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Guidelines for data collection in the field using Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology

DRAFT July 2003

Public Health Mapping Group Communicable Diseases Cluster World Health Organization

Table of Contents List of acronyms ..................................................................................3 Basic Definitions ..................................................................................4 1 2 Introduction..................................................................................5 General concepts ...........................................................................6
2.1 W HAT IS GPS? ............................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 HOW GPS WORKS ?........................................................................................................................................ 6 2.3 GPS ACCURACY............................................................................................................................................. 6 2.4 GPS APPLICATIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 7

Recommendations .........................................................................8
3.1 RECENT ADVANCES ....................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 8 3.3 GPS DATA COLLECTION STANDARD ........................................................................................................... 9

GPS receivers guidelines ............................................................. 10


4.1 M ETHODS ...................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.2 P RE -FIELD WORK PROCEDURES .................................................................................................................. 10 4.3 F IELD PROCEDURES ..................................................................................................................................... 11 4.4 DIGITAL MAPPING AND GIS INTEGRATION .............................................................................................. 12 4.5 S UGGESTED EQUIPEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 13

Palm-sized PC and GPS guidelines ............................................. 15


5.1 M ETHOD ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 5.2 P RE -FIELDWORK PROCEDURES ................................................................................................................... 15 5.3 F IELD PROCEDURES ..................................................................................................................................... 17 5.4 DIGITAL MAPPING AND GIS INTEGRATION .............................................................................................. 18 5.5 S UGGESTED EQUIPEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 20

Tablet PC and GPS guidelines .................................................... 21


6.1 M ETHODS ...................................................................................................................................................... 21 6.2 P RE -FIELD WORK PROCEDURES .................................................................................................................. 21 6.3 F IELD PROCEDURES ..................................................................................................................................... 21 6.4 DATA COLLECTION ...................................................................................................................................... 22 6.5 S UGGESTED EQUIPEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 23

Appendix 1: Comparison of hardware and software recommended solutions for data collection in the field ............................................. 25

LIST OF ACRONYMS
GENERAL DGPS differential GPS GIS Geographic Information System GPS Global Positioning System WGS84 World Geodetic System 1984 GPS MODE 2D: x,y position 3D: x,y,z position DGPS 2D/3D real-time Differential GPS RTK : Real-Time Kinematic fixed or float solution PPS 2D/3D: Precise Positioning Service POSITION MEASURE OF QUALITY PDOP : Position Dilution of Precision HDOP: Horizontal Dilution of Precision VDOP: Vertical Dilution of Precision TDOP: Time Dilution of Precision HPE : Estimated Horizontal Position Error VPE: Estimated Vertical Position Error EPE: Estimated Position Error

BASIC D EFINITIONS
Beacon A stationary, nondirectionnal transmitter that transmits signals in all directions. In a differential global positioning system, the beacon transmitter broadcasts pseudorange correction data to nearby GPS receivers. The GPS receiver uses this correction to adjust the position fix calculated by the receiver. This process is called real-time differential correction. Decimal degrees Degrees of latitude and longitude expressed as a decimal rather than in degrees, minutes, and seconds. DGPS The diffential Global Positioning System is a technique for increasing the accuracy of GPS measurements by comparing the readings of two receivers one roving and the other fixed at a known location. Dilution of Precision (DOP) An indicator of satellite geometry for a constellation of satellites used to determine a position. Positions with a higher DOP value generally constitute poorer measurement results than those with lower DOP. Factors determining the total GDOP for a set of satellites include, to name a few, Positional DOP (PDOP), Horizontal DOP (HDOP), Vertical DOP (VDOP), and Time DOP (TDOP). Estimated Position Error (EPE) A measurement of horizontal and vertical position error, in feet or meters, based on a variety of factors including DOP and satellite signal quality. NMEA 0183 A standard data communication protocol used by GPS receivers and other types of navigation and marine electronics from National Marine Electronics Association. Navigation The process of travelling from one place to another and knowing where you are in relation to your desired course. Position A unique location based on geographic co-ordinate system. Longitudinal Meridians A set of imaginary circles around the earth that pass through the North and South Poles. Longitude describes position in terms of how many degrees it is East or West of the Prime Meridian (0 longitude) called the Meridian of Greenwich. Parallels of Latitude A set of imaginary circles that are perpendicular to the earths polar axis. Latitude describes position in terms of how many degrees it is North or South of the Equator (0 latitude A Waypoint It marks an exact position fix so it can be recalled for future use. It usually indicates a town/village, a house, a health centre, a change of direction, an obstacle on a road etc. These positions can be put in memory. The instrument will then be able to guide you to these points, and to give you warning at the moment you reach them. A Route The direction to follow to reach a destination. The route is expressed in an angular way in relation to the North. A Track A previous path of travel that has been stored in a GPS receiver.Introduction

1 I NTRODUCTION
This document aims to provide general guidelines for field data collection using the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. It also describes recommended hardware and software solutions for resource survey. The World Health Organization has been routinely using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to map and track infectious diseases at community levels. GPS receivers are now commonly used by village outreach teams for onchocerciasis, guinea worm, African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), lymphatic filariasis among others. As the GPS technology is continually evolving with the advancements in technologies and techniques, a large choice of solutions is now available for field data collection. These guidelines describes a few of the many methods for performing GPS surveys. This document is part of the Public Health Mapping Programme effort to support the rapid data collection requirements of eradication and control programmes as well as to support an early alert system for the rapid detection, verification, and response to outbreaks of known, new and unexpected diseases.

2 G ENERAL CONCEPTS
2.1 What is GPS? The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system which provides exact position on the Earth anytime, anywhere, in any weather. A network of 24 satellites are orbiting in space and transmit signals that can be detected by anyone with a GPS receiver. With distance measurements from four satellites, the position on the earth is determined. The first GPS satellite was launched by the U.S. Military in February 1978 and civillian use began in the early 1990's. Since then receivers have decreased rapidly in price and new uses are constantly being discovered. The GPS technology has tremendous amount of applications such as navigation, mapping and GIS data capture. 2.2 How GPS works? The principle behind GPS is the measurement of distance between the receiver and the satellites. GPS satellites are orbiting in space 20 000 kilometers from Earth. The satellites are constantly moving, making two complete orbits around the Earth every 24 hours. Each satellite transmits radio signals that allow a GPS receiver to estimate the satellite location and distance between the satellite and the receiver. The receiver uses the measurements to calculate where on or above the Earth the user is located. With a minimum of three or more satellites, the GPS receiver can determine a latitude/longitude position. With four or more satellites, a GPS receiver can determine a 3D position which includes latitude, longitude, and altitude. By continuously updating your position, a GPS receiver can also provide data on your speed and direction of travel. 2.3 GPS accuracy The accuracy of a position depends on the type of GPS receivers. Most of hand-held GPS units are accurate to within 15 meters on average. Users can obtained much higher accuracy by using a method called Differential GPS (DGPS). The system requires an additional receiver fixed at a known location nearby. Observations made by the beacon receiver are used to correct positions. DGPS method can produce an accuracy greater than 1 meter. The number of satellites visible by the receiver can improve the accuracy. Some factors such as buildings, electronic interference or dense foliage can block signal reception and cause position errors. GPS units typically will not work indoors, underwater or underground.

2.4 GPS applications Originally designed for military purpose, the Global Positioning System is now used by a large civilian community. The removal in year 2000 of Selective Availability (i.e. the intentional downgrading of civilian use of GPS by the U.S. military) has allowed the GPS to become a democratic tool. And the number of users will dramatically increase as GPS receivers will very soon become an integral part of all mobile phones. As GPS is usable everywhere at any time, the system has a variety of applications. The only limitation is the fact that it is impossible to receive the signal inside buildings or underwater. The GPS technology is a very adequate tool for a variety of tasks for surveying and mapping. GPS is now commonplace for navigation on land, in the air or at sea. The technology is also used for remote sensing or geodetic mapping and has several applications in health and healthcare as well. Following are some examples. - mapping and tracking infectious diseases at community levels. - collecting real-time data within the context of complex emergency situations. - assisting users in finding the nearest hospitals or clinics and even provide them driving directions and real-time traffic information. - helping ambulance and rescue fleet management as vehicles can be quickly and precisely located.

3 R ECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 Recent advances Recent advances in Global Positioning System(GPS) and mobile technology facilitates rapid field data collection and transfer. With the introduction of Palm Pilots followed by pocket PC operating system, a new generation of handheld Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) have flooded the market. These handheld devices can be used with GPS receivers to collect information in the field. Once the location and attribute data have been collected, all the data can be imported in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for mapping and analysis. In addition, new mobile devices such as Tablet PC or smart phones can be GPS equipped and offer a larger choice of solutions for field data collection. New Tablet PC are now available in ruggedized versions and can be used for mapping applications in outdoor environment. Next generation mobile phones currently entering the market provide users with wireless Internet access and allow them to transmit real-time information on their precise location. With the avaibility of smart phones, new services are offered such as location-based services (LBS). In these applications geographic data and processing are provided as a type of service over a wireless network connection. 3.2 Recommended solutions Considering the great number of GPS receiver models and manufacturers around the world and the recent development of new mobile devices such as Tablet PC, these guidelines will focus on generic recommendations and a limited number of solutions. Solution 1: GPS receiver and paper. This solution is the cheapest and is already used by different programmes to map and track infectious diseases at community level. Solution 2: PocketPC and GPS. This solution is based on Windows CE operating system and ArcPad as the data collection software. Solution 3: PalmPilot and GPS. This solution is based on PalmPilot operating system and CyberTracker as the data collection software.

Solution 4: Tablet PC and GPS This solution is based on Windows XP operating system and HealthMapper as the data collection software.

3.3 GPS data collection standard The positional accuracy of GPS points depends on receiver settings. For example, greater accuracy can be achieved by keeping the rover GPS unit stationary while collecting measurements. Using this technique, a given GPS location is calculated as an average of all of the position measurements, thus minimizing the effects of anomalous measurements. Other parameters can be set to enhance the measurement quality. Use the receiver users guide to set the GPS as described below:
Static Mode A general guideline to follow for static point position is to collect data at 1-second intervals. To collect a position measurement and, without collecting data, take at least 10 seconds to observe the quality of the signal (with respect to PDOP, number of satellites, etc)

Units

Decimal degrees

Coordinate system

Select WGS 84 (World Geodetic System).

3D Mode

The receiver must be operated in a 3D mode. In this mode, it requires simultaneous signals from a minimum of four satellites to determine a 3D location.
Set your receiver to only collect data when the PDOP is less than 15 meters.

DOP/PDOP

4 GPS

RECEIVERS GUIDELINES

4.1 Methods Since year 2000 and the removal of the Selective Availibility, any GPS receiver can achieve an accuracy of less than 15 meters with a 95% confidence under ideal conditions. For some applications, this level of accuracy is sufficient for data collection in the field and GIS integration. GPS are now commonly used by WHO for mapping population and diseases. Several programmes use this technology to conduct field surveys. The system consist in entering data manually with forms and writing the coordinates provided by the GPS. Data integration in a GIS is then done by entering data with a keyboard. The great advantage of this solution is its low cost and simplicity of use. On the other hand this system can generate errors while collecting data. The largest factor in the accuracy and efficiency of GPS surveys lies in how data is collected in the field. The data capture specifications and parameters affect the resulting positional accuracy. Efficient surveying, processing, and mapping requires that data capture methods be well designed and rigorously followed, and the attribute data structured carefully. GPS receiver + Paper

GIS Application 4.2 Pre-field work procedures

GIS Database

In order to prepare field work, it is essential to: q Prepare data capture procedure with GPS and paper. The form must be simple and must not contain too many information to collect. q Test dowloading of GPS data on a PC and importing data in a GIS 10

Prepare the GPS receiver For example, the questionnaire for village baseline survey can contained the following information: - Latitude - Longitude - Village type - Population - Year of census survey - Number and types of Health Facility A questionnaire sample can be found as one appendix of this document.
q

4.3 Field procedures Check list Item Status Check battery levels Check the settings of your receiver. The format of coordinates must be in decimal degrees in World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) datum. When collecting geographic data (villages, schools, health centres etc.) it is important to be as centred as possible and within a relatively open space, in order to be able to pick up satellite signals Check that four satellites at least are detected and that the mode 3D is set. To mark a waypoint, it is advisable to wait one minute before writing the position. The mean position calculated during one minute gives better result and allow to identify irregularities. Collecting GPS points The following are general guidelines and tips for creating a useful waypoint with any GPS receiver. 1. Be sure you have initialized your GPS receiver according to the standards of data collection described in the section 1. The first time a GPS unit is used in a new location, the unit will need up to 5 minutes to orient itself. 2. When you have located a feature you wish to record make sure you have as clear a view of the sky as possible. 3. When your GPS receiver has four satellites in view. Check your DOP/PDOP Some GPS receivers have a display labeled DOP or PDOP. This reading will give you an idea of how accurate your readings are. The lower the DOP/PDOP the more accurate your reading should be. 4. Record your position as a waypoint. 5. Give your waypoint a record number. 6. A GPS can store a number of points in its memory, but it is always advisable to make a note of the co-ordinates and other relevant information name of the point, altitude, number/code etc. on a separate sheet dedicated to this use. The function mark a waypoint must be used to capture the coordinates of your position.

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It is advisable to follow the GPS data collection standard defined in section 1. 4.4 Digital mapping and GIS integration There are three types of features in a Geographical Information System (GIS) : points, lines and polygons. Most of GPS receivers and data logger software allow to capture this type of objects. GPS data can be recorder in static mode for points or dynamic mode for linear features. You can download GPS data directly into your HealthMapper. The NMEA protocol is used to connect and transfer data to the GPS. You can read data from most of the receivers on the market. There are three types of GPS data which can be imported in the HealthMapper : q Waypoints q Routes q Tracks

In order to dowload GPS data into the HealthMapper, you should do the following:
q q q

Connect the GPS to your PC Start the HealthMapper In the menu Tools>Extensions>Import geographic data, select the option download directly from GPS Set the GPS connection by clicking on the button GPS parameters. You can define the following parameters: Communication port. Select the port on which the GPS is connected Baud transfert (4800 or 9600 bauds). Select this rate in relation with your GPS model.

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4.5 Suggested equipement The GPS receiver quality will have a significant impact on positional accuracy. Several types of GPS are available on the market et can be separated in three different categories: q Recreational. The recreational GPS are the least expensive and also less accurate and cannot store data for post-processing. q Mapping-grade GPS The models of GPS enhanced for mapping application are middle price. This type of GPS offer sufficient accuracy for most GIS application. q Survey-grade GPS Survey grade GPS units are the most expensive and produce the highest accuracy data under the centimeter. Mapping-grade GPS receivers are mid-range in price and provide sufficient accuracy for most GIS applications. Recreational grade receivers are the least expensive and the least accurate, and cannot store data for post-processing. We will focus on recreational and mapping grade GPS. Some requirements for a good hand-held GPS receiver are described below: Performance : A multi parallel channel (preferably 12 parallel channels) receiver unit Memory : The ability to store at least 100 waypoint positions in the receiver's memory Connection with a PC : The ability to upload/download waypoints and routes to a computer (most GPS dealers have their own or will recommend software that will help you do this) The ability to store routes, especially if you are recording your movements, roads, rivers in the field. Most will allow you to store 10-20 routes. The receiver must have the capability to prohibit the collection of GPS data under poor conditions. This is typically accomplished through the setting of collection parameter masks. These masks can prevent the calculation of position fixes during times of poor satellite geometry (PDOP) and signal strength (SNR). The receiver must provide processing software utilities that allow the download of collected data from the receiver to a PC, differential correction of the data, and export of spatial data to GIS or database file formats.

Figure : Mapping-grade GPS

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There are several GPS makers, the most important are Garmin, Magellan or Trimble. The table below gives a selection of models (June 2003).

Solution Garmin EtrexVista Recreational GPS Trimble GeoExplorer Mapping-grade GPS

Price Range $150 $300

Accuracy <15m 3-5m

Data recording No Yes

Battery life 10 hours 11 hours

Memory capacity 24 Mb 64 Mb

Table - Proposed GPS Equipment

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5 PALM-SIZED PC
5.1 Method

AND

GPS

GUIDELINES

GPS can be connected to palm-sized PC such as Pocket PC or PalmPilot in order to operate field surveys. The system consist in entering data with forms and the location is automatically saved with the GPS. During the field survey, it is possible to collect spatial and attribute data. The recording format is a standard GIS data format and make easier the data transfer to a database. The advantage of this solution is to reduce the risk of error in data entry and thus improve data quality and information is immediately available in a GIS data format. A mobile device such as a palm-sized PC is not limited in capturing GPS points and it is the other interest of this tool. In some cases, positional accuracy can be improved with differential GPS. In opposition with a simple GPS receiver, this solution comes with a data logger software. ESRIs ArcPad software is described in the following guidelines but other softwares are available and some of them are free on PalmPilot. Handheld Device + GPS Client Device + GPS

Internet

GIS Application

GIS Database

Application Server

Data Server

5.2 Pre-fieldwork procedures In order to prepare field work, it is essential to: q Prepare data capture procedure with GPS and paper. The form must be simple and must not contain too many information to collect. q Test dowloading of GPS data on a PC and importing data in a GIS q Prepare the GPS receiver

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Data entry forms can be customized in a data collection software. The ESRIs ArcPad software is a mobile GIS allowing the user to collect data in the field. ArcPad is optimized for Windows CE and Pocket PC operating systems. It allows to display vector and raster data and to edit data in the ESRI shapefile format. ArcPad has also GPS functions for real-time data capture.

ArcPad keyfeatures are the following: q Simple and easy-to-use interface q Standard data formats q ArcIMS connectivity q display and query functionality q editing and data capture q optional GPS plug-in capability You can customize ArcPad interface and create data entry forms adapted to field mission using ArcPad Application Builder. The ArcPad customization is done on a desktop PC before th deployment on handheld units. You can perform the following personalization and customization tasks: Create new toolbars that contain built-in and custom tools. Design custom forms to streamline data collection in the field. Write scripts that automate tasks and interact with ArcPad software's internal objects. Build applets to accomplish your organization's unique goals. Develop extensions to support new file formats and positioning services. ArcPad Application Builder allows you to open a map by default at the startup of ArcPad and to realize customized data entry form on villages for example. When preparing a mission to the field with this solution, you have to take the following measures before end: - Install ArcPad on a desktop computer and on a handheld computer - Prepare a ArcPad project with core layers - Prepare customization scripts in ArcPad Application Builder - Transfer the project, data and scripts on your handheld device

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5.3 Field procedures Check list Item Status Check battery levels. Check the settings of your GPS receiver. Coordinates format must be in decimal degrees in the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) datum. When collecting geographic data (villages, schools, health centres etc.) it is important to be as centred as possible and within a relatively open space, in order to be able to pick up satellite signals Check that four satellites at least are detected and that the mode 3D is set. To mark a waypoint, it is advisable to wait one minute before writing the position. The mean position calculated during one minute gives better result and allow to identify irregularities.

Data collection A sample ArcPad project is described below in order to illustrate GPS points collection with the solution. A default map is made and downloaded on a Hand held device with the following layers:

q q q q q q

Administratives boundaries Roads Rivers Lakes Villages Health Centers

With a GPS receiver connected with your handheld device, it will be possible to collect real-time information in the field. By reading the location calculated by the GPS receiver, ArcPad alows you to create new geographic objects with the default tools or with customized tools prepared in ArcPad Application Builder. New geographic data can be points such as villages but also lines or polygons such as roads or districts.

Add a health center with default tools in ArcPad 1. open the ArcPad project on your handheld device 2. check that the GPS signal is satisfactory 3. before editing a layer on the map, check if this layer is editable in the layers list 4. click on the tool to create point feature with a GPS. 5. enter attributes of the new health centers in a default data entry form.

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Default data entry form in ArcPad

Add a village with a customized tool The procedure is the same as the previous one. You only have to select the customized tool instead of the default tool. By clicking on the map or by reading GPS coordinates, the user can add a point and collect information in a predefined format. The following screen shows a sample of form on village with attributes on disease and population.

Customized data entry form in ArcPad

5.4 Digital mapping and GIS integration A shape file edited in ArcPad can be opened in most of GIS softwares and can be imported in the HealthMappper database. The file must contain a column indicating the name for each point and coordinates must be in decimal degrees in WGS 84. In order to download data collected in the field, it is necessary to complete the following steps: 1. Connect your handheld device to your PC

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2. Download the updated file 3. Start the HealthMapper 4. In the menu Tools>Extensions>Import geographic data, select the option import points into the HealthMapper 5. Select Shapefile as a file type 6. Indicate the name of the file to import. The database corresponding to the selected country must be installed in the HealthMapper data directory. 7. Select a country 8. Select a category of points (Administration, Water, Education, Health). This choice is used to fill the HierTypeCode field in the HealthMapper database. 9. Select the type of points. The list varies accordingly with the selected country and category. You can modify this list by clicking on add a new point type. You have to enter the name for the type of points in english and in french. The maximum number of types is 9.

The wizard allows you to import a file. The operation to be accomplished is described. At the end of the process, the number of imported elements is displayed. If a record already exists in the database with the same name and the same coordinates, the system will ask you if you want to replace the record.

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5.5 Suggested equipement Many solutions are available on the market to collect data in the field with handheld devices or PDA. The mobile devices are GPS equipped and two main categories can be identified according to the operating systems: q Windows CE or Pocket PC : ArcPad sofware is recommended for this kind of environment. q Palm Pilot : There are more freewares available under this operating system. The most popular software is OziExplorer. Important features in selecting hardware are the following: The equipment should be robust and reliable to support tough conditions. The unit should have sufficient memory capacity and battery life. We can recommend some solutions for collecting data with PDA. Panasonic Toughbook 01 A handheld PC adapted to field missions with a GPS module in option. Supports mapping and messaging applications and features such capabilities as touchscreens, daylight readable display, and integrated wireless connectivity. It runs onWindows CE 3.0. See www.panasonic.com

Navman GPS Sleeve This product is well adapted for field data collection. A GPS receiver has been developped for iPaq. It is provided with SMARTPATH GPS software containing the plans of more than 125,000 cities in 13 countries. www.navman-mobile.com

Treo This personal assistant is also a phone. A GPS card can be connected to this product and it becomes adapted to the field data collection. www.handspring.com The following table gives information on suggested models (July 2003).
Solution Price $1300 $900 Accuracy <15m <15m Data recording Yes Yes Battery life 8 hours 11 hours Memory capacity 32 Mb 64 Mb

Panasonic Toughbook 01 Navman GPS Sleeve

Table Proposed GPS Equipment

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6 TABLET PC
6.1 Methods

AND

GPS

GUIDELINES

The introduction on the market of Tablet PC offer a wider choice for collecting data in the field. Some Tablet PC are designed for outdoor use with special screen and can be equipped with GPS.

Tablet PC + GPS

GIS Database

GIS Application The operating system is Windows XP for tablet PC and the HealthMapper software can be installed directly for editing data. It is the great advantage of this solution as it can improve data quality by reducing risks of errors in data entry and transfer. The information is immediately available in the GIS software such as HealthMapper. In addition, a Tablet PC is powerful as a desktop PC and can be used not only for field mission. 6.2 Pre-field work procedures In order to prepare field work, it is essential to: q Install HealthMapper software and database on a Tablet PC. q Test data edition. q Prepare the equipment. 6.3 Field procedures Adding or updating new geographic data can be performed in the HealthMapper with the editing tools. Check list Item Status Check battery levels. Check the settings of your GPS receiver. Coordinates format must be in decimal degrees in the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS84) datum. When collecting geographic data (villages, schools, health centres etc.) it is important to be as centered as possible and within a relatively open space, in order to be able to pick up satellite signals

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6.4 Data collection In order to illustrate the collection of GPS points with this solution, an exemple of data edition with the HealthMapper is described below. The database for a city or a country can be uploaded on a TabletPC. The extension Editing Shapefile in the HealthMapper allows to create or to modify a geographic file in ArcView format (shapefile). A floating toolbar can be used to edit geographic data. Sample 1 : Add a health center 1. Display the health centers you want to edit in the HealthMapper 2. Activate the layer corresponding to the health centers in the legend 3. Select the option Editing Shapefile in the menu Tools and select modify existing layer 4. Click with the right button on the map and enter the coordinates of the location detected by the GPS

Sample 2 : Add a village 1. Display villages in the HealhMapper. 2. Activate the layer with villages in the legend 3. Select the option Editing Shapefile in the menu Tools and select modify existing layer. 4. Click with the right button on the map and enter the coordinates of the location detected by the GPS

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6.5 Suggested equipement Some models of TabletPC are specially designed for outdoor use and can be equipped with GPS. Some characteristics are important when you choose a TabletPC are the following: Ergonomics : the equipment should be robust and reliable and prepared for an outdoor use. The screen should be designed for viewability in daylight. Tablets PC have a liquid crystal display of 10.4"(123 Pixel by inch), or 12.1" (106 Pixel by inch) All LCD screens have a XGA resolution of 1024 x 768. Battery life Lautonomie de batterie must be sufficient but you can always carry a spare battery. Memory You should look at the maximum memory supported : 256 Mb is sufficient for a normal use. But if you need to do image processing you will need 384 Mb. Weight vary from one to four kilos. Hard disk capacity vary from 10 to 60 Gb. All Tablets PC have USB2.0, FireWire (IEEE-1394) ports, a Modem 56K, a Network card 10 /100 and WIFI (802.11). We can recommend some models of TabletPC for field data collection. Fujitsu Stylistic 4000ST a TabletPC designed for field missions with a screen viewable in outdoor conditions. To round off the solution, the Stylistic Tablet PC features a choice of accessories including four docking solutions, external storage, two cases, and portable USB or wireless keyboards. See www.fujitsupc.com

Portg Tablet 3500/3505, from Toshiba, is a reference in the domain of convertible tabletPC with a polyvalent design and excellent performances. Toshiba has equiped the Portg 3505 with latest technologies. The result is a powerful and polyvalent TabletPC. www.tabletpc.toshiba.com

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INNOLABS EVITA2000 P-E/P-B/P-C : Premium Tablet Companion. Specially adapted for outdoor use with a 12 inches screen, its USB port anda DVD writer. www.innolabs.com.tw FIC SlateVision FT 800/933 : the least expensive Tablet PC on the market and one of the most complete. This version has a hard disk of 20 Gb and a processor of 800 MHz. www.fic.com.tw/product/mobile/tabletpc

XPLORE iX104-TPC : Designed, tested and verified to Military Environmental Test Standards [MIL-STD 810F], the iX104 extends the benefits of Windows XP Tablet PC Edition to go beyond the office corridor and into the field. This mobile unit is ruggedized and is ideal for field work. www.xploretech.com

The table below gives a list of recommended models (June 2003). FujitsuFIC Xplore Company Toshiba Siemens Portege ST4000 Vision iX104 Product 3500/05 stylistic D'Ardoise Pentium III-mTransmeta Pentium III-m Processor Pentium III-m TM5800 800MHz 1 gigahertz 866 Speed 1.33GHz mgahertz Ram 256MB 256MB 128MB MB 256/512 Hard Disk 40 20 20 20/40 Keyboard Intgr Externe Externe Autonomy 1:38 2:34 4:30 Weight 2 1.6 1.5 2.25 Screen size 12,1 10,4 10,4 10,4 Price in US$ 2,299 2,299 5000

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Appendix 1: Comparison of hardware and software recommended solutions for data collection in the field The table below presents some technical solutions for data collection in the field using the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology.

Solution

Garmin extrex Vista


US$ 150 No 12 hours 24 Mb RAM None HealthMapper

HiPac + Navman GPS


US$ 1600 Yes < 15 m 11 hours 32 Mb ROM 64 Mb RAM ESRI ArcPad HealthMapper

Palm Treo

Tablet PC

Price : Data recording Accuracy : Battery life : Memory Capacity : Data Logger Software : Post-Processing Software :

US$ 500 Yes <15 m Up to 2.5 hours talk time, 150 hours standby time 16 Mb CyberTracker HealthMapper

US$ 2400 Yes <15 m 4.5 hours 15 Gb HealthMapper HealthMapper

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