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Preface The learning of History of Art is a fascinating area of study that envelops the comprehensive knowledge of world art.

All the subjects that I have learnt in these two years have inspired me in many ways. While it came to writing of Dissertation, I decided to write on the Art of Burma, as this area of study was beyond the normal scope of study. Southeast Asia has always been a rich area of inquiry for many reasons; one of them is art and cultural studies. While we were taught of the independent status of the art forms emphasising their indigenous quality, many major influences were also touched upon during the process. One such major inspiring factor was the Indian Civilisation that in course of time has enriched the cultural perspective of the south and Southeast Asian people. While one understands the life of people in this region, their ritualistic practice and its transformation into art form, significantly contributed to the shaping the visual culture. This brings us to understand the Nat Cult that was very important in Burma. People not only believed in the concept of Nat but also worshipped the spirit of nature in various ways. This gradually became so very strong a belief that no other art form could enter the society without proper acceptance by the local folk. Thus the entry of Buddhism progressed on the line of Nat by making the people understand the magical needs of the Buddha. His supernatural existence only helped the people to rest faith in him. Buddha became the thirty-seventh Nat and was then adopted and worshipped in Burma till 1056 AD when King Anawrahta made the Buddhist religion the official religion and started spreading the teaching of Buddha in a formal manner. This advancement in religious belief slowly got converted to the serious art practice and one finds the Stupas are being developed on the form of water gourd. Taking off from here there is a constant increase in the number of tiers, plinths and mouldings etc. In the later stage one finds, these terraces grow up and transforms into the temple structures. Besides these architectural setting, there is a number of other elements, one observes, in the form of symbolic motifs and decorative motifs. These structures create space to accommodate painting and painted sculptures at places. Thus it inspired me to document the development of architecture in my own understanding. I have tried to place the subject in meaningful space. The present study is accomplished by the support of many people who have contributed directly or indirectly. Their support has come in form of guidance, ideological support and valuable support, which needs to be acknowledged appropriately.

To begin with, I am grateful to Prof. Rashmi kala Agrawal (HOD), who very kindly offered us the opportunity of undertaking this small research work. From the conception of the subject till completion my supervisor, Dr. Pradosh Kumar Mishra, has always supported me with proper working atmosphere and guidance. His constant motivation in words and action made me realise the significance of the work. This work would have not been possible without proper supervision. I express my deep gratitude to him for all he has done for me. My parents have extended their respective support as and when I have desired. Here, I acknowledge their kindness to me for completing this project. This also brings in my appreciation for my friends those have inspired me in accomplishing this project. Jyoti Kumari

Introduction The land of Burma including the Shan states, located between longitudes 10 0 28 north and latitudes 920 100 east. Its total length, from Victoria point in the Malay Peninsula to the border of China is 1,300 miles and its greatest width is 575 miles, which make its two-third the length of India. The north, east and south are mountainous region, while the center is occupied by an alluvial plain watered by its great rivers, the Irrawaddy and Salween. On the south-west we find the sea , while the west and north-west border on Assam from which they are separated by a long mountain range, so high as to from or very serious land barrier between India and Burma.

Location Burma is the center part between the two powerful countries, China to the East and India to the West. Burma is situated of the east bank of Irrawaddy River. The river originates beyond the Chinese border and flows southward down the center of the country before the emptying into the bay of the Bengal in vast delta region. The central region is populated largely by ethnic Burma whose language is Burmese, while the hill are inhabited by numerous tribal groups outside the mainstream of Burmese civilization. In the North of the Burma: Shri Kshetra, Mandalay, Amarpura. In the South: Thaton, Pegu, Rangoon, Prome, Beikthano. Mandalay was the capital of the Burma from 1860 until 1825. At the present time the capital of Burma is Rangoon.

Map of Burma Sources of Burmese Art The sources for Burmese history are varied. Burmese and Mon chronicles from the 16 th century focus on connections between India and indigenous dynasties, while some describe the careers of individual kings, regions, or shrines. Literary Sources: According to the Burmese historical sources, a Shakya prince of Kapilvastu, Abhiraj, came to northern Burma with his army and he establised his own state (kingdom) and Sankissa (Tagong) has become its capital. Abhiraj had two sons; a younger one has become a king of Sankissa and elder son conquered the Arakan state. After the 31 generation, in the time Buddha a group of Kshtriya came to Northern Burma and ruled here till 13 generation. This Kshtriya group came from the Ganga Valley. After the 13 generation they moved to southern Burma and Srikshetra has become a capital of their kingdom or state. According to sources of Talong: Many Indians people came to Irrawady vally for trade work and they have made their colony. The first king had come from Varanasi. According to other sources of Burma:

Many inscription have been founded on the rocks which is in Brahmi Lipi, it can prove that Indians came to Burma and mack their colonies and kingdom. Beside this inscription, many remain also have been founder which is indicate the Indian language, Sanskrit and Pali, probably this inscription have been written for spreading the Buddhism and Hinduism in the Burma. In the south of Burma, lived the Mon people. First of all the Mon people started to follow the Hindu religion and culture. Mon people conquered the northeast regionnorthern Siam and Laos. According to Pali text the name of the king this dynasty is Indian and he was the follower of Buddhism. So many Buddhist monasteries chaitya and vihar have been constructed under this Indian king. In north of Burma, lived the Pyu people and his capital was Srikshetra. Very slowly the Indian influence came to this region through the Indian colonies. Some inscriptions have been founded from Srikshetra which is in Sanskrit and Pali language and the name of the king was Indian. Some Buddhist image also have been founded from Srikshetra with the inscription on the base or pedestal, there is a mention about the king Jai Chandra Varman of 7th century. Hariviskram, Singh Vikram and Suryavikram, these name are depicted on the throne of Srikastra.

Indian Migration: In the6th century many Indians came to Burma for trade and slowly they make their colonies. Through this migration, Indian people came with their own religion, culture and art and then we find the fusion of these both (India and Burma) art and culture.

The Cultural Background of Burma

Pagan, the most important historical site in Burma, lies within a major bend of the Irrawaddy River where its east-west course turns and flows south. This capital city, constructed entirely on the left bank of the river, is in the most arid part of the dry zone of Central Burma. Founded at sometime before the 9th century AD, Pagan was the capital of the first Burmese kingdom from the 11th-14th centuries after its first great ruler, King Anawrahta, politically consolidated all of central Burma by conquering both the Pyu and the Mon peoples. Art and Architecture flourished during the Pagan Period and classic models were established that were copied by later kingdoms. Today, the archaeological site consists of 2,230 buildings and mounds scattered over approximately twenty-five square miles of the Pagan plain. A general pattern in the displacement of these structures is that the earlier buildings were built nearer the riverbank while later buildings are found at a distance. Among these structures are 911 temples, of which 347 have conserved to some extent their mural paintings; 524 stupas; 415 monasteries; 31 other structures including image houses, libraries and ordination halls; and numerous unexcavated mounds produced by collapsed structures. All were constructed for religious purposes except for the city wall. This wall was probably built to protect one of the original cites at this site. However, by the Pagan Period, this small-enclosed area had become a royal enclave with most of the citys structures and inhabitants situated outside the wall. Although the origins of Pagan go back to before the 9 th century, King Anawrahta (10441077 AD) was its first historical ruler. He was the first to conquer the entire dry zone in the middle of the country and he was the first to establish a single center from which to administer the kingdom. It is important that he and subsequent Kings continued to develop and expand outlying irrigation systems because rice became not only a staple in the Burmese diet but also the currency of the realm in which taxes were often paid Theravada Buddhism became the state religion of Pagan as a consequence of King Anawrahtas successful conquest to obtain Buddhist texts from the Mon state of Thaton. However, there is evidence that other types of Buddhism as well as Hinduism and Animism were practiced at Pagan. The Mon people The first indianized people in Burma were the Mons, in the south Burma. The Mons ,a people of Magalo Indonesian stocks are related to the early inhabitants Thailand and Combodia who also spoke Mon Khmer language . The Mon who is considered to the

indigenous inhabitant lower Burma established their most significant capital at Thaton strategically located for trade near the Gulf of Martban and the Andaman Sea. This area was first known as Suvarnabhumi (land of gold) and later as Ramannadesa (land of Ramanna); Ramanna being the word for Mon people. Mon port city of Thaton can be traced to the Indian kingdom of the Buddhist king Ashoka from as early 3 rd c B.C. Legend maintains that 2,500 years ago the Mon people began the original structure of the Shwedagon Pagoda that today has become the most revered Buddhist stupa in Burma, a true national monument. The Pyu people The Pyu people lived in northern Burma. The common people all lived within the city wall with 12 gates. The Pyu adopted Buddhism as it spread into Southwest Asia while continuing to practice animism, the worship of indigenous spirits. Excavation at the great Pyu capital, Srikshetra, uncovered artifacts associated with Vishnu as well as the remains of the Buddhist stupas and monasteries that clearly indicate that Hinduism as well as Buddhism was practiced there. Indeed, the name of the earliest Pyu city, Beikthano, means the city of The city of Vishnu the second of the great God in the Hindu triad. The Pyu language and culture seems to have disappeared as they conquered and absorbed by the Burmese. The Pyu and Burmese language are similar; both belong to the Tibeto-Burman family of language. Very few information is found in the few inscriptions on burial urns that typically state the names and regional dates of early rulers and in the formula inscription on Buddhist votiveness. None of these sources yields detailed information about the Pyu people or their culture. In fact it was not until 1911 that the Pyu language could not be read. This was the result of the translation of the Mayazedi inscription, the Burmese `resetta` stone. This quadric-lingual inscription, written in the Pyu, Mon, Burmese and Pali languages, was erected before the (Buddhist) Myinkaba Kubyauk-gyi temple at Pagan in 1113 A.D. That this Pagan inscription was written in Pyu in the 12 th century suggests that although Pyu culture had declined in the 9th century due to invasions from the north by the Chinese and had been subsequently absorbed by the Burmese, the Pegu had continued after the Chinese invasion. One of the earliest Pyu sites is Beikthano (city of Vishnu) which is situated near the east bank of the Irrawaddy River between Srikshetra and Pagan.

HALIN is a Pyu city in northern Burma is located north of Mandlay about 12miles south west of Shwebo and sum to have flourished from the 2nd to the 6th century A.D. The largest and most important of all the Pyu capital cities, Srikshetra, is located approximately 5 miles south-east of the modern city of Prome, 180 miles northeast of Ragoon, and a few miles inland from loft bank of the Irrawaddy. The site of Srikshetra is known by the several names Thayekhittaya, nmawza and Pyi in Burmese and as old Prome in many English Publications. The Burmese assumption of sovereignty over Burma did not take place until the middle of the 11th century, at almost exactly the same time as the Norman congest of England, and it is with the earlier races living in Burma that we must deal first in considering the influences of the Indian culture brought to bear upon that country. To be precise, these race were the Pyu , now extinct as an entity, and these Mon , who still survive but it inconsiderable numbers , though it may be stated in passing that there is a modern movement to revive their language and literature . The Pyu are said to come from a Tibetan stock which would ally them with the Burmes and account for their later asorption by that race ; while the Mon , who are now called Talaing in Burma itself , are thought to have come originally from Telengana on the east coast of India . From the fifth century onward we find the Pyu established in central Burma with their capital at old Prome on the Irrawady and the Mon in possession of lower Burma, but split up into two kingdoms, the one centered at Thaton, just north of Moulmein, and the other at Pegu. After the fall of Thaton and its eclipse as a religious center in the eleventh century Pegu become the principal center of Mon influence. The Pyu kingdom was in close touch with the Tai kingdom of Nanchao in southern China and in A.D. 801 a Pyu deputation accompanied a mission from Nanchao to the imperial court of China, where they gave a performance of dancing and singing Earlier still, in A.D.754 the prince of Nanchao is said to have conquered upper Burma and later to have styled himself `Lord of the Pyu`, but it is very doubtful if he ever reached as for south as old Prome. Short inscriptions in the Pyu language have been discovered and partially translated by Blagelen and others, but are still not entirely decipherable. there is a beautiful stone extant from Hmawza , showing the Buddha and two worshippers , while below is an interlined inscription in (a) Pyu and (b) unknown language, possibly Sanskrit, in an ancient script. General History

Pagan, the most important historical site in Burma, lies within a major bend of the Irrawaddy River where its east-west course turns and flows south. This capitol city, constructed entirely on the left bank of the river, is in the most arid part of the dry zone of Central Burma. Founded at sometime before the 9th century AD, Pagan was the capitol of the first Burmese kingdom from the 11th-14th centuries after its first great ruler, King Anawrahta, politically consolidated all of central Burma by conquering both the Pyu and the Mon peoples. Art and Architecture flourished during the Pagan Period and classic models were established that were copied by later kingdoms. Although the origins of Pagan go back to before the 9 th century, King Anawrahta (10441077 AD) was its first historical ruler. He was the first to conquer the entire dry zone in the middle of the country and he was the first to establish a single center from which to administer the kingdom. It is important that he and subsequent Kings continued to develop and expand outlying irrigation systems because rice became not only a staple in the Burmese diet but also the currency of the realm in which taxes were often paid. Theravada Buddhism became the state religion of Pagan as a consequence of King Anawrahtas successful conquest to obtain Buddhist texts from the Mon state of Thaton. However, there is evidence that other types of Buddhism as well as Hinduism and Animism were practiced at Pagan. Most of the major monuments at Pagan were built in the century following the death of King Anawrahta, particularly during the reigns of his son(?) King Kyanzittha (1084-1112) and King Narapatizithu (1170-1211). In fact so many temples were constructed that the 12th century is known as the Golden Age of Burmese Temple Building. The prototypic forms for both the Burmese stupa and the Burmese temple date to this time, although in later periods the stupa instead of the temple becomes the preferred building type. Also in the 12th century Pagan became an international center for Buddhist learning. During the early Pagan Period, the ideology of the country became more thoroughly Theravada Buddhist when the major Animist spirits were subordinated to Buddhism through the creation of a hieratic arrangement that placed a Buddhist deity above the local spirits. Sakka, known as Thagyamin in Burma, is thought to be a reincarnation of the Hindu God, Indra, who presides over Tavatimsa Heaven as King of the thirty-three Gods. In Buddhist belief, Sakka - Thagyamin has become the guardian-protector of the Buddhist faith after Gautamas Buddhas death and thus, in his absence. In Burma, it was Sakka - Thagyamin who was appointed head of the official Pantheon of 36 local Nats who were then ranked below him.

Burma became more culturally cohesive under King Anawrahtas second successor, King Kyanzittha, who was also an ardent Buddhist.. Kyanzittha was a builder of impressive temples such as the Nagayon, the Abeyadana, and the Ananda - one of the few temples to remain in constant use since it was created and the object of national pilgrimage. With in the brick walls of Pagan, he also built a fabulous palace that he had described in great detail in a lengthy inscription. The third great king Narapatisithu, constructed three great temples including the Dhamma-yazika stupa, one of the largest pentagonal buildings in the world. In 1287, when the Mongols appeared on the Northern horizon and threatened to invade Pagan, King Narathihapati fled the capital and the kingdom fragmented. The political unity of Burma was thus destroyed and was not regained until the 17 th century, although Pagan continued its role as an important religious center even when later capitals were located elsewhere. Today, the archaeological site consists of 2,230 buildings and mounds scattered over approximately twenty-five square miles of the Pagan plain. A general pattern in the displacement of these structures is that the earlier buildings were built nearer the riverbank while later buildings are found at a distance.

Stupa Architecture of Burma


The first example of Stupa Architecture is found in India. Through the Indian migration to Burma, the stupa became a very important and religious part of the Burmese Architecture. Here we can see the developed phase of the Stupa Architecture, which can represent the difference between Indian and Burmese Stupa Architecture. Stupas are solid structures that typically cannot be entered and were constructed to contain sacred Buddhist relics that are hidden from view in containers buried at their core or in the walls. There are stupas such as the Myazedei that have the external form of a stupa but are like a temple with an inner corridor and multiple shrines. The typical form of the Pagan stupa was clearly derived from earlier examples found in India and Sri Lanka. Major differences between the earlier stupa prototypes and the later Pagan structures can be seen in their larger proportions as well as in the more pyramidal shape of the terraced base. The dome remained the major architectural element in the Burmese stupa and was made more bell-like, developing a shoulder and a slight concavity at the base of the bell. These changes constitute what became the classical model for the Burmese stupa that has a square base of several recessed terraces provided with a stairway on each side that leads up to one or two octagonal terraces upon which sits a circular bell-shaped dome that extends upward into a conical, ringed spire. Although this model is thought to be typical for most Pagan Period stupa, it appears in only a few monuments of great size, such as the Shwezigon Stupa or the Mingalazedi. However, this is the stupa type that is most often copied during later periods, for example the Kuthawdaw Stupa built in Mandalay in 1857. Another stupa type rarely found at Pagan has a bulbous profile and dome that the Burmese see as gourd-like and is considered to be Pyu in origin. The riverine Buhpaya or Gourd Stupa and the Ngakywenadaung are among the few extant examples. Exact copies of the cylindrical or columnar type of Pyu stupa as seen at Srikshetra are not readily found at Pagan. An exception, however, might be King Anawrahtas Lokanada Stupa (Temple) that marks the southern extent of the ancient city. Unfortunately, it has been extensively repaired and reshaped with the passage of time. The crowning finial placed on all stupa today, as well as during the Pagan period, is the metal hti (umbrella) or tiered sunshade that closely resembles the Burmese royal crown. The exteriors of stupas were embellished with similarly patterned carved and molded stucco decorations. Often a frieze consisting of demon masks (kirtthimukhas) disgorging strings of pearls and foliage was attached to the top of a temple wall and around the middle of the stupa bell. Plaster ornaments were also used to cover pilasters and to


create the prominent moldings that appear around any opening on the outside or inside of a building. The evolution of Stupa Salient Features The stupas are generally of pyramidal shape, with a terraced base with stairway on each side. The structure has a square base. The dome is normally bell-shaped with shoulder becoming a base of the bell. The construction is more elaborate with one or two octagonal terrace base of the circular bell-shaped dome. On the top of the dome, crown with the hti (Umbrella) is placed. There is decoration on the exterior of the stupas.

The Bow-bow-gyi stupa: This stupa was built in 9th century, by the Pyu people at Srikshetra. This is the earliest example of Burmese stupa architecture. This stupa is close to an eastern Indian prototype. At the Shrikshetra, the three salient monuments today are found out side of the city wall: The Bow-bow-gyi to the south, the Pyagyi to the Northwest, and The Pyama to the north. This is a tall, massive brick cylinder, mounted on shallow, stepped circular plinths. The height of the stupa is 153 feet, and this cylindrical column that rested on a base of five concentric terraces. The upper portion of the main cylinder has fallen away over time and the truncated form has been fitted with a tower that resembles the Burmese crown or hti (umbrella). The Bow-bow-gyi is not an entirely solid structure as it may appear at first sight. There is an opening at the base and another aperture high up in the opposite wall. Inside the stupa was found a small ceramic vase containing excerpts from Buddhist Manuscripts that were written in Pali (sacred language of Buddhism) on twenty sheets of gold and silver. The script used in writing these passages has been dated to the mid 5th to mid 6th century AD, which dates the structure to well within the Pyu period. Their apices already have the characteristically Burmese concave bell- like pinnacle tapering to the cultural point. This cylindrical stupa form that tapers towards the top is peculiar to Burma and to Pyu culture and is believed to represent a closed lotus bud. This form is more completely retained by the two other important stupas at the site, The Pyama and Pyagyi.


The Lokananda Stupa The stupa was built in 1059 by king Anawrahta. This is located on a promontory above a small bay in the east bank of the Irrawaddy River that probably served as a port for pagan and the marked the southern extent of the city. Today, the structure displays a columnar bell with vertical sides resting upon three octagonal terraces, staircases mounting from terrace to terrace up each of the four sides. The exterior decoration or this stupa has been repeatedly refurbished and changed over time and has recently been encased in gilded metal plaques. The upper portion is with the crown and the whole structure in white colour. The dome is tall, bell shaped, often with bands of ornamental moulding half- way up. which may themselves stand on what are virtually sacred mountains further terraces with

The Bupaya Stupa This stupa was built in 9th or 10th century. Stupas of this pattern related to the old Pyu stupa at Shrikshetra are found at Pagan. Buhpaya was actually built by the Pyu. It has a different bell shape from other stupa architecture. This stupa stands on a high platform; its own plinth is simple, low, and octagonal. Its Harmika and umbrella-spire form a single, tall concave-sided cone. The stupa type usually attributed to Anawrahta is similar to this old Pyu pattern. The whole structure is in white colour.

The Schwe Sandaw Stupa The Schwe Sandaw stupa was built in 11 th century. This stupa is popularly believed to have been built by Anawrahta at the symbolic centre of his square Mandala plan for Pagan. It was built to enshrine the sacred hair relic (Shwesandaw) that he had taken from the Bow-bow-gyi Stupa in Shrikshetra. Here we find the develop form of the Burmese Stupa Architecture. This is the first Stupa in Burma to have a Pyramidal base of tall, steep terraces connected on each side by a medial stairway. Also it is first instance in the Burmese history of a bell-shaped dome that has a concave profile instead of the convex or vertical profiles of the Pyu types. This bell-shaped dome with a flared base becomes an important part of the prototypic stupa that was replicated in Burma for the nine hundred years.


Here is found on the series of rectangular terraces forming the sacred mountain on which the stupa stands. At the corner of these terraces replicas of the crowning harmika combined with the umbrella-spire have been built. The terrace themselves are given horizontal bands moulding. The outer face of the terraces were inset with glazed ceramic plaques that each in a single depiction represent one of the many past lives of Gautama Buddha, The Jataka Tales. The use of such plaques continued an Indian tradition and they decorate many later Burmese monuments of great size and importance. Interestingly, the Shwesandaw is also known as the Mahapeinne, or Ganesha Stupa. This is so named for the Hindu God, Ganesha, the elephant-headed son of Shiva who as a protector - doorman removes obstacles from the path of those who wish to legitimately enter. It is probable that stone images of Ganesha originally guarded the stupa because broken images of Hindu Gods have been found scattered about its base. The four corners of the base were guarded by the earliest examples of manoukthiha, images of doublebodied lions made of brick and plaster, that continue in use till today to protect the foundations of Burmese stupas.

The Shwezigon Stupa The Shwezigon Stupa was built during the 11th century. The construction of this stupa was started by king Anawrahta and finished by his son Kyanzinttha. The Shwezigon, a massive stupa has aptly been called the most 'national' of all Burma's pagodas. It became the prototype for the form and decoration of subsequent Burmese stupas, has received constant devotional and financial support for a thousand years, and is a principal destination for pilgrims to Pagan. This solid stupa, which is 102 feet tall, was built to enshrine several sacred relics of the Buddha, including his collarbone, frontlet bone and a duplicate tooth relic brought from the city of Kandy in Sri Lanka. Sandstone was used to construct, most, if not all, of this frequently repaired structure. King Anawrahta is credited with constructing the lower three terraces that comprise the square pyramidal base. A staircase connects these terraces halfway along each side, and there are small stupas at the terrace corners. The massive bell-shaped middle part of the stupa, completed by King Kyanzittha shortly after 1086, rises from an octagonal band above the three terraces. The ringed cone as well as the lotus-bud finial surmounting the bell has frequently had to be replaced owing to earthquakes (e.g., after the earthquake of 1975) and general deterioration.


Inset in the lower brick terraces are over 500 stone or terracotta, green glazed plaques that illustrate in simple terms events from the previous lives of the Buddha (=Jataka stories). This use of Jataka plaques as architectural ornament first occurred on stupas constructed by King Anawrahta then continued throughout the Pagan and later periods. At the Southeast corner of the stupa is found an imposing double-bodied lion, the only remaining stone manoukthiha at Pagan. It is one of four that originally held guard at the four corners of the stupas base. A cult has recently developed around this image where devotees can be seen making offerings of flowers and food. The stupa stands at centre of a very large walled compound in which there are a wide variety of structures including several Nat shrines, rest houses and small temples. The Stupa could be approached from the Irrawaddy by the north gate. The primary east gate as well as the south gate has long covered walkways, regularly filled with vendors. The beginning of the infrequently used west gate is guarded at a distance by two stone lions, the oldest at Pagan and in fact, in Burma. This is the continuation of an Indian tradition of placing guardian lions, known in Burmese as chinthes, at the entrances to stupas - a tradition that continues until today. In post Pagan Periods, gigantic guardian lions were erected in brick and stucco on either side of the entrances on the East, South and West sides of the compound. On the north side, the chinthes appear along the stairway that leads up from the river landing, not adjacent to the entrance. At each of the four cardinal points round the base of the stupa, opposite the staircases, is a freestanding secondary shrine referred to as a perfumed chamber (gandhakuti) due to the aromatic incense offered there. In each of these shrines stands one of the four largest bronze Buddha images in Pagan, each tower nine feet above the kneeling devotee. These images are of interest; also, because they were created by hammering a thin sheet of bronze to form only the front half the image, although the visual effect is that they were cast-in-the-round.

The Minglazedi Stupa This was constructed by the King Narathihapati in 1284 at Pagan. The last major edifice to be erected at Pagan, the Mingalazedi, is also perhaps the most visually satisfying in terms of pleasing proportions and fine details, such as the glazed Jataka plaques that ring its four lower terraces. Small stupas that appear at the corners of the stepped terraces have the form of the kalasa Pot and are covered with white glazed tiles decorated with a moulded

kirtthimukha frieze. Atop the third terrace, there are four larger, conical stupas that together with the subsidiary corner stupas and the medial stairways enhance the majestic effect of the edifice that culminates in a tapering finial above the bell. In 1287, when the Mongols appeared on the Northern horizon and threatened to invade Pagan, King Narathihapati fled the capital and the kingdom fragmented. The political unity of Burma was thus destroyed and was not regained until the 17 th century, although Pagan continued its role as an important religious centre even when later capitals were located elsewhere.


Temple Architecture of Burma Temple architecture represents the develop form of the stupa architecture. Pagan temples may be divided into two basic types according to floor plan: one type has an open central sanctuary and the other has a solid core that is ringed by a corridor. The two types, however, were at times combined in a single structure in which the solid core was hollowed out to create a sanctuary that was then encircled by a corridor. An example of the first type, the most rudimentary temple, of which there are several hundred at Pagan, consists of a one storey square shrine that is typically entered from the east by a door which opens into a small vestibule area located directly in front of the primary cult image that sits against the west wall. The interior may be illuminated by light from the door or by windows in the north and south walls. Larger temples having a sanctuary were often built on a cruciform plan where the central shrine can be entered from all four sides. At times these temples have four Buddha images seated back to back at the centre or a screen wall is erected inside against which the major cult image is placed. Often, one of the four entrances is developed into a hall that may then open directly into the sanctuary. The second main type of temple has a solid core that is ringed by a fairly broad circumambulatory corridor that then serves as a continuous sanctuary. These temples are most often square having a door in each wall with the major images placed in a niche facing each entrance. These four images may represent by their differing iconography the Four Great Events in the Buddhas life Birth, Enlightenment, First Sermon, and Death or four identical Buddhas may represent the four previous Buddhas of our era. When a fifth Buddha, the future Buddha, Maitreya, is included, a pentagonal plan was devised by adding a fifth side with requisite door, image and niche while using the same structural devices as found in a quadrilateral temple. There are some temples that combine both principal types and hence are almost always among the larger temples at Pagan. These temples usually have a square central sanctuary lit by light shafts in the ceiling that is surrounded by a circumambulatory corridor with an entrance hall and porch on one side. Windows in the three outer walls illuminate the inner corridor. The primary Buddha image in the central shrine faces the entrance, and numerous smaller images fill niches throughout the temple whether they are located in the shrine, in the corridor wall, or in the entrance hall. Such is the floor plan of Nagayon Temple.


Temple roofs were made of bricks that were laid in a slightly curved profile during the 11th and early 12th centuries but were flat thereafter. A stair-step pyramid of terraces, usually three, sits atop the roof and forms the base for the massive tower. These towers were usually shaped like a circular stupa or were square with a curvilinear profile, a form referred to as a shikhara. These shikhara towers were also frequently crowned with a small stupa. The exterior decoration of almost all temples of Pagan consists of stucco applied to the brick surfaces and then sculpted. Any opening in a temple was bordered by elaborate stucco decorations that are most ornate around the main temple door. In temple interiors, particularly after the first quarter of the12th century, the stucco mouldings are replaced by trompe loeil wall paintings. The base of the temple as well as the roof terraces in larger temples may be enhanced with glazed ceramic or stone Jataka plaques or other ornaments such as glazed tiles in the shape of lotus petals or leaves.

The Seinnyet Nyima temple This temple was built in late 11th century at Myinpagan. By the 11th century the pattern of the stupa has changed in to the form from which the true Burmese Temple was to spring. Here we can see the Dome has become highly ornate, the bands of ornament found on the older Pyu type having become wider and deeper. The old octagonal plinth has become an elaborate series of flanged mouldings round the base of the dome. The miniature spires at the terrace-corners have become virtually miniature stupas. On monuments of this last type, decorative figure sculpture comes very much to the fore. The actual form of the stupa, notably in the new weight of the conical spire- there is a strong reassertion of Indian influence.

The Nagayon Temple This was built in 1090 AD by the king Kyanzittha at Myinpagan. This is a good example of the Mon temple type. It is a single storey structure consisting of an entrance hall and a square, central shrine that are connected by a circumambulatory corridor which passes in front of and completely surrounds the inner shrine. The roof slopes upwards to three broad terraces


that are surmounted by a convex shikhara tower, crowned by a stupa. Smaller shikhara and stupas stand on the terrace corners. The Nagayon, like other early temples at Pagan, has narrow window openings filled with a dense brick lattice that allows very little light to enter. The temple or gu was dimly lit because it was meant to resemble a mountain cave where the religious might worship and meditate a concept also found in India. The central shrine contains a most unusual arrangement of three colossal images of the standing Buddha that are made not of sandstone but of brick and stucco; they are dramatically lit by a shafts of light entering through ducts in the roof terraces. The use of Mon language, and not Burmese, for the captions below the wall paintings found in these early temples led G.H. Luce and other scholars to refer to this early temple type as Mon as distinct from the later Burmese type. The Nagayon is a testament to King Kyanzittha's love of glazed surfaces and sandstone. The exterior sandstone Garth as well as the floors of the interior has glazed stone paving while glazed decorative tiles outline each of the roof terraces. Also, there are 70 large sandstone images located in niches in the entrance hall and along both sides of the ambulatory corridor. Below the exterior entablature is a Kirtthimukha frieze of grotesque heads made of finely carved stucco. A massive brick wall with impressive gatehouses that retain their original wooden beams encloses the whole temple compound. The Ananda Temple The Ananda temple was built in 1105 AD. The Ananda, one of the largest and most imposing of the early Pagan temples is transitional between the Mon and the Burmese type. Built about 11l2 AD, it is the masterwork of King Kyanzittha. Though the Ananda is a single storey building, the external fenestration produces an illusion that there were two storeys because the inner corridor is so tall as to accommodate two windows one above the other. The temple measures 160 meters in width and 172 feet in height. On the roof of the 33 feet tall main building, with its two sloping roofs, three terraces rise to a tall, square shikhara surmounted by a stupa capped by hti. Small stupas or diminutive replicas of the shikhara are placed at the corners of each of the roofs. Double bodied lions, Manukthiha, guard each corner of the base and also appear at the corners of the roof terraces. Glazed ceramic plaques that depict all 550 Jataka are inset in the roof terraces.


Importantly, the two levels of superimposed windows in the exterior walls lack the lattice filling of earlier temples and thus more light is allowed into the interior. Window-like cross passages that cut through the interior walls between the corridors align with the windows in the exterior wall to provide well-modulated interior light into the innermost corridor. These cross passages also provide unexpected internal views through the temple. This feature marks the Ananda as transitional to the slightly later, well-lit Burmese temple type. The cross-shaped plan centres on four shrines set back-to-back around a solid core. Instead of the single inner sanctum of his earlier Nagayon temple, four tall niches have been cut into the central core. Each niche is occupied by a colossal wooden image of a Standing Buddha that measures over thirty feet in height. Two to the four images are original and are iconographically unique in world of Theravada Buddhist imagery. These two images stand with their hands in the gesture of turning the wheel of the Law or dharma chakra mudra. Other than during the reign of King Kyanzittha, this gesture is used to indicate the preaching of the first sermon for either Gautama Buddha or Maitreya Buddha but only while they are seated. Each of the four colossal Buddhas faces one of the four pillared entrance halls that form the arms of the Greek cross plan. The head of each standing Buddha is beautifully illuminated by a ray of light that shines down through a shaft from a small false shrine located above each entrance hall. At the feet of the Standing Buddha in the western alcove are life-size statues popularly believed to portray the temples founder, King Kyanzittha, and the Buddhist Primate of Pagan, Shin Arahan? Two footprints of the Buddha (Buddhapada) carved into the top of a stone pedestal are located in the western entrance hall. Each footprint bears the traditional 108 auspicious marks as enumerated in the Pali commentaries, although they have become very faint today from being touched. The Ananda is the most all-encompassing storehouse of sacred images at Pagan. There are approximately 1,500 images on the exterior of the temple and another 1,500 on the interior. The two circumambulatory corridors provide niches for well over 1,000 images on as many as seven levels above the floor. Its treasures include: the four tallest standing Buddha images in Burma; on the exterior plinth, 554 green glazed terracotta plaques depicting the defeated army of the tempter Mara together with the victorious devas; lining the roof terraces are 912 glazed green terra-cotta Jataka plaques recounting, in a complex but precise, chronological arrangement, scenes from the previous lives of the Buddha; and, in the interior halls and corridors, there are niches for


1535 large sandstone images carved in high relief that illustrate events from the historical Buddha's life. One set of 80 carvings located in the exterior wall of the outer corridor is the most extensive visual account in sculpture to be found anywhere in the Buddhist world of the events in Gautama Buddhas life from conception through enlightenment. This comprehensive visual account is based on a Pali text, the Nidanakatha narrative, and illustrates a number of events that are rarely depicted in Burma or elsewhere. Fortunately, these sculptures are among the finest found at Pagan and are among the best preserved. Unfortunately, the plastered walls are today whitewashed both outside and in, thus completely covering the original wall paintings. The enclosing compound wall with four massive gatehouses continues the symmetrical plan of the temple and is the only compound wall at Pagan with extensive decoration on its outer surface, in this case, 1,000 stupas in high relief.


Conclusion The architecture of Burma, as the study reveals is based on the regional style. The habitation has, along with the ritualistic practice, got converted into the religious architecture. If one takes a closer look at the evolution and development of the architecture that was growing in this part of the Asia, it is quite apparent that the local element have specifically appear and transform the structure in the period of history. This study, which is aimed at the study of religious architecture, seemingly discusses the paradigm of the traditional shift of the structures from local to religious and thereby introducing the practice into an international one. Whether it is the stupa or temple, their mono-breed kind of a development underlines the artistic practice in Burma. A lot more study has been taken up in the popular sites; however, the proliferation of the regional styles has to be taken up independently, so that justice is done to the local/ folk cultural studies instead of alone the art historical studies. The concept that Indian Art has alone influenced the art Southeast Asia, even after being one of the strongest one, their indigenous quality and practice need to be established in the interest of the National art and cultural studies of Burma.


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John Guy,

G. H. Luce, Donald Stadner, Janice Stargardt, G.H. Luce, Pratapaditya Pal,

Pierre Pichard, Pierre Pichard,

Rawson Philip, Vidyalankar Satyaketu,