Pressure Sensors

New Opportunities for Gas Exchange Analysis Using Piezoresistive High-Temperature Absolute Pressure Sensors
Dr.-Ing. Andrea Bertola Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Fürholz Dipl.-Ing. Jürg Stadler Dipl.-Ing. Jens Höwing Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur, Switzerland Prof. Dr. Karl Huber Dipl.-Ing. Johann Hauber University of applied sciences, Ingolstadt Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christoph Gossweiler University of applied sciences, Northwestern Switzerland

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.14 References.....................................10 5....................................................9 5...................................................7 Characterisation of Measuring Accuracy and Influence on the Analytical Results....................... .......................................................................................9 5..................................................7 Impact of the Sensor Position on the Measured Pressure .1 Pressure Measurement with Piezoresistive Sensors Direct Mounted/in a Cooling Adapter .........................13 Conclusion and Recommendations...............................................................................................................................................................................................1 4 5 Temperature Characteristics of Piezoresistive Sensors .......kistler............9 5................................1 5...............................15 2 www..........................2..........................................................................com .3 Motivation ........11 Influence of Absolute Pressure Level on the Result of the Gas Exchange Calculation......2...................................9 Accuracy Achieved by Using Piezoresistive Absolute Pressure Sensors ........6 3....................................................................................................................3 5......................2 Pressure Measurement with Piezoresistive Sensors Installed in a Cooled Switching Adapter ......Contents 1 2 3 Abstract.......................14 Appendix: Applied Pressure Sensors and Cooling Adapters ...................................................2 Sensor Temperature Over the Engine Operating Range .................................................................................................................3 Piezoresistive Sensors and Installation .....4 6 7 Low Pressure Indication with Piezoelectric Sensor and Pneumatic Pressure Measurement (Remote Sensing System)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dipl. In the exhaust manifold however. for the analysis of process variables and for simulation validation. Dr.-Ing. Switzerland Prof. Jürg Stadler.-Ing.-Ing. Dipl. www. University of applied sciences. Dr. a cooling adapter will be necessary unless the sensor is installed directly in the cylinder head. A sensor position near the valve is most suitable as the effort for modelling the system is reduced. Low pressure indication using a piezoelectric sensor and pneumatic pressure measurement (remote sensing system) is not recommended to evaluate the absolute pressure in the exhaust. Johann Hauber. Karl Huber. The utilization of a cooled switching adapter allows a precise zero point correction of the piezoresistive pressure sensor.-Ing. Christoph Gossweiler. Dipl. The advantages of an absolute pressure measurement are the high precision (including dynamics) and the ability to resolve the pressure differences between cylinders and single cycles. Dipl. Winterthur. Andrea Bertola. The analysis and optimization of the gas exchange is of primary importance and will become more so with the new homogeneous combustion utilizing high degrees of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Andreas Fürholz. University of applied sciences Northwestern Switzerland 1 Abstract The gas exchange influences to a large extent power.Pressure Sensors New Opportunities for Gas Exchange Analysis Using Piezoresistive High-Temperature Absolute Pressure Sensors Dr.kistler.-Ing. therefore a reference precision (±1 mbar) can be achieved in any operating condition. with new miniaturized piezoresistive pressure sensors installation is possible directly into the cylinder head to enable this.-Ing. Jens Höwing Kistler Instrumente AG. emissions and fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Low pressure measurement using piezoresistive absolute pressure sensors has become an important tool for the design and optimization of the gas exchange.com 3 . Ingolstadt Prof. Capturing both the dynamic behaviour and an exact pressure level are critical for low pressure calculations.

the gas exchange plays an important role in the reduction of pollutant emissions and thus will contribute to help meet future emission regulations. This is done in gasoline engines for instance.com . downsizing and dethrottling in stratified combustion concepts. Gas exchange Engine parts and systems Crankcase Pumps Media Gas exchange losses Reference measurement Combustion chamber Low Pressure Indication Special tests 1-D Model calibration CFD Combustion optimization Heat release analysis Residual gas control (HCCI) Timing Cam profile Load control (cylinder charge) Residual gas model Intake manifold model Fig. The work done for the gas exchange. These new combustion concepts can be realized only with the controlled trapping of exhaust gases during the gas exchange. combustion behaviour and combustion stability. besides the charge motion.kistler. 1). the test engineer needs a more detailed insight as to the processes within the gas exchange. In addition. New homogeneous combustion concepts (CAI. the residual gas fraction of the cylinder charge. The gas exchange has become more and more an integral part of the whole combustion strategy. 1: Simulation Intake/ Exhaust Throttle & actuator Supercharging systems Exhaust gas aftertreatment Charge motion EGR system Valves air/exhaust Engine brake Residual gas Valves Test bench Acoustic Functional development Applications utilizing low pressure indication 4 www. by implementing variable valve trains. can be determined with today's standard cylinder pressure indication systems. The particular challenge is that simultaneously the dynamic and the absolute pressure level needs to be measured with high precision. As a result. This value is always available during the testing in the test bench. often as real-time value. The direct potential for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is provided by minimizing the gas exchange losses. In addition to this global information. The main focus of the low pressure indication in engine development is the analysis of the gas exchange (Fig. The primary intention of the low pressure indication is the dynamic measurement of very small pressure changes within a few mbar. expressed as characteristic quantity PMEP. The most important parameter which influences the combustion is. typically in the range of 0 … 5 bar absolute. are distinguished by a strong interaction between gas exchange and the subsequent combustion [1]. HCCI). which influences the ignition. which combine the properties of gasoline and diesel engines. Both of these important pressure characteristics form the basic fundamental requirements for the simulation and optimization of engines. the high dependence of the combustion on the condition of the cylinder charge which has been set during the gas exchange means that this control has to be performed precisely.2 Motivation Low pressure indication is the measurement of low amplitude pressures plotted against the engine crank angle.

So the question arises: Is low pressure indication. requires that the gas exchange analysis is performed at the test bench. pressures or temperatures with further test bench data. the measuring positions for the low pressure indication can be varied. Cylinder selective information as well as the interpretation of the complicated gas dynamic behaviour. In the same investigation the absolute pressure in the intake and exhaust was identified as a key parameter for the accuracy of the simulation results.g. are necessary for this determination. important measured values with which further detailed analysis and data processing is possible. lengths and discharge flow coefficients. such as the EGR rate are then saved as real data. as a development tool. in this sense. becoming a standard measuring technology in engine development? www. can only be obtained by performing detailed gas exchange analysis. there the indicated pressures are compared with the computed pressure curves. The speed of the development process nowadays. in addition to cylinder pressure. For measuring positions close to the valve it was determined that it is negligible for passenger car engine speeds.kistler. Space availability and the high temperature of the exhaust are challenging aspects to the sensor dimensions and the sensor adaptation in general. for instance.com 5 . the results are used directly in the application of any adjusted operating condition. 4] studied the influence of the sensor measuring position on the results of 0-D gas exchange analysis. during the valve overlapping time.The residual gas fraction can’t be measured directly. Previous works [3. Computed values. The influence of the sensor position on the results of the gas exchange analysis depends on the methods used for the computational analysis. Gas exchange analysis requires as an input. control points are modelled in accordance with the measuring positions on the engine. According to the aim of the investigation and in view of the special properties of the measurement technology. The required precision of the absolute indicated pressure in the intake and exhaust was quantified as ±10 mbar. Low pressure indication is the central criteria for ensuring the accuracy of gas exchange simulation calibrations. Simple residual gas models can be used for the fast calculation of the residual gas fraction [2]. In 1-D simulations. High accuracy and process reliability are essential factors for the general application of any low pressure indication designated for the optimization of the gas exchange. Differences of the computed pressures will be matched by varying the model parameters e. a deep understanding of the processes governing the internal combustion engine. These models achieve precise results over wide operating ranges but without considering the dynamics. The low pressure indication is therefore the reference for the dynamic behaviour and absolute pressure. 1-D gas exchange analysis considers the running time of the pressure wave propagation between the sensor position and the cylinder. The choice of the measuring position for the low pressure sensors is influenced mainly by the accessibility to the engine itself. The results permit the identification of variables and the customized optimization of the single processes existing during the gas exchange. The development of new combustion concepts and the wide use of many technologies demand from an Engineer.g. e. the indicated pressures within intake and exhaust systems. The quality of the low pressure indication is therefore a condition for the final accuracy of the simulation [5]. Low pressure indication provides. gas exchange analysis be it 0-D or 1-D simulations.

. the sensor is capable of withstanding these temperatures without additional cooling.. however.. 3.com . 2: Different applications of piezoresistive sensors in intake and exhaust Fig.. temperature Type of compensation – Analog Analog Analog a b c d e Sensor Type 4005B Sensor Type 4007B. In the simple cooling adapter (Type 7525A. 2/5/10 140 Type 4075A M12x1 0 .. 120 f Thermal zero shift Thermal sensitivity shift %FSO <1 <1 <0. the sensor has a thin steel isolation diaphragm which provides a high resistance to soot and particle emissions. The Direct Chip Exposed principle (DCE) is the new.5 ±% <1 <1 <1 <1 Fig.. 10 140 Intake Exhaust Max.5 <0. the compact hightemperature sensor Type 4007B is ideally suited. 180 Oil filled Sensor Type 4045A M14x1. temperatures of up to 120 °C are possible within the intake. cooled switching adapter Type 7533A f Sensor Type 4045A. cooling adapter Type 7511 Compensated temperature range °C 0 ... In addition to such size considerations. 125 20 .. size is the main requirement for the sensor. This application occurs mainly in the development of motor sport engines where concerns for the size and mass of any additional engine mounted hardware are most acute.5 0 . Type 4045A (M14) and Type 4075A (M12). Fig. 5 200 Analog (+ digital with amplifier Type 4665) 0 . The cooled switching adapter (Type 7533A. miniaturized sensor generation Type 4005B/Type 4007B (M5) wherein the semi-conductor measuring element is directly exposed to the media and is coated with a special protective film. such as water cooling the sensor or with the use of a cooled switching adapter. In this design. Therefore it is important to select the appropriate pressure range for the specific application. compensation technique and thermal properties of the Kistler pressure sensors are shown in Fig.25 0 . In the exhaust.. 2 identifies a number of installation alternatives for piezoresistive absolute pressure sensors in the intake and exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine. Pressure range.... Oil filled sensors. DCE-Sensor Type 4005B Thread size Measuring range – bar °C M5x0.. M14) the sensor housing is cooled but the sensor diaphragm is exposed to the hot gases. for this. M14) employs a switching mechanism which is opened by a pneumatic valve during the time of the measurement only. cooling adapter Type 7525A e Sensor Type 4075A. This can be achieved by utilizing dedicated cooling adapters or the cooling of the cylinder head. This maximises the sensor lifetime as well as making a correction of the zero point possible while the engine is still running. 120 20 . The reduced dimensions of miniaturized piezoresistive pressure sensors fulfil this requirement and in particular. Kistler Type 4005B/Type 4007B (M5) sensors are well suited for direct installation into the intake manifold or the cylinder head.5 0 . cooling adapter Type 7505 Sensor Type 4045A/4075A/4007B. Another benefit of the small diameter (M5) is that the head of the sensor can be seated flush with the inside surface of the intake channel. utilize a similar measuring principle which requires a slightly larger package.3 Piezoresistive Sensors and Installation The maximum operating temperature of piezoresistive sensors for low pressure indication is often lower than that of the measured media. Long term measurements are only possible with special arrangements. 3: Specification of piezoresistive measuring chains Due to the limited availability of space and the geometry of a modern intake manifold. All piezoresistive pressure sensors have thermal effects which are proportional to the full scale output (FSO). head Sensor Type 4007B. d a b c The dimensions of the sensor are very important for direct mounting into the cylinder head. 6 www. particularly with high levels of EGR. For low pressure indication with absolute piezoresistive sensors Kistler provides two types of construction.kistler... higher temperatures (over 1 000 °C) require active sensor cooling. 5/10 125 Type 4007B M5x0. direct installed in cyl.

Fig. B. 6). Having done the zero-point correction (3) and assuming that the temperature is stable. The piezoresistive (PR) absolute pressure sensors (described in chapter 2) were both direct mounted and installed in either a cooling adapter or a cooled switching adapter (Fig. 5 and Fig. The achievable accuracy of piezoresistive sensors on a test bed and the optimal zeropoint procedure is described in section 4. The disturbance from neighbouring cylinders on the same bank is low. 4 (2) Sensor signal (3) (1) "Zero-pointcorrection" (o) (α) (1) Calibration curve at Tref (2) Characteristic curve at TA before "Zero-pointcorrection" (includes sensitivity and offset error) (3) Characteristic curve after "Zero-pointcorrection" at TA (α) Thermal sensitivity error (o) Thermal offset error Remaining error Impact of the Sensor Position on the Measured Pressure The impact of the sensor position on low pressure measurement and therefore calculations of the gas exchange analysis have been investigated extensively on a V8 spark ignited engine. Type 4007B direct mounted 1 bar (Ambient pressure) Reference pressure [bar] Fig. The engine is equipped with variable valve timing (cam phasors – intake and exhaust). 4 shows the sensor signal output with respect to the applied reference pressure. The cylinder pressure measurement utilized a water cooled M10-sensor Type 6061B mounted flush within the combustion chamber on the intake side.kistler. the remaining inaccuracy is caused only by the sensitivity error. The temperature behaviour is characterised during manufacture and compensated for using selected resistors (analogue compensation) or digitally corrected utilizing polynomials.com 7 . which was used as an important variable to control the residual gas mass during this investigation. The remaining error can be further reduced by performing a zero-point correction on the sensor signal. PR sensor in cooled switching adapter A. The properties of the resistors can be influenced by temperature making compensation necessary. Type 4007B direct mounted approx. The zero-point error and a certain part of the sensitivity error can be corrected by applying a zero-point correction to TA at ambient pressure at the time of the test. 200 mm The calibration reference curve (1) shows the ideal calibrated characteristic of a sensor and therefore each deviation from this perfect curve is exhibited as an error.1 Temperature Characteristics of Piezoresistive Sensors The measuring element of a piezoresistive pressure sensor is a single crystal silicon wafer into which resistors are implanted in a Wheatstone-Bridge configuration. this is due to the angular ignition spacing of 180 °CA. Fig. Both the cooling adapters and the cylinder pressure sensor are cooled by a temperature conditioning unit Kistler Type 2621. 4: Schematic view of the zero point correction C. 5: Measurement locations in the intake system www. Exposing the sensor to an arbitrary temperature TA produces both a zero-point and a sensitivity error (here shown positive) which generates curve (2).3. which has good measurement bore accessibility and a representative pressure curve. The high and the low pressure measurements have been obtained from cylinder 4.

EVO timing Pressure [bar] 2. The correction of sensors installed directly or in cooling adapters was applied during a certain crank angle window when a negligible pressure dynamic existed.5 1. load and valve overlapping.com . see Fig. 6) shows distinctive differences in the gas dynamics at high engine load.75 0. the sensor can be referenced to the known ambient pressure easily and so corrected accurately. exhaust) shows.5 p cylinder Intake. full load. PR sensor in cooled switching adapter. Type 4007B direct mounted in cylinder head. 7 shows the pressure curve during the gas exchange at 2 000 1/min and full load.25 2 1. This measurement position shows.25 EVO timing 2 1. pos. This required a correction to the pressure level of the intake and exhaust pressure curves after the measurement.75 Exhaust. this in turn. 3 Exhaust. 2 IVO timing Exhaust. The following corrections were made: Intake • Averaging of whole working cycle • Reference pressure uses the sensor signal obtained from the cooled switching adapter. in each case. 4 Exhaust. rear position 5. Measurement position 2 (frontal position in the exhaust bend. The flow characteristics at position B are due to the configuration of the variable intake manifold. close to valve) exhibits distinctive differences in the gas dynamic with respect to the engine revolutions. Therefore. pos.75 Pressure [bar] 1. measurement position A (in cylinder head. was referred to the ambient pressure before each measurement Fig.5 270 360 450 p cylinder TDC 540 630 720 EVC timing IVO timing EVC timing 1. 1 TDC 270 360 450 540 Crank Angle [deg CA] 630 720 3. As a reference. PR sensor in cooled switching adapter 2. PR sensor in cooling adapter Fig. pos. 7: Measured pressures in the low pressure phase of the engine cycle at different positions in the exhaust. A Crank Angle [deg CA] Fig. in each case. 2. Due to the small cross sectional area high flow velocities are reached and static pressure fractures are as a result of this low. the largest local peak pressure at the beginning of the gas exchange process. The propagation of the pressure wave during the intake stroke moves from the valve back into the intake manifold passing the sensor adjacent to the valve (Position A Fig.75 1. B Intake. The pressure increase at the frontal measurement position in the bend section of the manifold is caused by the redirection of the exhaust gas flow. Measurement position 1 (in cylinder head. By using the switching adapter. PR sensor in cooled switching adapter. pos. the absolute pressure level (given by sensor properties and zero-point adjustment) and the pressure dynamic (given by the measurement position) are independent. pos. 8) with a reduced amplitude. even at high revolutions and high load. operating condition 2 000 1/min.25 1 0.5 °CA were acquired and averaged. 270 °CA) • The reference is the pressure measured by a sensor located in the cooled switching adapter.. rear position 2. 5 Exhaust. full load. 8: Measured pressures in the low pressure phase of the engine cycle at different positions in the intake. Average over 200 single cycles Focussing on the intake. distant from valve) show identical pressure curves. pos. Average over 200 single cycles Fig. the pressure curves of the sensors installed in the cooled switching adapters were used.kistler. One of the objectives was to determine the cyclic pressure fluctuations at the different measurement positions. Following the EVO distinctive differences in the pressure dynamics are visible in the exhaust manifold (range of 360 °CA). which was referred to the ambient pressure before each measurement Exhaust • Averaging in a crank angle window when a negligible dynamic pressure exists (0 . 6: Measurement locations in the exhaust system At each engine operating point 200 single cycles with a resolution of 0. 8 www. A conclusion would be that the measurement of the pressure at the valve gap is not viable. Measurement positions 4 and 5 (on straight duct. the smallest local pressure maximum during the initial exhaust blow down.. 8) then shortly afterwards reaching the more remote sensor (Position B Fig. frontal position 4. operating condition 5 000 1/min. pos.25 1 0.5 1.

To achieve thermal stability of a sensor it is essential that the sensor is cooled adequately. so cooling the sensor is mandatory. due to well conditioned sensors and a low dependency of the sensor temperature on the engine load. To show the resulting sensor errors which are mostly caused by thermal effects. Pos 1 Fig. (ho loa ll lo ll lo art mi n –1 . a change in temperature causes a zero-point and a sensitivity error. Reference measurement in cooled switching adapter in position 4 www. 9) and lower the precision of the zero-point correction. A) Exhaust: sensor in cooling adapter (pos.com 20 34 50 00 En mi n –1 . part load 2 000 min–1. The correct. The higher temperature level can be explained by the heat impact of the cylinder head and the air mass flow. the zeropoint correction can be performed accurately. mounted in a cooling adapter reaches a maximum temperature of 80 °C. 9. 5. The direct mounted sensor in the intake port of the cylinder head reached temperatures of 65 °C (2 000 1/min part load) and 90 °C (2 000 1/min full load) . 4) Exhaust: sensor direct mounted in cylinder head (pos. 175 155 Sensor temperature [°C] 135 115 95 75 55 35 Intake: sensor in cooling adapter (pos. 5. here significant temperature changes may be evident. 1).2. Using sensors in cooling adapters leads in general. For the sensor. 10: Absolute pressure error with different piezoresistive sensors mounted in the exhaust in various operating conditions during a measuring campaign. therefore. part load. the sensor must be in the same condition (mainly temperature). Pos 5 ad ad ad d t) t) En gin es top (ho One of the two sensors installed in the exhaust is located in the manifold (Pos. This sensor. an engine load sweep was performed (Fig. well below the maximum allowable 200 °C. to temperatures in the range of 50 … 80 °C across the whole engine operating range. When mounting the sensors directly to the manifold. 10). The second sensor is installed directly in the exhaust port in the cylinder head (Pos. prior to applying the zero-point correction. fu top ll lo 9 .2 Accuracy Achieved by Using Piezoresistive Absolute Pressure Sensors 5. All sensors are first conditioned at 2 000 1/min. 4). full load Engine stop (hot) Sensor Type 4007B (M5). making it is necessary to stop the engine and reference the sensor to ambient pressure. a procedure for temperature compensation is necessary to achieve the high requirements necessary to determine the pressure level. stable cooling of the exhaust pressure sensor will lead to an almost constant temperature environment for the pressure sensor during the measurements over the entire engine operating range. No sensor is able to achieve the required accuracy at temperatures sometimes over 1 000 °C.p es gin mi 00 00 20 00 Fig. which means that the thermal error can be easily compensated. full load 5 000 min–1. fu n –1 . this resulted in temperatures around room temperature. This is more noticeable for the exhaust pressure measurement with the sensor installed directly in the cylinder head. as it will be during the subsequent measurements. Having installed the sensors into cooling adapters. full load 3 400 min–1.kistler. C) Intake: sensor direct mounted in cylinder head (pos. direct mounted in the intake manifold. fu mi n –1 . 9: Measured sensor temperature at intake and exhaust positions Sensor Type 4045A (M14). and then set to the ambient pressure. As the accurate measurement of the pressure level is the most critical aspect. in order to reach the high accuracy required.1 Pressure Measurement with Piezoresistive Sensors Direct Mounted/in a Cooling Adapter Whether sensors are direct mounted or in cooling adapters the measuring element is always exposed to the exhaust pressure. A maximum temperature of approximately 170 °C is measured at the same operating points. As presented.1 Sensor Temperature over the Engine Operating Range A characterisation of the temperature in different sensor locations was carried out on the V8 gasoline engine.5 Characterisation of Measuring Accuracy and Influence on the Analytical Results High temperatures interacting on a sensor can cause thermal error which leads to reduced overall accuracy. the sensor temperature may change according to the engine load (see Fig. this means that there is no additional cooling device. Sensor temperatures at different positions are shown in Fig. 1) 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 Sensor temperature [°C] Pos 1 Pos 5 Absolute pressure error [mbar] 15 2 000 min–1. The operating points are chosen in order to successively increase the thermal load into the sensor.

ensuring the most accurate scaling. The use of a cooled switching adapter enables a precise and flexible zero-point adjustment of the piezoresistive pressure sensor referenced to ambient pressure at any time..05 %FSO ±2.5 mbar/ ±0. a pneumatically controlled valve provides switching between ambient and exhaust pressures.03 %FSO Instability (typical) ±20 mbar/ ±0. displays the highest errors. The adjustment can be made while the engine is running under the same thermal load as the following measurement will take place.4 %FSO ±45 mbar/ ±0. To state the short term instability. Sensor errors (Fig.5 mbar/ ±0.. while DCE-Sensor (Type 4007B) exhibits a more noticeable instability.4 %FSO ±5 mbar/ ±0. The sensor error is therefore linked to the applied temperature. the environment is less challenging as both the ambient and media temperatures are significantly lower than those that surround the exhaust manifold.1 %FSO Fig.5 mbar/ ±0. 13..4 %FSO – Sensor Type 4075A10V200S 0 . In addition. With this procedure for zero-point adjustment done.. the engine is stopped and the difference in the sensor output. even the smallest thermal zero-point error can be measured and therefore corrected. relative to the intake. The difference in the sensor output between the first and last measuring points can be attributed to the sensor type. the engine is held at a steady operating condition and the change in the maximum sensor errors are obtained.05 %FSO difference exists between the readings taken at the first and last measuring points.05 %FSO.5 mbar/ ±0. high process reliability can be achieved.5 mbar/ ±0. has reduced exposure to extreme conditions like thermal load and soot contamination.kistler.9 %FSO Sensor Type 4045A5V200S 0 . 11). 12: Typical total absolute pressure error and instabilities of low pressure indication. 10 bar ±30 mbar/ ±0. Three piezoresistive sensors installed in the exhaust INTAKE Pressure range Total error (typical) Installation with cooling adapter Direct installation in cylinder head Short-term instability (at same operating condition) Instability (typical) Long-term instability (between first and last measuring point) Sensor Type 4007BA5FS 0 . Less than ±0.2 %FSO ±2. The biggest increase in temperature. Having completed the specified load conditions over the engine operating range. remain within 0. The sensor installed in the cylinder head.. the sensor errors are greater due to more dynamic temperature environment. 12). 10 www. the extremes in temperature are less damaging to the sensor and the additional cooling provided by the charge media help to provide a stable diaphragm temperature..1 %FSO ±10 mbar/ ±0.05 %FSO 5.4 %FSO. Sensor type 4007BA5FS installed in the intake On the exhaust side (Fig. as shown in Fig. The short term instability for all sensor types and measuring positions.05 %FSO ±2. EXHAUST Pressure range Installation with cooling adapter Direct installation in cylinder head Short-term instability (at same operating condition) Long-term instability (between first and last measuring point) Sensor Type 4007BA5FS 0 . In each case where a verification is made prior to every measuring point.2 %FSO and stability is very good also.2. Using an established measuring procedure in addition to regular use of the cooled switching adapter.The increased engine load applies a higher thermal load into the sensor causing an increase of the temperature at the measuring element.. This is due to a combination of factors. This characteristic is especially important when considering using sensors with cooled switching adapters.com . between the first last measuring point is determined.3 %FSO – Total error (typical) ±2. 5 bar ±5 mbar/ ±0. the sensor installed in the cooled switching adapter. The difference in accuracy therefore. 5 bar ±20 mbar/ ±0. Fig. Mounted in the intake. In addition to the cited effects of temperature the sensor stability will be evaluated next.2 Pressure Measurement with Piezoresistive Sensors Installed in a Cooled Switching Adapter A cooled switching adapter has the feature whereby. up to ±0. because of the elevated temperature levels. 11: Typical total absolute pressure error and instabilities of low pressure indication. 14). a reference accuracy of ±1 mbar can be achieved at every single operating point. and hence the largest sensor error. occurs at the sensor installed in the cylinder head. are less than ±0. Oil filled sensors (Type 4045A/Type 4075A) show a very small change.05 %FSO ±2.. The sensors that are installed in cooling adapters have errors of less than ±0. even of those sensors mounted directly in the cylinder head. It should be noted that the short term stability during an engine test point is not corrected (Fig.1 %FSO ±10 mbar/ ±0. is not dependent on the sensor type but on the quality and stability of the sensor cooling. 5 bar ±20 mbar/ ±0.9 %FSO.

. One exception is. when the pressure tap has the same drag coefficient for inflow as for outflow. which in turn results in a reduced mean pressure level in the remote sensing system. because of the hose length the gas temperature at the sensor is low and the contamination by soot is less likely. 13: Procedure for zero point correction of the sensor in the cooling switching adapter EXHAUST Pressure range Total error (typical) Installation with cooling switching adapter Short-term instability (at same operating condition) Long-term instability (between first and last measuring point) Sensor Type 4007BA5FS 0 .Status cooling switching adapter Ambient (not switched) Exhaust (switched) Ambient (not switched) Exhaust (switched) Ambient (not switched) Purpose Protection of sensor Warm sensor (approx. Due to this pressure variation within the remote sensing system.5 mbar/ ±0. as it is installed generally.5 mbar/ ±0. The resulting pressure fluctuation and This error can be eliminated by making a zero-point correction ±2.05 %FSO ±2. 5 bar Sensor Type 4045A5V200S 0 . the connecting hose and a piezoresistive absolute pressure sensor (Fig. 15)..5 mbar/ ±0. Three piezoresistive sensors installed in a cooled switching adapter in the exhaust 5. This leads to a better emptying of the system compared with the inflow.com 11 .kistler. 60 s) Zero-point correction Measurement Protection of sensor Engine status Any Operating point stabilized Any Time Fig.. The advantage of this method is that a conventional piezoresistive pressure sensor can be used. The pressure trace can be HP Filter Pressure p PR sensor Water cooled PE sensor Tube length L Average Charge amplifier Wall static pressure tap Fig. but is attributed to the inflow and outflow of gases through the pressure port.. The disadvantage is that with a remote sensing system. He employed a remote sensing system which was compared to the results of a direct mounted piezoresistive sensor located in the cooled switching adapter. a temporary non-constant mass flows in and out of the pressure tap. this would avoid any error but it means a complex geometry of the pressure tap and cannot be accomplished easily.05 %FSO ±2. 5 bar Sensor Type 4075A10V200S 0 . The error is not related to acoustic phenomena such as pipe oscillations. These effects have been analyzed and demonstrated by Weyer [6] experimentally as well as through simulation. The typical geometries used for the pressure tap leads to a difference between the drag coefficient ζI during inflow and drag coefficient ζO during outflow. For evidence about this effect. Eng [7] performed measurements on a single-cylinder diesel engine. The pressure curve results from the addition of the fluctuation with the averaged value www. The pressure oscillation in the intake or exhaust will travel through the pressure tap and the hose until it reaches the pressure sensor. Of the most influence. Therefore it is important that the signal of the piezoelectric sensor has no static component and therefore a mean value of zero.3 Low Pressure Indication with Piezoelectric Sensor and Pneumatic Pressure Measurement (Remote Sensing System) Should low pressure indication be attempted utilizing a piezoelectric sensor. is the pressure tap itself where the amplitude and frequency of the pressure oscillation have a major effect.. 15: Low pressure indication with piezoelectric sensor and pneumatic pressure measurement for the acquisition of the mean absolute pressure. an additional pressure measurement is necessary to determine the static mean absolute pressure.03 %FSO Instability (typical) This error can be eliminated by making a zero-point correction Fig. 10 bar calculated by the addition of the averaged pressure level and the pressure oscillation around the mean level. 14: Typical total absolute pressure error and instabilities of low pressure indication. Weyer shows that the error during the determination of the pressure level in a fluctuating pneumatic system is related to the dimensions of the remote sensing system. significant measuring errors can occur with the determination of the mean pressure level. The pressure measurement consists of a pressure tap or connection point..

75 0.25 ad ad ad d . 17: Fig. diameter and length of hose and dead volume).phase shift of the pneumatic signal are strongly related to the dimensions (diameter and length of the pressure tap.p n –1 . averaging the signal over a complete cycle is mandatory before adding the piezoelectric dynamic component.75 0. that the error of the remote sensing system. 16). It can also be seen that the sensor position has impact due to the differences of dynamic pressure at different locations.3 m) with PR sensor.25 1 0. Compared to the averaged direct piezoresistive pressure measurement the averaged pressure of the remote sensing system is too low.25 0 90 180 TDC 270 Pressure PE measurement [bar] Pegged direct PE meas. pos. pos. It becomes evident therefore. 5 Direct PR meas. 5 1.25 1 0. pos. full load. measured by the piezoelectric sensor and the averaged pneumatic pressure are added. The measured pressure traces were corrected in the following manner: • Direct pressure measurement with piezoresistive pressure sensor in cooled switching adapter: Zero-point is adjusted before the measurement according to the ambient pressure level • Remote sensing system with piezoresistive sensor (at the end of the hose): Zero-point is adjusted to the ambient pressure level during engine stop before the measuring campaign • Low pressure indication with a piezoelectric sensor and the remote sensing system: the pressure oscillation.75 1.336 bar 00 m 20 Fig. The following errors have an influence: • Direct pressure measurement with piezoresistive pressure sensor in cooled switching adapter: thermal related sensitivity error (small error. fu n –1 . measured on the 8-cylinder engine. The following results. include pressure curves from the remote sensing system compared to a piezoresistive sensor installed in a cooled switching adapter (Fig. generally a systematic error of up to 20 mbar can occur. see chapter 3).5 1. 5 -0. Operating condition 5 000 min–1.5 0. that the remote sensing system indicates clearly reduced pressure amplitudes as well as a phase shift.5 1. 4 Pneumatic PR meas. Average over 200 single cycles Absolute pressure error of the low pressure indication with piezoelectric measurement and pneumatic pressure measurement (averaged pressure in window 0 . pneumatic pressure measurement (tube length 0. 17 for different operating conditions. The difference between the absolute pressure measured using the remote sensing system to that of the direct piezoresistive sensor installed in a cooled switching adapter is shown in Fig. A comparison of Weyer's [6] results leads to a good correlation. Therefore this method is not recommended to achieve the best possible accuracy.361 bar Pneumatic PR measurement 1. pos. The formation of condensation in the hose will cause a dampening effect and has an influence on the dynamics of the signal (considerable error possible) • Direct pressure measurement with piezoelectric sensor: thermal related sensitivity error.. which is a rather high number for this application. It is evident from the data that the remote sensing system still shows a pressure dynamic.. This effect will become more evident towards higher engine speeds or with a prolongation of the hose. fu es En gin Resulting averaged pressure (0 .25 2 Absolute pressure in exhaust [bar] 1. 16: Pressure curves of direct pressure measurements with piezoresistive (PR) and with piezoelectric (PE) sensor.5 360 450 540 TDC 630 720 Crank Angle [deg CA] top art ll lo ll lo n –1 . 720 °CA): Direct PR measurement 1.. regarding the determination of the mean pressure level is in the range of 15 … 20 mbar. The measuring positions 4 and 5 are on the same longitudinal position in the exhaust manifold. dependent on hose length. reference measurement) • Remote sensing system with piezoresistive sensor: Error related to the pressure tap (inflow and outflow). This correlates to the error described by Weyer [6].kistler.com En gin mi mi mi es top (ho t) loa Direct PE meas. 270° CA. fu in –1 . thermal shock (small error in the dynamic pressure) In the case of low pressure indication with a piezoelectric sensor in combination with a remote sensing system. 2. It is quite visible.25 0 Absolute pressure error [mbar] 0 -20 -40 -60 0 -20 -40 -60 Position 2 Position 4 (ho t) ll lo -0. therefore..5 0. Direct piezoresistive measurement in position 5 as reference 12 20 34 50 00 00 00 www.

18) and unrestricted (exhaust valve full lift. The following two illustrations show the gas exchange of the V-8 engine with a fully variable valve train.Pressure [bar] 5.2 270 Exaust valve lift p cylinder TDC Exhaust pressure. An extensive parameter study confirms that primarily. exhaust valve lift full. 1 Intake pressure. the selection of low and high pressure instrumentation as well as the analytical process itself.2 1 0. pos. an example is shown on the influence of a different pressure level on the calculated residual gas fraction. 20: Computed residual gas fraction in the indicated cylinder for variations of the exhaust pressure of ±30 mbar.2 1 Valve timings: Intake -5°CA /Exhaust -5°CA Intake/ Exhaust series Intake +5°CA /Exhaust +5°CA Pressure [bar] 0. The highest uncertainty of the gas exchange measurement is therefore the in-cylinder low pressure signal. Average over 200 single cycles the phasing which is considerably before the residual gas relevance range of the valve overlap.5 Exhaust mass flow Intake mass flow TDC 360 450 540 Intake valve lift 630 720 Crank Angle [deg CA] Fig. The engine operating conditions analysed are 2 000 1/min part load restricted (full valve lift.4 0.kistler. A TDC 360 450 540 Crank Angle [deg CA] 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Delta p exhaust [mbar] Fig. 19: Measured pressure curves during the gas exchange and computed mass flow rate through the valves. which are measured with piezoresistive absolute pressure sensors Type 4007B close to the valve at the intake (position A) and exhaust (position 1). A 7.com 13 . however. In Figure 20. There should be a definition of the quality assurance as well as a confidence check of the measuring results in an early stage. Average over 200 single cycles Fig. pos. 18: Measured pressure curves during the gas exchange and computed mass flow rate through the valves. The pressure differences related to the measuring position at the pre exhaust (Fig. unrestricted operation. IMEP 2 bar. restricted operation. The gas exchange process is mainly influenced by the pressure difference at the valves.6 0. IMEP 2 bar. Fig. intake valve part lift. pos. the pressure level and not the sensor position or their adaptation is of central importance for the gas exchange calculation. 7). have no impact on the global results of the gas exchange calculation. The technology selection should be done with careful consideration to the boundary conditions as well as the mission targets. three valve timing settings. Therefore low pressure and in-cylinder indication should be considered complementary. This is because of 60 Mass flow rate [g/s] 40 20 0 Exhaust mass flow Intake mass flow 60 Mass flow rate [g/s] 40 20 0 -20 1. 8) has just minor effects on the results of the 1-D gas exchange calculation.4 0. the measuring position. the thermal shock error of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor is at least one order higher. Operating condition 2 000 min–1.4 Influence of Absolute Pressure Level on the Result of the Gas Exchange Calculation Use of low pressure indication for gas exchange optimization shows that a link exists between the measuring task. Representative pressure curves are shown. By increasing valve overlap the sensitivity of the calculated residual gas fraction on the absolute pressure level in the intake and exhaust port increases. Low pressure indication delivers pressure curves in high resolution for all control strategies.6 0. 10 9 TDC Exhaust pressure. as well as the calculated mass flow. full valve lift. The reason for this is that this calculation program takes into account the exact position of the sensor and therefore the runtime error of the pressure wave is considered.8 0. Operating condition 2 000 min–1. full load www. 19). Operating condition 2 000 min–1. intake valve lift reduced. pos. Fig. The difference in pressure dynamic at different measuring positions at the intake (Fig.2 270 Exaust valve lift p cylinder Intake valve lift Intake pressure. Piezoresistive sensors for intake and exhaust measurements offer an accuracy in the range of ±10 mbar. 1 8 Residual gas fraction [%] 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 630 720 -20 1.8 0.

und Dieselmotoren. Measuring Position in the Intake The choice of the measuring position is easier in the intake as the temperature of the measuring bore and of the intake gases normally allow direct mounting of the sensor without cooling. Forschungsbericht/ Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Absolute Pressure and Zero Point Correction Studies on the influence of the absolute pressure on the computed residual gas fraction show that a precision of better than ±10 mbar is necessary. New high-temperature pressure sensors broaden the application scope. Weyer Bestimmung der zeitlichen Druckmittelwerte in stark fluktuierender Strömung. Modelling and Simulation Compared to residual gas models that are based on averaged pressures. The use of a cooled switching adapter in addition to extending the useful life of the sensor. which has the added benefit of reducing the demand on the model. Analyse und Simulation 9. Figer. Bargende Homogene Kompressionszündung bei Otto. Piezoresistive absolute pressure sensors (Type 4045A/Type 4075A) with thin steel isolation diaphragms provide a high resistance to soot emissions and have an acceptable lifetime when constant cooling is present.und Raumfahrt 1974 M. M. Glaser. Karst. Wolfer Ladungswechseloptimierung durch geeignete Kombination von Indiziermesstechnik. High process reliability can be assured by using established measuring techniques in conjunction with the switching adapter. a gas exchange analysis referenced to direct dynamic low pressure measurements provides crank angle resolved data with a high degree of relevance. Gnielka. A sensor mounting position near the valve is more likely to provide the required accuracy for the phasing of pressure at the valve. Wimmer. 7 References [1] M. von Berg. insbesondere in Turbomaschinen Dissertation RWTH Aachen 1973 DFVLR. Stuttgart H. Baden-Baden C. J. Prenninger Möglichkeiten der genauen Messung von Ladungswechseldruckverläufen Internationales Symposium für Verbrennungsdiagnostik Mai 2000. Low pressure indication with a piezoelectric sensor and pneumatic pressure measurement (remote sensing system) is not recommended for the precise determination of the absolute pressure level in the exhaust. R. J. Graz A. Alten Der Ladungswechsel im Rennmotor MTZ-Konferenz. D. As presented. therefore. Tagung. The decision as to which piezoresistive sensor and its adaptation to use has to be considered on a case by case basis. P. M. Hoppe Erfahrung mit dem Einsatz eines modifizierten Restgasmodells und die Weiterentwicklung zum online-fähigen Optimierungstool Internationales Symposium für Verbrennungsdiagnostik Mai 2006.kistler. with minimum restrictions in the manifolds. the dynamic pressure measured at different locations can be influenced by the specific mounting orientation of the sensor related to the flow. Schnepf. Ladungswechsel im Verbrennungsmotor November 2007.com . Gossweiler. therefore a reference precision (±1 mbar) can be achieved in any operating condition. Anforderungen und Potentiale Symposium IAV Juni 2007 Berlin [2] N.6 Conclusion and Recommendations Miniaturised piezoresistive absolute pressure sensors can be placed. especially if temperatures are high and sustained as in the exhaust manifold. Burkhardt. due to their size and mass. G. provides a convenient zero point solution in combustion strategies utilizing high levels of EGR. C. when selecting the location for a sensor consideration must be given not only to the physical size of the adaptation but perhaps more significantly to the geometry of the manifold. Measuring Position in the Exhaust Any pressure measurement in the exhaust can be challenging. The conditioning of the sensor is still necessary. Eng Untersuchung von Sensoren und Messverfahren zur Niederdruckindizierung Diplomarbeit Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz November 2007 [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 14 www. Baden-Baden H. In the exhaust manifold a cooling adapter will be necessary unless the sensor can be installed directly in the cylinder head exhaust runner. P. Der Arbeitsprozess des Verbennungsmotors September 2003. Beran. The utilization of a cooled switching adapter allows a precise zero point correction of the piezoresistive pressure sensor. allowing a sensor installation even directly in the cylinder head close to the valve.

2 6.2/4 M5x0. versatile.25 Oil-filled pressure sensor with steel diaphragm.25 Compact adapter for miniature pressure sensors. Available in different versions with or without PiezoSmart®.3 12/14 M14x1./Max./4075A… 13 M14x1.5 As for Type 4005B… High-temperature design. or as measuring chain with amplifier Type 4618A • Intake pressure • Exhaust pressure • Direct installation in intake • Adapter Type 7511 • Adapter Type 7533A Type 4075A… 0 … 10 1) 0 … 10 4 … 20 0/140 3) <0.5 Miniature sensor ideal for measuring pressures in the intake system.kistler..5 (20 … 120 °C) <1 (20 … 120 °C) <0.5 Compact adapter for sensor Type 4075A Type 7525A… 4005B…/4007B… 7 M14x1.5 (20 … 120 °C) <1 (20 … 120 °C) <0.8 M18x1. Very compact dimensions.5 G1/2" Damped adapter for applications with high vibration Type 7505B 4075A… 11. Ideal for measuring pressures in both the intake and exhaust system. temperature Thermal zero shift Thermal sensitivity shift Linearity and Hysteresis Dimensions Description D/L T bar V mA °C ±%FSO ±% ±%FSO mm Type 4005B… 0 … 5/… 10 1) 0 … 10 4 … 20 –40/125 <1 (0 … 125 °C) <1 (0 … 125 °C) <0. Damped version available Type 7533A… 4005B…/4007B…/ 4045A. digital temperature compensation Type 4045A… 0 … 1/… 2/… 5/… 10 1) 0 … 10 4 … 20 0/140 3) <0.2/4 M5x0.Applied Pressure Sensors and Cooling Adapters Low Pressure Measurement in Intake and Exhaust T T L D T L D T L L D D Technical Data Measuring range Output signal (amplifier) Min.2 6. Available as PiezoSmart® sensor or measuring chain with amplifier Type 4618A • Intake pressure Type 4007B… 0 … 5/… 20 0 … 10 4 … 20 –40/200 <1 (0 … 180 °C) <1 (0 … 180 °C) <0..com 15 . high natural frequency.25 Switching adapter to reference sensor to ambient pressure www. or as measuring chain with amplifier Type 4618A Application • Intake pressure • Exhaust pressure in racing engines • Direct installation in intake or exhaust (cylinder head) • Adapter Type 7525A • Adapter Type 7533A 3) • Exhaust pressure Recommended mounting/adapter • Direct installation in intake • Adapter Type 7505 • Adapter Type 7533A 1) other measuring ranges available 2) depends on measuring range other temperature ranges available Cooling Adapters T L T L L T L T Technical Data Recommended sensors Dimensions Description L T mm Type 7511 4045A… 4075A… in adapter 12.5/35 M12x1 Oil-filled pressure sensor with steel diaphragm.3 9. Available in different versions with or without PiezoSmart®.

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