FACU
NE UNIVE
ULTY OF E
H
Due D
ERSITY OF
ENGINEER
HES5310 M
Sem
ASS
Stephen, P
Lecturer: D
Date: 5.00 pm
F TECHNO
RING AND
Machine D
mester 1, 2
SIGNMEN
By
P. Y. Bong
Dr. Saad A
m, 30
th
Apr
OLOGY (S
D INDUST
Dynamics
012
NT 2
(4209168)
. Mutasher
ril 2012 (Mo
SARAWAK
RIAL SCIE
s 2
onday)
K CAMPUS
ENCE
S)
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
inner side
determine
SOLUTION
Under osci
moment eq
CCW
For small a
m
Rearrange
u J
O
Comparing
gives:
n
2
e
Since the n
above can
J
O
nt 2
Machine Dy
1: A flywh
of the rim,
the momen
N
illation with
quation abou
u
O O
J M =
+) ( W
angle , sin u
u
O
J l mg =
the terms g
+ u u l mg
g the equat
O
J
mgl
= or
natural perio
be expresse
2
) 2 ( t t
mgl
=
ynamics 2,
heel has 32
as shown in
nt of inertia o
h small ang
ut O is give
u
mg
, u u ~ there
u
O
give the seco
0 = or + u
tion above
2
n
O
mgl
J
e
=
od of oscill
ed as:
2
2
4t
t mgl
=
Semester 1,
kg was allo
n Figure 1 b
of the flywh
gle with J
O
en by:
u u
O
J l = sin
efore the eq
ondorder d
0 = u
O
J
mgl
with the N
ation is esta
, 2012
owed to sw
below. If th
heel about i
Figure 1
J
O
as the mo
u
quation abov
differential e
Newtons se
ablished fro
ing as a pen
he measured
its geometri
oment of ine
ve can be ex
equation:
econd law
om
n
= 2
Stephen,
ndulum abo
d period of
c axis.
ertia of the
xpressed as
of motion,
or
n
= 2
P. Y. Bong
P
out a knife
oscillation
flywheel a
:
2 + u ,e u
n
/, hence th
g (4209168)
Page 2 of 57
edge at the
was 1.22 s,
bout O, the
0
2
= + u e u
n
he equation
)
7
e
,
e
n
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 3 of 57
Substituting m = 32 kg, g = 9.81 m/s
2
, l = 152.5 mm and = 1.22 s into the equation above yields
2
m kg 1.8049 =
=
2
2 3 2
4
s) m)(1.22 10 )(152.5 s m kg)(9.81 (32
t
O
J
The moment of inertia about the rims geometric axis can be determined by using the Parallel Axis
Theorem:
( ) ( )( )
2
m kg 1.0607 = = = + = m 1525 . 0 kg 32 m kg 8049 . 1
2 2 2 2
md J I md I J
O G G O
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
Determine
SOLUTION
Assume th
position an
system can
T =
The elastic
U =
Since x = r
U
T
=
=
From the p
+ T
and
1
\

J
nt 2
Machine Dy
2: Determin
the stiffnes
N
hat the syst
nd m
2
unde
n be express
2
1 1
2 2
1
J
+ = u
c potential e
( )
1 1
2
1
R k = u
r or = x/r
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
r
x
R k
r
x
J
\

=


.

\

=
principle of
2
1
1
\

= + J U
(
1 1
1
+


.

r
x
r
x
ynamics 2,
ne the kine
ss at m
0
, and
tem is vibr
ergoes both
sed as:
2
0
2
1
2
1
x m +
energies stor
)
2
2
2
2
1
x k +
r, thus subst
2
2
1
2
0
2
1
2
1
x k
r
x
x m
+


.

+ +
conservatio
2
1
0
2
1
+


.

m
r
x
( )
0
+ x x m
Semester 1,
etic energy
d write the e
rating harm
the rotatio
2
2 2
2
1
m J
+ u
red in the sp
tituting into
2
2
2
2
2
1
x
r
x
J


.

\

+
on of energy
2
1
2
2
0
\

+ J x
2 2
2
\

+
r
x
r
x
J
, 2012
of the syste
expression o
Figure 2
monically w
onal and tra
2
2
x m
prings with
o equations a
2
2
2
2
1
x m +
y, T + U = C
2
1
2
2
2
+


.

m
r
x
(
2
2
+


.

x m
x
em shown
of natural fr
with amplitu
anslational m
spring cons
above yield
Const. and
2
1
1
2
2
\

+ R k x
)
1
\

+ R k x
Stephen,
in Figure 2
requency.
ude from
motion, the
stants of k
1
ds:
( ) = +U T
dt
d
2
1
2
1
+


.

r
x
R
1 1 .

r
x
R
r
x
R
P. Y. Bong
P
2 below in t
its static e
e kinetic en
and k
2
is:
. 0 =
Con
2
2
= x k
( )
( )
2
= +


.

= +
x x k
U T
dt
d
g (4209168)
Page 4 of 57
terms of . x
equilibrium
ergy of the
nst.
0
0
=
=
)
7
m
e
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 5 of 57
Dividing the entire equation by x gives:
0
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2 0
2
1
1
= +
+ + + + x k x
r
R k
x m
r
x
J x m
r
x
J
Collecting like terms and rearranging yields:
0
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
0
2
1
1
=


.

\

+ +


.

\

+ + + x k
r
R k
x m
r
J
m
r
J
Dividing the equation above by the coefficient of x results in a secondorder differential equation:
0
2 0
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
=
+ + + +
+
+ x
m m
r
J
r
J
k
r
R k
x
Comparing with 0 2
2
= + + x x x
n n
e e gives:
2 0
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
m m
r
J
r
J
k
r
R k
n
+ + + +
+
= e or
2 0
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
m m
r
J
r
J
k
r
R k
n
+ + +
+
= e
After some simplifications, the expression for natural circular frequency above becomes:
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 2 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1 2
2
1
) (
r r
r r m m r J r J
r
r k R k
n
+ + +
+
= e or
2
2
2
1 2 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
) (
) (
r r m m r J r J
r k R k r
n
+ + +
+
= e
Hence, the natural frequency can be obtained by dividing the circular natural frequency by 2.
2
2
2
1 2 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
) (
) (
2
1
r r m m r J r J
r k R k r
f
n
+ + +
+
=
t
Since ,
0
m
k
n
= e thus, the stiffness at m0 can be expressed as:
+ + +
+
=
2
2
2
1 2 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
2
0
) (
) (
r r m m r J r J
r k R k r
m
k
2
2
2
1 2 0
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1 2
2
1
2
2 0
) (
) (
r r m m r J r J
r k R k r m
k
+ + +
+
=
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question 3
and a visco
determine:
equation fo
SOLUTION
(a) Under
equati
Since x
Substi
Dividi
equati
Assum
order d
Factor
nt 2
Machine Dy
3: A rigid u
ous damper
(a) The eq
or the undam
N
r rotation of
on about O
M
+) ( CCW
x = r, ther
(l cl
ituting J
O
=
3
2
u
ml
ing the ent
on:
3
+ u
m
c
me the solut
derivatives,
2
+
st
e s
rize the term
3
2
+
m
c
s
ynamics 2,
uniform bar
r, as shown
quation for
mped natura
f with J
O
is
( )
O
l x c M =
efore the m
) ( u u
a ka
ml
2
/3 into t
2
+ + u ka cl
tire equatio
3
2
2
+ u u
ml
ka
tion of the d
,
st
se = u
an
3 3
+ +
st
m
se
m
c
m e
st
from th
3
2
2
= +
ml
ka
s
m
c
Semester 1,
r of mass m
n in Figure
small (m
al frequency
O
as the mo
( )
O
J a kx =
moment equa
) u u
O
J = or
the equation
0
2
= u
on by ml
2
/3
0 = u
differential
nd .
2 st
e s = u
0
2
2
=
st
e
ml
ka
he L.H.S. re
0 =
, 2012
m and length
3 below. M
moment of in
y; (c) The e
Figure 3
oment of in
u
O
ation above
r
2
+ u u cl J
O
n above giv
3 results in
equation ab
. Substitutin
esults in the
h l is pinne
Measuring
nertia for th
xpression fo
nertia of the
can be expr
2
= + u u ka
es:
n a second
bove is =
ng these into
characteris
Stephen,
d at O and
from static
he bar abou
for critical d
e bar about
ressed in ter
0
dorder hom
= e
st
, and by
o equation a
tic equation
P. Y. Bong
P
supported
c equilibriu
ut O is ml
2
/
damping.
t point O, th
rms of as
mogeneous
y taking the
above yields
n:
g (4209168)
Page 6 of 57
by a spring
m position,
/3); (b) The
he moment
follows:
differential
e 1
st
and 2
nd
s:
)
7
g
,
e
t
l
d
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 7 of 57
Question 3 (a) (Continued)
0
3 3
2
2
2
= + +
ml
ka
s
m
c
s
Let
2
2
3
and
3
, 1
ml
ka
C
m
c
B A = = = , then the solution of this characteristic equation can be obtained
by using the quadratic formula:
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 , 1
3
2
3
4
3
3 3
4
1
4
3
) 1 ( 2
3
1 4
3 3
2
4
ml
ka
m
c
m
c
ml
ka
m
c
m
c
ml
ka
m
c
m
c
A
AC B B
s

.

\

=
(
(

.

\

=


.

\


.

\

=
=
Therefore, the general solution of the secondorder homogeneous differential equation is:
+ =
t s t s
Be Ae
2 1
u
t
ml
ka
m
c
m
c
t
ml
ka
m
c
m
c
Be Ae
(
(

.

\

(
(

.

\

+
+ =
2
2 2
2
2 2
3
2
3
4
3 3
2
3
4
3
u
(b) Comparing 0
3 3
2
2
= + + u u u
ml
ka
m
c
with 0 2
2
= + + u e u ,e u
n n
gives:
2
2
2
3
ml
ka
n
= e or
m
k
l
a
n
3
= e
Therefore, the undamped natural frequency is:
m
k
l
a
f
n
3
2t
=
(c) For critical damping, = 1. Thus,
= 
.

\

2
2
2
3
2
3
ml
k a
m
c
c
km
l
a
c
c
3
3
2
=
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
differential
system.
SOLUTION
(a) The m
using t
The ki
Since x
By pri
nt 2
Machine Dy
4: For the
l equation o
N
moment of in
the parallel
J
O
= I
O
inetic and p
2
1
2
1
U
m T
=
=
x = r or
2
1
2
1
=
=
U
m T
inciple of vi
x m
dt
d
1
2
1
ynamics 2,
system sh
of motion; (
nertia of m
2
axis theore
O
+ m
2
a
2
otential ene
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
k x k
m x m
+
+
= x/r, theref
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
+
+
k x k
m x m
irtual work,
x x m x
m x m
+
+
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
Semester 1,
own in Fig
(b) The natu
2
at the poi
em:
ergies of the
( )
2
2
2
2
1
u
u
a
J x
O
+
fore, by sub
2
2
2
2
1

.

\

\

+
r
x
a
J x
O
r
x
J x
J x m
O
O
.

\

+
+
2
2
2
1
, 2012
gure 4 belo
ural frequen
Figure 4
int with an
e system are
2
u
bstituting th
2

.

\

r
x
k
r
x
k
r
x
O
+ 
.

\


.

+ 
.

\

1
2
2
1
ow, use ene
ncy; and (c)
offset of a
e:
his into the e
a
k x x
k x k
dt
d
\

+
\

+
2
2
2
1
2
1
Stephen,
ergy metho
) Establish c
from point
equations ab
( )
r
x a
r
ax
r
x
a
U T
t
d
= 
.

\


.

=
(
(
(

.

\

= +
2
P. Y. Bong
P
od, determin
critical dam
O can be o
bove yields
x x c
x x c
x x c
g (4209168)
Page 8 of 57
ne: (a) The
mping of the
obtained by
:
)
7
e
e
y
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 9 of 57
Question 4 (a) (Continued)
Dividing the entire equation by x and collecting like terms gives:
x c x
r
a
k k x
r
J
m m
x c x
r
a
k x k
r
x
J x m x m
O
O
=


.

\

+ + 
.

\

+ +
=


.

\

+ +

.

\

+ +
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
Dividing the entire equation by the coefficient of x and rearranging terms results in a second
order homogeneous differential equation:
0
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
=
+ +
+
+
+ +
x
r
J
m m
r
a
k k
x
r
J
m m
c
x
O O
(b) Comparing with 0 2
2
= + + x x x
n n
e e gives natural circular frequency:
+ + +
+
=
+ +
+
=
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
) ( a m I r m m
a k r k
r
J
m m
r
a
k k
O
O
n
e
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
) ( a m I r m m
a k r k
O
n
+ + +
+
= e
Thus, the natural frequency is:
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
) ( 2
1
a m I r m m
a k r k
f
O
n
+ + +
+
=
t
(c) For critical damping, = 1. Thus,
( )
 
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
) (
) ( 2
) (
1 2 2
2
a m I r m m
a k r k
a m I r m m
a m I r m m
a k r k
m m c
m
c
O
O
O
n c n
c
+ + +
+
+ + + =
+ + +
+
= = = e e
Simplifying yields:
) ]( ) [( 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
a k r k a m I r m m c
O c
+ + + + =
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question 5
mm in 60
suitable fun
plot the s v
considering
those funct
SOLUTION
nt 2
Machine Dy
5 (Problem
, fall 50 mm
nctions for
v a j diagram
g pressure
tions. Plot b
N
ynamics 2,
m 8.9 and 8
m in 90, an
rise and fal
ms. (b) Use
angle and r
both functio
Semester 1,
8.14): Desig
nd dwell fo
ll to minimi
DYNACA
radius of cu
ons. Draw th
, 2012
gn a single
or the remin
ize accelera
AM software
urvature. U
he cam prof
dwell cam
nder. The to
ation. (a) Us
e to size the
Use eccentri
file.
Stephen,
to move a
tal cycle mu
se MATLAB
cam for a 1
city only if
P. Y. Bong
Pa
follower fr
must take 2 s
B or Excel
12 mm radi
f necessary
g (4209168)
age 10 of 57
rom 0 to 50
sec. Choose
software to
ius follower
to balance
)
7
0
e
o
r
e
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 11 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 12 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 13 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 14 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 15 of 57
)
7
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 16 of 57
Question 6 (Problem 8.8 and 8.13): Design a doubledwell cam to move a follower from 0 to 40
mm in 45, dwell for 150, fall 40 mm in 90, and dwell for the remainder. The total cycle must
take 6 sec. Choose suitable functions for the rise and fall to minimize velocities. (a) Use MATLAB
or Excel software to plot the s v a j diagrams. (b) Use DYNACAM software to size the cam for a 35
mm radius roller follower considering pressure angle and radius of curvature. Use eccentricity only
if necessary to balance those functions. Plot both functions. Draw the cam profile. (c) Repeat for
flatface follower. Which would you use?
SOLUTION
(a) In order to minimize the velocities of the cam follower during rise and fall intervals, Modified
Sine Velocity Function has been employed. The displacements, velocities, accelerations and
jerk are computed by the aid of Microsoft Excel and tabulated in the table below:
1
st
Interval: Rise (0 45);
1
= 45
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
1
(mm)
Velocity, v
1
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
1
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
1
(mm/s
3
)
0 0 0 0 4951.909
5 0.461312 14.90201489 298.7992 2017.444
10 3.056445 45.63742059 373.4989 183.404
15 8.395062 75.44145036 288.1278 1650.64
20 15.8675 93.13759304 106.714 2384.25
25 24.1325 93.13759304 106.714 2384.25
30 31.60494 75.44145036 288.128 1650.64
35 36.94356 45.63742059 373.499 183.404
40 39.53869 14.90201489 298.799 2017.444
2
nd
Interval: High Dwell (45 195);
2
= 150
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
2
(mm)
Velocity, v
2
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
2
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
2
(mm/s
3
)
45 40 0 0 4951.909
50 40 0 0 0
55 40 0 0 0
60 40 0 0 0
65 40 0 0 0
70 40 0 0 0
75 40 0 0 0
80 40 0 0 0
85 40 0 0 0
90 40 0 0 0
95 40 0 0 0
100 40 0 0 0
105 40 0 0 0
110 40 0 0 0
115 40 0 0 0
120 40 0 0 0
125 40 0 0 0
130 40 0 0 0
135 40 0 0 0
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 17 of 57
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
2
(mm)
Velocity, v
2
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
2
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
2
(mm/s
3
)
140 40 0 0 0
145 40 0 0 0
150 40 0 0 0
155 40 0 0 0
160 40 0 0 0
165 40 0 0 0
170 40 0 0 0
175 40 0 0 0
180 40 0 0 0
185 40 0 0 0
190 40 0 0 0
195 40 0 0 0
3
rd
Interval: Fall (195 285);
3
= 90
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
3
(mm)
Velocity, v
3
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
3
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
3
(mm/s
3
)
200 39.90144 2.13438474 45.3724 424.127
205 39.5003 7.484189894 74.7191 252.186
210 38.53889 14.76954994 90.0597 103.17
215 36.89908 22.85535048 93.395 22.92035
220 34.55419 30.78111007 86.7258 126.0851
225 31.55375 37.76098027 72.0531 206.3244
230 28.00827 43.18374563 51.3777 263.6382
235 24.07396 46.61282368 26.7006 298.0264
240 19.93753 47.78626494 0.02251 309.4892
245 15.80093 46.61675292 26.65554 298.0264
250 11.86611 43.19160411 51.33269 263.6382
255 8.319769 37.77276799 72.00808 206.3244
260 5.318132 30.79682704 86.6808 126.0851
265 2.971699 22.87499669 93.34997 22.92035
270 1.33 14.7931254 90.01471 103.17
275 0.366359 7.511694589 74.67413 252.186
280 0.03735 2.165818678 45.32733 424.127
285 0.10594 0.065245067 0.02656 618.994
4
th
Interval: Low Dwell (285 360);
4
= 75
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
4
(mm)
Velocity, v
4
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
4
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
4
(mm/s
3
)
290 0 0 0 0
295 0 0 0 0
300 0 0 0 0
305 0 0 0 0
310 0 0 0 0
315 0 0 0 0
320 0 0 0 0
325 0 0 0 0
330 0 0 0 0
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 18 of 57
Cam Angle,
(Deg.)
Displacement, s
4
(mm)
Velocity, v
4
(mm/s)
Acceleration, a
4
(mm/s
2
)
Jerk, j
4
(mm/s
3
)
335 0 0 0 0
340 0 0 0 0
345 0 0 0 0
350 0 0 0 0
355 0 0 0 0
360 0 0 0 0
Based on the results tabulated in the table above, the Displacement (s), Velocity (v),
Acceleration (a) and Jerk (j) Diagrams are plotted with respect to the cam angle as shown in
figure below:
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
,
s
(
m
m
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Displacement, s, of Cam Follower (mm)
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
v
(
m
m
/
s
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Velocity, v, of Cam Follower (mm/s)
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 19 of 57
Question 6 (a) (Continued)
s v a j Diagrams for the Cam Follower
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
a
(
m
m
/
s
2
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Acceleration, a, of Cam Follower (mm/s
2
)
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
J
e
r
k
,
j
(
m
m
/
s
3
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Jerk, j, of Cam Follower (mm/s
3
)
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 20 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 21 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 22 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 23 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 24 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 25 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 26 of 57
)
7
Assignmen
HES5310 M
nt 2
Machine Dyynamics 2, Semester 1,, 2012
Stephen, P. Y. Bong
Pa
g (4209168)
age 27 of 57
)
7
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 28 of 57
Question 7 (Problem 8.20): A constant velocity of 50 m/sec must be matched for 1 sec, and then
the follower must return to your choice of start point. The total cycle time is 2.75 sec. Design a cam
for a follower radius of 12 mm and maximum pressure angle of 25 absolute value.
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 29 of 57
Question 8: A cam drive is required to synchronize two motions on an automated transfer device.
The cam follower must rise outward 15 mm with constant acceleration in 1.5 sec, dwell for 0.5 sec,
fall 15 mm with constant acceleration in 3 sec, and dwell for 1 sec, determine: (a) The angular
velocity of the cam; (b) Mathematical expressions for the displacement, velocity and acceleration,
for the intervals; and (c) The maximum follower velocity and acceleration.
SOLUTION
Interval Follower Motion
Displacement, s
(mm)
Time
(sec)
Segment Angle, (Deg)
1
Rise with Constant
Acceleration
15 1.5 = = 90 360
sec 6
sec 5 . 1
1

2 Dwell (High) 0 0.5 = = 30 360
sec 6
sec 5 . 0
2

3
Fall with Constant
Acceleration
15 3 = = 180 360
sec 6
sec 3
3

4 Dwell (Low) 0 1 = = 60 360
sec 6
sec 1
4

(a) The total cycle time = 1.5 sec + 0.5 sec + 3 sec + 1 sec = 6 sec
Thus, the angular velocity of the cam can be determined as follows:
sec rad
3
1
= =
sec 6
rad 2t
e
(b) 1
st
Interval: Rise with Constant Acceleration (0 90)
2
1
2 2 1 1
1
1
1 1
2
1
1 1 1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1 0
1
1
2
2

e
u 
u

u
 
e e
u 
u

u

u

u
C
d
dv
dt
dv
a
C C
d
ds
dt
ds
v
C C C s
= = =


.

\

(


.

\

+ = = =


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+ =


.

\

Boundary Conditions:
When = 0; then s
1
= 0, v
1
= 0
( ) 0 0
1
= s ( ) ( ) = + + 0 0 0
2
2 1 0
C C C 0
0
= C
( ) 0 0
1
= v ( ) =
(
+ 0 0 2
2
2
1
1
C
C

e 0
1
= C
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 30 of 57
Question 8 (b) (Continued)
When =
1
= 90; then s
1
= 15 mm
15
90
90
1
=

.

\

s = 
.

\

15
90
90
2
2
C 15
2
= C
Therefore, the polynomial functions which describe the displacement, velocity and acceleration
of the cam follower for the 1
st
interval are:
2
1 1
1
15


.

\

=


.

\


u

u
s
e

u
 
u


.

\

=


.

\

1 1 1
1
30
v
2
2
1 1
1
30
e
 
u
=


.

\

a
2
nd
Interval: High Dwell (90 120)
15
2
2
=


.

\


u
s 0
2
2
=


.

\


u
v 0
2
2
=


.

\


u
a
3
rd
Interval: Fall with Constant Acceleration (120 300)
2
2
3
5 2 3 3
3
3
3 3
5
3
4 3 3
3
3
2
3
5
3
4 3
3
3
2
2
e

e
u 
u

u
 
e e
u 
u

u

u

u
C
d
dv
dt
dv
a
C C
d
ds
dt
ds
v
C C C s
= = =


.

\

(


.

\

+ = = =


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+ =


.

\

Boundary Conditions:
When = 120; then s
3
= 15 mm, v
3
= 0
15
180
120
3
=

.

\

s = 
.

\

+ 
.

\

+ 15
180
120
180
120
2
5 4 3
C C C 15
9
4
3
2
5 4 3
= + + C C C
0
180
120
3
=

.

\

v =
)
`
0
) 180 (
120
2
180
2
5
4
C
C
e 0
3
4
5 4
= + C C
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 31 of 57
Question 8 (b) (Continued)
When = 300; then s
3
= 0
0
180
300
3
=

.

\

s = 
.

\

+ 
.

\

+ 0
180
300
180
300
2
5 4 3
C C C 0
9
25
3
5
5 4 3
= + + C C C
Rewriting the system of equations in matrix form:
(
(
(
(
(
(
0
0
15
1
1 0
1
5
4
3
9
25
3
5
3
4
9
4
3
2
C
C
C
By using TI84 Plus Graphical Calculator,
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
15
20
0
0
15
1
1 0
1
3
25
1
9
25
3
5
3
4
9
4
3
2
5
4
3
C
C
C
Substituting C
3
= 25/3, C
4
= 20, and C
5
= 15 into the equations above gives the expressions of
displacement, velocity and acceleration for the 3
rd
interval.
2
3 3 3
3
15 20
3
25


.

\



.

\

+ =


.

\


u

u

u
s
e

u
  
u
(


.

\

=


.

\

3 3 3 3
3
30 20
v
2
2
3 3
3
30
e
 
u
=


.

\

a
4
th
Interval: Low Dwell (300 360)
0
4
4
=


.

\


u
s 0
4
4
=


.

\


u
v 0
4
4
=


.

\


u
a
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 32 of 57
Question 8 (c)
The displacements, velocities and accelerations of the cam follower at different intervals are
computed by using Microsoft Excel and tabulated in the table below:
1st Interval: Rise with Constant Acceleration (0 90);
1
= 90
Cam Angle,
Displacement, s
1
(mm) Velocity, v
1
(mm/s) Acceleration, a
1
(mm/s
2
)
(Deg.) (Rad.)
0 0 0 0 13.33333
15 0.261799 0.416666667 3.333333 13.33333
30 0.523599 1.666666667 6.666667 13.33333
45 0.785398 3.75 10 13.33333
60 1.047198 6.666666667 13.33333 13.33333
75 1.308997 10.41666667 16.66667 13.33333
90 1.570796 15 20 13.33333
2nd Interval: High Dwell (90 120);
2
= 30
Cam Angle,
Displacement, s
2
(mm) Velocity, v
2
(mm/s) Acceleration, a
2
(mm/s
2
)
(Deg.) (Rad.)
90 1.570796 15 0 0
105 1.832596 15 0 0
120 2.094395 15 0 0
3rd Interval: Fall with Constant Acceleration (120 300);
3
= 180
Cam Angle,
Displacement, s
3
(mm) Velocity, v
3
(mm/s) Acceleration, a
3
(mm/s
2
)
(Deg.) (Rad.)
120 2.094395 15 3.333333 3.333333
135 2.356194 14.89583333 2.5 3.333333
150 2.617994 14.58333333 1.666667 3.333333
165 2.879793 14.0625 0.833333 3.333333
180 3.141593 13.33333333 0 3.333333
195 3.403392 12.39583333 0.83333 3.333333
210 3.665191 11.25 1.66667 3.333333
225 3.926991 9.895833333 2.5 3.333333
240 4.18879 8.333333333 3.33333 3.333333
255 4.45059 6.5625 4.16667 3.333333
270 4.712389 4.583333333 5 3.333333
285 4.974188 2.395833333 5.83333 3.333333
300 5.235988 0 6.66667 3.333333
4th Interval: Low Dwell (300 360);
4
= 60
Cam Angle,
Displacement, s
4
(mm) Velocity, v
4
(mm/s) Acceleration, a
4
(mm/s
2
)
(Deg.) (Rad.)
300 5.235988 0 0 0
315 5.497787 0 0 0
330 5.759587 0 0 0
345 6.021386 0 0 0
360 6.283185 0 0 0
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 33 of 57
Question 8 (c) (Continued)
Based on the results tabulated in the table above, the plots of displacement, velocity and
acceleration with respect to the cam angle are shown below:
Plot of Displacement, s (mm) vs. Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Plot of Velocity, v (mm/s) vs. Cam Angle, (Deg.)
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0 90 180 270 360
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
,
s
(
m
m
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Displacment, s, of the Cam Follower (mm)
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
0 90 180 270 360
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
v
(
m
m
/
s
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Velocity, v, of the Cam Follower (mm/s)
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 34 of 57
Question 8 (c) (Continued)
Plot of Acceleration, a (mm/s
2
) vs. Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Based on the plots of velocity and acceleration versus cam angle, it can be clearly seen that the cam
follower has a maximum velocity of v
max
= 20 mm/s and a
max
= 13 mm/s
2
at cam angle of 90 in the
rise segment.
The maximum velocity and acceleration also can be computed mathematically as follows:
At = 90,
sec mm 13.33
sec mm 20
~ =

.

\

=

.

\

=
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
sec mm
3
40
sec rad
3
1
rad
2
30
90
90
sec rad
3
1
90
90
rad
2
30
90
90
2
2
1 max
1 max
t
t
e
t
t
e
a a
v v
3
0
3
6
9
12
15
0 90 180 270 360
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,
a
(
m
m
/
s
2
)
Cam Angle, (Deg.)
Acceleration, a, of the Cam Follower (mm/s
2
)
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 35 of 57
Question 9 (Problem 9.12): Design a compound, spur gear train for a ratio of 150:1 and module of
4. Specify pitch diameters and number of teeth. Sketch the train to scale.
SOLUTION
Square root of 150: 247 . 12 150 =
Since 12.247 is greater than 10 which is the design limit, therefore, three stages might require.
Cube root of 150: 313 . 5 150
3
=
Since the cube root of 150 is approximately equal to 5.313 which is less than 10, thus a three stage,
with ratio of 5.313 in each stage is sufficient.
The integer factor of 150 is 2, 3, 5, and 5. After the set of integer factor {2, 3, 5, 5} are balance as
equally as possible, 150 can be expressed as the product of 5, 5 and 6.
150
1
6
1
5
1
5
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
=

.

\


.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\



.

\

=
N
N
N
N
N
N
m
V
Therefore,
2 3
3
2
5
5
1
N N
N
N
= =
4 5
5
4
5
5
1
N N
N
N
= =
6 7
7
6
6
6
1
N N
N
N
= =
For a pressure angle of = 20, a minimum of 18 teeth is required for the pinion. If 3 pinions with
18 teeth are utilized, then
N
3
= 5N
2
= 5(18) = 90 N
5
= 5N
4
= 5(18) = 90 N
7
= 6N
6
= 6(18) = 108
Gearset Ratio Pinion Teeth Gear Teeth = Gearset Ratio Pinion Teeth
5 18 90
5 18 90
6 18 108
Check the train ratio by using the number of gear teeth obtained:
150
1
108
18
90
18
90
18
7
6
5
4
3
2
=

.

\


.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\



.

\

=
N
N
N
N
N
N
m
V
The negative train ratio value indicates that gear 2 and gear 7 are rotating in opposite directions.
Therefore,
N
2
= 18 N
3
= 90 N
4
= 18 N
5
= 90 N
6
= 18 N
7
= 108
Since m = d/N or d = mN and assume the module is constant throughout the entire gear train, hence
the pitch diameters are computed as follows:
( )( ) mm 72 = = = 18 4
2 2
mN d ( )( ) mm 360 = = = 90 4
3 3
mN d
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 36 of 57
Question 9 (Continued)
( )( ) mm 72 = = = 18 4
4 4
mN d ( )( ) mm 360 = = = 90 4
5 5
mN d
( )( ) mm 72 = = = 18 4
6 6
mN d ( )( ) mm 432 = = = 108 4
7 7
mN d
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 37 of 57
Question 10 (Problem 9.18): Design a compound, reverted, spur gear train for a ratio of 12:1 and
module of 4. Specify pitch diameters and number of teeth. Sketch the train to scale.
SOLUTION
Square root of 12: 464 . 3 12 =
Since 3.464 is less than 10, therefore two stages will be sufficient. The integer factors of 12 are 2, 2
and 3. After the set of integer factor {2, 2, 3} are balance as equally as possible, 12 can be
expressed as the product of 4 and 3.
12
1
3
1
4
1
5
4
3
2
=

.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
N
N
N
N
m
V
Therefore,
2 3
3
2
4
4
1
N N
N
N
= =
4 5
5
4
3
3
1
N N
N
N
= =
For a reverted gear train, the center distances must be equal:
2 2 2 2
5 4 3 2
d d d d
+ = +
Since m = d/N or d = mN and assume that the module is the same throughout the entire gear train,
the equation above can be expressed as:
N
2
+ N
3
= N
4
+ N
5
= K
By substituting N
3
= 4N
2
and N
5
= 3N
4
into the equations above gives:
N
2
+ 4N
2
= K 5N
2
= K and N
4
+ 3N
4
= K 4N
4
= K
Thus, K is set to the lowest common multiple of 5 & 4 = 20. Since the used of pinion with 4 teeth
will have unacceptable undercutting, therefore by letting K = (4)(20) = 80 yields:
N
2
= K/5 = 80/5 = 16 N
4
= K/4 = 80/4 = 20
N
3
= K N
2
= 80 16 = 64 N
5
= 3N
4
= 3(20) = 60
N
2
= 16 N
3
= 64 N
4
= 20 N
5
= 60
Checking of train ratio:
12
1
60
20
64
16
5
4
3
2
=

.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
N
N
N
N
m
V
By using the relation of module and pitch diameter, the pitch diameters of each of the spur gear are
obtained:
( )( ) mm 64 = = = 16 4
2 2
mN d ( )( ) mm 256 = = = 64 4
3 3
mN d
( )( ) mm 80 = = = 20 4
4 4
mN d ( )( ) mm 240 = = = 60 4
5 5
mN d
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 38 of 57
Question 10 (Continued)
Checking of center distance:
mm 320
mm 320
= + = +
= + = +
mm 240 mm 80
mm 256 mm 64
5 4
3 2
d d
d d
Since d
2
+ d
3
= d
4
+ d
5
= 320 mm, therefore, the spur gear train designed is a compound reverted
gear train.
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question 1
1 gives dat
the variabl
method for
Row
d
e
f
SOLUTION
Tabular M
Row d: N
2
nt 2
Machine Dy
11 (Problem
ta for gear n
le represent
r each raw.
N
2
25
35
30
N
Method
= 25, N
3
=
Gear N
2
3
4
5
6
ynamics 2,
m 9.26): Fi
numbers of
t by a ques
N
3
45
25
30
45, N
4
= 35
Number
2 1
+6
4 2
2
6 +
Semester 1,
igure 5 show
f teeth and i
stion mark.
N
4
35
55
45
5, N
5
= 30, N
1
Gear
e =
120 rpm
6.67 rpm
200 rpm
200 rpm
+40 rpm
, 2012
ws a compo
input veloci
To check
Figure 5
N
5
30
35
40
N
6
= 50,
6
2
Arm
e +

50 rpm 1
50 rpm
50 rpm
50 rpm
ound planeta
ities. For th
your soluti
N
6
50
45
35
= 40 rpm, a
3
Gear Arm
e

116.67 rpm
150 rpm
150 rpm
90 rpm
Stephen,
ary gear trai
he rows (d, e
on, please u
2
e
?
30
40
and
arm
= 
Gear R
4
2
3
2
=
N
N
3
4
4
3
=
N
N
5
3
6
5
=
N
N
P. Y. Bong
Pa
in (not to sc
e and f) ass
use formul
6
e
40
?
0
50 rpm
Ratio
9
4
45
25
=
7
9
35
45
=
5
3
50
30
=
g (4209168)
age 39 of 57
cale). Table
signed, find
a and table
arm
e
50
75
?
)
7
e
d
e
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 40 of 57
Question 11 (Continued)
Row e: N
2
= 35, N
3
= 25, N
4
= 55, N
5
= 35, N
6
= 45,
2
= 30 rpm, and
arm
= 75 rpm
Gear Number
1 2 3
Gear Ratio
Gear
e =
Arm
e +
Gear Arm
e
2 30 rpm  
5
7
25
35
3
2
= =
N
N
3 42 rpm 75 rpm 33 rpm
11
5
55
25
4
3
= =
N
N
4 90 rpm 75 rpm 15 rpm
5 90 rpm 75 rpm 15 rpm
9
7
45
35
6
5
= =
N
N
6 63.33 rpm 75 rpm 11.67 rpm
Row f: N
2
= 30, N
3
= 30, N
4
= 45, N
5
= 40, N
6
= 35,
2
= 40 rpm, and
6
= 0
Gear Number
1 2 3
Gear Ratio
Gear
e =
Arm
e +
Gear Arm
e
2 40 rpm  
1
30
30
3
2
= =
N
N
3
3
e
V D
3
2
45
30
4
3
= =
N
N
4
4
e V C
5
5
e
V B
7
8
35
40
6
5
= =
N
N
6 0 V A
Let V be the angular velocity of arm. The unknown A, B, C and D can be determined by using the
gear ratio: .
In
Out
Out
In
e
e
=
N
N
For Gear 6, V + A = 0, thus, A = V.
V B
B
V
B
A
N
N
8
7
7
8
6
5
=
= =
V V V B V
8
15
8
7
5
= + = + = e
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 41 of 57
Question 11 (Continued)
For Gear 4, V
8
15
5 4
= = e e
V V V C C V
8
7
8
15
4
= = + = e
For Gear 3,
V D
D
V
D
C
N
N
16
21
8
7
3
2
4
3
= = =
V V V D V
16
5
16
21
3
= = + = e
Since ,
2
3
3
2
e
e
=
N
N
therefore,
rpm 128
16
5
rpm 40
rpm 40
16
5
1 = =
= V
V
Replace the unknown with the value obtained in the table above gives:
Gear Number
1 2 3
Gear Ratio
Gear
e =
Arm
e +
Gear Arm
e
2 +40 rpm  
1
30
30
3
2
= =
N
N
3 40 rpm 128 rpm 168 rpm
3
2
45
30
4
3
= =
N
N
4 +240 rpm 128 rpm 112 rpm
5 240 rpm 128 rpm 112 rpm
7
8
35
40
6
5
= =
N
N
6 0 128 rpm 128 rpm
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 42 of 57
Question 11 (Continued)
Formula Method
Velocity Difference:
Arm Gear Arm Gear
e e e + =
For the First Gear:
Arm F Arm F
e e e =
For the Last Gear:
Arm L Arm L
e e e =
Therefore,
R =
=
Arm F
Arm L
Arm F
Arm L
e e
e e
e
e
Row d: N
2
= 25, N
3
= 45, N
4
= 35, N
5
= 30, N
6
= 50,
6
= 40 rpm, and
arm
= 50 rpm
rpm 66.67 =

.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
=
3
3
6
5
4
3
Arm 3
Arm 6
Arm 3
Arm 6
50
30
45
25
rpm) 50 (
rpm) 50 ( rpm 40
e
e
e e
e e
e
e
N
N
N
N
rpm 120 =

.

\

=


.

\

=
25
45
rpm 67 . 66
2
3
3 2
N
N
e e
Row e: N
2
= 35, N
3
= 25, N
4
= 55, N
5
= 35, N
6
= 45,
2
= 30 rpm, and
arm
= 75 rpm
rpm 42 =

.

\

=


.

\

=
25
35
rpm 30
3
2
2 3
N
N
e e
rpm 63.33 =

.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
=
6
6
6
5
4
3
Arm 3
Arm 6
Arm 3
Arm 6
50
30
45
25
rpm) 75 ( rpm 2 4
rpm) 75 (
e
e
e e
e e
e
e
N
N
N
N
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 43 of 57
Question 11 (Continued)
Row f: N
2
= 30, N
3
= 30, N
4
= 45, N
5
= 40, N
6
= 35,
2
= 40 rpm, and
6
= 0
( )
rpm 128 =
=

.

\

+ =
=
+

.

\


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
=
Arm
Arm
Arm Arm
Arm
Arm
Arm
Arm
6
5
4
3
Arm 3
Arm 6
Arm 3
Arm 6
rpm
21
640
21
16
1
rpm 0 4
21
16
21
16
rpm 0 4
35
40
45
30
rpm 0 4
0
e
e
e e
e
e
e
e
e e
e e
e
e
N
N
N
N
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
point c and
the natural
SOLUTION
Equations
Sum
Sum
nt 2
Machine Dy
12: A two D
d clockwi
l frequencie
N
of motion:
mming the f
\

k
x k
mmation of
\

x k
ynamics 2,
DOF system
ise for the r
s and the m
forces in the
2
2
4
4
+
+
+
\


.

u
u
x
m
k
x
k x m
k
kl
kx
x k
l
f moment ab
4
4 4
+
+

.

\


.

u
u
u
C
J
k
J
k
l l
Semester 1,
m shown in
rotation of t
mode shapes
e xdirection
0
4
0
4
2
2
= +
= +
=
=

.

+
=
u
u
u
u
m
kl
x
kl
kx
m
kl
kx
m
l
x
m F
x
bout the poin
16
5
16
5
4
16
5
4
2
2
) ( CCW
+
+ +
\


.

\

+
+
u
C C
J
kl
x
J
kl
kl
x
kl
kl
x
kl
l
x k
M
, 2012
n Figure 6.
the uniform
.
Figure 6
n:
0
0
x m
x m
x m
nt C:
0
0
6
6
2
2
2
2
)
=
=
=
= 
.

\

=
u
u
u u
u
u
C
C
C
C C
J
J
l
J M
Choose coo
m bar. Determ
Stephen,
ordinate x fo
mine the eq
P. Y. Bong
Pa
for the displ
quations of
g (4209168)
age 44 of 57
lacement of
motion and
)
7
f
d
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 45 of 57
Question 12 (Continued)
Since J
C
= ml
2
/12, therefore,
0
12
16
5
12
4
2
2
2
=


.

\

+


.

\

+ u u
ml
kl
x
ml
kl
Simplification yields:
0
4
15 3
= + + u u
m
k
x
ml
k
Thus, the equations of motion for the system are:
0
4
2
= + + u
m
kl
x
m
k
x and 0
4
15 3
= + + u u
m
k
x
ml
k
Express the system of differential equations above in matrix form gives:
)
`
=
)
`
+
)
`
0
0
4 15 2
2 2
0
0
u u
x
m k kl
kl k x
J
m
C
Simplification gives:
)
`
=
)
`
+
)
`
0
0
0
0
4 15 2
2 2
u u
x
J
m
m k kl
kl k
x
C
)
`
=
)
`
+
)
`
0
0
4 15 3
4 2
u u
x
m k ml k
m kl m k x
Eigen Solution:
Let
(
=
m k ml k
m kl m k
A
4 15 3
4 2
and
(
=
1 0
0 1
I
Then,
(
=
(
) 4 15 ( 3
4 ) 2 (
1 0
0 1
4 15 3
4 2
m k ml k
m kl m k
m k ml k
m kl m k
I A
Eigenvalues:   0 =
)
`
x
I A or   0 det = I A
0
4
3
4
15 2
0
) 4 15 ( 3
4 ) 2 (
=

.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\

=
m
kl
ml
k
m
k
m
k
m k ml k
m kl m k
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 46 of 57
Question 12 (Continued)
Solving the determinant results in a quadratic equation:
0
4
27
4
23
0
4
3
4
15 2
2
15
0
4
3
4
15 2
0
) 4 15 ( 3
4 ) 2 (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= +
= +
=

.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\

=
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
kl
ml
k
m
k
m
k
m k ml k
m kl m k
where can be determined by solving the quadratic equation above by using the quadratic
formula:
Let
2
2
4
27
and
4
23
, 1
m
k
C
m
k
B A = = =
( )
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
A
AC B B
8
97
8
23
2
16
97
4
23
) 1 ( 2
4
27
1 4
4
23
4
23
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 , 1
=
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

=
=
Thus, the eigenvalues are:
m
k
8
) 97 23 (
1
+
= and
m
k
8
) 97 23 (
2
=
For static couplings,
2
n
e = , hence, the circular natural frequencies of the system are:
m
k
m
k
0264 . 2
8
) 97 23 (
1
=
+
= e and
m
k
m
k
2821 . 1
8
) 97 23 (
2
=
= e
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 47 of 57
Question 12 (Continued)
Mode Shapes:
For
m
k
8
) 97 23 (
1
+
= , the eigenvector is:
 
(
(
(
(
=
m
k
m
k
ml
k
m
kl
m
k
m
k
I A
8
) 97 23 (
4
15 3
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
1
 
0
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
0
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
0
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
0
8
) 97 23 (
4
15 3
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
0
1
= +
(
+
(
= +
(
=
)
`
(
(
(
(
=
)
`
u
u
u
u
u
l
x
l
x
m
k
m
kl
x
m
k
m
k
x
m
k
m
k
ml
k
m
kl
m
k
m
k
x
I A
Assume = 1,
( ) l 0.1187 ~
+
=
+
= = +
(
+
l
l
x
l
x
24
97 7
8
) 97 23 (
2
4
0 1
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
Therefore, the mode shape of the vibration with natural frequency of
m
k
0264 . 2
1
= e is given by:
l .
x
1187 0
1
= 
.

\

e
u
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 48 of 57
Question 12 (Continued)
For
m
k
8
) 97 23 (
2
= , the eigenvector is:
 
(
(
(
(
=
m
k
m
k
ml
k
m
kl
m
k
m
k
I A
8
) 97 23 (
4
15 3
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
2
 
0
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
0
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
0
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
0
8
) 97 23 (
4
15 3
4 8
) 97 23 ( 2
0
2
= +
(
+
(
= +
(
=
)
`
(
(
(
(
=
)
`
u
u
u
u
u
l
x
l
x
m
k
m
kl
x
m
k
m
k
x
m
k
m
k
ml
k
m
kl
m
k
m
k
x
I A
Assume = 1,
( ) l 0.7020 ~
=
= = +
(
l
l
x
l
x
24
97 7
8
) 97 23 (
2
4
0 1
4 8
) 97 23 (
2
Therefore, the mode shape of the vibration with natural frequency of
m
k
2821 . 1
2
= e is given by:
l
x
7020 . 0
2
= 
.

\

e
u
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
pendulum
0.25 m. As
SOLUTION
For mass 1
For small a
1
x m
Since x = r
1
x m
For mass 2
For small a
m
Substitutin
m
nt 2
Machine Dy
13: Refer t
is attached
ssume small
N
1, m
1
, the su
1 1
x m F
x
=
angle, , sin
2
1 1
+ m kx x
r or = x/r
+ 2
1 1
m kx x
2, the net for
2 2
x m F
x
=
angle, , sin
2 2
x m g m = u
ng = x
2
/L i
= 
.

\

2
2
L
x
g m
ynamics 2,
to Figure 6.
to m
1
and f
langle osci
um of forces
1
2 m kx +
u u ~ n , ther
0
2
= u g m
r, therefore,
= 
.

\

2
2
L
x
g m
rce in xdire
2
sin g m
u u ~ n , ther
2
x
into the equ
2 2
x m
2
x
Semester 1,
. The mass
free to rotat
illation and
s in xdirect
2
sin g m = u
refore, the e
= 0
2
1
+
m
x
ection
2 2
n x m = u
refore, the e
uation above
0
2 2
= + x
L
g
, 2012
m1 transla
te. Suppose
obtain the e
Figure 6
tion:
1 1
x m
equation abo
2
1
2
1
1
L m
g m
x
m
k
equation abo
e gives:
0
ates without
e that m
1
=
equations of
ove become
0
2
= x
L
g
ove become
Stephen,
t friction al
m
2
= 5 kg,
f motion.
es:
es:
P. Y. Bong
Pa
long the pla
k = 400 N/
g (4209168)
age 49 of 57
atform. The
/m, and L =
)
7
e
=
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 50 of 57
Question 13 (Continued)
Writing the two equations of motion above in matrix form gives the equation of motion for the
system:
)
`
=
)
`
(
(
(
(
+
)
`
0
0
0
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
x
x
L
g
L m
g m
m
k
x
x
Substituting the m
1
= m
2
= 5 kg, k = 400 N/m, and L = 0.25 m into the equation of motion above
yields:
)
`
=
)
`
(
(
(
(
+
)
`
0
0
25 . 0
81 . 9
0
) 25 . 0 )( 5 (
) 81 . 9 )( 5 (
5
) 400 )( 2 (
2
1
2
1
x
x
x
x
)
`
=
)
`
+
)
`
0
0
24 . 39 0
24 . 39 160
2
1
2
1
x
x
x
x
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
generally a
forces and
of the coun
correction
SOLUTION
Given that
planes are
Row a: m
1
R
2
= 2.25@
R
1x
R
2x
R
3x
=
=
Bx B
R m
nt 2
Machine Dy
14 (Proble
as shown in
shaking mo
nterweights
planes are 2
N
the angular
20 m apart,
1
= 0.20 kg
@120, and R
x
= 1.25cos (
x
= 2.25cos (
x
= 5.50cos (
m kg 4.86
kg)( 20 . 0 [(
) (
1 1 1 x
l R m
ynamics 2,
em 12.5):
n Figure 8.
oment when
s in correcti
20 m apart.
r velocity is
, l
B
= 20 m.
g, m
2
= 0.40
R
3
= 5.50@
(30) m = 1
(120) m =
(30) m = 4
m)](2 (1.083
) (
2 2 2
B
x
l
l R m
Semester 1,
A system
For dimen
n run unbal
on planes A
Masses are
s = 100 rp
0 kg, m
3
=
@30.
.083 m
1.125 m
4.763 m
40 . 0 [( m) 2
) (
3 3 x
l R m
, 2012
of three no
nsions from
anced at 10
A and B nee
e in kg and l
Figure 8
pm = 100(2
1.24 kg, l
1
R
1y
R
2y
R
3y
m 20
1.12 kg)( 0
3
l
oncoplanar
the row d
00 rpm and
eded to dyn
lengths are
/60) rad/s
1
= 2 m, l
2
y
= 1.25sin (
y
= 2.25sin (
y
= 5.50sin (
m) m)](8 25
Stephen,
weights is
in table be
specify the
amically ba
in meters.
= 10.472 ra
= 8 m, l
3
=
(30) m = 0
(120) m =
(30) m = 
kg) 24 . 1 [(
P. Y. Bong
Pa
s arranged
elow, find t
mR produc
alance the s
ad/s and the
= 17, R
1
=
0.625 m
1.949 m
2.75 m
m)]( .763 4 )(
g (4209168)
age 51 of 57
on a shaft
the shaking
ct and angle
system. The
e correction
1.25@30,
m) (17
)
7
t
g
e
e
n
,
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 52 of 57
Question 14 (Continued)
m kg 2.57 =
=
=
m 20
m) m)](17 2.75 kg)( 24 . 1 [( m) m)](8 .949 1 kg)( 40 . 0 [( m) m)](2 kg)(0.625 20 . 0 [(
) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
B
y y y
By B
l
l R m l R m l R m
R m
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
27.87
m kg 4.86
m kg 57 . 2
tan tan
1 1
Bx B
By B
B
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 5.498 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg 57 . 2 m kg 4.86 ) ( ) (
By B Bx B B B
R m R m R m
m kg 0.8127 =
=
=
) m kg 86 4 ( m) .763 4 kg)( 24 . 1 ( m) 1.125 kg)( 40 . 0 ( m) kg)(1.083 20 . 0 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
.
R m R m R m R m R m
Bx B x x x Ax A
m kg 0.0646 =
=
=
) m kg 57 . 2 ( m) 75 . 2 kg)( 24 . 1 ( m) .949 1 kg)( 40 . 0 ( m) kg)(0.625 20 . 0 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
R m R m R m R m R m
By B y y y Ay A
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
4.5478
m kg 8127 . 0
m kg 0646 . 0
tan tan
1 1
Ax A
Ay A
A
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 0.8153 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg 0.0646 m kg 8127 . 0 ) ( ) (
Ay A Ax A A A
R m R m R m
Row b: m
1
= 2.00 kg, m
2
= 4.36 kg, m
3
= 3.564 kg, l
1
= 5 m, l
2
= 7 m, l
3
= 16, R
1
= 3.00@45,
R
2
= 9.00@320, and R
3
= 6.25@220.
R
1x
= 3.00cos (45) m = 2.1213 m R
1y
= 3.00sin (45) m = 2.1213 m
R
2x
= 9.00cos (320) m = 6.8944 m R
2y
= 9.00sin (320) m = 5.7851 m
R
3x
= 6.25cos (220) m = 4.7878 m R
3y
= 6.25sin (220) m = 4.0174 m
m kg 2.0542 =
=
=
m 20
m) m)](16 4.7878 kg)( 564 . 3 [( m) m)](7 .8944 6 kg)( 36 . 4 [( m) m)](5 kg)(2.1213 00 . 2 [(
) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
B
x x x
Bx B
l
l R m l R m l R m
R m
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 53 of 57
Question 14 (Continued)
m kg 19.209 =
=
=
m 20
m) m)](16 4.0174 kg)( 564 . 3 [( m) m)](7 5.7851 kg)( 36 . 4 [( m) m)](5 kg)(2.1213 00 . 2 [(
) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
B
y y y
By B
l
l R m l R m l R m
R m
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
83.89
m kg .0542 2
m kg 9.209 1
tan tan
1 1
Bx B
By B
B
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 19.3185 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg 9.209 1 m kg .0542 2 ) ( ) (
By B Bx B B B
R m R m R m
m kg 19.2927 =
=
=
) m kg 0542 . 2 ( m) 4.7878 kg)( 564 . 3 ( m) .8944 6 kg)( 36 . 4 ( m) kg)(2.1213 00 . 2 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
R m R m R m R m R m
Bx B x x x Ax A
m kg 16.0894 =
=
=
) m kg 209 . 19 ( m) 4.0174 kg)( 564 . 3 ( m) 5.7851 kg)( 36 . 4 ( m) kg)(2.1213 00 . 2 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
R m R m R m R m R m
By B y y y Ay A
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
39.8269
m kg 2927 . 19
m kg 6.0894 1
tan tan
1 1
Ax A
Ay A
A
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 25.1212 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg 6.0894 1 m kg 2927 . 19 ) ( ) (
Ay A Ax A A A
R m R m R m
Row c: m
1
= 3.50 kg, m
2
= 2.64 kg, m
3
= 8.75 kg, l
1
= 4 m, l
2
= 9 m, l
3
= 11, R
1
= 2.65@100,
R
2
= 5.20@60, and R
3
= 1.25@30.
R
1x
= 2.65cos (100) m = 0.4602 m R
1y
= 2.65sin (100) m = 2.6097 m
R
2x
= 5.20cos (60) m = 2.6 m R
2y
= 5.20sin (60) m = 4.5033 m
R
3x
= 1.25cos (30) m = 1.0825 m R
3y
= 1.25sin (30) m = 0.625 m
m kg 7.9762 =
=
=
m 20
m) m)](11 .0875 1 kg)( 75 . 8 [( m) m)](9 .6 2 kg)( 64 . 2 [( m) m)](4 2 kg)(0.460 50 . 3 [(
) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
B
x x x
Bx B
l
l R m l R m l R m
R m
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 54 of 57
Question 14 (Continued)
m kg 0.5153 =
=
=
m 20
m) m)](11 .625 0 kg)( 75 . 8 [( m) m)](9 4.5033 kg)( 64 . 2 [( m) m)](4 kg)(2.6097 50 . 3 [(
) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
B
y y y
By B
l
l R m l R m l R m
R m
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
3.6964
m kg 7.9762
m kg .5153 0
tan tan
1 1
Bx B
By B
B
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 7.9928 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg .5153 0 m kg 7.9762 ) ( ) (
By B Bx B B B
R m R m R m
m kg 6.749 =
=
=
) m kg 9762 . 7 ( m) .0825 1 kg)( 75 . 8 ( m) .6 2 kg)( 64 . 2 ( m) kg)(0.4602 50 . 3 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
R m R m R m R m R m
Bx B x x x Ax A
m kg 3.2293 =
=
=
) m kg 5153 . 0 ( m) .625 0 kg)( 75 . 8 ( m) 5033 . 4 kg)( 64 . 2 ( m) kg)(2.6097 50 . 3 (
3 3 2 2 1 1
R m R m R m R m R m
By B y y y Ay A
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
25.57
m kg 749 . 6
m kg 3.2293
tan tan
1 1
Ax A
Ay A
A
R m
R m
u
( ) ( ) m kg 7.4818 = + = + =
2 2 2 2
m kg 3.2293 m kg 6.749 ) ( ) (
Ay A Ax A A A
R m R m R m
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question
balancing m
N at phase
right bearin
tire. The ce
rim is 101
Calculate t
needed on
mm.
SOLUTION
F
1
= 22.24
F
2
= 8.9 N
= 100 rp
R
A
= 381 m
R
B
= R
A
=
F
1x
= F
1
co
F
2x
= F
2
co
=
Bx B
F
R m
=
By B
F
R m
\

=
tan
1
u
=
B B
R m
m
B
= 0.362
nt 2
Machine Dy
15 (Proble
machine as
e angle of 45
ng had a pe
enter distan
.6 mm from
the size and
side of the
N
N
pm = 10.47 r
mm/2 = 190
190.5 mm
s (45) = 15
s (120) =
+
2
2 2 1 1
e
B
x x
l
l F l F
+
2
2 2 1 1
e
B
y y
l
l F l F
=


.

t
Bx B
By B
R m
R m
( ) +
2
Bx B
R m
2/R
B
= (0.36
ynamics 2,
em 12.6): A
shown in F
5 with resp
eak of 8.9 N
nce between
m the cente
d location w
rim to dyn
rad/s
.5 mm
5.73 N
4.45 N
=
N 73 . 15 (
=
2
726 . 15 (
\

264 . 0
247 . 0
tan
1
( ) = +
2
By B
R m
62/0.1905) k
Semester 1,
A wheel and
Figure 9. Th
pect to the z
N at phase a
n two bearin
erline of the
with respect
amically ba
1
= 45
2
= 1
F
1y
= 2
F
2y
= 8
(177.8
10 N)(355.6
(177.8
N)(355.6
=


.

m kg 4
m kg 7
( = k 264 . 0
kg = 1.9 kg
, 2012
d tire assem
he force mea
zero referen
angle of 12
ng on the m
e closest be
t to the tire
alance the ti
Figure 9
5
20
22.24cos (45
8.9cos (120
3
3
m)(10 10
4 ( m) 0
3
3
m)( 10 8
( m) 10
43.09
) ( +
2
0 m kg
.
mbly has be
asured at th
nce angle on
20 with re
machine is 25
earing. The
es zero refe
ire assembl
l
1
= 25
l
2
= 10
l
3
= 17
5) N = 15.7
0) N = 7.70
2
rad/s) 0.47
N)(101 45 . 4
rad/s) 10.47
N)(1 708 . 7
) m kg 247 .
Stephen,
een run at 1
he left bearin
n the tire. T
spect to the
54 mm, the
wheel is 1
erence angle
y. The whe
4 mm + 10
1.6 mm
7.8 mm
726 N
08 N
3
m) 10 1.6
2
3
)
10 101.6
) k 0.362 =
2
P. Y. Bong
Pa
100 rpm on
ng had a pe
The forced m
e reference
left edge o
77.8 mm w
es, of balan
eel rim diam
1.6 mm = 3
kg 0.264 =
)
0.247 =
m)
m kg
g (4209168)
age 55 of 57
a dynamic
ak of 22.24
measured at
zero on the
of the wheel
wide at rim.
nce weights
meter is 381
55.6 mm
m g
m kg 7
)
7
c
4
t
e
l
.
s
Assignment 2 Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168)
HES5310 Machine Dynamics 2, Semester 1, 2012 Page 56 of 57
Question 16: A machine of mass 75 kg is mounted on springs of stiffness 1200 kN/m and with an
assumed damping factor of 0.2. A piston within the machine of mass 2 kg has a reciprocating
motion with stroke of 80 mm and a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming the motion to be simple harmonic
motion. (a) Determine the amplitude of motion machine; (b) Its phase angle with respect to exciting
force; (c) The force transmitted to the foundation; and (d) The phase angle of transmitted force with
respect to the exciting force.
SOLUTION
(a) M = 75 kg, m = 2 kg, k = 1200 kN/m, = 0.2, = 3000 rpm = 314.16 rad/s
482 . 2
5 . 126
314
rad/s 5 . 126
kg 75
N/m 10 1200
3
= = =
=
= =
n
n
r
M
k
e
e
e
Stroke = 0.08 m, e = Stroke/2 = 0.08 m/2 = 0.04 m
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m 00125 . 0
) 482 . 2 )( 2 . 0 ( 2 ) 2.482 ( 1 kg) (75
m)(2.482) kg)(0.04 (2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
r r M
mer
x
r r
r
me
Mx
(b) Phase angle with respect to exciting force,
2
1
2
tan
r
r
=

=
(
=

.

\

=
10.89
2
1
2
1
) 482 . 2 ( 1
) 482 . 2 )( 02 . 0 ( 2
tan
1
2
tan
r
r

(c) Transmissibility (TR):
0.2681 =
(
+
(
(

.

\

+
=


.

\

+
(
(


.

\



.

\

+
= =
TR
rad/s 126.5
rad/s) 16 . 314 )( 2 . 0 ( 2
rad/s 126.5
rad/s 16 . 314
1
rad/s 126.5
rad/s) 16 . 314 )( 2 . 0 ( 2
1
2
1
2
1
TR
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
n n
n
O
T
F
F
e
e
e
e
e
e
Force to be transmitted to the foundation:
F
t
= 0.2681F
O
= 0.2681me
2
= (0.2681)(2)(0.04)(314)
2
= 2114.687 N
Assignmen
HES5310 M
Question 1
1 MN/m a
mounted is
vicinity of
if the resu
Assuming
SOLUTION
W = 5000 N
Given that
n
e
=
X
Y
nt 2
Machine Dy
17: A preci
and a visco
s subjected
f the grindin
ulting ampl
that the grin
N
N, k = 106 N
y(t) = Y sin
= =
m
k
2
= =
c
m
c
c
c
e
(
+
=
2
1
1
r
ynamics 2,
sion grindin
ous dampin
to a harmon
ng machine.
itude of th
nding mach
N/m, x = 10
n t = Y sin
kg 509.7
N/m 10
6
=
. 509 ( 2
=
n
e
( )
) ( ) +
+
2
2
2
2
2
r
r
Semester 1,
ng machine
ng constant
nic disturba
Find the m
he vibration
hine and the
0
6
m, c = 10
200t m, th
rad 294 . 44
) 294 . 44 )( 7
10
3
= 9386 . 5
, 2012
(Figure 10)
(c) of 1 k
ance due to
maximum ac
n of the gri
e wheel are r
Figure 10
0
3
Ns/m, m
herefore,
d/s
0221 . 0 =
=
3
10 Y
) is supporte
kNs/m, the
the operatio
cceptable di
inding whe
rigid body o
m = W/g = 50
= 200 = 6
=
6
1 9386 . 5
10
Stephen,
ed on an iso
e floor on w
on of an unb
splacement
eel is to be
of weight 50
000 N/9.81
28.3 rad/s
1.683
=
3
0
P. Y. Bong
Pa
olator has a
which the
nbalanced en
t amplitude
e restricted
000 N.
m/s
2
= 509
m 10 34
4
g (4209168)
age 57 of 57
stiffness of
machine is
ngine in the
of the floor
to 10
6
m.
9.7 kg
)
7
f
s
e
r
.