings within that area. This step includes • Spreadsheet sheet based analysis • Identifies the maximum • Number of sites required • Identifies the approximate site radii required Initial network dimensioning used as major input to the Nominal plan. Cell splits can be particularly advantageous and can be a replacement for the omni-directional cell which has an antenna radiating equally in all directions with several directional antennas on the same mast. STEP 4: IDENTIFY SITE OPTIONS Evaluation of both the radio coverage and the transmission back haulenabling the traffic to be relayed through the network should be performed. When the radius of each hexagon can be determined. In particular. along with the selection of both a preferred and a back-up site choice.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network STEP5: SITE SELECTION Site selection is basically a desk study. logistical issues. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 91 . accessibility and aesthetics all the way to determine whether potential sources of high level radio frequency signal interference exist. Conduct lease rent and other terms negotiations on behalf of the Customer with the landlord. Collect ownership documents from land / site owners and verify with revenue authorities for ownership / encumbrance. It includes the antenna and feeder requirements. When performing the site selection various factors must be considered such acquisition. Assist the Customer in signing the leased deed including providing registration assistance. equipment capacity requirements. tax dues and other liabilities on the land / site being acquired. where required. STEP6: SITE ACQUISITION Site acquisition services to telecom operators as a part of its services portfolio. Conduct legal verification of the Site with a legal counsel. Verify title and mother deed. STEP7: DETAILED SITE DESIGN Before construction of the site detailed site design is required. structural design and integrity. Site acquisition service includes the following salient activities: Identify suitable land / roof top for locating the telecom infrastructure based on search rings provided. power availability. antenna orientation and tilt requirements.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 92 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 10. propagation models need to be adjusted to take into consideration the WCDMA technology. After this. capacity planning would need to calculate the interference and the cell capacity. The cell range R can be calculated using the Okumara–Hata or the Walfish–Ikegami models.2 CAPACITY PLANNING Capacity planning in WCDMA networks is much more complicated than in GSM/EGPRS. The validity for this extended Okumara–Hata model is Frequency f: 150–2000 MHz Distance R: 1–20 km UE height : 10–200m MS height: 1–10m This correction factor is added to obtain the actual losses in the WCDMA environment. also called COST. in the WCDMA networks. interference. However. Similarly for the Walfish–Ikegami model. The amount of uplink interference has a great impact on the cell capacity and radius. Hence. The fundamental process for coverage planning in the WCDMA system is quite similar to that of the GSM system. i. the COST model is applied. traffic behaviour. speed of subscribers. the amount of traffic that is supported by a base station. 10.2. etc. which is 2. which is based on the typical antenna placements and has the validity range Frequency f : 800–2000 MHz BS height hbs: 4–50 m UE height hms: 1–3 m Distance d: 0. the site are a can be calculated.e. some additional measurements and adjustments were done in the framework of European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research.02–5 km 10.1Uplink WCDMA is an interference system limited by the air interface. The interference margin (η) indicates the total amount of interference (including thermal noise power) in comparison to the thermal noise: ηu = EbRN/WN0 (1 + i)νj where Eb/N0 = signal energy per bit/noise spectral density N = total number of users/cell R = bit rate W = chip rate i = other cell-to-own cell interference MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 93 . Factors that affect the coverage calculations are load. However.6R2.1COVERAGE PLANNING The link budget calculation for the WCDMA system and coverage planning for the GSM system have already been discussed.
the interference sharing gives soft capacity.2. Thus. This obtained Erlang capacity is then equally shared between neighbouring (interfering) cells by dividing the maximum offered traffic by 1 + i (in UL the power rise is also taken into account). The link performance also differs in either direction (the noise figure is higher for the UE than the BS). The total interference includes that of both the own cells and other cells. Soft handover heads are only in the DL direction. The capacity is determined by the power transmitted by the BS. the more users can be admitted before the load (interference or transmitted power) of a cell reaches the load target. locations of UE and interference. The DL load is. This makes the calculations in downlink more complicated than the uplink directions. the power transmitted by the BS is shared between all users. which then gives the single isolated cell capacity. the number of channels available in the resource pool (an average condition) can be calculated: NUL =ηUL(1 + i)(1 +W/R /Eb/N01/ν) The soft blocking capacity (in Erlang) for RT services can be calculated using the Erlang B table and the equation MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 94 . The soft capacity can be approximated based on the total interference at the BTS. From the planned load. In DL the own cell interference is reduced by the factor (1 − α). there is extra capacity available in the neighbouring cells. higher than the UL load. for in the uplink each user has its own amplifier to transmit the power. As this capacity can be borrowed from the neighbouring cells. the parameters needed for downlink calculations include the power transmitted by BS and power allocation to the Common Control Channel (CCCH). Therefore. The less interference there is coming from all the neighbouring cells.3 SOFT CAPACITY The principle of soft capacity is that a cell can be more loaded when surrounding cells are unloaded. This is due to the synchronised orthogonal channellisation codes. If the average loading is low. Thus. The soft capacity has more inpact on high bit rate real time users because of a larger relative change for higher bit rates. In the WCDMA system. The total load is then the sum of different services in the cell area. The basic Erlang B formula is then applied to this larger channel pool. the traffic can be asymmetric in the uplink and downlink directions and thus the load can also be different in either direction. The load factor for different services has to be calculated separately. the total channel pool can be obtained by taking the number of channels per cell in the equally loaded case and multiplying that by 1 + i. locations of UE and interference. 10.2 Downlink In the downlink.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G υj = activity factor of user j Network 10. Thus. however. coverage becomes a function of the number of users. in downlink the capacity is determined by the power transmitted by the BS. which are used in DL.
Network 10. i.4 FREQUENCY PLANNING The dilemma behind frequency planning is to provide needed capacity and coverage within a given frequency band.27 shows two examples of the frequency re-use rate for hexagons. as already explained in the coverage planning section. but it is wise not to increase the interference level. The following is an example of the connection between frequency and capacity planning. In general. frequency re-use affects the number of carriers that can be used for one sector. dividing the number of channels by the frequency re-use rate. The interference level cannot be high when building a functional network. more precisely this is a co-channel interference situation. Therefore the frequency re-use rate is not a constant throughout the network. frequency reuse pattern MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 95 . The frequency channels therefore need to be re-used. but this is less serious.e. The interference level increases with high transmission power in a close location. the number of channels is 30.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Soft capacity/cell = Erlang B [N(1 + i) blocking %]/1 + I *[Erl] The DL soft capacity is calculated using a similar method. The number of carriers per sector can be calculated by dividing the available bandwidth by the product of the re-use rate and bandwidth for a single carrier. Frequency re-use patterns are not used in practice because the cells are not hexagons. The first describes the re-use pattern for 7 cells and the second one the pattern for 12 cells. The cell shapes are different and cells do not have equal sizes. Figure 2. but varies from one place to another and can also vary between BCCH and TCH layers. When the interfering channels are consecutive there is some neighbour channel interference. Interference is caused when two network cells use the same channel too close to each other. The frequency re-use rate is simplest to explain using a hexagonal model. The available frequency band and the capacity plan give boundary conditions for the largest possible frequency re-use rate. If the operator bandwidth is 6 MHz.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 96 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 11. It is a hypothetical network with carriers and cell locations detailed. The nominal plan builds on the dimensioning exercise. UMTS nominal plans require simulation to validate them. • Typical inputs • 3D terrain data • Land use data (Clutter) • Building outlines • Building heights There are basically following types of propagation models : • Statistical MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 97 . Nominal plan can be analyzed by ASSET TOOL. It involves using propagation models and terrain data.2 CREATE A PROPAGATION MODEL Propagation model : What is a propagation model?A mathematical model used by computer planning tools to predict coverage from a radio transmitter.1 NOMINAL CELL PLANNING At the start of the rollout process nominal planning is just the rough outline of the network. SETTING UP ASSET FOR NOMINAL PLAN Create UMTS propagation model Import suitable antenna pateren Create UMTS cell layer Create a nominal plan 11.
The measurements are plotted vs. The effect of reflections diffraction and absorption due to buildings can be incorporated into the model. The formula can be modified to account for other factors eg. Rx height & terrain effects • Statistical models: Fig 11.A straight line is fitted through the data. Tx height.1 • DETERMINISTIC MODEL: The planning tool traces rays from each site through an accurate 3D representation of an urban area.log(distance). Typically a major component of the calculated path loss is free space loss. A basic y=mx +c formula can be used to estimate path loss. POPULAR MACROCELL MODELS: MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 98 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G • Deterministic • Macrocell model Network Carrier wave measurements are made from test transmitters.
Fully deterministic no calibration required.Standard macrocell • Name 900MHz ‡ Set up a propagation model with the default parameters.5 8491. ADD A NEW PROPAGATION MODEL. Not well suited for ranges under 1km.82 -6. Upper frequency limit 2GHz Network Wave call • • • • Not so well accepted. • Type . Available for many common planning systems. Suitable for urban macro and microcells. Parameter Model type Frequency cell Mobile RX height Effective earth height K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Effective antenna height Diffraction Merge knife edge Settings Standard microcell 900 1.2 135 38 -2.55 0 -13.7 Relative Epstein peterson 0 MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 99 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Okumura -Hata • • • Industry standard.55 0.
2 antenna pattern 11. • An Omni • An 85º Sector Fig 11.3 IMPORT THE ANTENNA PATTERNS supplied by the manufacturers. These are derived from the link budgets used in the network dimensioning.4 CREATE COVERAGE SCHEMA & CELL LAYER The only parameters that are necessary to set on the cell layer are the signal thresholds and the coverage schema.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 11. For the purpose of this exercise several antenna patterns have been supplied. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 100 .
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Fig11. identify the cell radius for each environment to be planned.5 CREATING A NOMINAL PLAN From the link budgets. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 101 .3 11. Create a UMTS site template For each environment. position a hexagonal grid of sites with the appropriate cell radii over the target coverage area.
Fig 11.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 11.6 LOCATING URBAN NOMINAL SITES Define mid hexagon radius as 1400m and select in the site template.5 11.7 LOCATING RURAL NOMINAL SITES Define mid hexagon radius as 4000m and select in the site template.4 radius setting Position a grid of sufficient sites to cover the urban areas fig 11. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 102 .
8 SPREAD VOICE TRAFFIC IN OVER THE AREA Spread the traffic on the voice terminal type. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 103 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Fig11. Fig 11.6 Position a grid of sufficient sites to cover the rural areas.7 11.
8 traffic wizard fig 11.8 graphical representation of voice traffic MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 104 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Fig 11.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 11.9 data traffic MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 105 . Fig11.9 SPREAD DATA TRAFFIC Spread the traffic on the data terminal type over the island.
Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 12.1 PARAMETER PLANNING Parameter planning is the task of optimising the parameters that control the behaviour of the network. The parameters with which we can modify the performance of the network in UMTS are mainly held within the RNC. As with GSM the user interfaces to the RNC are not defined within MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 106 . Parameter planning does not usually involve modifying the physical equipment of the network.
It is a bidirectional channel. Control Channels (CCH) Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) System information is made available on this channel. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Dedicated resources were allocated to a UE. Consequently. Common Packet Channel (CPCH) MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 107 . 12. These resources require radio link management.2 PHYSICAL LAYER PLANNING: 12. Many of those parameters detailed here are those suggested by the FRAMES project. the serving cell. although there may be a lot of overlap. 3GPP standards. it exists both in the uplink and downlink directions. and the control information is transmitted both uplink and downlink on DCCHs. logical channels to transmit the cell system information paging information or user data. the UE can determine at what times it may be paged.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network the 3GPP standards. 12.2 TRAFFIC CHANNELS (TCH) Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) User data has to be transferred between the UE and the network. Paging is required when the RNC has no dedicated connection to the UE. This information is permanently broadcast in the downlink. Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Given the BCCH information. CCCH). neighbourhood lists. Logical channels are characterized by the specific content to be transmitted: user data (DTCH).1 LOGICAL CHANNELS Logical channels were created to transmit a specific content. The system information informs the UE about the serving PLMN. There are. logical channels are in use between the mobile phone and the RNC.e. control messages (DCCH. broadcast data (CTCH) and cell system information (BCCH). Logical channels are offered as a data transfer service by the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer to the next higher layer. for instance.2. It is in use when there is no dedicated connection between the UE and the network. The PCCH is a downlink channel. i. This means that different vendors may have slightly different parameter sets. measurement parameters. etc. Common Control Channel (CCCH) Control information is transmitted on this channel.2. Therefore dedicated resources can be allocated to the UE for the uplink and downlink user data transmission. Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) Dedicated user data can be transmitted point-to-multipoint to a group of UEs.
Dedicated resources are exclusively in use for the subscriber. channel coding (convolutional/turbo. it is a contention based uplink channel. where the WCDMA radio interface Uu is found. In a P-SCH a primary synchronisation code is transmitted. common (FACH/RACH) The MAC layer uses the transport service of the lower layer. The MAC layer is responsible for organising the logical channel data on transport channels. The P-SCH (as well as the secondary (S)SCH) is not transmitted under the cell scrambling code. where the interface Iub is discussed. The MAC layer uses the transport channels as service for the lower physical layer. This is done in every UMTS cell in every timeslot.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network Similar to the RACH. In an S-SCH the secondary synchronization code is transmitted.2. Common Pilot Indication Channel (CPICH) MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 108 . User Dedicated Channel (DCH). The MAC layer determines the used transport format. The MAC layer is responsible for organizing the logical channel data on transport channels. 12. but uses its own predefined code. it can be used to transmit larger amounts of (bursty) traffic. Transport Channels (TrCH) The transport channels determine how the content is organised to be transmitted. coding rate). If the UE detects the P-SCH it has performed chip synchronisation. which is the same for all cells in the UMTS network. Secondary Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) The S-SCH also uses only the first 256 chips of a timeslot. the physical medium changes. each consisting of 8 scrambling codes. the used cyclic redundancy check (CRC) length. In this context. the physical layer. There are 16 different secondary synchronisation codes that are organised into 64 different combinations. This process is called mapping. Physical Channels (PhyCH) The physical layer offers the transport of data to the higher layer. theMAC layer is also responsible for determining the used transport format. The transport of logical channel data takes place between the UE and the RNC. The 64 combinations are grouped with 64 scrambling code groups. A physical channel is defined by the carrier frequency number (UARFCN) and the spreading code (SC) in the FDD mode. When information is transmitted between the RNC and the UE. This process is called mapping. etc. Between Node B and the UE. In contrast to the RACH.3 DEDICATED TRANSPORT CHANNELS Dedicated Channel (DCH) Dedicated resources can be allocated both uplink and downlink to a UE. the physical transmission is described by physical channels. the transport of information is physically organised in so-called frames. The characteristics of the physical transport need to be described. Primary Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) The P-SCH uses the first 256 chips of every timeslot. Between the RNC and Node B.
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) SCCPCH carries two different common transport channels. The paging indicator (PI) uses a channelisation with SF = 256. Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) PCCPCH is the physical channel that carries broadcast channel (BCH) information. The PCCPCH does not have any pilot bits in the frame because the channel estimation is done using the CPICH. If the PICH is received with low reliability then the PCH is decoded. Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) The DPCCH has a constant bit rate and carries all information needed to keep a physical connection running. The power control signalling bits (transmission power control. The information of how data are coded is carried on the DPCCH and the Transport Format Combination Information (TFCI) is also sent as it contains information. To each terminal registered to the network is allocated a paging group that corresponds to a PI. the FACH (Forward Access Channel) and the PCH (Paging Channel). FACH and PCH can be mapped in two different physical channels. and the corresponding paging message is sent on the associated SCCPCH. It is also used as the phase reference for most physical channels. Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) The AICH is a downlink physical channel with SF 256 in which an echo of the preamble RACH is sent from the WBTS (WCDMA BTS). 72 or 144 paging indicators per PICH frame. It is used for channel estimation and for measurement of the neighbour cells. At this point the WBTS does not have any information regarding the user. The less the mobile needs to listen to the PICH. The channel bit rate is 30 kbps but in order to reduce the total interference it is sent alternatives with the SCH giving a ‘net’ bit rate of 27 kbps. On the DPCCH the reference symbols (pilots) are sent for a channel estimation in coherent detection and for signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) estimation in fast power control. The paging indicator is sent on PICH. about bit rate and interleaving. In addition. It is on air only when it has something to transmit.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network CPICH carries a predefined bit/symbol sequence at a fixed rate (15 kbps. It is a fixed rate channel without power control because it must be decoded by all the mobiles in the cell. for example. Having one channel for indicators and one for messages provides terminals for an efficient sleep mode operation. The drawback is a longer response time for a mobile terminated call. When the mobile detects the PI it decodes the next PCH frame transmitted on the secondary CCPCH. The channelization code is fixed by specification and has SF = 256. Depending on the paging indicator ratio there can be 18. The WBTS knows that there will be a message part coming and starts to listen to the channellisation code indicated by the signature. 36. It is also used in an initial cell search to find the correct scrambling code of a cell. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 109 . There can be up to three secondary CCPCHs configured. Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) operates together with the Paging Channel (the transport channel is sent on the physical channel: SCCPCH). or TPC) are also sent. if the Service Area Broadcast (SAB) service is implemented it requires an additional SCCPCH. SF=256). the longer the battery life.
The power ramp-up step size is configured by a parameter. The uplink scrambling code of a cell is selected from 16 dedicated UL scrambling codes. The PRACH and AICH channels are involved in the PRACH procedure. but the sequence of ramping up the TX power is repeated only a predefined number of times. In the random access procedure the UE sends a trial transmission burst called preamble. The transmission power of a preamble is estimated using open loop power control. If the mobile has ramped up the power a predefined number of times and receives no confirmation from the base station. The PRACH frame is divided into two access slot sets: access slot set 1 (access slots 0 to 7) and access slot set 2 (access slots 8 to 14). PRACH and AICH channels are structured to a 20 ms frame with 15 access slots.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 12. There are 16 possible signatures in each cell. ramping up power in between everystep. Random Access Procedure: Preamble and Message The preamble is 4096 chips long. if starts the sequence from the begining and repeats it. URA PCH) and it is to transmit information on uplink. The message part can have MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 110 . It consists of 256×16 chip signatures. The scrambling code number is the same as that used for the preamble. If the mobile does not receive an indication from the BTS that it has received the preamble. Cell PCH. Only after receiving confirmation on the AICH that the BTS has received the preamble does the mobile send the RACH message part. The mobile sends a predefined number of preambles.3 CONNECTION SETUP Random Access Procedure The random access procedure is used to establish the RRC connection setup when the mobile wants to move from idle mode to connected mode or if the mobile is in connected mode (Cell FACH. The RACH message consists of one or two radio frames (10–20 ms). the mobile will ramp up the transmission power and send another preamble. As the RACH message is short no power control is used. These is also an offset given in between the last preamblesent and the message part to guarantee reception of the message. The UE will exit the random access procedure if it does not receive a response from the base station before it runs out the maximum number of times it is allowed to repeat the power ramp-up procedure.
Overview The paging procedure is required to enable the network to contact the UE in idle mode or when in connected mode the Cell PCH and URA PCH states. For each preamble one of the allowed signatures is randomly selected.5 HANDOVER CONTROL MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 111 . negative indication →the UE must exit the RACH procedure. For the first preamble one of the allowed access slots in the next full access slot set (1 or 2) is randomly selected. The paging procedure has two phases: the UE detects an indication on the PICH and the UE decodes the paging message from the SCCPCH and checks whether is for that UE. This means that in idle mode the paging indication and message is sent on all cells belonging to the LA or RA. In connected mode the UE is paged over one individual cell if the UE is in the Cell PCH state or over the UTRAN registration area if the UE is in the URA PCH state. There can be one SCCPCH dedicated to carry paging. • the packet switched core. 12. There are three sources that might start a paging procedure: • the circuit switched core. Cells can have one or more SCCPCHs configured. which is scrambled with the cell primary scrambling code.4 PAGING PROCEDURES The paging procedure uses two physical channels. Random Access Procedure: AICH Each acquisition indication channel (AICH) slot carries a separate acquisition indication for each signature (total 16). The paging indication (PI) is sent over the paging indication channel (PICH). The acquisition indication has three different values: • 0. 12. • 1. Each slot contains a 32 symbol waveform. In idle mode the UE is paged over the whole location area (LA) in the case of CS paging or the routing area (RA) in the case of PS paging. The allowed signatures are based on theBCCH(SIB5) and the UE Access Service Class (ASC). The paging indication shows that the UE should read the corresponding message on the secondary common control physical channel (SCCPCH). Random Access Procedure: UE Required Information The preamble scrambling code is transmitted on the BCCH (SIB5). if the UE is registered but not connected. positive indication →the UE is allowed to transmit a message. if the UE is registered but not connected. no indication →the BTS has not received this signature. • the RNC in the case where the UE is in the CELL PCH and URA PCH states.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network different spreading factors. For re-transmission the first allowed access slot is selected. The spreading factor is based on a selected signature and spreading factors between 256 and 32 can be used. • 1. based on the parameter. The UE is allowed to transmit the preamble on PRACH access slots based on the BCCH (SIB5) and the UE ASC.
If a neighbouring cell is found and decision criteria are fulfilled the interfrequency or intersystem handover is performed. If neither an SHO nor an intrasystem hard handover is possible. Different Types of WCDMA Handovers • FDD soft/softer handover (intrasystem intrafrequency HO) • FDD interfrequency (intrasystem interfrequency HO) • FDD/TDD handover (intersystem HO) • TDD/FDD handover • TDD/TDD handover • Handover WCDMA–GSM (intersystem HO) • Handover GSM–WCDMA (intersystem HO) A specific (soft) handover situation is a crossing of an RNC border. An intrafrequency hard handover is also possible in the case where an SHO is not possible. but there are measurement reports confirming that a neighbour cell Ec/I0 is stronger than a serving cell. a forced RRC connection release takes place. poor Ec/I0. when serving RNC resources need to be relocated. The interfrequency and intersystem handovers require measurements on another frequency band.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network WCDMA networks have large numbers of different types of handovers taking place compared to GSM networks. A distinctive feature of a WCDMA system is the introduction of a soft handover (SHO) – a situation where the UE is connected to two or more sectors simultaneously. Possible measurement triggering criteria include: • Best active set cell RSCP (UE measurement report) • Best active set cell Ec/N0 (UE measurement report) • Uplink DCH quality (RNC measurement) • Downlink DCH quality (UE measurement report) • Cell load (RNC measurement) • Distance • UL TX power (UE measurement report) • DL TX power (BTS measurement) MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 112 . In compressed mode the continuous transmission of theWCDMAis interrupted and transmission gaps are used to perform measurements on another frequency band. If the UE is not designed with a dual receiver the needed performing measurements require compressed mode. A special case of a soft handover is a softer handover. In the case of a lack ofWCDMAcoverage. Usually an intrafrequency handover is used as the ‘last chance’ in the case where an SHO is not possible. Measurement Triggering Implementation of different measurement triggering criteria in the network is vendor specific. interfrequency or intersystem handover is triggered. quality deterioration reports from the outer loop power control function or high transmit power from either theUEor WBTS. where the UE is connected to two or more sectors from the same Node B.
In the case where the source cell RSCP falls below the triggering condition the handover decision algorithm compares the source and target cell RSCPs. It can be seen in the example in Figure 2.3 Fast Closed Loop Power Control The closed loop power control adjusts the transmission power 1500 times a second to keep the power at the minimum required level. otherwise the transmission power is decreased. The possible control parameters include the reporting interval. 12. but there can be different decision procedures depending on the triggering criteria. The measurements on an adjacent carrier are done during the transmission gaps.8.8. the number of measurements the mobile is allowed to make and penalty timers after an unsuccessful interfrequency handover (IFHO) or intrasystem handover (ISHO) attempt. if the triggering condition Ec/I0 of the serving cell is poor the target cell Ec/I0 is ranked against the serving cell. Common channels (CCHs) are transmitted with fixed output power and the power control algorithm minimizes the transmission power for dedicated channels.1 Power Control Transmission power is one of limiting resources of the WCDMA system.8. If the target is not reached the transmission power is increased. For example. The measured SIR is compared with the SIR target. There are different parameters for each type of handover. It measures the SIR independently for each connection and adjusts the transmission power an every timeslot basis.43 that the used transmission power recourses for common channels can only take 6Wout of the 20Wtotal transmission power available in the WBTS.7 HANDOVER DECISION CRITERIA The RNC commands handover when the handover criteria are fulfilled. 12. 12.2 Power Control Algorithms Power control algorithms minimise the transmission power used for dedicated channels.8 CONNECTED MODE 12. The closed loop power control uses the signal-tointerference ratio (SIR) to adjust the transmission power. The common channels are transmitted with fixed output power. They consume a fixed amount of transmission power resources.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 12. In the downlink direction all the NodeBs participating with the SHO connection measure their SIR and determine their power control command. The UE then performs measurements and reports according to measurement reporting criteria. 12. The measurement control for the interfrequency and intrasystem handover triggering mechanism is similar. The interfrequency and intrasystem measurements require the compressed mode. The closed loop power control adjusts the transmission power.6 MEASUREMENT CONTROL In a measurement control the RNC sends measurement parameters to the UE to command how measurementsare done. but if the target cell is better the RNC commands IFHO to take place. They independently adjust their transmission power according to the power control commands (TPC) received from the UE. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 113 . The RNC commands handover when the handover criteria is fulfilled. but the measurement triggering and measurement control functionality works in a similar manner.
g.10 PACKET DATA CONNECTION Packet data is one example of non-real-time service. a parameter that sets the level threshold in the downlink in order to perform an outgoing handover with a level cause). This means that transmission power is increased only if all connections are below the set SIR target. in the case of inactivity. Depending on the service requirements (QoS). each parameter and its usability can be described explicitly. If the load is on a marginal load area no action is taken as the non-real-time services are not allowed to be upgraded and no downgrading takes place. The UE lowers its transmission power when all the SHO connections fail to reach the SIR target. In the case of an overload situation packet data services are downgraded until the measured load reaches the load target. As currently the applications using packet data vary from email client. The outer loop power control measures the block error rate (BLER). In contrast to the real time services. According to the handover algorithm. the corresponding physical resources are allocated. also called handover control (HOC) parameters. is tuned on a cell basis. The target and overload thresholds define the operating space of the packet scheduler – the RRM functionality that controls allocated packet data bit rates. 12. if the BLER target is not reached. Internet surfing to music download the services use the packet data connection. as in packet transfer states (Cell PCH or URA PCH) where no data are transferred. ENABLABILITY Most of the handover types described above are triggered only if they are enabled by setting the ‘enable HO’ parameter to ‘yes’. Adjustment of the SIR target would make the closed loop power control algorithm adjust the transmission power of the dedicated physical channels.9 OUTER LOOP POWER CONTROL The outer loop power control algorithm adjusts the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) target. There are individual BLER targets set for each transport channel. The SIR target is used by the closed loop power control as a reference value for transmission power adjustments. and resources used by non-real-time services are needed for real time users or higher priority non-real-time services. indicating the transport channel quality. Otherwise they do not occur. Those parameters have the specificity to be cell dependent (e. Also in a case of inactivity the service can use common channels (Cell FACH) to transmit small amounts of data or can. 12. The outer loop power control entity in the UE receives the BLER target. Downgrading the bit rate for a packet data connection takes place when the network is having a high load. MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 114 .11 HANDOVER PARAMETERS This type of parameter. the outer loop power control increases the SIR target for the dedicated physical channels. the packet data as non-real-time services can momentarily lower their bit rate. There are independent outer loop power control entities in both the uplink and downlink directions. It means that cell by cell a different value can be set for a given parameter. 12.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network To determine the power control command in the uplink direction there is an SIR target set for each cell in the active set. use the idle mode. at least for one of the transport channels. the initial SIR target and the minimum and maximum values for the SIR target in the radio bearer configuration message. On a feasible load area packet data services are upgraded if there is a capacity request indicating that one or more nonreal-time services requires more capacity.
it compares the Nx samples to a given threshold. The algorithm is simple. Fast Moving Threshold MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 115 . • a priority level that ranks primarily all of the adjacent cells. level or interference. Power Budget Margin This gives in dB how much the signal level of the target cell should exceed that of the source cell to perform a PBGT handover. power budget and umbrella handovers. prioritisation is important in the selection of a target cell for handover. handover failures. • a load factor that gives in units the offset to apply to overloaded cells. Averaging Averaging is important to prevent repetitive handover attempts between two cells. for example). cells with a high traffic load have the lowest priority and handover is then commanded to cells with no load. lower. At the end. It is based on giving more priority to cells experiencing less traffic load. Depending on the type of handover (quality. The final priority to rank adjacent cells is equal to the primary priority decreased by the load factor for cells loaded with more than the load threshold. PRIORITY In a lot of handover mechanisms. This issue is driven by three main parameters: • a threshold in percentage starting from what a cell is considered as loaded. such as handover attempts. Level and interference thresholds are in the ‘RXLEV’ terms whereas the quality threshold is given as ‘RXQUAL’ values. 12.12 LAYER PARAMETERS Layer This defines the nature of the layer relationship from the source cell to the target cell. It can take one of four values (same.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network PERIODICITY Some parameters drive in terms of SACCH intervals the time difference between two successive similar handover events. Nx is the total number of averaged samples that are to be considered. upper. Weight indicates the importance given to the last measurement in the averaging formula. not used). Four parameters drive the process: • • • • Window size gives the number of measurements that should be averaged. there is a special criterion that Px samples should meet before the handover is initiated. Px is the required number among the Nx samples that should fulfil the criterion before a handover can be triggered. Thresholds Once the network performs averaging.
The BER/FER target will be associated with the service Itself. Umbrella Level This is the minimum acceptable level threshold that a mobile should measure to decide whether it is still in the cell’s coverage area. However it may be possible to set.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network This indicates the time (in SACCH frames) that a mobile should stay in a cell’s coverage before deciding to hand it over to this lower layer cell. The inner loop power control is dependant upon which of two algorithms are used. • Algorithm 1 A single power control bit is used to indicate a power rise/lower • Algorithm 2 A set of five power control bits are used. 12. • The Sampling Period Inner Loop The purpose of the Inner Loop power control is to achieve the target Eb/No over the air interface. The parameter tuning section deals with some examples of handover control parameter tuning. • The Measurement Frequency. hundreds of parameters exist that handle handover and adjacency. At the end. preceded by a series of 4 zero valued bits. INNER LOOP PARAMETERS: MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 116 . Each one can be tuned separately according to the optimisation need. Only if all bits indicate a power rise/lower is the power modified.13 POWER CONTROL PARAMETER: There are two different levels of power control in UMTS • Outer Loop Power Control • Inner Loop Power Control Outer Loop The purpose of the Outer Loop power control is to set and adjust the Eb/No target for the service dependant upon the achieved BER/FER.
• To set the maximum extent of the cell. At an average of 3 codes used per site this implies a reuse of 170! MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 117 .Other control and signaling channels will typically be transmitted at a fixed offset from the pilot. • To allow for channel estimation at the receiver.14 PILOT POWER PLANNING By Pilot Planning we are referring to planning the power of the Pilot Channel.Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G Network 12. The Pilot itself is used: • To add cells to the active set in handover. The objective of code planning is to ensure: • that code reuse is as efficient as possible • that we can maximize the minimum reuse distance between sites sharing the same scrambling code There are 512 downlink scrambling codes that we can use. 12.15 CODE PLANNING Code Planning is required for the downlink scrambling codes and downlink secondary synchronization codes.
) 2.) NETWORK AND RF PLANNING BY ERICSSON SITE DESIGN BY AIRCOM NOMINAL PLANNING BY AIRCOM.) WWW.) UMTS NETWORK PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT Network MSC[NPD]-IVSEM/890438 Page 118 .Lyallpur khalsa college Rollout for 2G &3G BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1.) 3.) 4.COM 6.SCRIBD. CELL PLANNING PRINCIPLES BY ERICSSON 5.
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