Iraj Bashiri

PERSIAN FOR BEGINNERS
Fourth Edition

Tape Manual

Bashiri

ii

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Copyright © 1991, 1981, 1975, 1972 by Iraj Bashiri

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form whatsoever, by photograph or mimeograph or by any other means, by broadcast or transmission, by translation into any kind of language, nor by recording electronically or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in critical articles and reviews.

Library of Congress catalogue number: 90-092057

ISBN 0-915327-04-X

Manufactured in the United States of America

iii

Tape Manual

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Contents
Introduction The Sounds of Persian Persian Vowels Persian Semi-vowels Persian Consonants 1. Persian r 2. The Glottal Stop ' and h 3. The Consonants k and g 4. The Persian Sound x 5. The Persian Sound q The Suprasegmentals of Persian Question in Persian Intonation Pattern of Address Stress in Persian Harmony Spectrogram

Transition Phonological Differences Morphological Differences Syntactic Differences Unit One Unit Two Unit Three Unit Four Unit Five Unit Six Unit Seven Unit Eight Unit Nine

Bashiri iv ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Ten Unit Eleven Unit Twelve Unit Thirteen Unit Fourteen Unit Fifteen Unit Sixteen Unit Seventeen Unit Eighteen Unit Nineteen Unit Twenty Glossary Persian-English English-Persian .

some words such as …ge 'if' that are exceptions to this rule. mid. low. And there are some sounds in Persian for which there exist no English equivalents. Note that only vowels carry stress. These are mostly guttural sounds represented in everyday English by kh. is always slightly longer in duration than other vowels in the word. There are. PERSIAN VOWELS Vowels are sounds which are produced with no closure in the vocal apparatus. Persian vowels are almost the same." we will examine the feature distinctions mentioned above and focus mostly on what makes Persian sound different from English. but none are exactly the same. In "The Sounds of Persian. semi-vowels (diphthongs) and consonants. The chart below shows this distinction: front high mid low i e æ back u o a chart 1: Persian vowels Persian vowels In length. and the like. and longer than itself. The air stream flows unimpeded from the lungs. The sounds of Persian can easily be divided into three main categories: vowels.THE SOUNDS OF PERSIAN INTRODUCTION Most of the sounds in Persian are quite similar to those in English. however. however. The position of the tongue and the rounding of the lips determine the features of the vowel. were it to be in an unstressed position. Some minor and some crucial differences distinguish the sounds of Persian from similar sounds in English. and by the place in the mouth where each vowel is produced: front or back. The vowel which receives the word stress. gh. Below we will examine the six vowels of Persian and compare them to those sounds in English that come closest to them: . The most common place for Persian word stress is on the vowel of the last syllable. The six vowels of Persian are differentiated by the height of the tongue: high.

irán 2. injá. ún u: murÇé. The difference lies in a w-glide that follows the English sound. The difference lies in the y-glide that follows the English i. xamúÍ. biní. The vowel u is pronounced roughly like oo in the English word mood. The vowel o is pronounced roughly like the o in the English word gold. mellí i: birún. íl.Bashiri 6 1. bidár. The difference lies in the w-glide that follows the English u. kuÇé. English rude moor sure pool tour . bíst. The Persian o is not followed by such a glide. Compare: Persian rúd múr Íúr púl túr Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: ú: gúÍ. The vowel i is pronounced roughly like ee in the English word seen. kuÍéÍ. ín. æbrú. rasú. ú. gilás. uná 3. The Persian i is not followed by this glide: Compare: Persian sín bín kín dín English seen been keen dean ____________________________________________________________________________ Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: í: kíf. utú. unjá. The Persian u is not followed by such a glide.

emzá. The vowel æ is pronounced roughly like a in the English word bad. poló o: ostád. lané e: delb… r. xané. Íená. sep… r. The difference lies in the ∂-glide (movement of the tongue to a neutral position) that follows the English sound. jeló. Compare: Persian j… m r…m s…d c…p d…m English jam ram sad chap dam . danéÍ. Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: é: ésm. ketáb. tó. emriká 5. The Persian æ is not followed by this glide. léng. otáq. xóÍk. koláh.7 Compare: Persian gól tó dó bón Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: ó: xól. otobús English goal tow dough bone Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. bolból. omíd. xahéÍ. The vowel e is fairly close in pronunciation to the vowel e in the English word bed. doróst.

kaÍí. we realize that this distinction is essential for writing Persian as well. albeit as a non-native with a heavy accent. abí. The words that follow illustrate how one might confuse the listener by using æ for a and vice versa: Compare: æ x…r d…r t… k k…r b…d donkey door unique deaf bad xár dár ták kár bád a thorn gallows vine work wind . kaf… r. aqá. Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: á: án. …sb. If one were to pronounce the Persian words with the English vowels. in this case a. Furthermore. áb. The difference between æ and a. as we learn more about Persian. is one that may constitute a meaning distinction. kesal… t Important Note: The glides that distinguish the English vowel sounds from those of Persian do not usually affect the meaning of the words. særáb. s…ng. The vowel a is fairly close in pronunciation to the vowel a in the English word father. Íám. m… rd. sæmúr." for details). …br. n… æ : kæbáb. are written using a letter. æfsún 6. dam… n. The fact that English speakers find it difficult to distinguish these two vowels makes it imperative to learn to distinguish æ from a at an early stage.Bashiri 8 ____________________________________________________________________________ Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: … : … gær. kæm…r. he would be understood. æ is represented by a vowel sign (see "The Persian Writing System. xodá a: ad… m. In Persian only the long vowels. however. xák.

If the vocal cords vibrate when producing the sound. t…r. d…st. p). the consonant is voiced (e. s…tr.. If the vocal cords do not vibrate.g. it assumes that the instructor supplies the students with a fair knowledge of the rudiments of phonology. pá. ból bówl PERSIAN CONSONANTS Consonants are sounds which are produced when the air stream initiating in the lungs is checked in one or two places at. listen to tapes and to a native Iranian. dowl…t. sél séyl. Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: ey : séyf. kæbáb. A full closure produces a stop ( e. nowb…t. b…r. howléh. A partial closure produces a fricative (e. xér xéyr. típ. Drill Repeat after your instructor: p b t púl. the vocal cords and the lips. This text teaches the sounds of Persian through imitation of given models. And that students. v). the consonant is voiceless (e. babá. p.ow : qól qówl. kæp…r. Ç…p bú.g. méyl. kón kówn.ey : sér séyr. or between. eyván. hobáb túp..9 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ PERSIAN SEMI-VOWELS (diphthongs) There are two diphthongs in Persian: ey and ow. kót kówt. owzá'. consult a good introductory linguistics text. qér qéyr o . This procedure insures that the sounds they produce are fairly close to those produced by a native speaker.g.g. tówr Contrast: e . déy ow : owqát. and the oa in the English word boat respectively. b. pakát . qéyd.. sep…r. rather than through instruction. abí. ketáb. especially those who use this text as a teach-yourself manual. f). These diphthongs are pronounced roughly like the ai in the English word bait. The following consonants of Persian are pronounced approximately the same in English and Persian.. séyl. f ).

n…qÍ Û…rf. væbá. paltów yék. Ûulidé. máÇ ján. It sounds somewhat like the Spanish trilled r in perro 'dog'. divár. kæm…r. læÍg…r. rowÍ…n. kuzé. dél owqát. aÇár. dælír. xún. míz Í Û m n l w y Íám. r…mz. sedá. payán. fíl. r…qs. between two vowels). Çúb. siné. . tówq. dóm. v…zn. déÛ murÇé. ajíl. Persian r is trilled. xorÍíd. górz. In other positions it is a single tap. The Persian r The Persian r is pronounced differently from the English r. kæÛdóm. z…xm noqré. the Persian r is a flap. n…ft. owlád. s…rv 10 ____________________________________________________________________________ d f v Ç j s z Ç…rx. At the end of a word. x…tm. s…nj.e. jelvé. sím. dív. moÛé. m…tn. g…Ç. felfél. jelów. xís zæbán.Bashiri dúst. kíf. bæÇÇé. bórj s…ng. medád. mesál.. yár. gúÛ. tæsadóf vám. gól. Íotór. jolgé. asmán. kéy. donyá. 1. d…fn lalé. h…jm. j…ng. húÍ. m…rd. In intervocalic positions (i. siyá. zoqál. kenár. méy The following consonants are either not found in English at all. or their distribution in the two languages is somewhat different. kelíd færdá. tówr.

ríg. d…rd. Íé'r. is more restricted than in Persian. máh.11 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Drill Please repeat after your instructor: r between vowels : dærré. Í…hr. Glottal stop and h are found in both English and Persian. f…rÍ 2. In English h occurs in words such as house and bah!. farsí. however. dár r in other positions: rúz. j…'d. n…hr ' : 'áj. j…m'. This is usually referred to as compensatory lengthening of the vowel preceding the deleted consonant. s…'d It should be noted that after vowels both the glottal stop and h may be dropped and their place be taken by the lengthening of the vowels that precede them. ærák. b…'d. ærré r word final : s…r. boradé. The compensatory lengthening. Compare: Í…hr n…hr máh r…'d b…'d j…'d má: r…:d b…:d j…:d Í…:r n…:r city stream moon thunder later curl [Í…r [n…r [má [r…d [b…d [j…dd evil ] male ] we ] refusal ] bad ] ancestor ] It was mentioned earlier that Persian vowels in stressed positions are always slightly longer than those in unstressed positions. ' is produced in the area immediately in front of the glottis. 'úd. dúr. produces enough duration to eliminate any confusion that might arise. r…'d. mahí. . Çadór. ax…r. tærazú. Ío'á'. the glottal stop occurs in certain exclamations like 'oh 'oh! Drill Repeat after your instructor: h : húÍ. Unlike the glottal stop which is produced by a complete closure of the glottis. gorúh. h needs only a partial closure (h is a fricative) at the area in which it is produced. mæÍhúr. holú. brought about by the deletion of ' and h. The environment in which these sounds occur in English. The glottal stop ' and h The glottal stop is produced by the opening and closing of the glottis.

Bashiri Compare: 12 ____________________________________________________________________________ Í…hr = Í…:r Í…r b…hs = b…:s b…s s…'d = s…:d s…d r…'d = r…:d r…d 3. o. kædú . Drill Repeat after your instructor: kúh.. k…j. k…rd. kónd before front vowels: kíf. cane. pótk. both in their release and in their place of articulation. kórd. k…m elsewhere: xúk. The Consonants k and g n…hr = n…:r n…r s…hm = s…:m s…m b…'d = b…:d b…d dæ'vá = dæ:vá dævá j…hl = j…:l j…l r…hm = r…:m r…m mæ'ní = mæ:ní mæní b…'s = b…:s b…s Compare the sound of k in the English word cool with the same sound in the English word kitten. kúd. Listen to your instructor pronounce these words. This important distinction exists in Persian as well.g. When it occurs in front of u. The y-glide release discussed above results from the raising of the front portion of the tongue when k is before a front vowel. kérm. final position. produced further back in the mouth than the k in kitten. kám. tækmíl. kisé. The intensity of the release differs from speaker to speaker. kár. Here. kiné. The k in cool has a clear and sharp release. code. kán. ord…k. the distinction is more prominent than in English. kíÍ. and by those words in which the sound k occurs before a back vowel (e. mækt…b As is evident. it is produced further forward in the mouth than the k in cool. coast).g. The k in kitten has a somewhat aspirated or a y-glide release and. then repeat: before back vowels: kúh. the front/back distinction explained for English also holds true for Persian. of course. albeit minimally. before i. ták. …Ík. however. These features of the English k are shared by all English words in which the k sound precedes a front vowel (e. It is apparent that the two sounds differ. For some speakers. ælkól. Namely. or when k is in word. tórk. the release of k in a word such as ketáb 'book' can be strong enough to sound like a Ç. and æ (front vowels) the sound k is produced further forward in the mouth. and a (back vowels) it is produced further back in the mouth and does not have a distinct release. comb. kúd. ketáb. or syllable. kúk. e. …ks. keel). and it has a y-glide release.. cat.

Contrast x and k: xúd kúd. holú. róx rók. bíx. x…m. gelú. Íáx. máh. xéÍt kéÍt . gáv. b…xÍ. r…xÍ. the manner as k. góm. sængín. xúk. kiné. It is a guttural sound and Americans usually replace it with either an English k or an h. 'áks. kán. xúb kúb báx bák. gorúh Please contrast: láx lák. b…xt. mahí. mæxm…l. xúk kúk. síx. s…xt. róx rók. xúb. The Persian sound x Tape Manual g-sound of Persian behaves in exactly the same _____________________________________________________________________________ The sound x does not occur in English.' these three sounds are presented below in contrast to one another. nosxé. ták h : húÍ. axúnd. rægbár. …gær. móx. xormá. gilás. z…xm. ax…r. k…j. mæÍhúr. x…m k…m. s…g m…rg. róx. xár kár. b…xt. r…g. To avoid mispronunciations such as *keyli kub and *heyli hub for xeyli xub 'very good. súxt. xál kál. tóxm.13 In the same environment. Drill Repeat after your instructor: gúr. Drill Repeat after your instructor: xár. r…xt. x…r k…r. sæggórg 4. gællé. xál kál. dúxt. b…xt. Repeat after your instructor: x : x…r. boxár. síx k : kúh. g…rm. xorÍíd. ængúr. æxt…r. tænasóx.

q…br. k…r h…r. q…m k…m. q is not one of the sounds of the English language. qesm…t. To produce this voiceless stop. q…br g…br. qætár. meqdár. qomár xomár Contrast q and k qúk kúk. qár kár. r…qs. qóws. Contrast k and h: kál hál. qæzá. s…qf. xár hár Like x. otáq. and k: x…m h…m k…m. Drill Repeat the following words three times after your instructor: qáb. h. qól kól . x…m h…m. qúÍ gúÍ. xán hán kán 14 ____________________________________________________________________________ Íáx Íáh. qóm. qáz gáz Contrast q and x qáb xáb. kán hán Contrast x. xíz híz. qút. q…lb Contrast q and g q…nd g…nd. qú xú. qóm xóm. kúr húr. 5.Bashiri Contrast x and h: Please repeat: x…r h…r. k…m h…m. qáÍ káÍ. xál hál kál. qalí xalí. qír. q…nd x…nd. The Persian sound q x…r h…r k…r. qolí golí. búq. xól hól. kár hár. q…sb k…sb. qerán gerán. place the farthest back portion of the tongue against the uvula and try to say k. qomár.

The contour of both types rises at the sentence stress. aqá aøá. neøáb. This section deals with the latter sentence types (yes/no questions). qár xár kár. meqdár meødár THE SUPRASEGMENTALS The suprasegmentals are intonation patterns. séqt. For other speakers it may replace q altogether. 1. otáø. qúk xúk kúk. f…qr f…ør. v…qf. Both the declarative and question sentences in Persian carry a sentence stress. toøiyán. After the rise both contours fall. n…øÍ Contrast q and ø dæqíq dæ øíø. emphases. x and k qú xú kú. qól xól kól. n…qÍ ø : dæøíø.15 Contrast q. q…m x…m k…m. before voiced consonants and in syllable final positions. q…nd x…nd k…nd. Question in Persian Questions in Persian are made either by using a question word like Ç e 'what'. mæqtúl. aøá. oláq oláø. rátq. soráø. stresses. mæqbúl mæøbúl. qúr xúr kúr Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ The voiceless stop q has a voiced fricative variant symbolized by ø. and other elements that affect the pronunciation. except the contour of the question resumes the original level while that of the statement falls below the original level. s…qf. Drill Repeat the following words three times after your instructor: q : r…qs. soráq soráø. Example: . and kojá 'where' or by changing the intonation contour of the declarative sentence. b…rq b…rø. Speakers using ø are familiar with Arabic. v…qt. fátq. Both start at the same level pitch contour. eølím. For some speakers this variant replaces q in intervocalic (between vowels) position. They use the Arabic pronunciation of the words borrowed from Arabic into Persian in quite the same way that some actors put on a French or Spanish accent.

first as statements then as questions. However. Question: Contour: u dær bazár kar mikone? One can transform the statement "He works in the market" into a question sentence in English by raising the intonation.Bashiri 16 ____________________________________________________________________________ Statement: Contour: u dær bazár kar mikone. the intonation contour of English sentences of this type rises sharply at the end of the sentence and does not level off: Question: Does he work in the market? Contour: Drill Repeat the following. The words that carry the sentence stress are emboldened: statement in ketáb e question in ketáb e un maÍín e un maÍín e mà farsí yàd mígirim Íomà farsí d˚rs mídid tò d˚r tehrán zendegì míkoni mà farsí yàd mígirim? Íomà farsí d˚rs mídid? tò d˚r tehrán zendegì míkoni? .

Contour (1): Contour (2): (emphasis on mæn). . not. for example. occurs in English.17 unà d˚r daneÍ gá d˚rs míxunæn ìn ketábe ùn maÍ íne inà Ç eráqe 2. The third intonation contour indicates that the father is in the market. not outside or near it. of course. the hearer's. Compare the following sentences and their respective intonation contours: Statement: pedære mæn tuye bazáre. The same phenomenon. This unit deals with intonation change when it signals emphasis on one or more parts of the sentence. My father is in the market. Emphasis in Persian Tape Manual unà d˚r daneÍ gá d˚rs míxunæn? ìn ketábe? ùn maÍ íne? inà Ç eráqe? _____________________________________________________________________________ We have already seen how question formation changes the intonation contour of the declarative sentence. My father is in the market. The words that are emphasized are emboldened: statement: emphasis on my: emphasis on in: emphasis on in: My father is in the market. Compare the following sentences. Contour (3): (emphasis on tuye) The second intonation contour indicates that the speaker's father is in the market. My father is in the market.

Then the instructor gives the first declarative sentence to individual students and the students give the other four possibilities: Example: xahæreÍ Statement: unja rusí mixune Question: xahæreÍ xahæreÍ unja rusí mixune? (emphasis on xah…r) (emphasis on unjá) unja rusí mixune xahæreÍ unja rusí mixune (emphasis on xahær+ question) xahæreÍ unja rusí mixune ? 1. madæretun æzinja betehran mire 6. pesæret unja dærs mide 4.Bashiri 18 ____________________________________________________________________________ Multiple Transformation Drill The instructor repeats the model sentences three times. The students listen. mæn tuye in hotel zendegi mikonæm 9. u æzma kæmi pul migire 8. ma tuye daneÍga hendi mixunim 5. Íoma unja kar nemikonid 7. mæn tuye bazaræm . bæradæreÍ inja kar mikone 2. zæneÍ Íiraz daneÍga mire 3.

and when he is being addressed. The former carries the normal Persian stress pattern: hæs… n. It falls as it passes the peak. To prevent confusion. it is important to learn the verbal prefixes that carry stress. Compare the following: mentioning or naming addressing h… hæm íd mid rez á ré za aqaye qaz í á qaye qazi 4. On the other hand. the intonation pattern is low.and the imperative marker bé. it rises and reaches its peak at the end where the stress is located. Intonation pattern of address When using people's names in Persian a distinction is made between when a person is being talked about. When speaking about someone. the latter does not: h … sæn. . This is in contradistinction to the nominal stress pattern of Persian--only a few forms have initial stress. Stress in Persian Some verbal prefixes like the negative marker n… . To illustrate this point some nouns and verbs are contrasted below: bé-de bé-zæn bé-xun bé-gu bé-gir bé-pær bé-xær give! hit! read! say! take! jump! buy! be-dé be-z…n be-xún be-gú be-gír be-p…r be-x…r to the village to the woman in blood to the ball to the pin to the feather to the donkey These illustrations show that the shift of stress on some basic forms can affect the meaning of a given form. the intonation pattern for addressing a person starts high where the stress is located (at the initial syllable).19 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ 3.are always stressed. The intonation patterns of the two forms are also different.

xor bú -xun see! eat! read! b. Vowel Harmony In spoken Persian. The spectrograph indicates where stops. This change does not affect the stress pattern. b) how the geminate consonant tt is different from the simple consonant t. It also shows how vowels make a gradual transition into the consonants and out of them.may be changed to i. An accidental shift of stress on the same basic form. The following spectrograms show a) how the sound h is overtaken by the vowel æ. fricatives. Compare: kæm-í xub-í mærd-í bozorg-í delavær-í pir-í jævan-í lack goodness manhood greatness heroism old age youth k…m-i xúb-i m…rd-i bozórg-i delav…r-i pír-i jæván-i a little a good one a man a noble one a hero an old person a youth 5. thus.Bashiri 20 ____________________________________________________________________________ Another example of stress shift is where Persian uses an unstressed i to denote indefiniteness and a stressed í to make abstract nouns out of adjectives and nouns.(either for forming the imperative or the subjunctive) is used. o. Example: d…st bæstæní dózd mózd d…ss bæssæní dózz mózz hand ice cream thief wages Spectrogram One of the ways to see some of the differences outlined above for the sounds of Persian is to look at spectrographs produced for individual sounds in the language laboratory. . there are instances of both vowel and consonant harmony: a. the -é.bin bó . etc. Harmony Although not a feature of the Persian sound system. Consonant Harmony Second members of consonant clusters tend to assimilate to the first. may create confusion. Example: bé + bin bé + xor bé + xun bí . when the prefix bé. or u to match the vowel of the stem. begin and where they end.

and to native speakers and to ask questions regarding forms that sound familiar but which do not fit the patterns they already recognize. Phonological Differences a. and syntactic constructions. the formal language is written out in the Persian script. a refined version is spoken by businessmen and professionals. Tajiki and Dari languages are very close to this version of the language. the print media. It is the language used among the members of the family and among friends. morphological or syntactic. The basic differences outlined above for the written and spoken languages are broadly categorized below as phonological. which enjoys international prestige. however.e. Spoken Persian. Students are thus urged to listen to their instructor. written Persian uses a represented by an ælef: Example: written spoken nun ærzun un xiyabun mehmun midunæm gerun xune meaning bread cheap. morphological derivations. The spoken language presented in these materials is based on the speech of the educated and professional Iranians of the Tehran region. They are not. Written or formal Persian is employed by public speakers. to tapes. the spoken version of the same is transcribed. The following correspondences show that spoken Persian uses u before a nasal (i. In the following discussion. spoken Persian is restricted by geography and by local idiosyncrasies.21 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Transition Spoken and written Persian share the same phonological system. inexpensive that street guest I know expensive house r¢ó rZdcZ r˜ r¢Ñ¢øâ r¢πªñ ‹óZ©øñ rZ´° fió¢â . is a somewhat abbreviated form of the written language. radio and television and by educational forums for the dissemination of various national programs.. Unlike formal Persian. all the differences that distinguish the two levels of Persian. however. m or n).

Example: written spoken æge dige mæge meaning if other surprise marker ´°Z ´…õa ´…ñ . Some syllables that are pronounced with an e in the written. borrowed words such as c¢…øä 'sigar' (cigarette) are not affected.Bashiri 22 ____________________________________________________________________________ Newly formed words. c. change the e into i in the colloquial. Some words ending in c -re in the written language are pronounced with a final -e in the colloquial. Example: written spoken kuÇ ik meaning small what work look what English ⁄†ºî c¢∑† s¢…ó fi† ·≠ø∏…óZ Çikar niga Çi ingilisi Again. and some Iranian names remain the same for both the written and colloquial. boy's name apartment Turan. words borrowed from other languages. girl's name s¢…ÆóZa º¶ÆóZa rZcº§äc r¢∑§äZ r¢ä¢ä r¢πÖc¢ü˜ rZcºÖ b. Example: written spoken university university student restaurant tea cup Sasan.

Example: written spoken hæf hæÍ meaning seven eight how how much thought city love happy morning Àµò ÀÆò cº±† c©∂† ´∑í ´ªã ´ªñ p¢ßãºâ Œ£å Çetow Çeqæd fek Íæ:r me:r sob xoÍal e. Example: written spoken daneÍga kola siya meaning black university hat king department store s¢øä s¢…ÆóZa sÈî s¢ã s¢…ãt´í Ía foruÍga . The members of the consonant cluster Àä st remain distinct in the written but _____________________________________________________________________________ undergo assimilation ( Example: e = ss) in the colloquial. Some forms that end in sZ ah in the written lose the final h in the colloquial.23 Tape Manual d. written spoken bæssæni dæss niss xæsse duss meaning ice cream hand is not tired friend ·∫§≠Ñ Àäa À≠øó fi§≠â Àäta Consonant clusters might lose one or other of their members in the colloquial.

or others like the possessive endings.y . in order to soften the transition from i to a. The pronunciation then is sændæli-y-a. the -eh changes to æ before the o or the possessive ending is added. Nouns and Pronouns a. ¢ò ¨øñ ¢ò Àâca ¢ò [¢§î ¢ò Ò©∫å Note: Often. In colloquial Persian ra is pronounced as an o after consonants and ro after vowels.Bashiri 24 ____________________________________________________________________________ Morphological Differences The discussion of morphological differences here is restricted to differences that affect the endings that fulfill grammatical functions: I. The definite direct object marker in formal Persian is Zc ra. the -y. marker Zc r»øÑ Zc ºÖ Note: When this marker. in the spoken language. d. marker you (sing. The plural marker for written Persian is Example: written spoken miza dæræxta ketaba sændælia meaning tables trees books chairs ¢ò -ha.)-def. for the colloquial it is -a. b. is added to words that end in I.is pronounced. d.has no meaning.eh. o. . o. a buffer . Example: written spoken biÛæno toro meaning Bizhan-def.

Reza and I ›ñ t ¢çc t ‹∫£ã d. The conjunction t is written independently in all instances in written Persian and is pronounced væ. Compare: written spoken ketabæm ketabet ketabeÍ ketabetun meaning my book ‹Ñ¢§î ÀÑ¢§î —Ñ¢§î r¢πÑ¢§î r¢§Ñ¢§î r¢ÆÑ¢§î ketabemun ketabeÍun . The word language. This conjunction.) also ‹ò ›ñ ‹ò ¢πã Íomam mænæm e. marker Zc fió¢â c.25 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Example: written spoken xunæro meaning house-def d. o. is pronounced o (vo after vowels) in colloquial Persian. Example: written Íæbnæmo rezavo mæn ‹ò hæm (also). The possessive endings are pronounced somewhat differently in the two levels. is reduced to æ m or just m in the colloquial spoken meaning I also you (pl. Example: written spoken meaning Shabnam. which becomes an integral part of the preceding word.

Example: written spoken xunæm xunæt xunæÍ xunæmun xunætun xunæÍun meaning my house qZ fió¢â \Z fió¢â fZ fió¢â r¢ñ fió¢â r¢Ö fió¢â r¢ã fió¢â Similarly. nouns ending in Z -a and t -u add a w -ye to the written to carry the vowel of the endings. Compare: written spoken pætum pætut pætuÍ pætumun pætuÍun pam pat paÍ pamun patun paÍun my foot pætutun meaning my blanket ‹õº§ü Àõº§ü —õº§ü r¢πõº§ü r¢§õº§ü r¢Æõº§ü ‹õ¢ü Àõ¢ü —õ¢ü r¢πõ¢ü r¢§õ¢ü r¢Æõ¢ü . you [pl.Bashiri In written Persian. they). The vowels of the endings are dropped in the colloquial.].. applies. In the spoken language. above. we. This ælef is optional for the plural forms (i. add an 26 ____________________________________________________________________________ Z ælef to carry the vowel of the endings. forms that end in s -e. the rule explained in the Note after (b).e.

or on an adjective. The third person singular is ÀäZ æst in the written. The Verb "to be" When the verb to be appears on a noun. Example: written ©õ´§âa ¢ ã spoken Íoma doxtærid/in meaning You are a girl. That is a tree. the following differences can be distinguished: a. The second person plural is always ©õ -id in written. . Example: written spoken in mize un dæræxte meaning This is a table.27 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ The same procedure applies to prepositions that take the ezafe. The third person plural is always ©ó ænd in the written. In colloquial Persian is pronounced e. You are girls. c. but either -id or -in in the colloquial. Compare: written spoken bæram bam meaning for me with me ‹õZ´Ñ ›ñ ¢Ñ II. ÀäZ ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ ÀäZ Àâca r˜ b. æn in the colloquial.

·§≠ò . the vowel of the ending is dropped in the colloquial. which end in a s -e. and the -e is dropped for the colloquial.Bashiri 28 ____________________________________________________________________________ Example: written ©óca¢ñ ¢ªó˜ spoken una madæræn meaning They are mothers. Example: qZ fi«Ñ wZ fi«Ñ ÀäZ fi«Ñ bæÇÇæm bæÇÇei bæÇÇæss bæÇÇeim bæÇÇæn I am a child ‹õZ fi«Ñ ©õZ fi«Ñ ©óZ fi«Ñ Z bæÇÇeid/in If the form ends in ælef or t u. ‹§≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = qZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ ·§≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = wZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ À≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = ÀäZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ ‹ø§≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = ‹õZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ ©ø§≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = ©õZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ ©∫§≠ò ¢Ñ¢Ñ = ©óZ ¢Ñ¢Ñ . an Z ælef precedes the endings for the written (cf.e. In forms such as fi«Ñ (child). ... Example: written spoken babam babai babass babaim babaid/in baban meaning I am a father. an added ælef carries the vowel of the ending in the written... In these cases the independent forms of "to be" (i. Àäò fi«Ñ ).‹§≠ò ) are preferred.

29 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ III. Example: written spoken miyam miyai miad miaim miaid/in mian meaning I come ‹õ˜ ·ñ ·õ˜ ·ñ ©õ˜ ·ñ ‹øõ˜ ·ñ ©øõ˜ ·ñ ©∫õ˜ ·ñ . The short form of the endings is used in the colloquial. a w ye or a hamza precedes the endings. Other Verbs The present stems of some verbs are abbreviated in the colloquial. Example: written spoken miræm miri mire mirim mirid/in miræn meaning I go qtc ·ñ wt´øñ at´øñ ‹õt´øñ ©õt´øñ ©ót´øñ Other such abbreviated present stems are: written spoken xa ar meaning to want to bring to become to give to put to say to sit sZºâ ct˜ ºã sa cZ™° º° ›øÆó Í d zar g Íin When the present stem ends in a vowel in the written.

look! ‹∫î ·ñ ´∑í acZa Àäta ©ø∫î s¢…ó . He/she likes. Example: written spoken fek mikonæm duss dare niga konid/in meaning I think.Bashiri 30 ____________________________________________________________________________ Similarly: ‹òZºâ ·ñ ·òZºâ ·ñ ©òZºâ ·ñ ‹øòZºâ ·ñ ©øòZºâ ·ñ ©∫òZºâ ·ñ mixam mixai mixa(d) mixaim mixaid/in mixan I want Note: The s he in the present stem of s Zºâ xah is part of the full form of the stem. The t is silent before ælef. Some stems are not abbreviated but include some of the phonological changes explained earlier. Compare: written spoken xun dun run meaning to read to know to drive rZºâ rZa rZc Compound verbs may include one or more of the changes outlined above.

In the colloquial language. Compare: written: ÀäZ n¢éZ wºÖ ›≠à ÀäZ n¢éZ ca ›≠à ÀäZ n¢éZ wºÖ ca ›≠à hæsæn tu otaqe Hassan is in the room. spoken: 4. fiÑ be. tc ca dær. In the spoken language. but must be retained in the written language. There are two types of prepositions in Persian. which take the ezafe. often the definite direct object is repeated as an ending on the verb. etc. . 1. While the verb of the sentence invariably appears at the end of a sentence.. ru.. in the spoken language other elements might follow the verb. fiÑ be (to) is dropped from the 2. in such cases the preposition colloquial sentence. 3. In the formal language. Example: written: spoken: q©õa r¢Ñ¢øâ wºÖ ca Zc ›≠à hæsæno tu xiyabun didæmeÍ I saw Hassan on the street. As can be seen. Example: written: spoken: qt´Ñ fió¢â fiÑ ‹òZºâ ·ñ mixam beræm xune I want to go home. those like which do not take the ezafe and those like ºÖ tu. In colloquial Persian. etc. A few exceptions are worth mentioning. ´õd zir. The ezafe is usually dropped.31 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Syntactic Differences There are no great syntactic differences between the two levels of Persian. the preposition that takes the ezafe follows the one that does not. the latter is used without its ezafe. the conjunction ´°Z æge (if) may be dropped.

An example of this is in colloquial Shirazi where the -e is replaced by -u. for instance. 5.. rasseÍ o bexay. etc. The formal future. Àíc ©òZºâ .Bashiri 32 ____________________________________________________________________________ Example: written: spoken: .).. The boy was in the street.Àíc ·òZºâ . Compare: spoken: kuÇuku male mæne pesæru tu xiyabunu bud End of Transition .·òZº®Ñ Zc —§äZc ´°Z to tell you the truth. Another feature of colloquial Persian is the addition of a stressed -e to the noun or adjective to indicate definiteness. Features of this type may pertain only to certain dialects of colloquial Persian.. Certain constructions are used on only one level.. Compare: spoken: kuÇike male mæne pesære tu xiyabune bud The small one belongs to me.Àíc ‹òZºâ (I will go... is a feature of written Persian.

This Unit focuses on the third person singular of 'budæn': spoken mærdæm mærdi mærde mærdim mærdid / in mærdæn written meaning I am a man. When the noun ends in a vowel. the endings are added to a noun that ends in a consonant. the combination of the noun 'mærd' (man) and '-e'. Vocabulary: Please repeat: spoken míz sændælí telefón dær written meaning table chair telephone door lamp Çeráq ¨øñ Ò©∫å ›µ∏Ö ca lZ´† . You (pl. a buffer '-y-' is used between that vowel and the ending: 'sændælí-y-e' (it is a chair).33 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Unit One The Verb 'to be' The verb 'budæn' (to be) appears as a set of endings on nouns and adjectives. They are men.) are a man. qa´ñ wa´ñ ÀäZ a´ñ ‹õa´ñ ©õa´ñ ©óa´ñ The endings representing 'budæn' never carry the stress. We are men. You (sing.) are men. He is a man. The ending for second person plural has a frequently used variant represented by '-in'. results in 'mærd-e' (He is a man). the third person singular of 'budæn'. In the example above. For instance. The full conjugation of 'budæn' is presented below.

This is a hotel. The students listen. That is a chair. This is a book. That is a car. This is a lamp. 34 ____________________________________________________________________________ ›øã¢ñ rºõ¨õº∏Ö [¢§î Àâca ›õZ r˜ €§ò car television book tree this that hotel / ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ / ÀäZ ›µ∏Ö ›õZ / ÀäZ Ò©∫å r˜ / ÀäZ lZ´† ›õZ / ÀäZ ›øã¢ñ r˜ / ÀäZ [¢§î ›õZ / ÀäZ €§ò ›õZ / ÀäZ Àâca r˜ Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern. This is a telephone. Example: spoken teacher: ìn míze teacher: ìn míze teacher: student: teacher: student: ìn míze repeat ìn míz-e repeat written / ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ . That is a tree.Bashiri maÍín televiziyón ketáb dæræxt ín ún hotél Basic Sentences spoken ìn míz-e ìn telefón-e ùn sændælí-ye ìn Çeráq-e ìn ketáb-e ìn hotél-e ùn dæræxt-e ùn maÍín-e written meaning This is a table.

35 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ teacher: ìn míz-e student: repeat Please Repeat: spoken ìn telefóne ùn sændælíye ìn Çeráqe ìn hotéle ùn dæræxte ìn ketábe End of Unit One ùn maÍíne written ÀäZ ›µ∏Ö ›õZ ÀäZ Ò©∫å r˜ ÀäZ lZ´† ›õZ ÀäZ ›øã¢ñ r˜ / ÀäZ €§ò ›õZ / ÀäZ Àâca r˜ / ÀäZ [¢§î ›õZ / / / / .

) are not men. the marker for negation. They are not men. of course. repetition Çí Çí-ye tekrár À≠øó ? fi† ? ÀäZ fi† cZ´∑Ö Basic Sentences spoken ùn Çí-ye ìn Çí-ye written meaning What is this? What is that? ? ÀäZ fi† ›õZ ? ÀäZ fi† r˜ . to it.. 'ní-st' ([it] is not). You (pl. replace '-e' with '-st' and prefix 'ní-'. This marker is always stressed.. He is not a man.. You are not a man. Here is the negative of the conjugation of 'mærd' and 'budæn': spoken mærd ní-st-æm mærd ní-st-i mærd ní-st mærd ní-st-im mærd ní-st-id/in mærd ní-st-æn written meaning I am not a man. / ‹§≠øó a´ñ / ·§≠øó a´ñ / À≠øó a´ñ / ‹ø§≠øó a´ñ / ©ø§≠øó a´ñ / ©∫§≠øó a´ñ This Unit also teaches how to form a question by affixing 'budæn' (3rd. Vocabulary spoken ní-st written meaning is not what (question word) what is. usually) to 'Çí' (what).Bashiri 36 ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Two The Verb 'to be'--Negative To negate 'mærd-e' (He is a man). The combination of this marker and '-st' is. sing. We are not men.

That is not a chair. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: ìn mìz níst teacher: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat Please repeat: spoken ìn sændælì níst ùn hotèl níst ìn ketàb níst written written / À≠øó ¨øñ ›õZ / À≠øó Ò©∫å ›õZ / À≠øó €§ò r˜ / À≠øó [¢§î ›õZ .37 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ ìn mìz ní-st ùn sændælì ní-st ìn hotèl ní-st ùn ketàb ní-st Repetition Drill / À≠øó ¨øñ ›õZ / À≠øó Ò©∫å r˜ / À≠øó €§ò ›õZ / À≠øó [¢§î r˜ This is not a table. The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. That is not a book. This is not a hotel.

Bashiri 38 ____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: spoken ìn telefóne teacher: in telefone student: repeat teacher: in telefone student: repeat Please substitute: teacher: student: teacher: student: teacher: student: teacher: student: book in ketabe repeat car in maÍine repeat written / ÀäZ ›µ∏Ö ›õZ teacher: hotel student: teacher: in hotele student: repeat teacher: tree student: teacher: in dæræxte student: repeat teacher: lamp student: teacher: in Çeraqe student: repeat .

39 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitution the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: spoken ùn ketàb níst written / À≠øó [¢§î r˜ teacher: un ketab nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: un ketab nis(t) student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: tree student: teacher: un dæræxt nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: chair student: teacher: un sændæli nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: door student: teacher: un dær nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: lamp student: teacher: un Çeraq nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: hotel student: teacher: un hotel nis(t) student: tekrar End of Unit Two .

Persian also uses a set of independent pronouns.Bashiri 40 ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Three Personal Pronouns The subject of a Persian sentence using the verb 'budæn' is marked by the following dependent pronouns: '-æm'. The use of these pronouns is obligatory. polite) they ¢πã ›ñ ºÖ tZ ¢ñ ¢ªó˜ The independent pronouns may thus appear with the conjugation of the verb 'budæn' and a noun. The parentheses indicate that the independent pronouns are optional: Affirmative: spoken (mæn) mærdæm (tò) mærdi (ù) mærde (mà) mærdim (Íomà) mærdid/in (unà) mærdæn written meaning I am a man qa´ñ ) ›ñ * wa´ñ ) ºÖ * ÀäZ a´ñ )tZ * ‹õa´ñ )¢ñ* ©õa´ñ )¢πã* ©óa´ñ )¢ªó˜* . '-im'. '-i'. Except in cases when these latter are used to emphasize or clarify the subject of the sentence. '-e'. The independent pronouns are: Spoken (mæn) (tó) (ú) (má) (Íomá) (uná) written meaning I you (sing. the use of independent pronouns is optional. and '-æn'. or sing. '-id/-in'.) he/she we you (pl.

wife. unà pesæræn. instructor student. daughter teacher. apprentice doctor boy. mà Íagérdim. son father mother brother sister written meaning I am not a man / ‹§≠øó a´ñ ) ›ñ * / ·§≠øó a´ñ ) ºÖ * / À≠øó a´ñ )tZ * / ‹ø§≠øó a´ñ )¢ñ * / ©ø§≠øó a´ñ )¢πã * / ©∫§≠øó a´ñ )¢ªó˜* Íagérd doktór pesær pedær madær bæradær xahær Basic Sentences spoken mæn doktóræm. ù doktóre. tò mo'ællémi. rd ´§âa ‹∏≥ñ a´°¢ã ´§îa ´≠ü c©ü ca¢ñ caZ´Ñ ´òZºâ written / q´§îa ›ñ / ‹õa´°¢ã ¢ñ / ·π∏≥ñ ºÖ / ©ó´≠ü ¢ªó˜ / ÀäZ ´§îa tZ .41 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Negative: spoken (mæn) mærd nístæm (tò) mærd nísti (ù) mærd níst (mà) mærd nístim (Íomà) mærd nístid/in (unà) mærd nístæn Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken zæn doxtær mo'ællém written meaning woman. lady girl.

You (pl. tò madær nísti. Translation / ‹ø§≠øó c©ü ¢ñ / ·§≠øó ca¢ñ ºÖ / À≠øó ´§âa tZ / ©ø§≠øó a´°¢ã ¢πã I am a doctor. or sing. Note: Normally Persian does not distinguish gender. Thus 'ú' can be translated as either 'he' or 'she. He/she is a doctor.' depending on context.) are a teacher. We are not fathers. Íomà Íagèrd nístid. We are students. They are boys. Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences. Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken mæn mo'ællémæm written / ‹π∏≥ñ ›ñ teacher: doctor student: mæn doktoræm teacher: student student: mæn Íagerdæm .Bashiri 42 ____________________________________________________________________________ mà pedær nístim. You (sing. She is not a girl. above. polite) are not a student. You are not a mother. ù doxtær níst.

43 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ teacher: mother student: mæn madæræm teacher: father student: mæn pedæræm teacher: man student: mæn mærdæm teacher: woman student: mæn zænæm Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken mà Íagérdim written / ‹õa´°¢ã ¢ñ teacher: daughter student: ma doxtærim teacher: sister. teacher. brother. mæn written / w´§îa ºÖ . man Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken tò doktóri teacher: u student: u doktore teacher: Íoma. una.

) End of Unit Three . boy Substitution Drill (5) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken ù Íagèrd níst written written / ‹ø§≠øó ´§îa ¢ñ / À≠øó a´°¢ã tZ teacher: I student: mæn Íagerd nistæm teacher: they. woman. you (pl. you (sing. he.). we. mother.Bashiri 44 ____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken mà doktòr nístim teacher: student student: ma Íagerd nistim teacher: teacher. girl.

the possessor follows the 'ezafé'. Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken sælám sælàm 'ælæykom hál written meaning hello response to sælám condition how (question word) bad thankful God protector. The thing possessed is cited first followed by an 'ezafé'. tZ [¢§î / ÀäZ ›ñ [¢§î ›õZ For more information on the 'ezafe' and its uses see Lesson Four. spoken ketàb-e ú ìn ketàb-e mæn-e written meaning his/her book This is my book. Example: spoken ketàb-e mæn written meaning my book ›ñ [¢§î In the example above 'ketáb' (book) is the thing possessed. keeper Reza. first name male Shabnam. The 'ezafé' is pronounced with the noun representing the object possessed.45 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Four The 'ezafé' : a Brief Note The 'ezafé' relates two nouns to each other in a possessed/possessor relationship. '-e' marks the 'ezafé' and 'mæn' (I) is the possessor. first name female Çetów(r) bæd motæÍækkér xodá haféz rezá Íæbnæm qÈä ‹∑ø∏ê qÈä p¢à cº±† ©Ñ ´∑Ƨñ Z©â ’í¢à ¢çc ‹∫£ã .

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Basic Sentences In Persian, as in English, there are various ways of greeting, paying respect or saying good-bye. The following dialog is one of the more common ways:

Dialog Please listen: spoken sælám Íæbnæm sælàm 'ælæykóm, rezà. hàl-e Íomà Çetówr-e? xodà haféz besælamæt Translation: Hello, Shabnam. Hello, Reza. How are you? It (i.e., my 'hál') is not bad, Thank you. Good-bye. Good-bye (response to 'xodà haféz'). Note 1: Note that the verb 'budæn' in 'hàl-e Íomà Çetówr-e?' (How are you?) is singular. The reason for this is that the inquiry is made with regard to the listener's 'hál' (health, condition) and not in relation to himself. Note 2: The mc¢≥Ö 'tæ'aróf' system is one of the interesting aspects of the Iranian culture. And it is a complex one at that.The few remarks that follow are intended to acquaint the student with the rudimentary elements of this system. The remarks are strictly for information purposes; the student need not memorize them yet. The cultural aspects outlined below deal with the way Iranians meet and try to make each other feel comfortable. In a Persian way of putting it, "They taróff". In this context, the 'tæ'aróf' system is a way of socializing which, within its simple formulae, allows the bæd níst, motæÍækkèræm written

‹∫£ã qÈä / ¢çc ‹∑ø∏ê qÈä ? ÀäZ cº±† ¢πã p¢à / q´∑Ƨñ - À≠øó ©Ñ / ’í¢à Z©â / ÀñÈ≠Ñ

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experienced to find delicate ways of expressing approval, willingness, refusal, and the like. Indeed, through the introductory remarks, one can communicate the tone of a whole conversation. 1. Greeting 'sælám' (hello) is the standard way to greet at all times. 'sælàm 'ærz míkonæm' (hello [lit., I offer peace]) is also frequently heard. 'sælàm 'ælæykóm' is the standard response to the above greetings. Among friends a mere 'sælám' will do. 'sælàm æz-bændé' (hello [lit., hello from this slave]) expresses humility on the part of the person responding. It also may indicate that the person responding is in a lower social category. 'hàle Íomà Çetówre?' (How are you?) is the standard way to inquire about someone's health. This is, however, the colloquial or the informal way. A more formal way is 'hàle Íomà Çetówr æst?'. The word "Íomá" may be replaced by a number of honorific terms of address to indicate the social status of the addressee. Thus greetings such as 'hàl-e Íærìf Çetówr æst?' or 'hàl-e jenáb-e 'alì Çetówr æst?' or 'hàl-e hæzræt-e 'alì Çetówr æst?' are also heard. These latter terms of greeting, however, occur in conversations that are formal and that take place at a high level of society. Below the "Íomá" level, if we can call it that, is 'to' (you singular, informal or familiar). 'hàlet Çetówre?' (How are you?) is said to a Çild, a close friend, a member of the family or to a servant. 2. With Company There are certain terms of 'tæ'aróf' that have acquired "universal" usage. They may be used in more than one situation. In each situation, however, the word is interpreted differently. One such word is 'béfærma'id'. Like its Turkish equivalent buyurun , 'béfærma'id' is an invitation to action. If it is said when pointing to a chair, for example, it means please take a seat; if it is used when entering or leaving a place, or in the course of a conversation, it means please go ahead; if said when offering tea, sweets, fruit or other foodstuffs, it means please help yourself. In all such cases 'béfærma'id' is accompanied by a gesture indicating the action to be undertaken. Some of these gestures are facial; others involve motion of the head, hand or hands. If, when visiting a friend, he or she offers you something or, if he or she prepares food, you say: 'dæste Íomá dærd nækone' (Thank you! [lit., may your hand not aÇe!]); in return you hear: 'sære Íomá dærd nækone' (Thank you! [lit., may your head not aÇe!]).

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When a friend offers to prepare food or drink for you or, if he or she offers to put you up for the night, you say: 'némixam beÍ omà zæhmæt bèdæm' (I don't want to inconvenience you) and, in return, you hear: 'xahéÍ mìkonæm, hiÇ zæhmæti níst' (That's all right; or, Please, that's all right [lit., I beg of you. It is no inconvenience at all]). If you accidentally bump into someone, step on his or her toe in a dark place, or if you want to attract someone's attention, perhaps someone sitting directly behind you, you say: 'mæ'zeræt mìxam' (excuse me!). In return you will hear: 'xahéÍ mìkonæm' (that's all right [lit., I beg of you]). Normally, if someone is sitting directly behind you, you may say: 'mæ'zeræt mìxam (or, bébæxÍid) pòÍtæm beÍomást' (Excuse me, I have my back towards you!). In return you might hear: 'xahéÍ mìkonæm, gol pòÍto ru nædare' (please, don't bother. That's all right. [lit., I beg of you, a flower has no front or back!]). If a guest enters your house you say: 'xèyli xoÍ ámædid, béfærma'id tu' (You are very welcome. Come in!). Your guest, in turn, will say: 'motæÍækkéræm' or 'mérsi,' (Thank you!). Sometimes the phrase: 'sæfà aværdid' (Welcome [lit., you brought serenity with you!]) is added to: 'xoÍ amædid'. To make your guest more comfortable, you say: 'xunèye xódetune' (Treat here as if it were your own house [lit., this is your own house!]). Your guest will say: 'sahèbeÍ zendé bàÍe' (May its owner live [a long life]!). If someone is wearing a new dress or a new suit, you say: 'mobaræk bàÍe' (May it be auspicious!) The wearer will answer with: 'sælamæt bàÍid' (May you remain healthy!) and 'motæÍækkéræm' (Thank you!). As a compliment to one who wears a new suit, you may say: 'in lebàs xéyli beÍomà (or betùn) míyad' (This suit suits you very well!). The answer again is: 'motæÍækkéræm' or 'mersí' (Thank you!). A warning might be in order here with regard to what is usually known as 'piÍkæÍ' (gift). When you compliment a person on a nice tie or a nice watch, the chances are that he or she might try to give the tie or the watch to you as a gift . The acceptance or rejection of such a gift depends on how close you feel you are to the person and whether, in similar circumstances, you would be ready and willing to respond in kind. If someone is working hard at something, you say: 'xæstè næbaÍid' (Working hard! [lit., don't be tired]). The answer is: 'sælamæt bàÍid' (Thank you! [lit., May you remain healthy!]). If a person sneezes, you say: 'affiyæt bàÍ e' (Bless you!) and the person will answer: 'sælamæt bàÍid' (Thank you!). The same phrase is used if you encounter someone leaving a bathhouse or when someone has just taken a shower or a swim. The answer remains the same.

. Other phrases such as: 'lòtfe Í omà ziyád' (Thank you! [lit. say: 'lotfæn be-. The answer to all inquiries about one's health can be simply: 'xúbæm' (I am fine. thank you!). 'xúbæm motæÍækkéræm' (I am fine. and may also add: 'halà ke zúde' (It is still early [for you to leave]). I now take my leave!). when are you going to Isfahan?). or the more formal 'sayèye jenábe 'alì kæm næÍe' or 'sayèye hæzræte 'alì kæm næÍe' are also heard frequently. too. or as a wish for bliss for the present. come back again!).. 'xúbæm.. Leave-taking Leave taking can be as elaborate as greeting.: 'xèyli xoÍ ámædid. say hello [to your family or whomever])..' the host says: 'kojà tæÍrìf míbærid?' (Why do you wish to leave? [lit. you say 'ba ejazèye Íomá mæn moræxxæs mìÍæm' (With your permission. To both of these elaborate ways of saying 'I have to leave.. The host answers: 'qabèli nædare' (No trouble at all!). the host repeats the phrase used in greeting the guest. And all these answers may be preceded by the Arabic phrase: 'ælhæmdolellàh' (Praise be to God).. albeit in very formal conversation. A humorous way of asking about someone's health is: 'dæmàqe Íomá Çáqe?' (How are you [lit. The host may here. God willing. sæfà aværdid'. i. are you feeling fine?) or 'iÍ allà key be-esfæhán mìrid?' (God willing. .. 'inÍallà hále Íomà xúbe?' (lit. The last remark before saying good-bye may be: 'xèyli zæhmæt keÍídid' (You went into a lot of trouble!). mersí' (I am fine.).49 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. sælàm béræsunid' (Please say hello to. Is your nose fat?]). The final leave taking is: 'xod haféz' and the response is either 'bésælamæt' or just a repetition of 'xodà haféz'. When you are about to say good-bye. inÍallà dobaré xedmæt mìresim' (Of course. The guest responds with: 'ÇæÍm' (of course) and adds: 'Íomám sælàm béresunid' (you. The guest responds with: 'Ç æÍm.. may your kindness increase!]). It has many meanings among them "God willing". thank you!).).. The word "enÍaælláh" (also pronounced 'inÍalla' and 'iÍalla') is frequently used in conversation. where are you going?]).e. as a last remark. I [lit. may your shadow never decrease or diminish!]). 'sayèye Íomá kæm næÍe' (Thank you! [ lit. or: 'mæn bayæd zæhmæto kæm kónæm' (I should diminish the trouble). It is used at the beginning or planning stage of an action. we] will come to your service again).. When the guest is on the way out. and adds: 'inÍallà dobaré tæÍrìf bíyarid' (God willing.

written written / ‹∫£ã qÈä / ¢çc ‹∑ø∏ê qÈä ? ÀäZ cº±† ¢πã p¢à / q´∑Ƨñ . Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. here where?])... If you unexpectedly see someone far from home you say: 'Íomà kojá. injà kojá?' (What are you doing in this neck of the woods? [lit. you where. besælamæt bæd níst. you say: 'ÇéÍme Íomá rowÍæn' (I heard the good news [ lit. hàl-e Íomà Çetówr-e? xodà haféz. The students listen.. motæÍækkéræm. rezà. As an answer you might hear: 'ÇèÍmo dèle Íomá rowÍæn' (Thank you! [lit. The person responds with an explanation of the circumstances that have brought him to the place. may your eyes and heart be lighted!]). may your eye be lighted!]). or if a relative returns from a journey.À≠øó ©Ñ / ’í¢à Z©â / ÀñÈ≠Ñ .Bashiri 50 ____________________________________________________________________________ If a friend receives a piece of good news. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: sælám Íæbnæm teacher: tekrar teacher: sælam Íæbnæm student: tekrar teacher: sælam Íæbnæm student: tekrar teacher: sælam Íæbnæm student: tekrar Please repeat: spoken sælàm 'ælæykóm.

Íæbnæm teacher: Reza student: sælam. Tina.51 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken sælám. Mary. Mary. Ray Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken sælàm 'ælæykom. ma. reza teacher: John. rezà teacher: Shabnam student: sælam 'ælæykom. Bill. Ray Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken hàle Íomà Çetówre? teacher: u student: hale u Çetowre? teacher: mæn. Tina. Bill. to written written written / ‹∫£ã qÈä / ¢çc ‹∑ø∏ê qÈä ? ÀäZ cº±† ¢πã p¢à . Íæbnæm teacher: John.

motæÍækkerim teacher: you (pl. I.Bashiri 52 ____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken bæd níst. you (sing. motæÍækkéræm.). written / q´∑Ƨñ teacher: we student: bæd nist.) End of Unit Four .

When the noun ends in a vowel. the full form of the ending is used: spoken xodá xoda-há written meaning God gods Z©â ¢òZ©â For more details on the plural see Lessons One and Five.53 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Five Plural in Persian Persian uses a number of suffixes to form the plural of a noun. This marker is always stressed. only '-á' is used on all nouns at all times. the stress is shifted from the last syllable of the noun to this suffix. Of these. A discussion of these as well as a discussion of the pronouns 'in' and 'un' is found in Lessons One and Five. Basic Sentences spoken ìn Çí-ye ìn míz-e in-à Çí-ye in-à míz-e written ? ÀäZ ·† ›õZ / ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ ? ÀäZ ·† ¢ª∫õZ / ÀäZ ¨øñ ¢ª∫õZ . This Unit also deals with the demonstrative adjectives 'in' (this) and 'un' (that). Example: spoken ketáb ketab-á written meaning book books [¢§î ¢ò [¢§î The full form of '-á' is '-há'.

These books are good. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: ìn Çí-ye? teacher: tekrar teacher: in Çi-ye? student: tekrar teacher: in Çi-ye? student: tekrar teacher: in Çi-ye? student: tekrar written ? ÀäZ ·† ›õZ .Bashiri 54 ____________________________________________________________________________ ìn ketàb xúb-e ìn ketab-à xúb-e ùn zæn xúb-e ùn zæn-à xúb-æn ìn Íagèrd xub níst ìn Íagerd-à xub níst-æn Translation: What is this? This is a table. That woman is good. Those women are good. Repetition Drill / ÀäZ [ºâ [¢§î ›õZ / ÀäZ [ºâ ¢ªÑ¢§î ›õZ / ÀäZ [ºâ rd r˜ /©∫Ѻ⠢ªód r˜ / À≠øó [ºâ a´°¢ã ›õZ /©∫§≠øó [ºâ ¢òa´°¢ã ›õZ The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. This book is good. This student is not good. What are these? These are tables. The students listen. These students are not good.

55 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Please Repeat: spoken in mize ina Çiye? ina mize in ketab xube in ketaba xube un zæn xube un zæna xubæn in Íagerd xub nist written in Íagerda xub nistæn Drill Contrast singular and plural: singular spoken ketáb hotél dæræxt sændælí míz mærd zæn televiziyón doxtær dær pedær doktór pesær ín ún written / ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ ? ÀäZ ·† ¢ª∫õZ / ÀäZ ¨øñ ¢ª∫õZ / ÀäZ [ºâ [¢§î ›õZ / ÀäZ [ºâ ¢ªÑ¢§î ›õZ / ÀäZ [ºâ rd r˜ /©∫Ѻ⠢ªód r˜ / À≠øó [ºâ a´°¢ã ›õZ /©∫§≠øó [ºâ ¢òa´°¢ã ›õZ plural spoken ketab-á hotel-á dæræxt-á sændæli-yá miz-á mærd-á zæn-á televiziyon-á doxtær-á dær-á pedær-á doktor-á pesær-á in-á un-á written [¢§î €§ò Àâca Ò©∫å ¨øñ a´ñ rd rºõ¨õº∏Ö ´§âa ´a c©ü ´§îa ´≠ü ›õZ r˜ ¢ªÑ¢§î ¢ª∏§ò ¢ª§âca ¢ªøï©∫å ¢ò¨øñ ¢òa´ñ ¢ªód ¢ªóºõ¨õº∏Ö ¢ò´§âa ¢ò´a ¢òc©ü ¢ò´§îa ¢ò´≠ü ¢ª∫õZ ¢ªó˜ .

Bashiri 56 ____________________________________________________________________________ Transformation (1) Transform singular into plural: singular spoken ìn ketáb ùn hotél ìn dæræxt ùn sændælí ìn míz ìn mærd ùn doxtær ìn pedær ùn dær Transformation (2) Transform singular into plural: singular ìn ketábe ìn míze ùn dæræxte ìn Çeràq níst ùn hotèl níst ìn sændælíye ìn dær níst ùn maÍìn níst plural inà ketábe inà míze unà dæræxte inà Çeràq níst unà hotèl níst inà sændælíye inà dær níst unà maÍìn níst written spoken ìn ketab-á ùn hotel-á ìn dæræxt-á ùn sændæli-yá ìn miz-á ìn mærd-á ùn doxtær-á ìn pedær-á ùn dær-á plural written [¢§î ›õZ €§ò r˜ Àâca ›õZ Ò©∫å r˜ ¨øñ ›õZ a´ñ ›õZ ´§âa r˜ c©ü ›õZ ca r˜ ¢ªÑ¢§î ›õZ ¢ª∏§ò r˜ ¢ª§âca ›õZ ¢ªøï©∫å r˜ ¢ò¨øñ ›õZ ¢òa´ñ ›õZ ¢ò´§âa r˜ ¢òc©ü ›õZ ¢òca r˜ .

door. television. hotel.57 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Transformation (3) Transform singular into plural: singular ìn mærde ùn doxtære ìn doktòr níst ùn mo'ælléme ìn Íagèrd níst ùn pedær níst ìn madære ùn zæne plural inà mærdæn unà doxtæræn inà doktòr nístæn unà mo'ællémæn inà Íagèrd nístæn unà pedær nístæn inà madæræn unà zænæn Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken inà ketàb níst written / À≠øó [¢§î ¢ª∫õZ teacher: ina ketab nist. student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: table student: ina miz nist teacher: chair. student: tekrar teacher: ina ketab nist. telephone. student: tekrar teacher: ina ketab nist. tree .

hotel. student: tekrar teacher: in maÍin xube. doxtær. sændæli. miz.Bashiri 58 ____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken ìn maÍìn xúbe written / ÀäZ [ºâ ›øã¢ñ ›õZ teacher: in maÍin xube. student: tekrar written [ºâ ¢òa´°¢ã ›õZ . student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: televiziyon student: in televiziyon xube teacher: Çeraq. Íagerd. mærd. doktor Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken ìn Íagerdà xub nístæn /©∫§≠øó teacher: in Íagerda xub nistæn. student: tekrar teacher: in Íagerda xub nistæn. student: tekrar teacher: in maÍin xube. student: tekrar teacher: in Íagerda xub nistæn.

doctor. hotel. chair. girl. student. girl. mother. student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: television student: in televiziyona xube teacher: lamp. father. student: tekrar teacher: in maÍina xube. man.59 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Please substitute: teacher: teacher student: in mo'ællema xub nistæn teacher: woman. boy. table. man Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: spoken ìn maÍinà xúbe teacher: in maÍina xube. doctor End of Unit Five written / ÀäZ [ºâ ¢ª∫øã¢ñ ›õZ . student: tekrar teacher: in maÍina xube.

Bashiri 60 ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Six The Imperative For a discussion of the imperative see Lesson Eight of the main text . Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken lótf lotfæn gúÍ bèdid/in gúÍ kònid/in tekrár tælæffóz jæváb loqæt yæ'ni Çì jomlé bæ'd æz mæn Basic Sentences spoken lotfæn gúÍ bèdid lotfæn gúÍ kònid lotfæn tekrár kònid lotfæn tælæffóz kònid lotfæn jæváb bèdid in loqæt yæ'ni Çí ? in jomlé yæ'ni Çí ? written written meaning kindness please listen! listen! repetition pronunciation answer word what does it mean? sentence after me ÿ±ï ¢µ±ï ©øò©Ñ fº° ©ø∫î fº° cZ´∑Ö ’µ∏Ö [Zºá À¥ï ? fi† ·∫≥õ fi∏πá ›ñ dZ ©≥Ñ "©øò©Ñ fº° ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î fº° ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î cZ´∑Ö ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î ’µ∏Ö ¢µ±ï "©øò©Ñ [Zºá ¢µ±ï ? fi† ·∫≥õ À¥ï ›õZ ? fi† ·∫≥õ fi∏πá ›õZ .

The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: lotfæn gúÍ bèdid teacher: tekrar teacher: lotfæn guÍ bedid student: tekrar teacher: lotfæn guÍ bedid student: tekrar teacher: lotfæn guÍ bedid student: tekrar Please repeat: spoken lotfæn gúÍ kònid/in lotfæn tekrár kònid/in lotfæn tælæffóz kònid/in lotfæn jæváb bèdid/in in loqæt yæni Çí ? in jomlé yæ'ni Çí ? End of Unit Six written written "©øò©Ñ fº° ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î fº° ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î cZ´∑Ö ¢µ±ï "©ø∫î ’µ∏Ö ¢µ±ï "©øò©Ñ [Zºá ¢µ±ï ? fi† ·∫≥õ À¥ï ›õZ ? fi† ·∫≥õ fi∏πá ›õZ .61 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Translation: Please listen! Please listen! Please repeat! Please pronounce! Please answer! What does this word mean? What does this sentence mean? Repetition Drill: The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times.

the first concerns the present stem of verbs while the second relates to the endings that indicate person. are the same. add the personal endings: '-æm'.Bashiri 62 ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Seven The Present/Future Tense To form the present/future of Persian verbs proceed as follows: 1. '-im'. two points need to be explained. The Present Stem Often the stem used in the spoken language is an abbreviated version of the one used in the written/formal language. '-id/in'. Here is a list of the most frequently used present stems: spoken meaning r go g say bin see kon do xor eat gir take d give xun read dun know (a thing) forúÍ sell xær buy Ínás know (a person) zæn hit dar have. however. own . '-i'. The majority of written and spoken stems. '-e'. take the present stem of the verb 2. Example: mí-r-æm I go mí-r-i mí-r-e mí-r-im mí-r-id/in mí-r-æn With regard to the formation of the present tense. prefix the present tense marker 'mí-' 3. '-æn'. except for 'daÍt…n' (to have).

He/she must be advised to backtrack to a more comfortable unit and start from there. Transcription. the chances are that the student is not ready for the unit being studied. Important Note The section called "Transition" taught us how to transform formal/written Persian into informal/colloquial Persian. see Lesson Six of the main text. If the patterns cannot be repeated comfortably in this fashion.e. helped us achieve that goal. the use of Persian orthography is discontinued so that we can concentrate all our efforts on learning the patterns introduced. For a complete study of the present tense.63 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ The Personal Endings The personal endings are basically those used for the written except for the use of '-e' for the written '-æd' and minor changes for the second and third persons plural. i. Units One through Six placed the spoken language at the side of the written and allowed us to observe the rules of Transition at work. Persian language memory we learn lesson you (pl. The student is urged to use the text only for the first time that he/she listens to the tape. or sg. i.) live university they read. the use of '-id/-in' and '-æn' in the spoken. Thereafter. Starting with this Unit. Vocabulary lotfæn tekrar konid: farsí yád yád mìgirim d…rs d…rs mìdid/in d…r bazár kár kár mìkone tehrán zendegí zendegí mìkoni daneÍgá míxunæn d…rs mìxunæn kí Farsi. The differences were minimal. it is advantageous to refer to the text only when patterns become too difficult to repeat after one exposure. not so the amount of effort needed to make those rules work smoothly. they sing they study who (question word) . polite) teach in market work he/she works Tehran. capital of Iran life you (sg. discussed earlier...e. rendering the sounds of spoken Persian into Latin equivalents.

They study at the university.) live in Tehran. You (sing. Who is that man? Where is the bank? When are you going to the hotel? . You (are) teach(ing) Persian. He works in the market. farsí/irán bank where (question word) where is when (question word) to. in the direction of to the hotel meaning English/England French/France Russian/Russia Turkish/Turkey Hindi/India German/Germany Arabic/Egypt Persian/Iran Basic Sentences ma farsí yad mìgirim Íoma farsí dærs mìdid/in u dær bazár kar mìkone to dær tehrán zendegi mìkoni una dær daneÍgá dærs mìxunæn un mærd kíye ? bank kojást ? kéy behotèl mìri ? Translation We (are) learn(ing) Persian. etc.Bashiri 64 ____________________________________________________________________________ bank kojá kojást key bebehotél Special Vocabulary spoken ingilisí/engelestán færansé/færansé rusí/rusiyyé torkí/torkiyyé hendí/hend(ustán) almaní/almán 'æræbí/mesr.

Íagerd: tekrar Please repeat: Íoma farsi dærs midid. mo'ællem: Íoma farsi dærs midin. una dær daneÍga dærs mixunæn. The students listen. un mærd kiye? bank kojast? key bebank miri? Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'ællem: Íoma farsi dærs midin. Íagerd: tekrar mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim. Íagerd: tekrar mo'ællem: Íoma farsi dærs midin. Íagerd: tekrar mo'ællem: Íoma farsi dærs midin. .65 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. u dær bazar kar mikone. Íagerd: tekrar mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim. mo'ællem: færanse Íagerd: Íoma færanse dærs midin. Íagerd: tekrar mo'ællem: ingilisi Íagerd: Íoma ingilisi dærs midin. mo'ællem: tekrar mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim. to dær tehran zendegi mikoni.

mo'ællem: almani Íagerd: Íoma almani dærs midin. mo'ællem: torki Íagerd: Íoma torki dærs midin. mo'ællem: una Íagerd: una farsi yad migiræn. mo'ællem: hendi Íagerd: Íoma hendi dærs midin. mo'ællem: Íoma Íagerd: Íoma farsi yad migirid. mo'ællem: mæn Íagerd: mæn farsi yad migiræm. mo'ællem: un zæn Íagerd: un zæn farsi yad migire.Bashiri 66 ____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: rusi Íagerd: Íoma rusi dærs midin. mo'ællem: to Íagerd: to farsi yad migiri. . mo'ællem: in doxtæra Íagerd: in doxtæra farsi yad migiræn. mo'ællem: u Íagerd: u farsi yad migire. mo'ællem: 'æræbi Íagerd: Íoma 'æræbi dærs midin. Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim.

mo'ællem: rusiyye Íagerd: u dær rusiyye kar mikone. .67 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'ællem: u dær bazar kar mikone. Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'ællem: to dær tehran zendegi mikoni. mo'ællem: færanse Íagerd: u dær færanse kar mikone. mo'ællem: I Íagerd: mæn dær tehran zendegi mikonæm. mo'ællem: engelestan Íagerd: u dær engelestan kar mikone. mo'ællem: tehran Íagerd: u dær tehran kar mikone. mo'ællem: we Íagerd: ma dær tehran zendegi mikonim. mo'ællem: mesr Íagerd: u dær mesr kar mikone. mo'ællem: alman Íagerd: u dær alman kar mikone. mo'ællem: they Íagerd: una dær tehran zendegi mikonæn. mo'ællem: torkiyye Íagerd: u dær torkiyye kar mikone.

mo'ællem: un doxtær .engelestan Íagerd: mæn dær engelestan dærs mixunæm. mo'ællem: un mo'ællema . mo'ællem: mæn .færanse Íagerd: Íoma dær færanse dærs mixunid. Simple Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms. mo'ællem: in pesær .iran Íagerd: ma dær iran dærs mixunim.emrika Íagerd: un doxtær dær emrika dærs mixune. mo'ællem: those doctors Íagerd: un doktora dær tehran zendegi mikonæn. mo'ællem: Íoma .) Íagerd: Íoma dær tehran zendegi mikonid.mesr Íagerd: in pesær dær mesr dærs mixune. compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'ællem: un mærd kiye? .hendustan Íagerd: un mo'ællema dær hendustan dærs mixunæn. Double Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: Example: mo'ællem: una dær daneÍga dærs mixunæn. mo'ællem: these girls Íagerd: in doxtæra dær tehran zendegi mikonæn.alman Íagerd: to dær alman dærs mixuni. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form.Bashiri 68 ____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: you (pl. mo'ællem: to . mo'ællem: ma .

compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'ællem: bank kojast ? mo'ællem: hotel Íagerd: hotel kojast? mo'ællem: tehran Íagerd: tehran kojast? mo'ællem: engelestan Íagerd: engelestan kojast? .69 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: zæn Íagerd: un zæn kiye? mo'ællem: pesær Íagerd: un pesær kiye? mo'ællem: doxtær Íagerd: un doxtær kiye? mo'ællem: in Íagerd: in doxtær kiye? mo'ællem: Íagerd Íagerd: in Íagerd kiye? mo'ællem: doktor Íagerd: in doktor kiye? mo'ællem: madær Íagerd: in madær kiye? mo'ællem: pedær Íagerd: in pedær kiye? mo'ællem: mo'ællem Íagerd: in mo'ællem kiye? mo'ællem: un Íagerd: un mo'ællem kiye? Simple Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form.

mo'ællem: rusiyye Íagerd: rusiyye unjast. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form. mo'ællem: emrika Íagerd: emrika injast.Bashiri 70 ____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: mesr Íagerd: mesr kojast? mo'ællem: hend Íagerd: hend kojast? mo'ællem: alman Íagerd: alman kojast? mo'ællem: injast Íagerd: alman injast. mo'ællem: torkiyye Íagerd: torkiyye unjast. mo'ællem: kojast Íagerd: rusiyye kojast? mo'ællem: iran Íagerd: iran kojast? Simple Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form. mo'ællem: færanse Íagerd: færanse injast. compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'ællem: key be hotel miri? mo'ællem: tehran Íagerd: key betehran miri? mo'ællem: engelestan Íagerd: key beengelestan miri? mo'ællem: mesr Íagerd: key bemesr miri? . mo'ællem: unjast Íagerd: færanse unjast.

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mo'ællem: hendustan Íagerd: key behendustan miri? mo'ællem: emrika Íagerd: key beemrika miri? mo'ællem: alman Íagerd: key bealman miri? mo'ællem: unja Íagerd: key beunja miri? mo'ællem: færanse Íagerd: key befæranse miri? End of Unit Seven

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Unit Eight

Possession In Persian possession is expressed either by adding a set of possessive endings to the noun representing the thing possessed or by relating the possessor and the thing possessed to each other by means of an 'ezafé'. a. The Possessive Endings There are six possessive endings. Below they appear on the noun 'ketáb' (book): ketáb-æm my book ketáb-et ketáb-eÍ ketáb-emun ketáb-etun ketáb-eÍun The short form of the endings: '-m', '-t', '-Í', '-mun', '-tun', '-Íun' is added to nouns that end in a vowel. The initial vowel of the ending is dropped. Example: sændælí-m my chair sændælí-t sændælí-Í sændælí-mun sændælí-tun sændælí-Íun b. The 'ezafé' The 'ezafé' construction is composed of two or more words related to each other with an 'ezafé'. One function of these constructions is to indicate possession. For this, the noun representing the thing possessed is followed by noun or nouns representing the possessor. Example: ketáb-e rezà Reza's book ketab-e dúst-e m˚n my friend's book For additional information on possession and on the role of the 'ezafé,' see Lesson Four of the main text.

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Vocabulary lotfæn tekrar konid: biÛ…n Bizhan, first name (male) amriká/emriká America, the U.S.A. míduni do you know kodúm which (question word) fek(r) thought fék mìkonæm I think harvárd Harvard hæm also b…le yes Special Vocabulary: The Cities of Iran esfæhán Isfahan Íiráz Shiraz mæÍ…d Meshed tæbríz Tabriz æhváz Ahwaz abadán Abadan kermán Kerman hæmædán Hamadan ræÍt Rasht xorr˚m abád Khorram Abad zahedán Zahedan Dialog - xah…re Íæbn˚m kojá dærs mìxune ? - dær emriká. - míduni dær kodúm daneÍgà ? - fék mìkonæm dær daneÍgáhe harvàrd. - bærd…re Íomàm unjást ? - b…le, bærad˚ræm unjà ingilisí mìxune. Translation Where does Shabnam's sister go to school ? In America. Do you know in which university ? At Harvard, I believe (lit., I think). Is your brother there, too ? Yes, my brother is studying English there.

Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'ællem: xahære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: bæradær Íagerd: bæradære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: madær Íagerd: madære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: pesær Íagerd: pesære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: doxtær Íagerd: doxtære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: Íagerd Íagerd: Íagerde Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: mo'ællem Íagerd: mo'ælleme Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: pedær Íagerd: pedære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'ællem: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe harvard. . mo'ællem: tehran Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe tehran mo'ællem: Íiraz Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe Íiraz. above.Bashiri 74 ____________________________________________________________________________ Repetition Drill See the Dialog.

mo'ællem: torki Íagerd: bæradæræm unja torki mixune. mo'ællem: almani Íagerd: bæradæræm unja almani mixune. . mo'ællem: æhvaz Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe æhvaz.75 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: esfæhan Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe esfæhan. mo'ællem: hendi Íagerd: bæradæræm unja hendi mixune. mo'ællem: mæÍhæd Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe mæÍhæd. mo'ællem: rusi Íagerd: bæradæræm unja rusi mixune. Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'ællem: bæradæræm unja ingilisi mixune. mo'ællem: tæbriz Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe tæbriz. mo'ællem: færanse Íagerd: bæradæræm unja færanse mixune. mo'ællem: farsi Íagerd: bæradæræm unja farsi mixune. mo'ællem: kerman Íagerd: fek mikonæm dær daneÍgahe kerman. mo'ællem: 'æræbi Íagerd: bæradæræm unja 'æræbi mixune.

Bashiri 76 ____________________________________________________________________________ Transformation (1) Transform: ezafe constructions into equivalent possessive phrases: ezafe possessive ketabe mæn ketabæm ketabe u ketabeÍ ketabe Íoma ketabetun ketabe to ketabet maÍine bæradæret maÍineÍ mize ma mizemun sændæliye Íoma sændælitun bæradære Íæbnæm bæradæreÍ xahære reza xahæreÍ Çeraqe maÍin ÇeraqeÍ dære hotel dæreÍ daneÍgahe tehran daneÍgaheÍ dærse Íoma dærsetun hotele unja hoteleÍ bazare esfæhan bazareÍ banke alman bankeÍ pesære aqaye qazi pesæreÍ Transformation (2) Transform: ezafe constructions into their equivalent possessive phrases: ezafe possessive ketabaye mæn ketabam ketabaye u ketabaÍ ketabaye Íoma ketabatun ketabaye to ketabat maÍinaye bæradæret maÍinaÍ mizaye ma mizamun sændæliaye Íoma sændæliyatun bæradæraye Íæbnæm bæradæraÍ xahæraye reza xahæraÍ Çeraqaye maÍin ÇeraqaÍ dæraye hotel dæraÍ daneÍgahaye tehran daneÍgahaÍ dærsaye Íoma dærsatun hotelaye unja hotelaÍ bazaraye esfæhan bazaraÍ bankaye alman bankaÍ pesæraye aqaye qazi pesæraÍ .

. Substitute the possessive construction in the negative form of the pattern sentence: xahæraye Íæbnæm unja zendegi mikonæn. Substitute the possessive construction in the pattern sentence: xahære Íæbnæm koja dærs mixune? --xahæreÍ koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: bæradære Íæbnæm Íagerd: bæradæreÍ koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: madære Íæbnæm Íagerd: madæreÍ koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: doxtære to Íagerd: doxtæret koja dærs mixune? mo'ællem: pesæraye una Íagerd: pesæraÍun koja dærs mixunæn? mo'ællem: mo'ællemaye ma Íagerd: mo'ællemamun koja dærs mixunæn? mo'ællem: doxtære Íoma Íagerd: doxtæretun koja dærs mixune? Transformation/Substitution Drill (2) Transform the ezafe construction provided into possessive.77 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Transformation/Substitution Drill (1) Transform the ezafe construction provided into possessive. --xahæraÍ unja zendegi nemikonæn. mo'ællem: Shabnam's brothers Íagerd: bæradæraÍ unja zendegi nemikonæn. mo'ællem: our daughters Íagerd: doxtæramun unja zendegi nemikonæn. mo'ællem: Reza's doctors Íagerd: doktoraÍ unja zendegi nemikonæn.

mo'ællem: my students Íagerd: Íagerdam unja zendegi nemikonæn. mo'ællem: his sons Íagerd: pesæraÍ unja zendegi nemikonæn.Bashiri 78 ____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: your doctors Íagerd: doktoratun unja zendegi nemikonæn. End of Unit Eight .

girl's name kæm little k…mi a little. polite) have dàre.79 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Nine Present/future Tense (cont.) It was noted earlier that the present/future marker 'mí-' is not affixed to the present stem of 'daÍt…n' (to have) to form the present/future tense for this verb. In that case. there is need for simultaneous conjugation. The word 'yektá' (Unique) is an attribute of the Almighty. See Lesson Eight for details. telefón mìkone he is making a telephone call ostád professor. Note: 2 The numeral 'ye(k)' (one) does not take the unitizer 'ta'. The negative marker was pronounced 'né-' before 'mí-' It is pronounced 'n…-' before forms other than mí-: n…daræm I don't have n…dari n…dare n…darim n…darid n…daræn Note 1: The verb 'daÍt…n' is also employed as an auxiliary to form verbs expressing an ongoing action. i.. Here is the conjugation of 'daÍt…n': dáræm I have dári dáre dárim dárid dáræn The negative of this tense is also pronounced somewhat differently. instructor. some .. or sing. Vocabulary Please repeat: c…nta/c…ndta? how many?. teacher Ûalé Zhale. 'daÍt…n' and the main action verb are both conjugated for all persons. several (if not used as a question word) xuné house dárid you (pl..e.

is buying orupá Europe Special Vocabulary: Numbers 1-10 Please repeat: yek one do two se three Çar four pænj five ÍiÍ six hæf(t) seven hæÍ(t) eight no(h) nine dæ(h) ten Note: In Persian.Bashiri 80 ____________________________________________________________________________ pul money mídim we give æz from mígire he/she receives.unà æzirán beorupá mìræn. unlike English.minà dare ye qalí mìxære. gets miná Mina.Ûalè æzma kæmi púl mìgire. . Zhale receives some money from us. as in English. . Mina is buying a carpet. girl's name qalí / f…rÍ carpet míxære he/she buys. We give some money to Zhale. . Translation How many houses do you have? You have several houses.Íoma Ç…ndta xuné darid. They are going from Iran to Europe. the numeral precedes the noun but.Íoma Ç…ndta xuné darid? . .ma beÛalè kæmi púl mìdim. the noun remains in the singular: yè ketáb one book p˚nj ketáb five books Basic Sentences . .

mo'ællem: aqaye qazi pedære reza nist? Íagerd: aqaye qazi pedære reza nist. mo'ællem: una bema telefon nemikonæn? Íagerd: una bema telefon nemikonæn. mo'ællem: mina dare ye qali mixære? Íagerd: mina dare ye qali mixære.81 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences. mo'ællem: ma beuna kæmi pul nemidim? Íagerd: ma beuna kæmi pul nemidim. above. mo'ællem: u æziran beorupa mire? Íagerd: u æziran beorupa mire. mo'ællem: ma se ta hotel darim? Íagerd: ma se ta hotel darim. mo'ællem: bæradæraÍ inja zendegi mikonæn? Íagerd: bæradæraÍ inja zendegi mikonæn. mo'ællem: pedæretun seta maÍin mixære? Íagerd: pedæretun seta maÍin mixære. Transformation Drill (1) Transform the question sentences provided into affirmative sentences: Íoma pænjta xune darid? --Íoma pænjta xune darid. mo'ællem: Íæbnæm doxtære aqaye qaziye? Íagerd: Íæbnæm doxtære aqaye qaziye. mo'ællem: hæsæn beÍoma telefon mikone? Íagerd: hæsæn beÍoma telefon mikone. .

Íagerd: doxtære doktor tuye daneÍgahe tehran dærs nemide. mo'ællem: u nohta Íagerd dare. .televiziyon Íagerd: un mærd dare ye televiziyon mixære. mo'ællem: doxtære doktor tuye daneÍgahe tehran dærs mide. mo'ællem: xahæraÍ unja zendegi mikonæn. mo'ællem: un xanom tuye hotele ma kar mikone. Íagerd: una dæhta qali nædaræn. mo'ællem: Ûale . mo'ællem: una inja farsi yad migiræn. mo'ællem: ma tuye un hotel zendegi mikonim.ketab Íagerd: Ûale dare ye ketab mixære. Íagerd: una inja farsi yad nemigiræn. Íagerd: un xanom tuye hotele ma kar nemikone. Íagerd: u nohta Íagerd nædare. --Íoma seta xune nædarid. mo'ællem: una dæhta qali daræn. Double Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: mina dare ye qali mixære. mo'ællem: pedære biÛæn . mo'ællem: un mærd . Íagerd: pesæreÍ dær mesr dærs nemixune.Bashiri 82 ____________________________________________________________________________ Transformation Drill (2) Transform the affirmative sentences provided into negative: Íoma seta xune darid. Íagerd: xahæraÍ unja zendegi nemikonæn. mo'ællem: pesæreÍ dær mesr dærs mixune. Íagerd: ma tuye un hotel zendegi nemikonim.xune Íagerd: pedære biÛæn dare ye xune mixære.

Çeraq Íagerd: madæret dare ye Çeraq mixære.sændæli Íagerd: doxtæremun dare ye sændæli mixære.bank Íagerd: mæn æzdaneÍga bebank miræm. Double Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: mæn æz iran be orupa miræm. mo'ællem: emrika .engelestan Íagerd: mæn æzmesr beengelestan miræm.hotel Íagerd: mæn æzxuneye Íoma behotel miræm.dær Íagerd: u dare ye dær mixære. mo'ællem: bæradæreÍ . mo'ællem: daneÍga . End of Unit Nine . mo'ællem: mesr . mo'ællem: færanse . mo'ællem: u .unja Íagerd: mæn æzinja beunja miræm. mo'ællem: esfæhan .rusiyye Íagerd: mæn æzfæranse berusiyye miræm.iran Íagerd: mæn æzemrika beiran miræm.miz Íagerd: bæradæreÍ dare ye miz mixære. mo'ællem: doxtæremun . mo'ællem: inja .Íiraz Íagerd: mæn æzesfæhan beÍiraz miræm. mo'ællem: xuneye Íoma .83 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: madæret .

' '-æn.' '-im. the simple past does not have a distinctive marker like the 'mi-' marker of the present tense.' '-Ø . Here is the conjugation of 'ræft-…n' (to go) in the past tense: r…ft-æm I went r…ft-i r…ft r…ft-im r…ft-id/in r…ft-æn For the compound verbs.' '-i. Here is the conjugation of 'kar kærd-…n' (to work): kár k˚rd-æm I worked kár k˚rd-i kár k˚rd kár k˚rd-im kár k˚rd-id/in kár k˚rd-æn Present and past tenses in contrast Please repeat: present past míre ræft kár mìkone kár k˚rd yád mìgire yád gerèft d…rs mìde d…rs dàd zendegí mìkone zendegí k˚rd d…rs mìxune d…rs xùnd míxune xúnd fék mìkone fék k˚rd mídune dunést dáre daÍt míde dad . as was the case with the present tense of such verbs. When the sentence is in the affirmative the primary stress falls on the last syllable of the past stem.Bashiri 84 ____________________________________________________________________________ Unit Ten a) The Simple Past Tense The formation of the simple past tense is quite similar to that of the present tense.' are suffixed to the past stem--the infinitive without '-æn'. The primary stress remains on the noun. Because it deals with a completed or perfected action. The Subject markers '-æm. only the verbal auxiliary is conjugated.' '-id.

The Conjunction '-o' The conjunction '-o' has the same pronunciation as the definite marker 'o'. prefix 'n…-' (always with primary stress) to the verb stem of the simple verbs or to the verbal auxiliary of the compounds: n…-ræft he/she did not go kàr n…-kærd he/she did not work b. biÛ…n-o rezá-ro dìd-æm I saw Bizhan and Reza. nouns and phrases defined by 'in' and 'un'. In this material both markers are attached to the preceding noun and are pronounced as part of that noun. The Definite Direct Object The noun that receives the action of a verb is the direct object of that verb. 'kodúm'. un xun˚-ro forúxt-æm I sold that house. ún-o xærìd-æm I bought that. the '-e' is pronounced '-æ': xuné house xun…-ro house + 'ro' c. 'ki'. Such nouns are usually definite. are all regarded definite. while the second ('-ro' after the vowel '-a') is the definite direct object marker '-o'. the latter by either a noun preceded by a preposition or by the verb of the sentence. Example: biÛ…n-o Íæbn…m-o did He/she saw Bizhan and Shabnam. . The former is usually followed by another noun. and question words referring to people. kodum loq…t-o xùnd-i Which word did you read? When '-ro' is added to a noun ending in '-e'. personal pronouns. Proper names. ezafé constructions. these nouns must be marked by the direct object marker '-o' ('-ro' after vowels). or to things. Examples: biÛ…n-o dìd-æm I saw Bizhan.85 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mígire geréft míxære xæríd jæváb mìde jæváb dad gúÍ mìde guÍ dad tælæffóz mìkone tælæffóz kærd To form the negative of this tense. In the above sentence the first '-o' is a conjunction. when used as direct object. ketáb-o xúnd-æm I read the book.

first name (male) tú-y-e in xiyabún street díd/mí-bin-e (he) saw/sees dirúz yesterday mehmún guest Íæbn…m-o Shabnam and bah…m together sinemá cinema dúst friend forudgá(h) airport foruÍgá(h) department store foruÍgáh-e ferdowsì Ferdowsi department store xéyli very dúr far pærvín first name (female) aÍp…z cook aÍpæzxuné kitchen hævapeymá airplane mál-e. noisy xælv…t uncrowded.. The Word 'mal' The word 'mal' means property or belongings. property of. In this sense 'mal' is usually the first part of an ezafe construction: 'mal-e' (property of): mál-e m˚n mine.. his property Vocabulary Please repeat biÛ…n-o Bizhan. my property mál-e ù his.Bashiri 86 ____________________________________________________________________________ Here 'biÛ…n-o Íæbn…m' (Bizhan and Shabnam) is the definite direct object of 'did-…n' (to see)... empty of people bozórg big kuÇík small tæmíz clean kæsíf dirty gerún expensive ærzún cheap . Íerk…t = kompaní company Special Vocabulary for drills Please repeat næzdík (næzík) near Íolúq crowded.

above.biÛ…n-o tù-y-e xiyabún dìd-æm. Yesterday my brother had several guests. .pærvín-o xah…r-eÍ tù-y-e aÍpæzxuné bùd-æn.Íæbn…m-o m˚n bahæm besinemà n…-ræft-im. . .dúst-e Íomà tú-y-e forudgà n…-bud. old (not for people) bus garage library bookstore ice cream ice-cream shop flower flower shop map city carpet shop ticket ticket office child school Basic Sentences Please listen . The Ferdowsi Department Store was very far. To which company does this airplane belong? Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences.dirùz bærad…r-æm cænd(ta) mehmún dàÍt. . Your friend was not in the airport.87 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ modérn (jædíd) qædím qædim-í otobús garáÛ ketabxuné ketàbforuÍí bæstæní (bæssæní) bæstænìforuÍí gól gòlforuÍí næqÍé Í…hr (also Í…:r) qalìforuÍí belít belìtforuÍí bæÇÇé mædresé modern ancient days ancient.foruÍgáh-e ferdowsì xeyli dùr bùd. Parvin and her sister were in the kitchen. Shabnam and I did not go to the movies together. . . .in hævapeymá mál-e kodùm Íerk˚t-e ? Translation I saw Bizhan on the street.

Bashiri 88 ____________________________________________________________________________ Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: diruz bæradæræm Çænd mehmun daÍt. mo'ællem: that man Íagerd: diruz un mærd Çænd mehmun daÍt. mo'ællem: Mr. Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm besinema næræftim. mo'ællem: his doctor Íagerd: diruz doktoreÍ Çænd mehmun daÍt. mo'ællem: the university professor Íagerd: diruz ostade daneÍga Çænd mehmun daÍt. . Qazi Íagerd: diruz aqaye qazi Çænd mehmun daÍt. mo'ællem: hotel Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm behotel næræftim. mo'ællem: my students Íagerd: diruz Íagerdam Çænd mehmun daÍtæn. mo'ællem: airport Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm beforudga næræftim. mo'ællem: your sister Íagerd: diruz xahæret Çænd mehmun daÍt. mo'ællem: their daughters Íagerd: diruz doxtæraÍun Çænd mehmun daÍtæn. mo'ællem: market Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm bebazar næræftim. mo'ællem: ice-cream shop Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm bebæstæni foruÍi næræftim.

89 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: garage Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm begaraÛ næræftim. mo'ællem: dirty Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli kæsif bud. mo'ællem: clean Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli tæmiz bud. mo'ællem: uncrowded Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli xælvæt bud. mo'ællem: library Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm beketabxune næræftim. mo'ællem: school Íagerd: Íæbnæmo mæn bahæm bemædrese næræftim. mo'ællem: cheap Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli ærzun bud. . mo'ællem: small Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli kuÇik bud. Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli dur bud. mo'ællem: old Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli qædimi bud. mo'ællem: big Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli bozorg bud. mo'ællem: expensive Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli gerun bud. mo'ællem: modern Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli modern bud. mo'ællem: crowded Íagerd: foruÍgahe ferdowsi xeyli Íoluq bud.

Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: biÛæno tuye xiyabun didæm.mædrese.school Íagerd: in bæÇÇe male kodum mædresæst? mo'ællem: map .city Íagerd: in næqÍe male kodum Íæhre? mo'ællem: flower . mo'ællem: una . Double Substitution Drill (2) This is a double substitution drill. Íagerd: Íagerdaro tuye mædrese didæm. mo'ællem: otobus .forudga Íagerd: minaro tuye forudga didæm.foruÍga Íagerd: dusteto tuye foruÍga didæm.hotel Íagerd: Íæbnæmo tuye hotel didæm.aÍpæzxune Íagerd: pærvino tuye aÍpæzxune didæm.Bashiri 90 ____________________________________________________________________________ Double Substitution Drill (1) This is a double substitution drill.sinema Íagerd: unaro tuye sinema didæm. mo'ællem: mina .garaÛ Íagerd: otobuso tuye garaÛ didæm. Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: in hævapeyma male kodum Íerkæte? mo'ællem: child . mo'ællem: Íæbnæm . mo'ællem: pærvin .ticket office Íagerd: in belit male kodum belit foruÍiye? . mo'ællem: dustet .flower shop Íagerd: in gol male kodum golforuÍiye? mo'ællem: ticket . mo'ællem: Íagerda .

mo'ællem: to beu jævab midi. Íagerd: ma beu belit dadim. Íagerd: u æzma belit gereft. Íagerd: mæn tuye in daneÍga dærs næxundæm.company Íagerd: in otobus male kodum Íerkæte? mo'ællem: carpet .91 Tape Manual _____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: bus . Íagerd: xahæret bemæn guÍ nædad. Íagerd: to beu jævab dadi. mo'ællem: mæn ye maÍin mixæræm. mo'ællem: mæn tuye in daneÍga dærs nemixunæm. . mo'ællem: xahæret bemæn guÍ nemide. mo'ællem: u æzma belit migire.carpet store Íagerd: in qali male kodum qaliforuÍiye? mo'ællem: ice cream . Íagerd: mæn ye maÍin xæridæm.ice-cream shop Íagerd: in bæstæni male kodum bæstæni foruÍiye? Transformation Transform the following from the present tense into past tense: mo'ællem: mina beforudga mire Íagerd: mina beforudga ræft mo'ællem: mæn inja kar mikonæm Íagerd: mæn inja kar kærdæm mo'ællem: ma farsi yad migirim Íagerd: ma farsi yad gereftim mo'ællem: xahæræm ingilisi dærs mide Íagerd: xahæræm ingilisi dærs dad mo'ællem: u dær tehran zendegi mikone Íagerd: u dær tehran zendegi kærd. mo'ællem: ma beu belit midim.

Íagerd: mo'ællem in loqæto tekrar kærd. mo'ællem: mæn un televiziyono mixæræm. Íagerd: mo'ællem ino xub tælæffoz nækærd. mo'ællem: bazar beinja xeyli næzdike. mo'ællem: haleÍ kæmi bæde.Bashiri 92 ____________________________________________________________________________ mo'ællem: mo'ællem ino xub tælæffoz nemikone. End of Unit Ten . Íagerd: bazar beinja xeyli næzdik bud. Íagerd: mæn un televiziyono xæridæm. mo'ællem: mo'ællem in loqæto tekrar mikone. Íagerd: haleÍ kæmi bæd bud.

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