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POSITION

PAPERS FOR THE SOUTHEAST ASIA AMERICAN ALUMNI YOUTH CONFERENCE (SEAL 2012)
THEME 1: ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ASEAN Malaysia 1.1 Brain Drain
Malaysia has established an aim of becoming a high income and progressive country by the year 2020. To accomplish this target, new policy proposals, strategies and programs have been sketched in the New Economic Model and the Tenth Malaysia Plan which is presently being implemented. Innovative and creative workforces are one of the key factors to realize this aspiration. This is where the brain drain issue or the migration of talent across nation borders emerges. Brain drain has not really been an issue for Malaysia, not until the last decade. We tend to lose more of our good domestic talents as the years pass by and this will certainly affect the growth of this country. According to the World Bank, the number of Malaysian migrants rose by more than 100-fold in a 45- year period, from 9,576 Malaysians in 1960 to 1,489,168 Malaysians in 2005 and this figure will continue rising due to globalization, which is another complex subject. This initiated the World Bank to launch a program called the Malaysian Economic Monitor to keep this problem under control. It is known that the outflow of Malaysian talents often happens to the top destinations namely Singapore, Australia, Brunei, the UK, the US, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan and Germany. Malaysians find migrating abroad is often more appealing due to the high wage and the more flexible working-hours offered. Others because of family migration factor, interracial marriage and good opportunity offered. Some even blame this issue came into sight because of the nations law. To be more specific, some laws lead to a few racial tensions such as the Bumiputera (Malays and Natives of Sabah and Sarawak) benefits which happen to be a sensitive issue here in Malaysia as the notion of inequality in terms of economic and social welfare distribution among different races has stirred some dissatisfaction among the people. As a result, some view Malaysia as a less democratic country, worrying other races that have started to doubt Malaysia as the Asias melting pot. The government, alongside with the support from the World Bank is also trying to combat this crisis with an array of programs including 1Malaysia, a campaign designed to ease racial tensions. Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak has launched TalentCorp; a company which seeks to recruit and retain skilled Malaysians to serve and give back to the country. Since its establishment, TalentCorp has successfully created a promising pathway to young graduates thus attracting more young talents to come back and serve for Malaysia. In other prospect, international cooperation needs to be done between Malaysia and other countries such as job contractor twinning programs so that Malaysian workforces wont stay that long to work overseas. If these solutions and needs continue to run and be done, the nations economy can be re-boost and this will ease Malaysias aim of becoming an advance and progressive nation by the year 2020, hence bringing Malaysia and other ASEAN countries to a whole new competitive level, standing eye-to-eye with other nations globally. All in all,

Malaysians should be proud of their country and work hand in hand to contribute and be part of Malaysias economic revolution. Quoted by John F. Kennedy; ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. Research links: http://www.talentcorp.com.my/ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934- 1199807908806/Malaysia.pdf www.wakeupcallmalaysia.com http://blogs.worldbank.org/eastasiapacific/node/2941 Prepared by: Delegates from Malaysia Focus Points + Questions: How other countries can implement their own solutions. Details on the workings of some of these programs (Malaysian Economic Monitor, TalentCorp, etc) and how others can take these programs as examples to implement their own solutions How can the society contribute to reducing brain drain? Common Factors that caused brain drain and why they occur and also coming up with solutions to curb these factors. With the ideas, a plan for implementation of solution can be drafted.

1.2 Revamping Education Thailand


The problem if equity in education remains as serious problem in Thailand. Inequality of accessibility, quality and leaning material and environment exits among rural and remote area, and this problem does not only exit in area but the gap between the rich family and the poor also cause the problem. Another important problem is shortage of teacher especially in remote area due to non-incentive for good quality teacher to teach in rural place in Thailand in terms of salary, facilities and education equipment. According to statistic Thai Ordinary National Education (O-Net) score, the distribution of the score on 90-100 is too small percentage and overall score on average Thai students failed many subjects such as Math, English and Science. The success of education is according to the family economic and learning environment, there are only small percentages of Thai student that get a high score in national test compare to student who live in remote area which dominate overall percentage. Another problem of Thai Education is low English Proficiency, in communication and academic level. Thais rarely use English as a communication compare to some ASEAN countries. This lack of English influence causes a problem to Thai student to learn English especially speaking skill. These problems are needed to be solved as the AEC cooperation in the coming year. And the equity of education is the first step toward social, economic development and international cooperation. The solution to the first problem is to increase the capacity of the teachers, Scholarship offering in remote school and build up a better environment of learning. One of the government implemented policy is ensure free school material and all cost for mandatory education, and I believe that quantity is not enough, the quality of the education is also important. To train teacher and offer scholarship to students to study abroad especially in East Asia countries could help to motivate students and increase the education quality of school. And the solution to enhance the English skill to all students is to promote the important of international cooperation and opportunity through exchange program of students and school faculties. There should be more exchange program for teachers and lecturers among ASEAN nations. The creation of English learning atmosphere through joint school activities such as activities competition, sport games and learning project, will be necessary to improve English skill as well as cultural exchange. Lastly, both solutions for each problem required the cooperation between countries government, school and community. The obstacle is the financially capability of the family which impact the education quality of children. And equally important to solve other issue such as drug, poverty, insurgency acts and other social issues that need to solve along with education development.

References: http://www.niets.or.th

http://www.seameo.org/vl/library/dlwelcome/publications/paper/india04.htm http://www.moe.go.th/English/ Prepared by: Delegates from Thailand Focus Points + Questions The lack of English usage in Thailand, why and how can that be improved. The obstacle in creating an English speaking atmosphere What kind of cooperation between countries government, school and community does Thailand have now and what is expected from them. What other social issues that needs to be solved along with education? Plans to implement solutions. Who is involved and what is there to do?

1.3 Environment Indonesia

INDONESIAN VIEWS ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS REGIONAL FRAMEWORK


As the worlds largest archipelago of 17,000 islands, Indonesia spans two bio-geographic regions - the Indomalayan and Australasian - and supports tremendous biodiversity of animal and plant life in its pristine rain forests and its rich coastal and marine areas. Up to 3,305 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles and at least 29,375 species of vascular plants are endemic to the islands, estimated at 40 per cent of APECs biodiversity. Indonesias stunning natural environment and rich resources however, are facing sustained challenges both from natural phenomena which are very prone to climate change threats. Issue parameter: The issues that most seriously threaten progress towards sustainable development in Indonesia is climate change issue. Specific areas of Indonesia are highly vulnerable to multiple climate change hazards. While Indonesia is likely to experience modest temperature increases, climate change will result in more intense rainfall and sea-level rise. People and ecosystems are especially vulnerable to climate risks on Java, Bali, parts of Sumatra and a large area of Papua. The warming ocean will also affect marine biodiversity and be especially harmful to coral reefs, which already suffer from bleaching. Root causes: Indonesias high level of greenhouse gas emissions is being driven by deforestation, forest fires and degradation of land, especially peat swamps. The high global demand for wood pulp and palm oil results in clearance of forests for plantations. Underlying these emissions are good forestry policies and legislation, but weak implementation and enforcement. Emissions from the energy sector are relatively small but rapidly growing in fact growing faster than the economy. Finally, there has been relatively little planning or investment in mitigation, and adaptation to climate change. Regional Consequences Climate change is a transnational issue but adaptation measures are usually developed at the regional, national and local levels. This trend is being more frequently witnessed in developing countries, including members of the ASEAN, which are most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change as there is a high concentration of economic activity along the coastlines which exposed to sea level rise. Second of all, the population in the region is heavily reliant on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, fisheries, forestry and natural resources in terms of national income and employment. Third, climate change also affect the regional security of ASEAN which might emerge transboundary issues such haze transboundary pollution and regional interoperability during the response phase of a disaster.

Room for improvement In most Southeast Asian countries, as in other parts of the world, adaptive capacity (that is, what and how to adapt) is constrained by the limited availability of experts, accurate information on the climate change situation at the national level and adaptation options. The Kyoto Protocol 1998 requires all parties to develop national (and regional) adaptation programs (Article 10(b)) but it does not discuss adaptation further. Nevertheless, adaptation has formed an integral element of the subsequent Bali Action Plan and the Copenhagen Accord, as well as the mandate of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention. Regional organizations in Southeast Asia have played a relatively small role in international climate change policymaking. ASEAN has been conferred observer status at the UNFCCC. As climate change is an area of increasingly complex multi-level governance, measures for adaptation to climate change have expanded beyond the realm of international policy, into regional, national, provincial and local spheres. Solution Frameworks Adaptation is an ongoing, flexible process that seeks to increase resilience to present and future risks. It is necessary to develop and adopt a proactive, systematic, and integrated approach, which is cost- effective and offers durable and long-term solutions. It is also important to remember that climate risks and adaptation priorities vary across regions, countries and sectors. First, ASEAN can provide the basis for regional collaboration; ultimately, the national, regional and local governments initiate appropriate measures and provide the necessary support system for better adaptation. Recently, Indonesia has made initiative to build regional awareness on environmental security and disaster management on 2-5 April in Jakarta in cooperate with United States Pacific Command (US PACOM). Its called Southeast Asia Regional Environmental Security Conference and will enrich great integration between ASEAN Security and ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community 2015 into one commitment. Second, strong inter-governmental policy and planning coordination among various ministries and different levels of government is crucial. The Government of Indonesia has built Master Plan of Accelerating Economic-Poverty Development in Indonesia (MP3EI-MP3KI) which strengthen sustainable development concept. Inside that policy, Indonesia has already entered into force National Action Plan of Green House Gasses (RAN-GRK) to combat the climate change issues. Those good initiative and actions should be developed and optimized thoroughly. Third, the absence of these features has adversely affected the development and implementation of appropriate adaptation strategies in many Southeast Asian countries despite the creation of the institutional and policy framework.

References: H. Bohle, T. Downing and M. Watts, Climate change and social vulnerability, 4(1) Global Environmental Change (1994), 37. See also ADB, Economic of Climate Change, supra, note 3, at 8-9.

J.H. Christensen, et al., Regional climate projections in S. Solomon, et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) Ole Mertz, et al., Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries, 43(5) Environmental Management (2009), 743, at 743-44. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/INDONESIAEXTN/0, ,contentMDK:21481510~pagePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:226309,00.html, accessed in April 8th, 2012 Prepared by: Delegates from Indonesia Focus Points + Questions Discuss more about the different policies mentioned, and discuss how we can use the layout of those policies to carry out our own initiatives for the solution Discuss about the weak implementation of the law and how can we get the attention of the government to give this issue more focus. What do other ASEAN nations have to offer for the basis of regional collaborations Discuss alternatives of options if policies still fail to bring climate change to a stop.

THEME 2: THE NEW SOUTHEAST ASIAN ECONOMY 2.1 Income Disparity Indonesia

INCOME DISPARITY IN INDONESIA: THE RICH GET RICHER AND THE POOR GET POORER
Income disparity is one of the major economic problems in many developing countries, including Indonesia. Income disparity is a very important issue to address especially in developing country because the wider of income disparity in one country, the slower economic growth in that country (Frank, 2011), which will eventually lead to increasing level of poverty. Income disparity is one of tools to measure the economic welfare of the country, either it can grow well or not. INTRODUCTION As a developing country, Indonesia still faces the issue of income disparity. However, the income disparity in Indonesia tend to be increasingly wider, as it is reflected from the increasing of Indonesian Gini Index by 0,35-0,38 in the year 2008-20102. This means that from the income disparity point of view, the economic welfare in Indonesia has not been evenly distributed. For the analogy, there are still many families who only have US$2 to buy food and feed their kids, while there are still many people who spend millions of money only for one bag! Even though in the other side, throughout the year 2011, Indonesia has shown an impressive economy condition as it reflected from some of the macro economy indicators such as high economic growth by 6.5%, low inflation by 3.76% and high export volume by US$ 186.11 billion, but the fundamental question then arises whether Indonesia is really prosperous or it is only reflected in numbers. Does the poor enjoy the economy or only the rich one? Income disparity is a high concern issue in Indonesia that now leads to various kinds of conflict and gruesome violences. One by one region in Indonesia is disintegrated such as the separation of Timor-Timur from Indonesia, Aceh Independence Movement and Freedom Papua Protests due to the anger of not being treated equally in the economic; the low number of educators, especially many lecturers prefer to teach at foreign universities due to the irrational low of salary which it threats generation quality in Indonesia and also the high tension between employees and management violent conflict in Batam and Freeport mine at Papua due to the remuneration problem. All these problems are coming from the main cause : high gap of income disparity. SOLUTION Many studies examine this phenomenon by offering some effective solutions. First, The increase of investment in labor-intensive industry that has enormous potential to improve productivity could be one of effective solutions to overcome income disparity. International cooperation of southeast asian countries is required in the form of foreign direct investment cooperation with clear regulation of local labor usage and its remuneration. The implementation of this solution is the establishment

of Asean Economic Community (AEC) 2015 that could be a good way to stimulate competition and growth of export oriented labor-intensive industries in the long term. Second, the government needs to realize the sustainable development by conducting projects in various areas. In Indonesia, it has been implemented through the establishment of MP3EI which is the master plan of national development acceleration without any discrimination for every area in Indonesia. But this development concept was threatened by the political issue which is the change of government in 2014 that usually replaces the concept with the new one. This makes the national development lost of focus. Third, since that income disparity is also affected by inflation and tax, the cooperation of ministries and central banks in Southeast Asian countries to maintain its macroeconomic policy to live in harmoniously is extremely required. It was implemented in 2011 as Indonesia became the host of 43rd Asean Economic Minister (AEM) meeting in Manado. NEED Income disparity is a major problem in many southeast asian countries, then solving this problem is a responsibility of all parties, not only government but also us. There are many simple things that we need to realize the solutions. First, open your eyes! we need every person to be aware and to always monitor the performance of government in enforcing economic development in every country. However, economic development will be able to provide job opportunity and minimize income disparity. This can be done by sharing and publishing related information, research, articles, journal between southeast asian country. Second, help other through charity in the right way. Charity is the effective way to generate real demand. By doing this, we contribute in minimzing the gap of income disparity as well as increase economic growth. Third, supporting small, micro and medium enterprise (SME) is very important to minimize income disparity. What every country needs is entrepeneurship training in SME sector. This training could help people to increase their skill to make their own business, yield their income and finally could minimize income disparity. References : Frank, Robert H.2011. The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition and Common Good. Princeton University Press. Setiadi, Kusnendi and Ani Pinayani. 2009. The influence of Capital-Intensive Invesment, Inflation and Wage Rate against Income Disparity. Journal of Economic Education and Cooperation Vol.4 No.1, July 2009. Trends of the Selected Socio-Economic Indicators of Indonesia. November 2011. Indonesian Central Statistical Agency.

Prepared by: Delegates from Indonesia Focus Points + Questions: How can decreasing the income gap reduce the violent acts that Indonesia is facing? Is income disparity the main cause of the violence? In line with AEC objectives, in what ways can we make use of the establishment of AEC to reduce the income gap not only in Indonesia but in every ASEAN country? Although there is a change in government, there is still ways of making sure that the new government still remains its focus on important issues such as healthcare. What could be done to ensure that occurs? What sort of cooperation is expected from other SEA countries that were implemented during the 43rd AEM 2011? Define charity How can such entrepreneurship training be implemented throughout the region?

2.2 Uneven Development Rural vs. Urban Vietnam


Vietnam, along with other Southeast Asian countries, is facing a noticeable feature of economic progress, which is uneven development. There are many definitions on this term. As defined in a research conducted by Professor Donald J. Harris, Stanford University in 2006, uneven development refers to persistent differences in levels and rates of economic sectors of the economy. Meanwhile, Anthony Bebbington, University of Manchester analyzed the geographies of development intervention and its relation to poverty reduction in 2004. This paper focuses on the latter. This is uneven development in terms of geography, which means the growth disparities between rural and urban areas. Specifically, according to the Vietnamese Statistics Office, the GDP per capita in the urban areas doubled the one in the countryside in June, 2011. It was also in 2011 that poverty rate in rural regions five folded this figure in cities, 18.7 % and 3.3% respectively. Similarly, there was a considerable difference between rural underemployment proportion and this percentage in urban areas in the same year. Underemployment rate made up 6.3% in rural areas as compared to 3.2% in cities. Obviously, uneven development has been causing some salient negative impacts such as the income disparity, underemployment, low productivity in some fields or even social crisis, so it should be paid more attention and solutions should be found to deal with this salient problem as it may have many negative impacts on the countrys sustainable development. This paper addresses uneven development in regard to some sub-topics as follows: urbanization; mechanical immigration and poor living conditions as well as education situations in rural areas. It is widely accepted that developing and emerging countries such as Vietnam and some countries in ASEAN need to figure out effective solutions to reduce uneven development as a way to facilitate a more just, prosperous and sustainable society. In the scope of this paper, the authors suggest three solutions to be taken into account: (i) Set up and implement sound and effective investment policies; (ii) Improve education quality and (iii) Support local people and organizations. Firstly, many investment policies in rural and remote areas have been being considered to be ineffective in the sense that investment projects did not generate much economical benefit to local people while brought about benefit to people in urban areas. For example, many waterpower dams were built in mountainous areas to generate electricity for the whole country. However, local people had to quit their homeland to re-settle down in new villages where they are not familiar with.

Therefore, while planning investment projects, governments and investors must pay more attention to the livelihood and long-term impact to local people and community to make sure that they receive comparable benefit to other stakeholders. Secondly, education quality in rural areas must be improved so that local people could be better prepared to join the workforces and in some case take the lead in developing the local economies and societies through their knowledge and skills. It is widely noted that the current education conditions of some areas are too poor when compared to those of urban counterparts. Teachers are poorly paid. Learning facilities are miserable. In short, governments, organizations and prosperous individuals must share responsibility in improving step-by-step the quality of education, especially the teachers living standard and learning facilities of pupils and students in rural and mountainous areas. Thirdly, to facilitate positive impacts in the near future, different ways to support local people and organization should be encouraged. Short training programs to prepare young people for a certain profession such as tourist guide or worker in a food processing company is an option to support local people. In this regard, some NGOs or international development organizations can help small enterprises or families to develop their business operation to make full use of local advantages to create more products and values to the economy. To guarantee the effectiveness of those solutions mentioned earlier, government supports, engagement of multiple stakeholders and financial supports of a diversity of organizations are in need. Government need to introduce and implement policies that create balanced economic development across the country by and improving human resources, infrastructure and facilities, management, and establish programs to stimulate investment flow and small-scale industry growth in less developed regions. To be successful, such programs need to engage in the effort of all stakeholders, including the local government, people and enterprises. Local government and people must be committed to and consistent in managing and implementing these programs, and enterprises also need to care about their corporate social responsibilities. Last but not least, financial supports from a diversity of organizations are crucial for rural areas to close the development gap with more urban centers. Therefore, well-funded NGOs are indispensable to create even and sustainable development among regions.

References:

http://www.eco.uc3m.es/~desmet/papers/ej.pdf http://www.undp.org.vn/digitalAssets/27/27099_902_UNDP_Final_Low_res_190112.pdf http://www.clmeconomia.jccm.es/pdfclm/ohara.pdf http://www3.giz.de/imperia/md/content/a-internet2008/iij/20110407_asean_guide.pdf http://www-siepr.stanford.edu/workp/swp06007.pdf http://milhaus.soup.io/post/115268638/Anthony-Bebbington-NGOs-and-uneven-development- geographies Prepared by: Delegates from Vietnam Focus Points + Questions: What should new policies cover to be beneficial to both rural and urban areas? Are there any policies being implemented elsewhere that proves to bring benefits to both rural and urban areas? Can we implement those policies or a form of those policies in Vietnam? Roles of NGOs and international organizations in assisting businesses. How can we get their support? Plans to get government, NGOs and society to start acting on the problem. How to get their attention and ensure that they will work towards solving this problem?

2.3 Economic Independence of the Southeast Asian Nations Brunei


Introduction Economic independence is the absence of economic reliance between countries. Brunei Darussalam has practiced integrated and systematic socio-economic planning since the early 1950s, realized through eight series of five-year National Development Plan or Rancangan Kemajuan Negara (RKN) the development strategies pursued over these RKN had been the keys to the successful creation of wealth in the economy, improvement in the quality of life of the people, political stability and maintaining a clean and healthy environment. However, other equally important development objectives such as maintaining full employment, widening the non-oil and gas industry and the advancement of the Rakyat Melayu as leaders of industry and commerce have not fully accomplish condition are by no means adequate and sustainable for future generations. Examples of non-oil and gas industry Brunei should improve is the fishing industry, agriculture, Methanol Plant, the food industry (Halal Brand) and Aquiculture (Eco-Aquaculture Park and Shrimp-Raising Park) Solution The annual catch in Brunei fisheries fluctuates. This has caused Brunei to import fish from other South China Sea fisheries such as neighboring Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. This is because some of the fishing method used (e.g Trawling) can actually destroy or cause harm to the habitat of the aquatic life, which is their main breeding grounds. In addition overfishing is also one of the reasons. To tackle this Brunei needs to use the latest fishing technology to ensure that minimum damage is done to the underwater environment. Not only that, one of the task carried out under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations/United States Coastal in Brunei Darussalam involves the assessment of artificial reefs fisheries resources. The activity, which includes development and monitoring of artificial reefs, is intended as an input to the proposed coastal area management plan of the country. The function of this artificial structure is used as fish habitat. Both of this solution could ensure an increase in fish population, help reduce the need to export fish into the country and fill in the high demand of fish in the country. In April 2009, Brunei and the Philippines signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investment. The two countries have agreed to cooperate in plant science, crops technology, vegetable and fruit preservation, biotechnology, post-harvest technology, livestock, organic agriculture, irrigation and water resources and Halal industry. This lead to the production of Bruneis own Laila Rice or Beras Laila. The Brunei Darussalam's rice production programme was devised to achieve domestic demand targets and move towards greater rice self-sufficiency. In 2008 domestic rice production satisfied only 3.12% of demand. The programme aims to increase production to meet 20% of domestic demand by 2010 and 60% by 2015.The main objective is to increase the quantity of rice produced while at the same time making the industry more sustainable.

As a Malay Islamic Monarchy (MIB), Brunei Darussalam has made a strong commitment to the development of the Halal sector both ad an Islamic responsibility as well as a means of economic strength and diversification. The annual International Halah Expo (IHEP) is part of Brunei Darussalams effort to diversify its economy. The IHEP is a platform for interested players in the Halal industry to come together, meet each other and conclude deals that would be beneficial for all. It also aims to facilitate both local and international entrepreneurs in expanding their business networks especially in the production and trading of Halal-certified food products. To speed up the aquaculture development plan, the Government planned several locations along the coast into aquaculture areas, to provide infrastructure such as roads, industrial current, electrical, water supply and land application. Brunei's shrimp breeding farms is only one, limited production; shrimp farmers often face supply shortage. Currently the Bureau of Fisheries also open shrimp imports, most of the shrimp from the Malaysian state of Kedah and Johor to provide shrimp breeding grounds. Brunei rich in freshwater resources, the Government also encouraged the aquaculture production of ornamental fish such as Koi carp, goldfish and other viviparous species. Aquiculture is a important field for Brunei economic diversity. In recent years, some related departments promote aquiculture actively, accelerating the process of the construction of cultivate base, attracting foreign investment and advanced technology, aiming at surrounding aquatic market and international high additional value aquatic market. Theres the Eco-Aquaculture Park. This park offers latest technologies of aquiculture to local and foreign investors, such as Ecological Recirculation Aquaculture System, raising fishes, supplying international markets such as China mainland, Taiwan Region and Hong Kong by the way of living-fish exports. Secondly, there the Shrimp- Raising. Invested by Brunei Industry and Raw Resource Department, used to raise Large Grass Shrimp by the technology of closed recirculation seawater. It is estimated that yearly output can reach 1.45 thousand tones, supplying some markets, such as America, Europe, and Japan. In January, a recent success in producing disease-free Penaeus monodon (Black Tiger prawns) is already drawing interest from global players in the aquaculture industry, said an expert from a US-based company.

Need With this development the first thing we need is foreign specialist in getting info or techniques required assist the industries. Secondly, the fishing industries need the help from Malaysia since most of the exports of fish come from Malaysia why we dont just seek guidance from the country. Plus, theres The Training Department, in collaboration with Malaysias National Agriculture Training Council (NATC), (organized three tailor-made training courses for fisheries officers in: 1) line fishing; 2) purse seine fishing; and 3) trawl fishing) maybe some local Bruneians could join in. Not only that, the fishing technologys main function must be to catch fish for export and import and to minimize aquatic destruction. We need the help of Thailand on how they succeed in exporting their rice so that we can do the same with Beras Laila

Research references: http://www.depd.gov.bn/MDG/Downloads/Brunei%20Final%20MDG%202nd%20Report.pdf http://news.brunei.fm/2009/12/30/economic-diversification-should-be-top-priority/ http://www.google.com.bn/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=Brunei+Darussalam+Challenges+for+Economic+Divers ification&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCEQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bruneiresources.com%2F powerpoint%2Fubd_groupc_diversify.ppt&ei=whCDT77rGum1iQeom5HwCw&usg=AFQjCNGGSm5zI- xCg9ILOiZYSPmb-FKl_g http://www.pmo.gov.bn/pmo1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1527:new-push- for-economic-diversification-in-2012-&catid=94:news&Itemid=75 http://www.bt.com.bn/business-besides-oil/2011/02/12/we-need-get-more-out-oil-gas http://www.brunei-halal.com/ http://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/bruneimethanol/ http://books.google.com.bn/books?id=UsWyAPcmnNsC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=Brunei+Aquicultu re-Development&source=bl&ots=8YPr7NmBUI&sig=DpJhH- nD7aogpszskxvndlvrew0&hl=ms&sa=X&ei=vV6ET9j8NpSeiQek2sSsBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBA#v=onep age&q=Brunei%20Aquiculture-Development&f=false http://www.bt.com.bn/news-national/2010/03/16/hm-visits-new-rice-farms-batong-panchur-murai http://bruneiresources.blogspot.com/2007/03/will-brunei-economy-grow-in-2007.html http://bruneiresources.blogspot.com/2007/03/will-brunei-economy-grow-in-2007.html http://www.industry.gov.bn/ http://www.bedb.com.bn/bisop_fdi.html Prepared by: Delegates from Brunei Focus Points + Questions: How can the youth of Brunei help to achieve Economic Independence? Where would you source foreign aid from? And Why? Is there any other way you can improve the fishing industry without seeking foreign aid?

THEME 3: GROWING THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN SOCIETY 3.1 Labor Cambodia


In this globalized world, labor is mobilized from place to another for a better economic growth and quality of life. According to UN, migration has become the contemporary issue among Asia and the Pacific and the destination for those migrants are wealthier countries economy of East Asia, including Japan, Hong Kong, China, Republic of Korea and Taiwan, especially Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Singapore. Recent years, around 65 to 70 percent of Asias labor migrants migrated to work in West Asia, while around 10-15 per cent migrated to South-East Asia and another 10-15 per cent to North-East Asia. Cambodia is one of the developing countries in the region and migration issue in not a new phenomenon now. However, labor migration is still a hot and concerning issue in the Cambodian society. It has become the sensitive and endemic problem in the society as it turns into human trafficking. As a matter of fact, many Cambodian have been violated, raped, and sold as slaved after immigrating to work abroad. According to Royal Government of Cambodia, the migrant population in Cambodia is high at 31.5 percent. While there is growing migration from rural to urban areas, rural to rural migration remains the most common at around 70 percent of the total population. Even though, there is not an actual or an official report about how migration has been human trafficking, there are lots of reports of human trafficking from rural to urban and international migration both legal and illegal. IOM Cambodia reported that the most destinations for Cambodia migrant workers are Thailand, Malaysia, Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore, Referring to Human Trafficking Organization, Cambodia has become the source, transit and destination of human trafficking which is partly the result of migration for employment. Nevertheless, the government seems to pay less attention and intervention to the concerned issue especially on those migration agencies even though there are some laws have been enforced and implemented, and public announcement has been made by the government has been made, it seems like this issue is not well informed by those immigrants. Labor migration usually happens to people in the country side who find it hard to find jobs in the city. Worse than that, not many things have been done by government when such problems occur. Recently, the issue regarding to the death of a Cambodian working in Malaysia has been a hot and discussing issue whether Cambodia should continue to send her people to work abroad anymore. The government actually should enforce strict laws regarding to the above issue. Public announcement and get everyone well informed about labor migration which can lead to human trafficking. More than that, government is also planning to attract foreign investors to invest in Cambodia which is a good way to create job opportunities to local people rather than to go outside

Urban and Outbound Migration:

the country for career life. Education within the country itself has been strengthened from time to time, so that people can get higher education and not to be cheated easily. Most of the cases happen those migrants were taken away with their passport and ID which is difficult for them go ask for help from other agency. Therefore, the Cambodian Embassy should always keep track with the data of worker going abroad and be in touch with the agency and those workers to make sure if they are well treated. What is more, the government should create hotline that people can report the case or suspect of human trafficking. There are many solutions to consider regarding this issue. First of all, people should be well informed about the working environment and condition they may face during working abroad. One of a good examples that MTV has been doing in Cambodia which was supported by USAID, AUSAID was that they made a big concert to the public and showed cases to the people how they can ask for help when they are cheated abroad, and at the same time, the concert was aimed to share the working experiences to those who want to work abroad. As an individual and a member of a student association, what we can do is to do small project by going to other provinces around the county to educate those who are willing to work abroad in the way that they should ask for detail of agency that migrant people to work abroad whether they are legal or not. Also, we can work with other NGOs to create public event on how people should be awarded of being cheated by any agency or friends who contact them to work abroad as it may lead to human trafficking. At the same time, we plan to teach people how to get vocational skill so that they can work in the county itself which is safer for lower educated people rather than to work far away from home. Moreover, we should work with media in order to inform the public about the case and how to approach when human violation happens. We always believe that we cannot always depend on government to cope the problem, but individual can start to make change. Prepared by: Delegates from Cambodia Focus Point + Questions What allows labor migrations to turn into human trafficking? What are the factors involved? How can we get the attention of the government to have more focus on this issue? What other industries is the government focusing on to attract foreign investors that can be substantial enough to increase job opportunities? How can long term education be given? Plans to implement: travelling to provinces + vocational skills. How can media be of other use to solve the problem? What are the roles of other ASEAN countries in regards to regulating migrants from Cambodia?

3.2 Social Welfare Philippines

PHILIPPINES CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFER PROGRAM


Background The Philippine government has increased the budget allocation for its Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). Organized by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), the 4Ps is a social development strategy of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to extremely poor households to improve their health, nutrition and education. Problem Despite its noble objectives, the 4Ps has been marred with criticisms mainly because of the loopholes in its implementation. Many have tagged the program as a band-aid solution to alleviate poverty in the country. Some believe that instead of spending a billion dollars a year for monthly dole outs to poor families, the government should use the money for other projects such as health care development and job creation. Solution Our position is that the conditional cash transfer program of the Philippine government should undergo an immediate reassessment to ensure that the project achieves its objectives. Since its implementation, different organizations have already raised their concerns or gave suggestions to improve the program. The problem, however, is that these suggestions were never made through a public dialogue that is attended by all concerned parties. And while the government is vocal in saying that they listen to these suggestions, we have yet to see whether they actually implemented the said changes in the program. We believe that a public forum attended by government officials, critics, experts and beneficiaries, among others might help in improving the current program. With this forum, the concerns of different sectors may be raised and addressed properly as well as come up with a possible compromise regarding the project.

References: DSWD 4Ps primer: http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/about-us Additional info on 4Ps: http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/252977/news/nation/conditional- cash-transfer-program-to-expand-until-poorest-20-percent-are-covered-mdash-finance-chief 4Ps budget allocation: http://www.interaksyon.com/article/20547/cct-ate-up-most-of-dswd-budget- including-disaster-aid----social-watch Research on effectiveness of 4Ps: http://www.adb.org/publications/conditional-cash-transfer- programs-effective-tool-poverty-alleviation Preference of 4Ps beneficiaries: Preference of http://www.sunstar.com.ph/manila/local- news/2011/07/27/cash-transfer-beneficiaries-prefer-jobs-money-study-says-169391 Impact evaluation of 4Ps: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2008/Economics-WP142.pdf Position paper on 4Ps: http://www.socialwatchphilippines.org/news_38_4Ps.htm Prepared by: Delegates from the Philippines Focus Points + Questions: How effective has the program been? Has there been any substantial change since the implementation of the program? What are such loopholes that receive such criticisms? What are your plans in organizing this public forum? Can international help from the ASEAN region be useful in handling the problem? If so, in what way? Do you think this program is a long term solution to the problem, or as how the critics say, just a band-aid solution?

3.3 (i) Healthcare Myanmar

Establishing and Empowering Localized Community Health Care


In Burma (Myanmar), majority of the population is living with an income as low as 379.6 per person (UN data, 2009) while the government expenditure on health is less than 3 percent of GDP (CIA) . The country health care system is centralized and is privatized with exception for commercial purpose. The governments centralized health care system guarantee the free health care for all citizens at state-operated hospitals while the hospital lacks efficient health care faculties, facilities and medicines (See Ministry of Health, Myanmar). Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory (MPF) is supposed to be manufacturing medicines necessary for major population. MPF is not able to supply the medicinal needs of the hospitals nationwide. Ministry of Health (Myanmar) has partnered with Foreign Aids, Donors and INGOs in fighting against threatening diseases such as TBs, Malarias and HIV/AIDS. Union of Myanmar Economics Holdings Limited, largest corporation run by retired top government officials has involved and operated private commercial health care services across the nation either in sole ownership or in partnership. There are less than 200 private commercial health care services and thousands of GP clinics nationwide (Yangon/ Mandalay Directory 2012). Majority of private health services are established in urban area due to potential profitability. Population in rural areas and suburban areas are relying on community based non-profit health care and part-time health volunteer groups (See Myanmar NGO/ INGOs Directory, 2009). These non-profit groups have limited health care and financial resources since many of them are relying on local private donors. Providing all citizens of Southeast Asia with basic healthcare, vaccinations and sanitation will bring a great many advantages to the region, its society and correlated sector development. Being a key contributing factor to other sectors such as economics, education and politics, the issue of health promotion in the SEA region will have direct impact on achieving three MDGs (Millennium Development Goals); reducing child mortality rates, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. One of the developing countries in the region like Burma (Myanmar) and its citizens crucially and urgently need such a great benefits. To implement the idea, Myanmar needs to work on a great many important things either on governmental changes such as restructuring health care system, reconstituting health care bills and developing more health care professionals or on community sector empowerment such as supporting community health care groups and part-time volunteers with health care facilities, management and education, facilitating in founding community health research labs and encouraging non-profit health care group run by local communities. Among the two options, the latter would be more appropriate and realistic since any governmental changes would take up to more than two decades. The idea will definitely increase the number of receipt population for affordable health care and is likely to have impact on the income of private commercial health care. And, the disadvantages for commercial sector is negligible since population which needs special care will go for private health care. To implement the idea of empowering community health care groups, Burma (Myanmar) needs experienced trainers and experts in the field of non-profit health care management, public health education,

public health research and medical faculty education. Also, health care facilities, medicines and mobile clinical facilities are needed to be employed for outreaching the rural community with limited medical faculties mobility. The well-equipped health care institutions are to be established nationwide and to be networked with other health care groups in the SEA region. Through those empowered community health care institutions, citizens will receive affordable treatment, health education and environmental health advices. Those institutions will also be strong advocating forces for public health in the region. The one the only challenging question is Would Burma (Myanmar) government allow such a great decentralization on public health care? References: http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=MYANMAR#Economic https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html http://www.annals.org/content/148/1/55.full?from_mr www.adb.org/publications/myanmar-fact-sheet http://www.yangons.com/ http://www.moh.gov.mm/ Prepared by: Delegates from Myanmar Focus Points + Questions: How effective is the partnership of the MOH with foreign aid in improving the healthcare of Myanmar. Government low expenditure on healthcare. What other sector should be cut off to increase spending on healthcare. Why governmental changes take so long to be implemented? Suggestions on ways to increase expertise and other health care necessities. How can the ASEAN region be of help? What are the current government policies on healthcare and how effective are these policies. Are there any changes that should be made to it?

3.3 (ii) Healthcare Laos

Health related to HIV/AIDS


Introduction: HIV becomes the global concern as well as threat to all of human regardless nationality, country, sex, sexual orientation, age, religion and race. HIV has the tremendous negative impact the national human resource and several complicated obstacles. It has been reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) that Young people age 14-25 years old are contracting HIV/AIDS everyday and end up their life in such devastating way. However, young people in general and young key affected population dont get enough access to sexual health education, rights to health treatment and many crucial supports, due to the lack of government support/policy. Many organizations all around the world are working on youth related to HIV/AIDS and youth development issue but young people are not considered to be a part of decision making process and other development task of the nation, which has a negative effect to their capacity, leadership and responsibility to the social development of the country, even their own health or life. Solution: Empower young people at the country level to take ownership of the HIV response Young people have critical and prominent roles to play in broader HIV dialogues and decision-making beyond issues relating specifically to young people. While youth empowerment and participation has improved over the last few years at the regional level, opportunities for meaningful youth participation are still lacking at the country level. If the HIV response is to be inherited by todays generation of youth, then the transference of necessary skills, experience, and capacity from adults to young people at the country level must begin today. Support stronger partnerships between young key affected populations and the HIV response Communities of young key-affected populations, particularly young people living with HIV, have a crucial role to play in the AIDS response. Governments must support emerging leadership of young Key-affected populations, the integration of YPLHIV within the positive and youth communities, and their meaningful engagement in policy and program development, implementation, and evaluation in order to drive the next stage of the response. Acknowledge and respond to the diversity of young people Young people are composed of a diversity of sub-populations that have unique and changing needs with respect to rights to prevention, treatment, care and support. Given their diversity, young people require particular interventions, which may differ from their older counterparts and peers. Policy makers and program developers must acknowledge how critical it is to fully understand these

changing needs and to respond appropriately, supporting the health, rights and dignity of all young people. Address the legal, policy and social barriers that young key affected populations face beyond prevention, treatment, care and support needs Young sex workers, young people who use drugs, young men who have sex with men, young women, married adolescents, young people living with HIV, and young migrants and refugees bear a significant burden of the HIV epidemics across the world. In order to make independent, informed decisions and to access the fullest range of HIV services, they must live in supportive households, communities and countries, where social norms, policies, and laws protect their rights. Ensure that the socioeconomic needs of young people living with HIV are addressed, including the availability and sustainability of ARVs and treatment options Governments should identify and support mechanisms to increase access to treatment for YPLHIV, due to Young people living with HIV often carry a heavier burden of looking for finances to cover costs for treatment of HIV. Further, YPLHIV often lack access to insurance plans and are unable to seek support from their families due to fear of isolation and rejection. Support integrated funding of sexual and reproductive health and HIV interventions for youth Governments should provide funding that supports integrated programming for youth to leverage efforts to prevent HIV and promote sexual and reproductive health and rights for young people. Research: Key Advocacy Messages for Young People for the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High Level Meeting on AIDS, New York City, USA. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:NrS13LCO4C4J:www.youthcoalition.org/attachs/Key %2520Advocacy%2520Messages%2520for%2520Youth- %2520UNGASS%25202011.pdf+&hl=en&gl=la&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESje4xEh3SfxTbaCsz9nmOXGB7h kMUvPkF- duEJqBlw4zfFNYcZdtCAyYy1GVNgrnB12sj5rRSG2ZHbzIXCRxsrRW9CCuIffzP9VKRsywW7iUhOlzn2jTzp nD_FGs4FnqXrqGGfV&sig=AHIEtbS7A_70jZ1VxeB_OjR8yumpWTtAEQ&pli=1 Prepared by: Delegate from Laos Focus Points + Questions: Talking points and focus: Government support for private efforts Research into communities of YPLHIV Financial opportunities and enterprises for YPLHIV Rights enforcement for YPLHIV to overcome discrimination Access to insurance, treatment and community support