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..WA AND CAPTURE OF BULTAN Maiimud Khilji 26 SO 39 41 QCCt TATIuN OF MARWAR .CONTENTS....ua .. . Wars with the Sultans Death of of Malwa and Gujkat Kumbha 134 Kumbha's Monuments 70 91 Kumbha as a Scholar .. .. or TUB KlXGDOMH OF GUJHAT and Mai.. . Rao Jo dh a Recovers Marwar. . I ana Kshetra Singh..... 4 Kisi.... Lakha and .. Jl ( ONQUEST OF Mai. . Dedication List of Illcsirayioks iii vii Foreword ix The I! (tUhilot (Gehlot) Family of Mewak Moral .. Pace..


i' I Fortress of Kumbhalgarji ... .. ... .. ....... of Victory .... .. ... .... . 7-1 Katargarh and the Vedi Portress of Chitor and the r .. .. ..... . . 79 85 emple of Ranpur ... .. 77 Tower .. .... .... 2 Emperor Akbar ...ILLUSTRATIONS To face pay* Mahaiana Piatap y of Mewar ....


pamphlets. and though several sources of information in Rajputana have not yet been tapped. all this To bring is material no easy task but the labour of a lifetime.FOREWORD. yet such are the intrinsic merits of " that wonderful work. Nearly a century has since passed. havo thrown fresh light on many obscure points. books. because the influence history . has turn for enlightenment and Though in historical research has made little progress Rajputana during the last hundred years. coming to light of some of the historical records of Rajput States since the publication of the Annals and Antiquities of Baja&than. published in the thirties of the last century. the Annals and of Antiquities of Rajasthan. Materials for such knowledge. of India can be written. yet epigra- phic finds." that it still remains the chief source to to which a student of Rajput history knowledge. nevertheless a student of history with a little diligence can now get a fairly accurate knowledge of the history of this part of the country during the last 500 years. manuscripts museums and private art and coin together and make proper use of collections. discovery of manuscripts. ill lie scattered various journals. Probably the time has not yet come for the accomplishment of this most Till then no proper and complete important work. was written at a time when the history Rajputana was practically a sealed book to the public. Colonel Tod's Monumental work. however.

Mehta Nainsi's Chronicles (a rare manuscript) Kumbha's Commentaries on Gita Govinda and Kaviraja Shyamaldas' Vir Vinod. as well as of the celebrated work Eklinga of Mahatamya. to write on some of those great men who. have made the name Rajput a synonym for chivalry and heroism.of Rajputana on Imperial affairs and the Court at Delhi and Agra during the Moghul and pre-Moghul times was a factor of great importance and often of decisive consequence. short accounts of important personages. In writing this book. the only is known manuscript copy i. due for having in his possession. In the meantime. by their character and achievements. The present volume is the first of a series of monographs which I hope. HAR BILAS SARDA. health and time permitting. and the history of this province the brightest page in the history of Mediaeval India. I have made inscriptions of the time of father. . full use of all the Mokal the many of Maharana Kumbha and his them unpublished the Kum- Chitorgarh (Tower of Victory) the bhalgarh. the Eklingji temple and the Mount Abu inRanpur. 1st Ajmer.ai which in the possession of to Bahadur P. who have played memorable parts in the history of this historic province would not be devoid of interest to the public. as well as of the inscriptions I have also made use of a manuscript History of Marwar. scriptions. Gauri Shankar are Ojha allowed whom my me free use of obligations it. January 1917.

. The Surya Vamsha ruling families is the most famous of the of its India. . The Guhilot Family of Mrwar.\ . and . . was one of the greatest of the Maharanas who have ruled in Mewar. enduring without flinching untold and overcoming all by a selfsacrifice and heroism which have wrung the highest praise from their bitterest foes. CHAPTER I. Inspired by the highest patriotism. ever upholding powerful Dharma. Maharana Kumbhakarana he is or Kumbha. though surrounded by foes faced with insuperable difficulties. It has produced some of the greatest and most powerful of the kings that have made the name of Rajputana resplendent in the annals of India. as popularly called. and the is most the celebrated of many branches Guhilot or Gehlot family. which has ruled Mewar without a break for nearly fourteen centuries. they suffering.

Their immortal deeds. their elevated and noble patriotism have placed them at the head of the Hindu nation and earned for them the richly -deserved title of Hindua Surwj. His character and achieve- ments are thus summed up in a sentence by . 1433. says "to have possessed successively so many energetic princes as ruled Me war Col. Tod. their chivalrous character. Raj Singh names that will shine bright throughout the ages. in the renowned fortress of Chitor and ruled till A. Pratap. through are several centuries. 1468." the great historian of Eajputana. Sanga." " It has rarely occurred in any country. Kumbha.D. patriotism not discarded and valour not condemned.Illabaraita Kuirtfcba." Jaitra Singh Hamir. their high ideals. and will be revered so long as chivalry is not despised. which is one of the most prosperous and important in the history of Mewar. "the Sun of the Hindus.D. Maharana Kumbha ascended the throne of Mewar in A. : '''''Mve^ade the: paged of history a continuous record of high inspiration and noble purpose. a period of nearly 35 years.

Maharana Pratap of Mewar. .


p. 1 Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. by Kumbha.ffiabarana Kumbba. 287. " All that was wanting to augment her (Mewar's) resources against the storms which were collecting on the brows of Caucasus and the shores of Oxus. 1." ! Kumbha was Mokal by Devi. the scene of Samarsi's defeat. and a genius comprehensive as either and more fortunate. and were destined to burst on the head of his grandson. was effected succeeded in undertakings. Lakha's taste for arts. and once more raised the crimson banner of Mewar all his upon the banks of the Caggar. As a girl . 3 Kumbha. the culture of the one and the chivalry of the of these other. who with Hamir's energy. 2 the eldest son of Rana his Parmar Queen. of Also she Kumbhalmer inscription was called Maya Kanwar. and thus united in himself the fine qualities two of the royal races of India. : He says the illustrious Colonel J. Vol. Tod. 2 Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription. verse 170. Sanga. Sobhagya daughter of Raja Jaitmal Sankhla.

II. The Chitorgarh Inscription of Rana Kumbha " says (verse 22) that Kshetra Singh destroyed a Mussalman army near Chitor and the enemy Med to save themselves. Lane Poole's Muhammadau Dynasties of India. CHAPTER Singh. p. Rana Kshetra Lakha and Moral * who to Kumbha's great grandfather. Mandsor.l). 1382. son and successor of the celebrated Rana Hammir. He obtained 1 a who was victory over the King of Delhi. Mussalman King." He thus put an end to the pride of the 274. 1364 A.e ^ Singh. He greatly enlarged He captured Ajnier and Jahazpur. Rana Kshetra ruled Mewar was the from the A. I. 1 p. kingdom. See also the Kumbhalgarh Inscription of Maharana Kumbha. . The Kumbhalgarh Inscription says that " he captured Zafar Khan. re-annexed Mandalgarh. King of Patan" (the 2 and first independent Sultan of Gujrat). Kshetra Singh utterly defeated at Bakrole. and the whole of the Chappan to Mewar. Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. o76. took the King of Gujrat prisoner in a battle. Vol.l).

He extended his dominions J by the subjugation of of its chief ruins of in Merwara and the destruction stronghold. "the Khan remained other .Iftabarana Kumbha. on the which he founded Radnor. 1397. Vol. raised immense ramparts to dam their waters. With the revenues thus augmented he rebuilt the palaces and temples destroyed by Ala-ud-din. p. D. and constructed a number of forts. excavated reservoirs and lakes. in Rana Rajas feated and killed Ami Shah of in his imprisonment with Kshetra Singh de(V. Beratgarh. . 271. 200) and the Mussalman ruler dreams when lie saw the Rana. He defeated many Kajas and humbled the pride of the ruler of Malwa trembled Malwa. It was the country his time that the tin and silver mines in of Jawar were discovered conquered from the Rhils by his father. He conquered the 1 Tod's Rajaatban. who one of the was most successful of the to Maharanas and reigned from A. 1." his Rana Kshetra Singh was succeeded by son Rana Lakslia Singh or Lakha. 1382 AJ).

275. an thoughtless character of the Eajput. gave rise to an event which compromised the right of primogeniillustrating which. Sankhla Rajputs of Shekhawati (Nagarchal territory). its "proved more disastrous in consequences than the arms of either or Mahrattas. and in the words of Colonel Tod. while the ture to the throne of Mewar. Mughals Lakha was advanced 1 - and his sons The Kumbhalgarh Inscription of Maharana Kumbha. p. Ibid. and. I. defeated the royal army l of the Delhi Sultan at Eadnor.maftarana KuitibHa. Vol. 6 . 3 Tod's Kajasthan. 3 According to the Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription lie forcibly an end to the pilgrim tax at Gaya." lost his life. while he was adorning the throne of Me war and emincident occurred bellishing the country. put Many still years before his death." in years. Also Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription. He mans Meds (Mers). 2 " conquered Tristhali from the Musaland the hill fort of Varolhan from the He carried the war to Gaya. and in driving the barbarian from this sacred place. like his father.

for. He asked Ran Mai. Ran When the embassy was announced. to affiance his daughter.Ittabarana Kumbba. Chonda.' This little sally was applauded and Chonda offended at delicacy being to wit. and take the court The * gage . Thinking had a secret longing for Chonda. to invite him to a and then insisted on Ran Mai Maharana agreeing to give his sister to the before joining his festive board. established in suitable domains." Lakha should himself accept the symbol. eoeoanut came from the Rao when the of Manda" war (Mandor) to Mai's sister. made up his mind that still for himself. was absent. and the old chief was seated in his chair of state surrounded by his messenger of hymen was courteously received by Lakha. 7 Ran Mai . drawing his fingers over suppose you send his moustachios. the heir of Mewar. feast. who happened to be at Chitor at the time. who observed that Chonda would soon return. I don't such playthings to an old grey-beard like me. the heir of Mewar. declined to accept the symbol sacrified which his father had even in jest supposed repeated. might be intended that his father married life.' added ' he.

" Lakha resolved to signalize his finale by a and to the holy land of raid against the enemies of his faith expel the barbarian from against their the Tatar proselytes of Islam. and borne from the scene of probation in celestial cars by the Apsaras. whose this. suggested through Charan Chandan khadiyd that Chonda should renounce his right to the throne of Chitor in favour of an issue of the He Rana by his sister. When Mokal was but five years of age. and the night neared morn with the festive board still deserted. sole desire was to gratify the supposed wish of his father. Chonda. was introduced at once into the realm of the Sun. would not agree to the this. unhesitatingly agreed to The marriage was celebrated and Mokal was the issue of this union. Gaya. .HMIWtHM Kumbha. their Jerusalem. Not knowing how else to get out of the difficulty. their and if the destiny filled his cup. Ran Mai hit on a proposal which lie thought would turn the tables on Chonda. secure of his beatitude Hindu was (Moksha). When war was made the Jordan holy land the Chief . the religion by Sutlaj and the Caggar were as the banks of Gaya.

the Rana throne unexposed to civil strife. mother. however. The subject of succession had never been renewed. Chonda appeared and dissuasaying that and she. She praised steadfast fidelity from Chonda." Lakha had the Holy-land freed from the yoke of the Afghan but lost his life in the enterprise. he sounded him by asking what estates should be settled on Mokal. he desired that the ceremony of installation should be performed previous Chonda was the first to Lakha's departure. to pay homage and swear obedience and * fidelity to his future sovereign. of Chi tor journeyed to this bourne he was desirous to leave his Ere. from which he might not return. 1 Tod's Rajasthan. but discussing with Chonda his warlike pilgrim- age to Gaya. reached Chitor. Chitor' The . 277. to When news of this event Mokal's mother prepared resolutioD become sati. Vol.ffiabaratia Kumbha. 9 . p. I. must watch over the welfare of the The Queen did not expect this Rana. ' throne of set sus- was the honest reply and to picion at rest. the Queen- ded her from her Mokal was a child.

" This is still maintained. and proved incapable of following in the lootsteps of the illustrious founder of their iamily. of its 18th the when. and no grant by the Kana should take effect till it was confirmed by him.l). when their countiy had need of those qualities of head and heart. and in all grants the lance of the Salum bra still pwcedes the monogram of the Kana. descendants ruin. Mokal thus came A. in of Chonda strenuously worked to maintain the position thus assigned to Chonda. the " overran 10 of Kaipur.Itiatoarana KumbDa. became the the cause century. and to the throne in 1397 of maintained the traditions defeating in the field the house in Mohammad Kana Tughluq. Mokal Sapadala/csha . unexampled conduct and declared that he (Chonda) should ever have the first plaoe in his the Council. which are so gloriously illustrated in the life cf Chonda. but forgot the self-sacrifice of that great man." This assignment of the first place in the Council and a recognition of the premier position amongst the vassalage of Me war. king of Delhi.

Sultan Firoz of the Ghori Sultan of Mandu. Vide Samadhishwar Mahadeva Temple Inscription 3rd. with a gold image of Garuda. 1429). Ibid. a temple of Devi with an presented image of a lion made of all the metals. became anxious defeated 2 about his 1 territory. daughter of Medni Mai carpenter a class still well-known for the physical beauty risen of their 1 women. and a beautiful tank 3 at Papamochana He overcame the Nishadas and struck terror into the hearts of the Turnshkas (Turks or Moslems). Ohacha and Maira. and a temple of Vishnu. and took Sambhar from tlie Sultan The rulers of Jalor (Jabalipur) of Delhi. Mokal was assassinated by his two uncles. the natural sons of Rana Kshetra Singh by a handsome girl named Karman. and ' killed Mokal rebuilt the great elephants. temple of Samadhishwar. trembled before him and the King of Delhi . of 1485 (A.Ittabarana Kumbha. Thursday.D. Mokal Nagor third their and Khan Mohamed Gazni Khan. 3 Magh sud He U . Chacha and Maira had 1 The Kumbhalgarh Inscription of Rana Kumbha. S. near the Tower of Fame ' at Chitor tirtka. (Ajmer).

Hara Maldeva. 12 . The Maharana. while the Rana Madaria and was seated a grove with his chiefs around him. however.D. whispered to him to ask ceiving question. feigning ignorance. who was at Chitor at the time. had recourse to a trick which cost the Rana his life. Kdkdji what tree is this?" The question (uncle) reminded them of their mother's origin and was taken to be an insult. also came to know that Chacha and Maira meditated treachery. either of the brothers. was encamped in 1433. Ran Mai. took no heed of occasion soon presented itself to the traitors for carrying into execution it. An their nefarious design. Not in per- the insinuation involved " the Mokal artlessly asked. They vowed vengeance. One day in A. who.iimiwcum Kumbha be captains in the army of Mokal and thus excited the jealousy of some of the to Chiefs of Mewar. wishing to humiliate them. he at enquired the name of a particular tree. cessful News of their unsuc- attempt to gain over Malesi Dodia reached Ran Mai and he warned the Maharana that an attempt on his life was imminent.

five by his Queen Hadiji and five by Malesi Dodiya. Chacha and Maira. the Kheechi Chief of Gagroon. Mokal started from Chitor and Sanwaldas. Sanwaldas. Rani keeper of the Palace. The Rami's surprised the Rana in his tents. Nine men stood by the Rana. joined him on the way. the two traitors. Achal Singh sent his son. who had won over Mahpa Panwar and some other minor chiefs to their cause also accompanied the Rana on this expedition. the Raja of Idar. Hadiji and Malesi defended themselves bravely but were killed. having attacked Gagroon. Mokal had a daughter named Lalbai. One night while the Maharana was encamped at Bagor. Besides seven sons. to the Rana demanding fulfilment of his pledge. attendants prepared to defend him. till they had 13 . the gateThe Maharana. collecting a small force. Dhiraj Singh.Iliabarana Kumbha. but only laughed at the idea. Aehal Singh had at the Hathlewa demanded and received from the Rana the pledge of succour on foreign invasion. Hoshang of Malwa. not. came to of the plot and warned Mokal. however. know Mokal owing to his intimacy with Chacha. who had been married to Achal Singh.

but steed lying dead and the other gone. escaped. remembering the debt of gratitude he owed to Mokal.D. Chacha and Mahpa. 14 . he mounted one and. looking out for were at the Patel's house soon after seeing one who were departure. Kumbha. including Kanwar Kumbha escaped with difficulty. put on aphentd (a piece of cloth generally worn when in mourning) and swore that he would . the brother of Mokal's mother Rathor king. they returned to their tents. men. this valiant throne of Marwar his rightful inheritance usurped by his younger brother Satta in A. with whose help he had recovered the Bai. Going to the house of a Patel who owned two of the fleetest horses in Mevvar. Mahpa When becoming his Diwan Rao Ran Hans the news of this tragedy reached Mai.ttatoMm Kumbha slain 19 of the conspirators and wounded Seventy of the Rana's were slain. killing the other at the suggestion of the Patel t3 baffle pursuit. Sanwaldas. The traitors thence went to Chitor and proclaimed Chacha as Maharana of Me war. 1409 threw off the turban he was wearing. The his traitors.

fled to who with their families the hills of Pai Kotra. out. Ran Mai went unattended to the house of the Bhil he had murdered. killed a Bhil zamindar of a village situated at the foot of The sons of this zamindar with other Bhils. and throwing after placing themselves into the stronghold of Ratakot. Finding the Pai hills. that without the assistance of the Bhils he could not reach the fort. Ran Mai had. but so steep was the hill and so rugged the path that led up to the fort that Ran Mai failed to achieve his object. whilst living at Chitor. started in pursuit of hills. He i addressed her as greeted her. His widow was at home and the sons had gone sister.mabarana KuitttDa. fortified it. and sat down. were now actively assisting Chacha and Maira against Ran Mai. Ran Mai. fortress. The Bhil . Leaving Nagor he came to Chitor and defeated the traitors. the traitors towards the Pai Arriving he made several attempts to reach the there. During the reign of Mokal. Kumbha on the throne of Me war. put the turban on his head only when he had revenged Mokal by slaying his murderers.

" assist them.IKabarana Kumbha.140 Gehlots and Rathors to take the fort. will kill him. but as you have come to our house. The young men exclaimed." if "Mother. we will say nothing to him. you did us great wrong." The lady praised her son's noble sentiments and called to Ran Mai to come out. I to The Bhils promised abstain from rendering any further assistance to Chacha and Maira. however. we cannot do anything to you now. the Bhil Ran Mai now to go inside the house. On camp and 16 . and had his horse tethered at the back of Her to five sons arrived and sat down to She asked them what they would do Kan Mai if he should come to their house. woman said " : Brother. it. said he comes to our house." Hearing the approach of her lady asked sons. and to assist Ran Mai in achieving his object. "Do what! we dinner. Ran Mai came out. Ran Mai returned to his started next day with 1. The eldest. but with you to cannot get at them. The Bhils received him courteously and asked him why he had come there to be killed. He replied vow dear nephews I have taken a not to eat bread till I have killed Chacha : " My and Maira.

and went Placing his men at suitable hill with 60 men. superb. and his drum which was to have accompanied his voice in celebrating the conquest.tttabaratta Kumbha. He advanced This and buried his poniard in her breast. saying it . fell. They soon reached the ascended the parapet. Ran Mai on. said he did not mind that. arriving at the foot of the hill. and told her to fear God only and go to sleep. the glowing eyeballs of the lioness flashed upon them them. points he ascended the They commenced the ascent where the para- pet was yet low the path was steep and rugged. as the bypath leading to the fort had been blocked by a lioness who had lately given birth to a cub. by its crash. the Bhils advised Ran Mai to wait a few days. as she came roaring towards Ran Mai ordered his son. and in the darkness of the night each : grasped his neighbour's skirt for security. awoke. the daughter of Chacha. Her father quieted her fears by was the thunder and rain of bhddon. As the party reached a ledge of the rock. Aradaka- mal. omen was summit. others were scrambling over when the min- Some had strel slipping. to dispose of the beast.

while the his feet. At the very first call. making Chacha's body uerve as a bajot to sit 18 . Ran Mai returned and joined his companions. were safe at Railwa. Though Chacha and Maira the fate they richly deserved. In answer to the second call a Dom woman shouted from inside that the clothes sitting Thakur had put on her house and that she was and left the naked inside. for he had taken not to attack any one who was in the company of women. On this. Rathor prince laid Maira at Ran Mai then went to the quarters occupied by Mahpa Pan war and called him to come out and meet his fate. a vow Mahpa. for their enemies this At moment at Ran Mai people the avengers of Mokal rushed in. daughter to wife. unable to face his foe.mafcaratia Kumbha. Ran Mandu. Chacha was cleft in two by Chauhan Suja. where they Mai took Chachas on at the ceremony. put on female garments and thus disguised. and once said it was Ran Mai's. left the house unmolested. Chacha and Maira had no time to avoid their fate. met Ekka. escaped and he and straight for the Court of Mahpa made found shelter. hurled his spear at the door. Chacha's son.

which was to now dominated by the Rathors. Ran Mai preferring the fertile plateau of Mewar to the arid deserts of Marwar took up his residence at Chi tor. surrounded himself and the Maharana with Rathors. This added posal. Mokal's son. of Raghavadeva did not approve the proceedings at the Court. the brother of Chonda. Raghavadeva. did not like this pro- and on arriving at Delwara removed the maids to his own camp. fuel to the fire of jealousy already existing between Raghavadeva and Ran Mai. he But silently watched the progress of events. married 500 Sisodia girls there to spears. and took the administration in his deva. . on his departure from Chitor during the reign of the late Maharana Mokal. was a minor. intending to give them to his Eathor follow- The Maharana's uncle. Raghava- who had been left by his elder brother Chonda. He ers. to watch over the safety of the Maharana during his minority. own hands.mabaratia Kuttibfta. and not willing do anything which might be unpalatable to the Dowager Maharani. had the same duty to perform now that Rana Kumbha.

who stabbed him with their daggers. and he was assassinated by two of Ran Mai's men. JRaghavadeva had been beloved throughout Mewar for his high character. Ran Mai. As he was putting it on. . manly beauty and This murder roused great patriotism. indignation against the Rathors. dress of honour.IRabarana Kumbba. his arms became entangled in the sleeves. the sleeves of which were sewn at the ends. remove him. courage. his existence was a menace to the power of obstacle to the success of his Ran Mai and an resolved to contemplated designs. and obtained for the victim divine honours and a place amongst the Pitridevas of Mewar. He sent him a which included an angarkhd. therefore.

Gujrat and Nagor. the flight Tughlaq. about the middle century. the Kingdoms op Gujrat and Malwa. and the conquest and sack of Delhi by the invader in A. Gujrat had been under the rule of the Baghela branch of the Chaulukyas till the year 1297 A. Malwa. And it was with all these kingdoms. The of invasion of India by Timur. the erstwhile viceroyalties of Delhi threw off their allegiance and declared their independence.. but power and prestige and was a reality. Sultan more in name than in In the opening years of the fifteenth century. After Timur's departure to Turkistan. Mohammad Mohammad Tughlaq he had lost all returned to Delhi. 1398 destroyed the power of the Tughlaq Sultans of Delhi.D. then in the heyday of their power and prosperity.CHAPTER ]Iise of III.D. that Maharana Kumbha. of the fifteenth came into collision. when Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji of Delhi sent Ulugh Khan to conquer 31 .

enjoying the unstinted support of the Sultans of Gujrat. where he and his descendants ruled for several generations. named Sadharan and of the Tank tribe (Khatri)..). under the title of Muzaffar Zafar Khan was originally a Hindu Shah. Zafar Khan. wara Patan. Gujrat remained a tributary province of Delhi from A. 1297 to the year 1407 A. The Chaulukyas had succeeded the Chaura Rajputs. the celebrated Gujrat.D. .D. who had founded Anhalit. conquered Chitor and defeated the Chohans of Ajmer. 1 Shams Lane Poole's Muhammadan 22 India. the height of The Monarchy its Capital of of Gujrat reached magnificence and power under Siddhraj Jaisingh and Kumar Pal (J 0941175 A. ted his brother appointed him Muzaffar Shah appoinof Shams Khan Governor Nagor.mabarana Kumbha. when it triumphed over Malwa. who eventually Governor of Gujrat. proclaimed his independence and mounted the throne of 1 Gujrat at Birpur.D. after his conversion to Islam became the head of the kitchen to Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq. when the Viceroy. page 376.

kingdoms the most powerful Mussalman India at principalities in the time when defeated singly by the Maharana. Magh Sud 3rd. who was a warrior of some re- He measured swords with Kumbha's Maharana Mokal. combined and simultaneously invaded Mewar from the west and the south by the chivalry by the patriotic but Kumbha. supported of Mewar and inspired . at Chitor of See Samadhishwar Mahadeva Temple Inscription. . the Maharana had come into collision These two in the early part of his reign. but sustaining a 1 disastrous defeat at Jawar. near Bandanwara. Malwa. valour of the Gehlot Rajputs. now a part of the district Khan advanced Flushed with this success. He invaded Me war and defeated the Rana at the field of Jotayan. father.D. 20 miles south of Udaipur.D. Khan was nown. The capture of Nagor in A. S. Firoz into Mewar. 1455 by Kumbha brought the Sultan of Ahmedabad Wi th the King of into the field against him. 1429). of Ajmer. vanquished 1 them both. succeeded at Nagor by his son.mabaratia Kumbba. 1485 (A. Firoz Khan. returned discomfited to Nagor.

who inflicted a defeat on him at Raipur. On 18th December 1398 A. ^m^MfM^^m of Delhi sent an Malwa and conquered it.D. where he was welcomed and royally On Timur's entertained by Dilawar Khan. the son of Firoz Tughlaq. Sultan Mohamed Tughlaq. and finding his way barred by the Maharana. name was Hassan. and in 1401 A. he turned towards Malwa.D. Till 1310 was A.. the son of Firoz Tughlaq.D. saltan ruled by Hindus. departure. (710 H. was appointed Governor of became an independent Dilawar Khan Ghori. whose real it Malwa in the reign of Firoz Tughlaq. . Dilawar Khan pro- claimed his independence and took up his residence at Dhar. army to It remained a province under the Sultans of Delhi till. Amir Timur captured Delhi and sacked it on the "28th. in the reign of Sultan Muhammad II.mabaratia Kumbba. fled towards Gujrat.) Malwg^ In that year. a province of his empire. Muhamud Tughlaq returned to Delhi. 24 /.D. The kingdom of Malwa till thus created con- tinued in existence when Akbar made it the year 1571 A. monarchy..

.D. Malwa and soon Malwa remained a Emperor Akbar. Endus. Ala-ud-din Khil- Malwa was reduced Western )nquered Mandu. uiiy ruled by In 1305 A.Fi about 1310 A.D.

D. monarchy. Amir Timur captured Delhi and sacked it on the 28th. fled towards Gujrat.maDarati rui Malwa and conquered it.D. the son of Firoz Tughlaq.. where he was welcomed and royally entertained by Dilawar Khan. name was Hassan. The kingdom of Malwa till thus created con- tinued in existence the year 1571 A. Muhamud Tughlaq returned to Delhi. and in 1401 A. he turned towards Malwa. was appointed Governor of became an independent Dilawar Khan Ghori.. On 18th December 1398 A. and finding his way barred by the Maharana.D. On Timur 's departure. when Akbar made it a province of his empire. Dilawar Khan pro- claimed his independence and took up his residence at Dhar. whose real it Malwa in the reign of Firoz Tughlaq. who inflicted a defeat on him at Raipur. the son of Firoz Tughlaq. Sultan Mohamed Tughlaq. in the reign of Sultan Muhammad II. It remained a province under the Sultans of Delhi till. Or .

.Emperor Akbar.


During his reign the king- Malwa reached the it zenith of its power and prosperity. and was Sultan Mahmud Khilji that the Maharana challenged to stand the onslaught of the Rajputs. Sultan Hoshung Ghori's son was murdered by Mahmud Khan. 2* . Alp Khan. who mounted the throne under the title of Sultan Hoshung Ghori. Dilawar tious Khan was murdered by his ambi- and unscrupulous son.maDarana KuifiMa. who ascended the throne under the title of Sultan Mahmud dom of Khilji.

The Sultan advanced with a powerful army to meet Kumbha. . Chonda to lead the Mandu army against Ran Mai and take revenge for the asked murder of Raghavadeva. was sheltered by the Sultan of Mandu. Chonda. Mahpa Panwar. where the Sultan. conquest op malwa and capture op Sultan Mahmud Khilji As one of the assassins of Mokal.t= I! = . CHAPTEK IV. the elder brother of Rana Mokal. resigned the throne of Mewar in favour of Mokal in circumstances which have his name illustrious in the history of had taken up his residence in the Court of Mandu. prepared attack for hostilities and advanced to Mandu. had given him the district of Hallar as The Sultan now sijagir for his maintenance. who had made India. a demand for his person was made by the Maharana. Dilawar Khan Ghori. but Mahmud Khilji refused The Maharana to surrender the refugee. 26 The patriotic .

against his dharma to take up arms against the army of the Maharana.iRabaratta Kumbba. Chonda led the replied but that army it was that he would gladly have against Ran Mai's Rathors. 1440 between Chitor and Mandsaur. fort. but he was saved. the 27 . The Maharana's army consisted of a hundred is said to have thousand horsemen and 1.D. army fleeing in all direcThe Maharana returned to Chitor Khilji. Mahpa mounted his horse and going on to the rampart took a leap out of the fort. Kumbha stormed and took the Ran Mai captured Sultan Mahmud tions. His horse was killed. the Sultan's army was utterly routed. he retired to his jagir. When the Sultan was hard pressed. his bringing the Sultan captive with him. The Rana's army followed up the victory and laid siege to Mandu. He fled to Gujrat. The two armies met in A. he told Mahpa that he could keep him no longer.400 elephants. The Sultan fled and shut himself up in the fort of Mandu. and after a severe engagement. To commemorate this great victory. Rather than stay at Mandu.

1. by the Khilji Mahmud " So far magnanimity of the Maharana. this Tower of Victory was completed the Rana had to face and vanquish the combination of the two most powerful kingdoms in India at the time. palaces of Bhim and Padmini is the place where the victorious Kumbha confined the King of Malwa. Also the Gazetteer of TJdaipur. 17.maDaratia Kumbfta." Arch. from showing any generosity thus shown 1 him. 28 . after which he was liberated without ransom. Reports. Before. Vol. which glorious celebrated tower. XXIII." (the says a historian of Me war. 112. " he Sultan) spent the rest of his life in vain attempts at revenging himself on his conqueror. 1908. Beyond the i( within a stone enclosure. Maharana Tower of Chitor. built the great in Jay a Stambha the fortress Victory still of which adorns that far-famed on the brow of stronghold Chitor which makes her look down upon u this ringlet " Meru with derision. event is inscribed on the remained a prisoner in Chitor for a period of six months. p. however. 1 for which purpose he entered Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. The place of imprisonment still exists. those of Gujrat and Malwa. p. p. 287.. S.

iRabarana into foe. 28 . we proceed in to describe them. however." The time usefully Mahmud's defeat was very employed by the Maharana in erectafter ing several forts and generally strengthening the defences of his country. we must follow the development of the political situation Mewar itself. Before. KumM)a an offensive alliance with his former the Sultan of Gujrat.

and the success which Rao Ran Mai had achieved in killing the assassins of Mokal. . to but finding no shelter there they came and threw themselves at the feet of the Maharana and sued for mercy. to be seen everywere in the kingdom. s of the -* After the crushing defeat and confinement King of Malwa in Chitor. Kumbha was still young. Occupation of Marwar. and all of raised the influence Malwa had of the Rao to positions of confidence and trust as well as of political and military importance. par- doned them and took them into his service. son of Chacha. and capturing the person of the King and power a pinnacle whence he exercised Rathors were undisputed sway in Mewar. were This naturally excited 30 bestowed on them. The Maharana. with his usual magnanimity.CHAPTER V. fled Gujrat. Mahpa Panwar and Ekka. and in crushing the power.

Chacha's son. . while shampooing the Maharana. the apprehensions of the nobles and Sardars of Mewar. The young Maharana's dhdya (nurse) became fearful of the future. aware of his enmity towards Rao Ran Mai.' a few days later. Ekka. the brother incident which occurred 31 about that time confirmed those suspicions. His tears falling hot on the feet of the Maharana woke him. The Dowager Queen spoke to her and his reply only increased her suspicions. who was asleep." brother. An Raghavadeva. and on being asked the cause of his distress. began to weep. gave no heed to this warning. " if her kin was to defraud her own grandchild of his inheritance. demanded of the Rana's grandmother. . and bursting with indignation at the conduct of the Rathors. which were further strengthened by the assassination of of Chonda. The Maharana now began to be a little suspicious of Ran Mai. he repeated the tale Mahpa had told. One day Mahpa plainly told the Maharana that the Rathors were aiming at the throne of Mewar but the Maharana.mabarana Kvttttba.

gave her leave she came The answer annoyed the Rao. And. intoxicated with liquor as he was. with whom Rao Ran Mai was in love. and that as soon as those whose usual. turned for help. was one evening detained a little longer in the palace and went to him later than asked the cause of the delay. and to him they at once He was apprised of the danger to his country and was asked to come and save it. yielding to her seductive charms and female art. whereupon she said that she was not her own mistress. would soon those be and that who live cared to live in Chitor would have to as her servants. of the information to the All their hopes for the safety its Mewar and rightful sovereign now rested in Chonda. cease to He a told her she servant. named Bharmali. He servant she was. who to him. related the whole incident to the Queen. Ran Mai.mabaratia KumbDa* A fair maid of the Queen's. day. next to her his designs. was drunk. Chonda\ who had been a silent but not inattentive spectator of the dangerous game that was being played 82 in the land of . confessed The loyal maid. who communicated Maharana.

to The young Maharana was asked descend daily from the fort with a retinue to give feasts to the surrounding villages. their hunters by profession. But the main body. bouring chieftains and had the honour to escort the Maharana of home. but no Chonda nurse. lost assistance of no time in coming to the He sent 200 the Maharana. arrived. and to hold the feast on the Diwali : day feast at Ghosoonda. With heavy and hearts. of his visit followers. and while there to ingratiate themselves in the favour of the gatekeepers of the fortress. to families in Chi tor. them and at their head was the chivalrous Chonda. paid homage Chonda and to his his nephew and here sovereign. the the Puroliit others started called Chitori homewards. and had reached the eminence when forty horsemen passed at full gallop.mabaratia Kumbha. and night came. the stratagem was . by a secret sign. The day arrived the was held at Ghosoonda. his birth. but They said they were neighchallenged. band reached the Ramthey were pol Gate unnoticed. 33 was the advance. who. presently which this coming up.

the hunters were speedily in action. Bharmali. Chonda and the Maharana to call now decided to rid the fortress of the Rathors. The Bhatti chief his in and at charge of the principal post of Chitor. S. tied him well old chief to the bed with the big turban he wore. well-known shout. the was drunk. The old Rao of Mandor now began to Fearing surprise.) When the plied the Rao with liquor.Ittaftarana Kumbba* discovered. Prompted by Chonda. guard and never to come up to the fort even if they should receive a message in his name. at hill on which the fortress is and told them to be always on their situated. who had been compelled to his embrace. one evening in Asdrh. though not before he had launched his dagger at Chonda and wounded him.D. the Maharana asked Ran Mai Jodha and Kandhal to reside in the fortress. Queen's handmaid. he sent his sons Jodha (who later founded Jodhpur). but the Rao made some excuse or other. was killed. to a sense of his The Rao was only roused 34 . 1500 (1443 A. Bharmali. Kandlial and others to live in the the foot of the taleti. Chonda unsheathed his sword. scent danger.

lota. and with ere this he 3 of his 17 assailants he was got the Mahpa feet. In his rage. son of Lunkaran. cried out : " Your Ran Mai has been your life if killed : Jodha run for you can. his 700 Rathors saddled their took up their arms and leaving . fled as soon as Ran Mai in on his The other Rathors fortress." Jodha and horses. His stature and the force of his blow in were well known state of affairs a Raj pu tana. Randhir Surawat. he got hold of a brass killed killed. movement he got by a sudden desperate on his legs with the pallet behind him. including Randhir. brother of Ran and Mai. were surprised and Ran Mai was of herculean build. Satta Bhati. and others arrived. Finding all arms removed. of Chacha.mabaratia Kutnbba. son danger when Mahpa Panwar. Seeing the Dom in the service of Ran Mai. Ekka. gigantic slain. got on to the wall of the fortress and in a loud voice. and roared like a caged lion unable to free himself from the meshes of the turban that tied him to the pallet.

where Kandhal joined him. and the two brothers their flight continued towards Marwar. sons of Aradakamal Pitha Rajawat. and to prevent the Rathors escaping into a furious attack on them. with the memory of the murder of his his brother Raghavadeva fresh in mind started in pursuit with ten thousand running fight ensued between the Rathors and the Sesodias. A Jodha had not gone far when Chonda came up and a fight took place at Kapasan. slipped away.inahaiana Kumbha. The Jodhpur khyat mentions encounters 86 Satkhamba. Jodha. sprang into their saddles and made for Marwar. Barisal and others gave up their lives defend- ing Jodha. Someshwar Pass in the hills which divide Marwar from Mewar with only a hundred horsemen. Chonda soon came They reached the up. Marwar made Rathors collected 1 The round Jodha and Kandhal at Chitori. Jodha reached Mandal. Poorna Bhati. 1 killing 400 of the enemy. Kapasani and Kelwa. Chonda. (Ran Mai's son). who was too drunk to move. Kanawaj. Rana Shivaraj. Charda and Chand Rao. after losing 200 men and several encounters. Bar- jang Bhimawat. Bheem. . There were Gehlots.

Rana's forces took possession all of Marwar and established thands over the Akho Sisodia was appointed Governor of Mandor. ten miles from Bikaner. Chonda wat.inaharatta Kumbha. Rawat Chohan Jassa Firoz of Sachore and the son of 37 Khan of Nagor were also attached to this . and arrived at Mandawar (Mandor) close on Jodha's heels. did not give up the pursuit. Jodha crossed seven. The land. Bhati Banbir. Rayangar were attached to this son of Hansmal Raghavadeva. Jodha unable to make a stand there passed by it. Relying on the aid of the Rhatis of Poogal and Bikampur he took up his abode at the village Kahuni. Out of the 00 horsemen that 1 reached the Pass. Jodha set foot on the Marwar. He owed his safety to the fleetness of his steed. Chonda. was given Sojat as jagir and was made Thanadar of Chokri. it with but With soil this remnant of the 700 horsemen left with whom he had of Chitor. Both the Sisodias and the Kathors dismounted and engaged in a handto hand fight. Ah ado also Hingolo and Mehta fort. however. to save them.

Iftabaratia Kumbfta- Ran Mai's younger brother Satta. Narbad. thus abode at Bassi. son of a Jagir with an annual rental of Rs. to whom Rana Mokal had given Thana.00. remained increased his jagir throughout these transactions.000 a year.D. 1. by further yielding an saw the expulsion of the Rathors from Chitor and the passing of Marwar into the possession of the Maharana. and the Maharana bestowing on him an estate income of Rs..000 Kayalana throne of loyal when Ran Mai was placed on the Mandor in 1409 A.D. He took up his The year 1443 A. 50. .

Jodha came to a village and put up at The mistress the house of one Rakan Jat. After a year's stay at Kahuni. why in she thought Jodha was without The." Jodha was astonished to hear this remark and asked the lady sense. His raids always cost him men and horses without bringing him any profit. thou art as devoid of sense as Jodha is. he always went straight to attack Mandor. Jodha began to raid Mandor. the Jatni said: "Brother. of the house placed before Jodha a tlidli Jodha at of hot ghat (porridge). M 89 .Jatni replied that want of sense Joaha was clear from the fact that instead of raiding the out-lying country. Seeing this and not knowing who the stranger 'was. and as the porridge was burning hot. returning from his raid.CHAPTER VI. One day. (plate) full once thrust his hand into the centre of the porridge to take a morsel. Rao Jodha Recovers Marwar. Jodha burnt his fingers.

in the land and grain He was scarce. where he had married. as is not going to run away. his country being in the Maharana's possession. If thou wouldst but begin with the edge which is hot. added the lady. There was famine. While Jodha was thus roaming homeless in Marwar. His brothers also grew up and the began to With the help of the Bhatis of Kelhan. And thou." inasmuch as thou putteth thy hand straight into the centre of the porridge and burnetii thy fingers. seriously handicapped by want of horses and lack of money. too. began to raise disturbances in the country. an incident occurred which 40 . horsemen. was. " lacketh sense my brother. he assist him. and he got around him a body of plunder." Jodha took up going raid this advice to heart and gave towards Mandor and began to him This brought country around. however.IRabarana Kumbha. which was garrisoned by the Eana at . too. thou shouldst have by and porridge near the not so by the it porridge in the centre of the plate too. and thus every encounter he lost horses and men " without gaining his object.

for fear of wounding Chonda's feelings. for homeless jungles. if sent Chdran named Dula. defeated the Mussalmans. said the lady. in the Such. a confidential messenger. Chonda's brother. slain Chacha and Maira. Mewar. The Dowager Queen sister. that Ran Mai had murdered Raghavadeva. and that his son Jodha was now wandering hopeless. but promised that Jodha should take Mandor he would Thus assured. a Charan Asia Dula went 41 in search of Jodha. roused him and put fresh energy into his activities. and that he. to Jodha to communicate to him the views of the Maharana and to encourage him to make an effort and take Mandor. could not do anything to help Jodha. was rendered to and the reward services The Maharana replied Mewar. Rao sympathising with Jodha one day begged the Mahaof rana to restore Mandor to the young Rao.maftarana Kumbfta. which Chonda could never forget. and was killed there. raised the credit of Mewar. and eventually reaching the village . telling him how Ran Mai had come to Chitor to help the Maharana at a critical time. Ran Mai's in his forlorn state. the old lady not molest him.

Padava. who had 500 horses in his stables. in the sandy desert of Marwar. to the Thakurani. and he set about collecting means to effect his purpose. The Bhatyaui asked him to cheer up. and reminded him of his duty to his kindred and asked for 200 horses. who was a mother. from tha Maharana. she enquired the cause. He told her that the Rawat had refused him horses of which he was in sore need. and appealed to his patriotism. who would deprive land if he should give him Disappointed by the Rawat. He went straight to Rawat Lunkaran of Satrawa. from the Dowager Queen of Mewar acted like a powerful tonic on him. a She was a known amongst the Rajputs for wisdom and foresight. Lunkaran declined he held his to give the horses. She sent for the 42 .l&abaratia Ktimbba. saying that fief him of the assistance. he found him ttith his fifty horsemen and some foot followers in Bhadang. in the jungles of the act of satisfying their hunger with the The message bdjri growing in the fields. Seeing Jodha dejected. saying the horses were all his. class well Jodha went sister of Jodha's Bhatyani lady.

l Jodha thus equipped went to enlist the support of Harba Sankhla. shut the door and locked him of her maids with message with the She then sent one Jodha to the stables that the Rawat had ordered that the stables were at Jodha's disposal. quarrelled with the Thakurani. Jodha picked out 140 of the best steeds of Satrawa. scolded his Kamdars and had the keepers of the stables beaten. and when he unlocked the room and went in to deposit the things. the celebrated cavalier of Rajputana. Rawat and asked him to put certain valuables in the Toshukhdnd . whose deeds of chivalry 1 The following couplet refers to the incident : 43 .Iftabaratta Kumbfta. but could not get back the horses. khana. the Thakurani promptly in. he was gone the Thakurani unlocked the door of the Tosha- When Rawat Luokaran came out boiling with rage. mounted his Eajputs and marched away. and that the keepers were to fully equip any horses that he wished to take away.

is which everyone hospitality and granted his request. waking. a place of shelter to there. great man. His all who went provided the stranger. Harba. who enjoyed the pottage and went boiled with flour. however. his door His generosity was proverbial. lived asceticism. Jodha.iRaUarana KumfcDa. a life of simplicity and and was ready to succour the distressed. with a hundred and twenty followers. they stared at one another. all was open to who sought his aid. " arrived when the " strangers' fare had been Harba had a hurried meal of distributed. remarked "that the grey of age was thus metamor- . a Bala Brahmachdri (he who leads a life of celibacy from childhood). shown mujd sugar and spices prepared and set before the Rao and his followers. for their moustachios were dyed with the * On evening's meal. This are sung everywhere in the country. his lance ever ready to a suppliant with house. help the weak and champion the cause of the ever oppressed. He unbounded hospitality to had been performing at the rite of Saddvrat. to sleep. go to the assistance of a just grievance.

of the Rana's officers were killed small following Rawal Indo Jodha next attacked and took Kosana. where chhUri still A Hingolo fell after performing deeds of valour. sons of Chanda. Jodha recovered Mandol. Raghavadeva Rathor with leaving everything behind. they descended sword in hand to meet them.IRaftaratia Kumbfta. near Jodhpur." Thus aided. Chohan Jassa. phosed into the tint of morn and hope. and Bhati Ranbir. Harbham Sindhal. his to recover his He first attacked tied. Ahado overtaken and slain on the way. . the Maharana's thdnd of Chaukri. Kandhal and Manja. and ignorant of the fact that the assailants included Harba Sankhla. But they were overpowered Kandhal was slain and Manja took to his horse jrnd tied but was pursued. In a few . were in charge of the place. Despising the numbers of the enemy. Hingolo. Jodha started patrimony. so would their fortunes become young and Mandor again be theirs. Visaldeva Par mar and the son of Firoz Khan of Nagor fled. and by Two rapid marches arrived at Mandor. Rana Visaldeva. Sisodia Eko and others were also slain. marks the place on the Balsamad Lako.

of the superior power of Me war. Thus. after 7 years of occupation. and restored the rich to Godwar * quench the feud. Jodha sued province of for peace. and Jodha won it back by the sword. Chonda would have invaded Marwar of his to take vair as two sons (revenge) had fallen while Mandor had lost only one chief. only reverting to Marwar in the latter half of the 18th century when. This province remained in the possession of the for three centuries. 45 . days Jhea also seized Sojat and took up his abode there. the resources of Mewar reached a 1 Maharana low ebb. Maharana Kumbha lost Mandor. Conscious. owing to Mahratta aggression. Ran Mai but abstained on learn- ing that the Maharana forbade it.maftarana Kumbfca. however.

took from them several forts and cities. then at the in humbled their pride. We now turn Mewar to the foreign relations of and see how the valiant Maharana not only successfully defended his country against the attacks. 1442) the Maharana left Chitor fco invade Haravati. but carried the war into the countries of his foes. extended his dominions on all sides and became the most powerful sovereign of his time in India. with the Sultans of Malwa and Gujrat. In S. first made singly and when thus defeated. invaded Mewar. 1440. D. burning with a desire to take revenge and to wipe off his disgrace of A. the King of Mandu. Sultan Mahmud Khilji. made the Kings of Malwa zenith of their power and prestige. 1499 (A. and arriving near Kumbalmer prepared to destroy 47 .D. Finding Mewar unprotected.CHAPTER Wars VII. combination by and Gujrat.

sending his father. 210). He r^zed it to the ground. while the historians of Raj pu tana say that the Sultan was defeated. seven days Dip Singh successfully repulsed all attempts of the Sultan's army to take possession of the temple. On the seventh day. and leaving a part of his army to take the fortress. says the Sultan obtained a victory and the Maharana retired to Chitor. the temple of Bana Rajput chieftain Mata in Kelwara. Flushed with this small success. burnt the stone image of the Mata and used the lime with betel leaves. he started for Chitor. Azam Humayun.Hlaftarana Kumbha. IV. he left Haravati to return to his dominions and came upon the Sultan's army near Mandalgarh. 1 A few days Maharana made a night attack on 1 Ferishta (Vol. 4 . A named Dip Singh collected For his warriors and opposed the Saltan. advanced to attack the Maharana. battle was fought here A without any decisive later the result. Dip Singh was killed and the temple fell into the hands of the Saltan. When the Maharana heard of these events. towards Mandsaur to lay waste the Maharana's country. p.

To retrieve this disaster. IV.. we should not have found him (as will be seen later) asking the King of Grujrat for help. Mahomed Khilji did not venture to take the offensive against the 1 Maharana. p. says (Vol. Ferishta further says Vol. he went towards Mandalgarh with a large army. IV. p. p. Mahmud set about preparing another army.. das. sent Taj Khan with eight thousand cavalry aud 20 elephants to attack Chitor without cause from Bayana. This is obviously far from true. IV. 325. p. 215). 850 (Kartik Badi 11-12 October 1446 A. the Sultan who was 1 utterly defeated and fled towards Mandu. 210.maharana Kumbha. on 20th Rajab H. p. IV. For. and proposing to him after his defeat an offensive alliance against the Maharana.. 222) that j( / 49 . had the Sultan obtained a victory and concluded peace after receiving Nazrana." Vol. and four years later. where he had gone immediately after his return to Mandu. 2 For about 10 years after this defeat. 325. without molestation to Mandu. 210) that the Sultan returned after taking Naz- rana. as stated by Ferishta (Vol. Had the Sultan achieved a victory. part Vir Vifiod of Mahamahopadhyarya Kaviraj ShamalFerishta says u the Sultan returned I. and having defeated him drove him back to Mandu. a fir Vinod. p.. in conformity with the practice of Persian historians. Ferishta.D. 5th. S. why should he have. who ignore or try to whitewash defeats and unfavourable issues. 1503) The Maharana's army attacked him while he was crossing the river Banas.

mount to Its religious supremacy in importance is due to the political existence of Pushkar of in its environs. Its political importance proved by the fact that every power aspiring to dominate the country has first taken possession of it and used it as a is ladder to India. This important is city "the heart of Rajputana" the a place in of Upper greatest strategical importance It stands at the summit India. affairs at In 1455 A. of the plateau which marks the highest elevation on the plains of Hindustan. Does this return not plainly show that Mahmud returned Khiljipur. Acting on the advice of Mahnmd it wished to found a town in Mewar and name but that as the Maharana tendered a Nazrana he returned to Mandu without doing so. and the Mausoleum in the town. During the reign Rao Ran Mai of Maharana Mokal.' 50 . Mandor wrested this of stronghold from the Sultans of Delhi and restored it to Mewar.ffiaftaratia Kumbfta. D. the state of Ajmer drew * bis attention to it. Saraswati at Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti The death of Swami Dayanand Ajmer invests the place with peculiar importance in the eyes of reformed Hinduism. foiled in his attempt '.

page 222. D. him out with and under the conveying a daughter to the pretence Viceroy of Ajiner. by the Hindu Governor of the and receiving promises of help from its residents. then 1 lately captured from the Kaimkhanees.. who had gone on pilgrimage to Ajmer after killing Choonda. Paneholi Khemsi. IV. putting the garrison to the sword and slaying Salim Shah. the Governor of the A j mer. King of Multan. Vol. 51 . Mandsaur Maharana's fort of 1 he advanced and attacked Ajmer.mabarana Kumbha. *Ferishta. Khemsi was rewarded with the grant of the township of Khatoo. received 1455 Mahmud that Khilji having all representations 2 Muham- madau in religious practices had been forbidden Ajmer place. In A. a picked force of of Ran Mai Ratliors sent . he introduced his men into that renowned fortress. the ancient stronghold of the Chohans. The Jodhpur Khyat. defended the fort for four days. father of Ran Mai at Nagor. an expediSending the bulk of to engage the army against forces. undertook Mussalman his tion against that city. Gajadhar Singh.

despising the foe's forces. with the title of Saif Khan. who sustained a severe 2 defeat and fled to Mandu." Naimat-ullah as Governor of the fort.. together with the approach of the rainy season. induced Sultan Mahmud to return to Mandu. As his were retiring into the fort. IV. the following morning the Malwa officers persuaded the king of the necessity of his army retiring into quarters. Mr. 223. the Maharana's army came out of the fort and fell As upon the Sultan. at the head of a body of Rajputs. he approached the river Banas. *Ferishta. " The drawn battle mentioned Briggs in a footnote says the Malwa historians must be deemed a defeat. page 222." Briggs Ferishta. and himself went towards Mandalgarh. which circumstances. He was killed after performing deeds of valour and slaying numbers of the enemy. the Sultan's mixed themselves among the Rajputs and entered it men men also. he came out and attacked the Sultan's army. both on account of the reduced numbers and the wretched state of the camp equipment. On sequence. Vol." by : A : m . when the retreat was mutually sounded. p. The Sultan thus obtained l possession of the fort but "not without susHe appointed Khwaja taining severe loss. Vol. 2 Ferishta says " Rana Kumbha.iRaharatia Kumbha and then. now rendered almost useless. IV. attacked one flank of the king's army under Taj Khan and sent another body to attack that severe engagement ensued in conunder AH Khan.

designs on 2 Rana Kumbha for shelter Kumbha.. tory of Gujrat. his elder son. 1 Khan. his Shams Khan. died. deposed him life. page 148. defeated Mujahid. but son. rana marched with a large army to Nagor. Edition of 1910). and prepared to take his fled to Shams Khan and help. 1455) Feroz He belongSultan of Nagor. footnote. and was originally Governor of the province of The same Nagor. who fled towards Gujrat. page 40 (Cal. and placed Shams Khan on the gddi of ^erishta. younger Mujahid Khan.. page 148. year (A. and agreed to place Nagor on the condition that he acknowledged Kumbha's the throne of Shams Khan on supremacy by demolishing part of the battlements of the forfc of that place. however. succeeded him. He had. page 40. Vol. Vol. 3 Shams The Mahaaccepted the terms. 63 . who had long had Nagor. D. Vol. thrown of! his allegiance to Delhi and become independent. Bayley's Gujrat.mabarana Kumbha. IV. page 41. On his death.. 3 2 Khan 4 Also Bayley's His- *Ferishta. gladly embraced this opportunity of carrying them out. ed to the family of the kings of Gujrat. under the Sultans of Delhi. IV. IV. Ferishta.

footnote." prayed to after the Shams Khan humbly the Maharana to spare the fort just l On this. began to strengthen the fortificaNagor. then.inaftarana Kumbba. and demanded of him the fulfilment of the condition. This brought Kumbha on the scene again with a large army. As preparations were being made for the demolition of the battlements one of the old Pathan Sardars of cried out : Shams Khan that Firoz had a daughter instead of a son. prayer and No sooner. The Maharana granted returned to Mewar. 1 Bayley's History of Gujrat. page 148. The Maharana now demolished the fortifications of Nagor and thus carried out his long-cherished design. for otherwise his nobles would kill him Maharana was gone. however. 54 . had Kumbha reached instead of Kumbhalgarh than Shams Khan. Nagor. this He promised to demolish the battlements himself later on. Shams Khan was driven out of Nagor. for even she would not have "Would allowed her father to be disgraced by permitting the dismantling of the fortifications of the fort. tions of demolishing. which passed into Kumbha's possession.

Iftabarana Kumbha. captured elephants. took away from the treasury of Shams Khan a large store of precious stones. " says that he defeated the King of the Shakas Mashiti (Muja(Mussalmans). The Eklinga Ma- He hatmya composed during Kumbha s lifetime. The Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription repeats " the facts. destroyed the fort. liberated twelve lakhs of cows from the Moslems. which showed Moslems mosque Verse 22 says "he the way to Nagor" (verse 19). 5 See also Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription. slew the heroes of Nagpur (Nagor). and adds that he destroyed great built by Sultan Firoz. filled up the moat round the 1 " 'A*'' fort. burnt the city (Nagor) with all the mosques therein. which he placed at the principal gate of the fortress of Kumbhalgarh. imprisoned Shaka women and punished countless Mussalmans. calling it the Hanuman 1 Pol. uprooted the Mussahmm tree of Nagor and destroyed it these with 2 all its mosques. verses 60-62. made the land a pasture for cows and gave to Brahmans. He gained a victory over the King of 2 Gujrat. put to flight hid ?). jewels and other valuable things. also reiterate these things." 3 He Nagor for a time carried away the gates of the fort and au image of Hanuman from Nagor. 55 ." the Gita Commentary on Govinda.

1 thereupon espoused his cause and sent a large army under Rai Ram Chandar and Malik Gadday to take back Nagor. 8 Bombay Gazetteer. Only remnants of it reached Ahmedabad. Vol.D. page 41. page Anup Chand Manik and Malik Gadai. whom he gave to The Sultan Sultan Qutb-ud-din to wife. page 11.. In S. when lie came out. page 149. I. 3 The Maha- rana allowed the army to approach Nagor. Ibid. 1456) the Sultan of 4 Gujrat "despairing of reducing Chitor" arrived near 1 Abu and sent his Commander-inGujrat. Vol. Ferishta. page 41. determined to wrest Nagor back from the Maharana. Vol. Ferishta 3 242. inflicted a crushing defeat on the Gujrat army. 1513 (A. Bombay Gazetteer.iaaraita Kumbha. IV. Bay ley's IV. 1 Brigg's Ferishta. taking with him his daughter. :i The Sultan now took the field in person. and after a severe en- gagement.. W . annihilating it. has Vol. Shams Khan fled to Ahmedabad. The Maharana advanced to meet him and came to Mount Abu. TV. to carry the news of the disaster to the Sultan.. page 242.

who had been dispossessed of Abu by Kumbha. however. Ferishta.lftabarana Chief. who was a relation of the Maharana met the Sultan in battle but was defeated. aware * of this plan. Gazetteer. with a large army. seized this opportunity when Kumbha was embroiled The Deoras of Sirohi. states (Vol. Also Bay ley's History of Gujrat. Malik Shaaban Imad-ul-Mulk. 1 Bombay Vol. Kum&ba. page 149." and by forced marches reached Kumbhalgarh before the Sultan Kumbha. fortress is perched the fortress of Kumbhalsallied The Maharana out of the and attacked and defeated the Sultan. and both arrived at the foot of the hill on which garh. and took possession of Abu. 67 . came out. page 41) that the Raja of Sirohi. arrived there. and himself marched upon the fortress of Kumbhalgarh. 2 The Mirati Sikandari states that the Sultan had the fort evacuated by Kumbha and gave it to the Deoras of Sirohi. to take the fort of Abu. IV. I. with the Sultan of Gujrat. attacked and "defeated Imad-ul-Mulk with great slaughter. and that the Sultan then went away towards Kumbhalgarh. page 242. 2 Imad-ul-Mulk returned discomfited to the Sultan.

The Sultans of Malwa and Gujrat. thus defeated by the Maharana. footnote. IT. who proposed a formal his Maharana who had destroyed the Mussalman Chiefship of Nagor and had injured them both. towards the close of the year A. retired to Gujrat. D. Taj Khan. now resolved to combine and invade Mewar. which was ratified at Chanpaner by Sheikh Nizam-uddin and Malik-ul-Ulema on behalf of Sultan Mahmud. 1456.accepted the terms of the alliance. Bayley's Gujrat. 58 . and by Qazi Hisam-ud-din on behalf of Qutb-ud-din. page 150. Sultan of Malwa. 2 Brigg's Ferishta.R*abarawaKuttiMa- who sustained a heavy loss. Vol. Sultan Qutb-ud-din was met. by ambassador from Mahmud Khilji. 2 It was agreed between the two kings that the southern part of Mewar contiguous to Gujrat was to be attached to <^-% ^ x Bombay Gazetteer. The King offensive alliance against the of Gujrat eagerly listened to the proposal and . page 42. on way back to Alimedabad. page 242. and hopeless 1 ot taking this stronghold.

Gujrat and . TheMaharana wanted to dispose of Mahmud first. but finding that Qutb-ud-din had come near Kumbhal- him first. Qutb-ud-din garh. Qutb-ud-din encouraged. while the Sultan's army was in the open. while Mahmud Khilji advanced towards Chitor and reached Mandsaur. to Malwa. In pursuance of this treaty. both : armies retired to their camps for the night the dead bodies were cremated or buried. advanced to meet had chosen a strong position and the Maharana.mabarana KmnblM. after an indecisive action. the latter suffered severely and left the field had to completely vanquished. 1457). advanced and an engagement took place which lasted for two days. and the wounded were tended. The Sultan fight hard for his life but eventually 59 . Ajmer and Ahir- wara. After the first day's engagement. fell back on a better position flanked by his native hills.D. and as the Maharana's army had the support of the hills behind them. Qutb Shah advanced towards Kumbhalgarh. a simultaneous attack was made by the allied kings of Malwa and Gujrat the following year (A. Mewar proper. With the break of day the battle was renewed.

It is hardly possible to believe that this powerful combination of two monarchs. indeed. each burning with a desire to completely crush the common foe. that if the Maharana had been defeated in this war he would have dared attack Nagor within three months of his defeat. and some annalist has described the gold and the nondescript things as nazrana or tribute. two elephants and some nondescript It is conceivable that the Sultan took with things him the spoils of some of the temples destroyed by him and the plunder of Sirohi. ! ! ! ! . that Qutb-ud-din who had been victorious would have retired satisfied after indulging in a little plundering freak without exacting substantial penalty or otherwise taking severe revenge for this presumption on the part of the Maharana. The Mirati Sikandari says that three months after this. page 42) says that the Sultan on receiving 14 mds. IV. suffered a J Ferishta (Vol. of gold loaded on two elephants and some other things as presents made peace^with the Maharana and returned home This is Fersihta's way of For Ferishta does not state what glossing over a defeat. though the Maharana heavy loss. 1 retired in safety. received as his share of the spoils of war or offering of peace. That the victor should get only a little gold and the spectator whole districts of the country of the Another historian. however. says that the Sultan of Mandu returned home.IKabarana Kumbha. having received from the liana the district of Mandsaur and several other pargannas adjacent to the territories of Malwa. the Maharana invaded Nagor. or. comes nearer vanquished mds. and after plundering some It is difficult to believe villages returned to Ahmedabad. when Qutb-uddin again came to Mewar. achieve a triumphant victory and yet the net result of it should be the gain to only one of the allies of 14 of gold. should invade the enemy's country from both sides and open the campaign with such confidence and pride. The Mirati Sikandari. the Sultan was defeated and returned to Gujrati. Thus. "seasonable donation" the Sultan of Malwa. the ally of ! the Gujrat King.

Me war. page 224) that Mahmud Mandalgarh on 26 Muharram H. 862 (1458 A. he never again ventured to invade the truth. D. 1518 (A. after this unsuccessful attempt to retrieve his fallen fortunes. left Ferishta says (Vol. footnote. D. Ferishta. IV. Prince Ghayas-ud din. 61 . ant peace a sign of victory ? 1 for ! 2 In S. and took it on 25 Zilhijj H. towards Bhilwara. It is further stated that Mahmud advanced D. page 225. 1856).Iftabarana Kumbha. IV. 861 (A. The Commentary on Gita Govind distinctly states that the two kings were defeated and driven out of Me war by the valiant Maharana. 1461) Mahmud Khilji did indeed go towards Kumbhalgarh but dared not attack He passed on to Dungarpur. and was able neither to recover the territory previously conquered and joined to Me war by Kumbha. received two lakhs from it. 2 " Tarikhi Alfi seems rather to intimate that Qutb-ud-din made his own terms and left Mahmud to shift for himself" Bayley's Gujrat. th Raja as Faujkharch and returned to Mandu. The King of Malwa also retired to his territory foiled in his attempt. Vol.) and sent his son. and that the Prince after a severe action took the fort of Kasundi and then returned to Mandu to join his Is return home without concluding a triumphfather. page 151. D.) towards Chitor on 5 Muharrum H. he gave up all hope of success against the Maharana. nor to conquer any part of the Maharana's 1 He had been so often defeated that country. and though he lived for 10 years after this defeat. 863 (1458 A.

the Governor of the Fort.D. 1458. where a large number of the Haras. were killed.D. Bhanda and Sandd. Sultan Qutb-ud-din did not long survive this defeat. IV. The Kumbhalgarh Inscription.IRabarami Kumbha. returned to <= """"" Chitor. page 43. verse 265. . states that the Maharana vanquished the Hards and received a tribute from them. Vol. The Maharana lived for 8 years after the date of the Inscription. The magnanimous Maharana granted their prayers. in the About this time. 1459 1 and was succeeded by Daud Shah following year. The Maharana 1 a Brigg's Ferishta. Bhanda and Sanda thereupon came to the Maharana. sued for pardon and begged him to spare Bundi. The Maharana. ^ The Maharana then laid siege to Bundi. and after receiving Faujkharch and a fine. He died on 25th May A.* The Deoras of Sirohi had thrown off the yoke of the Maharana and taken possession of Abu in A. by session of the Haras of Bundi. therefore. attacked and took Amargarh. including Toghji. Amargarh a stratagem took posand gave some trouble to the Rajputs of Mandalgarh.

and. who subjugated them. returned to his capital.- ^rr-* f^x-wK fa^T T<n:T 63 <tf ir ^tt^t ww farm n Fcrishta places this expedition in A. who advanced in the direction of Sirohi with a large army. 1524 (A. son of Rao Shalji. who turned towards Malwa. 1458. fort The Governor of Nagor tied to the Court of the Sultan of Ahmedabad. and. thousand horsemen to After putting thousands of attack Nagor. . through that country.D. turned towards Kumbhalgarh. under Narsingh Dodiya. he captured the and carried away a number of elephants. horses and other valuables as spoils of war. 1467) reports reached Maharana that the kill Mussalmans had begun to started cows in with fifty He therefore Nagor. after plundering that part of the country.tKabarana Kumbfta. The Maharana also advanced with his Rajputs and defeated the Sultan. the enemy to the sword. therefore sent au expedition against them. and.D. under the orders of the Maharana. In the S. constructed a palace and a 1 lake at Abu.

while Kumbha was one day seated on the edge of a masonry tank. his eldest son. them and was involved their He too was banished. which he had called built ten years before. the eldest son of Kumbha by his queen See Chitorgarh Inscription.D. A few days before his death. Mamadeva. stole up to him and treacherously scabbed him to death.CHAPTER VIII. near the temple of Kumbhaswami at Kumbhalgarh. 1 The motive for this wicked deed might A community whose members write poetry. and sing their glorious deeds. In A. Death op Kumbha. 180. however. Udai 6*<- Karan. the Maharaoa granted the Charans permision to return to Mewar. in attendance 2 He was Kumbhaldevi. t. remain on Rajputs. 1468. from Me war in and 2 confiscated Prince R&i Mai befriended disgrace. 1 whereupon the Maharana expelled the whole community their lands. L^r^ . It is said that an astrologer had told Kumbha that he would die by the hand of a Char an.

to this as that of one of the greatest sovereigns who ever ruled in Inscription says that "he was the root of the tree of righteousness. support of birthplace of truth. leaving behind him a *** name which is honoured day in history. was persuaded to get his father murdered." is known in history as Udo Thus. when his son. " Udai Karan the Hatidro. of virtue and purity. unable to overcome him by force. The Kumbhalgarh home wealth. Kumbha's enemies. put up his son to do the wicked deed. and remembered India. and a representative of Kalpadruma (the tree in Heaven charities which were grants greater 65 all desires)." . as was done in the case of Maharaja Ajit Singh of Mar war in the 18th century. abode of pro- wess. His than those of the famous Rija Bhoj and Karan. after a reign of 35 years a reign full of glory and splendour Kumbha departed from this world.mabarana KumbWu be the fear that Rai Mai might be restored to favour and possibly block the miscreant's way to the throne . or. promising him assistance to get the throne. limit of constancy and fortitude. Abhai Singh.



which any sovereign might be proud, have not often been His high moral culture surpassed in India.
prevented him from emulating the deeds of a Timur or an Alla-ud-din Khilji and carrying

His military achievements,

and sword from one end of the country to the other. His genius was equal to
achieving far greater feats of military glory

than what he accomplished, but his heart,
susceptible to the finer feelings of humanity, abhorred all unnecessary bloodshed, ruin and

undertook only such military operations as were absolutely neces-

and he

sary for the protection of his country, or as duty enjoined. Fortune constantly smiled on

him he was ever

victorous in war.


tions found in Chitor,

Kumbhalgarh, Ranpur


Abu show

that he


enemies, reduced some to be his vassals and

incorporated portions others with his own.

of the territories





captured Bundi, 3 He conquered Haravati.



Kaviraj Shyamaldas' Vir Vinod. garh Inscription.

Ranpur Inscription Achseological Survey of India, Annual Report for 1907-08^.- 214-17. * Kumbhalgarh Inscription (unpublished) in the Udaipur Museum. 8

K umbhal-

mabaratta Kumbfta*






Mewar, Khatoo, Jaua and Y^^^Ir


the whole of the district of Toda,


and Ajmer.

He made

the Sapadalak sha


co untry, including Samb har, his tributary, and 3 imposed a tax on the salt produced there.

imposed a tax on the "salt mines" at Didwana and conquered the city of Naraina. 3


He conquered N aradiyanagar


(Narwar), Yag1

napur (Jahazpur), Malpura, Yoginipur (Jawar) and Dungarpur, driving out Rao Gopal.


burnt down Vrandavatipur and took the
Gargarat, now called Gangadhar Jhallawar), vide the Inscription of S. 480

hill fort of

(A.D. 423), Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum,
Vol. Ill, p. 75.



burnt Mallaranyapur,

Sinhapuri, and Ratnpur and destroyed seve1 ral kings." He killed the enemy and took

Mandowar (Mandor). He conquered Amradadri (Amber) and won the battle of Kotra








Udaipur Museum.

Ranpur Inscription Achseological Survey Annual Report for 1907-8, pp. 214-15.


of India


Chitorgarh Inscription, a part of which


given in

Cunningham's A.

Reports, Vol.








conquered Sarangpur, "numberless Turk women prisoners taking and humbled the pride of Muhammad, its


who had

slain his

master and become

He conquered Hamirpur king of the place." and married the daughter of its king, Ranbir;

country of Vardhaman (Badnor?) from the Mers; took Amrdachal(?) and conquered the Jankachal hill from the
captured the





Malwa and

built a fort on


he con-

quered and occupied the territory of the Sultan of Delhi.- He conquered Gokarana

Mountain and subjugated the kingdom of Abu3 (v. 11) and b uilt Achalgarh4 on the top of 3 it vassal (v. 1 2), and made the Deora chief his

he conquered Gagron* (in Kotah), Visalpur and razed to the ground Dhanyanagar 1 and 3 destroyed Khandel. He conquered the famous
fortress of






took away the

whole of the wealth and kingdom of MuzafFar

Kumbhalgarh Inscription (unpublished) in the Udaipur Museum. * Ranpur Inscription Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report for 1907-8, pp. 214-15.

s Chitorgarh Inscription, a part of which Cunningham's A.S. Reports, Vol. XXIII. 1 Ekluiga Mahatmaya.


given in

maftarana Kutnbba*

and humbled his pride

(v. 7);

conquered Nagor

(Mar war)


Jangaludesha west of Ajmer) and incorporated (country Godwar with his dominions. He repeatplundered
edly defeated the kings of Malwa and Gujrat 3 singly and once combined and was called



Hindu Suratrdri



and was pre4

senteciVtne Umbrella





kings of Delhi and Gujrat/ whose territories He was known to the he had conquered.

world as Rajaguru,* Danayuvu, Chdpaguru

(Master of Archery), and Sailaguru (Master of Mountains) and Porama Guru (Great

Kumbhalgark Udaipur Museum.





Also Chitorgarh Inscription.

-Kaviraj Shyamaldas' Vir Vinod.
3 Chitorgarh Inscription, a part of which is given in Cunningham's A.S. Reports, Vol. XXIII. The Chitorgarh Inscription (verse 17 says that he burnt Gujrat, conquered the ruler of Malwa (Muhammad) and destroyed

his pride.

Agastyamuni (swallower) of Gujrat and Malwa.

Further on (verse 171) Kumbha is styled of the armies of the Sultans

Raupur Inscription Archaeological Survey Annual Report for 1907-8, pp. 214-15.

of India,

Chitorgarh Inscription, v. 146, where he is called the chief ornament of the kings of the North, East and


Vol. and with the superstructure of her fame laid the foundations of his own. Colonel Tod says " : He tri- umphed over his country the enemies of his race. fortified the passes between the Western tier of He fron- Mewar and Abu and erected the fort of (v. p. Kumbha's Monuments. defend the Shera Nulla and Devagarh against 1 He the fort of Machan (near to Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. fortified with strongholds. 32 were erected by Kumbha. 290. J Kumbha was a He great king. 70 . I. 8 Chitorgarh Kirtisthamba Inscription." " 1 Of the 84 fortresses for the defence of Mewar. Vasanti. embellished it with temples. the boundaries of strengthened its great commander and a not only greatly extended but immensely defences and adorned it with Mewar works of art.t CHAPTER IX. He founded Vasantapur 2 8) and built seven lakes near it in the vicinity of Anhalkund of Vashishta built in Sirohi Abu).

" 1 PORTS. "The traveller would find the ruined towers of Achalgarh buried in the dense masses of cloud that surround him. 1509. I. 290. XXIII. Vol. Vol.D.. where he often resided. He built the fort of Bhawani. p. and defined the boundaries of Mewar and Marwar. 64 and the Chitorgarh InsEklinga Mahatmya. near Amba fort of fort of Ahore (in by his Kalash Meru. Cunningham's A. Sudi 15th) a citadel on a peak of since well Mount Abu. 71 . cription. which composed of two noble towers built with huge blocks of granite. and named it He built various other forts to overawe the Bhumia Bhils of Jora and Panora. as Achalagarh* within the fortress of the ancient Paramar known kings of this country. which had been first built ancestor Karan Singh.R. The first pol (gate) of this ancient fortress is is the Hanuman Pol.IftaDarana Kumbha. Plate XXI. (S. and rebuilt the Kolana. Mewar). the Mers of Aravalli. black with the rude blasts of some 1. SI.000 1 * Tod's Rajasthan.S. He Magh constructed in 1452 A. and the Vairat near Badnor.

is of the most remote antiquity. are of the Its columns same character as those of the ancient shrine of Ajmer. it. whose dilapidated walls are discernable up the irregular ascent. " upper fortress is attributed to But he probably only There are the ruins of a granary.'' conducts to the inner fortress. repaired the Donjon of Achalgarh. coated within the Bhandar of Koombha c Close on the with a very strong cement. The Kumbha. erected at the sole expense of a banker of Mandoo.Ittabarana Kumbha- winters. Another portal called the from a noble Champa tree which formerly denominated the " Gate of Wisdom. A lake in the keep is called 72 Sawan Bhadoon. and the gate served as the entrance to the lower fort. liana. The first object that strikes the view on passing the latter gate is the Jain temple to Paraswanath. left is the palace of Oka Rani. with this. near small the Land's End of the Hindus. Champa close to Pol. his queen. . which. so designated from being of Oka Mandal. The towers had been connected at the top by a guard room. the interior works.

" statue of Kana Kumbha equestrian with those of two other Maharanas and a An bigger one of the Purohit or the family priest of Kumbha in a humble straw shed on the descent from Achalgarh to Dilwara still receive divine honours. Kumbha built Kumbhaswami (which still large tank named Ramakund the temple of stands) and a in front of 2 it. 12 and 13). At Abu. and well merits the name of the two chief months of the monsoon. Chitorgarh 73 Kirtistambka Inscription . From this point the eye. On the most elevated knoll to the east are the remains of an alarm tower which still bears Kumbha's name. The highest 1 monument of Kumbha's is military and constructive genius. 2 He remitted the pilgrim tax levied at Abu. for in the middle of June it is yet full of water. occasionally piercing the swift scudding clouds. He 2 excavated four other tanks there. however. Kumbha's (V.Itlabarana Kumbha. has glimp- and palaces of the brave race who on the spot whence I surveyed ses of the ruined altars 1 them. had fought and bled in their defence. Tod's Travels in Western Rajputana.

the Great to when his hosts. It was. the Chohans of Sirohi.Ittaftaratia KumMva. the by the greatest of renowed Raja Man of the armies of the Amber and supported by Rathors of Marwar. and the fortress fell. his craft and Aurangzob all and . It country. second to none in strategical tlie importance or historical renown. led generals. however. surrounded the country of the immortal Pratap. is to Kumbhalmer that every Maharana from Udai Singh to Raj Singh sent the royal household when the entire might of the Mughal Empire was directed to the destruction of their was the ambition of Akbar take his it. recovered. when Udaipur became unsafe and Chitor unten- Mewar It able. wonderful fortress of Kumbhalgarh. the Kuchhwahas of Amber (Jaipur) and other Rajput Chiefs. The cunning raising of this Akbar succeeded devoted land all in its against Rajput neighbours. this impregnable fortress that the It was to Maharanas of always turned their eyes. or Kumbhalmer. and the successors of Akbar - Jahangir with with 74 all his vain glory.



provided shelter to those who were dear to the noble defenders of their This fortress. supported by the Emperor Jahangir (Ajmer). the great Aurang- the Imperial armies from all parts of the Empire. seldom rivalled and never bulwark of Me war surpassed. situat- . make any impression on this historic fortress. throughout the Mughal rule in India. at the base of operations overran the country of Pratap's A mra . i n Kumbhalgarh. ennobled with the title of Shah Jahan (king cunning. vainly launched his legions against the chivalrous Rana collecting Raj Singh sacred this soil in an attempt to deprive its this . Kumbhalgarh and the Kirtistambha at * Chitor are the two pillars on which the fame of Kumbha as a great commander and a great sovereign rests. the ever memorable Kumbhalgarh. or when that destroyer Moghul Empire. of the zeb. which has played a part in history. was the fatherland. noble son. failed to of the world). with all the resources that the empire could command. When Prince Khurrum.mabarana Kumbha. of ancient independence stronghold.

barracks for the garrison. Below this peak on every side and enclosed within a high battlemented wall several feet thick. plate 21.568 feet above sea level. was built by the famous Jain King Samprati.iRaftaratia Kumbha. on the site of an ancient stronghold. which. XXIII. Cunningham's Archseol S. who flourished in the second century dflilie vJGhrktian era. the uneven ground is studded with nu- merous old temples and reservoirs. 1515 (A. Gandhamadan.) and it was completed in the dark half of Chaitra S. Reports. stands on a high peak of the most westerly range of the Aravalli hills. fort. 9' ed in 25 N. grain stores and other domed In the central open space of the buildings. and 73 35' E. about 60 miles north of Udaipur. \ty ]/j ^Y/^\P* Kumbha VyC v~( ^ began the construction in S. Shweta. The 1 #r r* and rebuilt by the present Maharana stands 3. Yol. 2 hills are given in the Chitorgarh Inscription as Nila. and commands an extensive and fine palace built by Kumbha view of the wild and rugged scenery of the Aravallis 2 and the sandy plains of Mar war. ^ ^P js$rl according to tradition.D. stands the inner : Chitorgarh Inscription.D. 1458). Hemkut. The names of the several neighbouring 7 . 1 on a conical hillock. 1500 (1443 A. Nishad. Himvat.



Pol. It is crowned with a of Katargarh. the Gate of Victory. the first being Aret Pol. the Sanguinary Gate. palace called the Jhdli-kd-Mdlid or palace of -as^Y a ' 7v^ the Jhali queen. The second is is called the Hulla Pol . whose exterior wall. from the image of the God brought by from Nagor and set up there. faces the south at the head of a road which winds with the gates. the third the Hanuman Pol. is delineated by the pencil. or barrier thrown across the historical interest. between which and the summit there are four more gates. A massive pierced with numerous 77 towers and . "It would be James Tod says Colonel : vain to attempt describing the intricacies of approach to this far-famed abode. called the Hanuman which. viz. There are seven gates leading up to the fort.. The principal (exterior) one.IttaDarana fort Kumbha. first narrow ascent about a mile from Kail- wara. the Gate of Rama and the Chaugan Pol. was Kumbha gradually up through the gorge from the town of Kail wara at its base a place of great Between Kailwara and the Hanuman Pol there are two gates.

while the pinnacle or Sikra rises like the Crown of the Hindu Cybele. in consecration of the work. Vol.IPaharaiia Kumbha. Cloud Palace covered with the cactus. to the summit. admits but a broken light to break the pervading gloom. encloses a space of some miles extent below. 1 edition). three-storied building of great architectural merit . resting on a sculptured panelled parapet and sustaining the roof of each storey. which luxuri- ates amidst the rocks of the Aravalli. ' which * crowned with the Badal Mahal or of the Rana.." Just inside the Hanuman Pol on the v^ ridge below the palace is situated the Vedi. 78 . each tier is decorated with numerous massive low columns. having a strong resemblance to the Etruscan. Thence the eye ranges over the sandy deserts and the chaotic mass of mountains which are on all sides. was performed by Kumbha when It is a beautiful the fort was completed. which being very low. tier 1 above tier is of battlements. Tod's Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (original I. battlements. or the place where the Yajna. page 670.


C > c o * :- u .



memorable structure built by Rana Kumbha in A. D. 1458 in the gorge below
the fort on the brow of the mountain overlooking the pass, is the Mamadeva Temple. The court of the temple is formed by a


The strong wall enclosing a large area. interior of this wall was covered with immense slabs of black marble, on which was inscribed the history of Mewar from the
time of Guhil, the founder of the royal family,

Rana Kumbha. built a large Kunda




temple he

(reservoir of water), at

the edge of which prayers

saying his he was treacherously stabbed

Kumbha was


Uda, the Hatidro

Kumbha built the Khumbhaswami Temple
the fort and constructed a lake by

tory), also called the

of Vic-

Kumbha's Jaya Stambha (Tower

Kirtistambha (Tower of Chitorgarh is another monument

of his genius

and an ornament to that



was erected



1 Three of these slabs have since been removed to the Victoria Hall, Udaipur.




1448 to commemorate his victory over Sultan

N was

Khilji of


c ompleted in

1458 A.D. 1

And before it Kumbha had

triumphed over the combined armies of the kings of Gujrat and Malwa. Describing it,

Mr. Fergusson says
like that of




of victory

Trajan at Rome, but in

better taste as an architectural object than




Colonel James Tod 3 thus describes




"The only thing in India to compare with this the Kootab Minar at Delhi, but though
it is is


of a very inferior character.

one hundred and twenty feet in height; the breadth of each face at the base is thirty-five feet, and at the summit, immediately under the cupola, seventeen feet and a half. It stands on an ample terrace, forty two feet square. It has nine distinct storeys,

This column

with openings at every face of each storey, and all these doors have colonnaded porticos."


The Chitorgarh Inscription (A. S. R., Vol. XXIII, plate 21) gives the date as Thursday, the Sudh 10th of Magh, Pushiya Nakhshtra, S. 1505.


History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, page


Annals and Antiquities

of Rajasthan, Vol. II.,




iRabarana Kumbha.
stair in the

centre communicates with each

and leads to the two upper storeys, which are open and more ornamental than those below.

The whole

of the lower


covered with archi-

ornaments and sculptures to such an extent as to leave no plain parts, while at the

same time

mass of decoration

subdued that


kept so no way interferes either

with the outline or the general effect of the "It is built chiefly of compact limepillar.
stone and the quartz rock on which it stands, which takes the highest polish indeed there

are portions possessing the hardness, and exIt is one hibiting the fracture, of Jasper.

mass of sculpture; of which a better idea cannot be conveyed than in the remark of those


dwell about



contains every to their mythology. The ninth



hhand or storey which,


as I


stated, is

seventeen feet and a half square, has numerous columns supporting a vault, in which is







or sphere), "surrounded by the gopis, muses, each holding a musical instrument,


in a

dancing attitude.





richly -carved scroll fringed with the


" asks Col. of 1 And deeds which should not pass away.D. . the son of Keshava. 1679). Vedanta. and one of the Kumbhalgarh Inscriptions were in existence. which tells in of interpretation than the tablets within. and grandson of of ^Narahari and great grandson Bhragu family. The Kumbhalgarh Inscription originally consisted of five tablets and the Chitorgarh of seven or are A copy of this and the Kumbhalgarh Inscription of The Chitorgarh Inscription states that it was completed on Monday the Margshir Vadi 5th.iRabarana Kumbha. S. who was well more. Unfortunately only two tablets of this former Inscription now to be found. when five tablets of this. He was versed in Logic. Somanath of the .D. Veda. Mimansa and Sahitya." " Who could look. 1735 (A. extend1 Rana Kumbha was taken by a pandit on Phagun Vadi 7th. 1460). called Jhoting. tic "on this lovely. but two more tablets and a fragment of the third of the Kumbhalgarh Inscription have been recovered. Around this chamber had been arranged. names which must not wither. on black marble the whole genealogy of the Ranas of Chitor but the Goths have broken tablets. 1517 and Saka year 1382 (A. Tod. this majeslanguage more easy column. The author of the Inscription was a Brahman named Atri. 1 or defaced all save one slab. S. the phenicopteros of ornithology. ' and withold a sigh Colonel for its departed glories " ? Tod further says " : The view from this elevated spot was superb.

811 (Thursday). 755 (Magh Sud 5th S. the lake 2 called Cooram Sagar. the temple of this god dynasty . who excavated the fountain in A.D.D. 1839. The Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription. 2 This temple was originally built by Raja Kukreshwar. p. 1450) Kumbha built a new bastion with battlements. ing far into the plains of lightning struck and injured years ago." tain to Kumbha Chitor 3 strengthened the defences of and built seven of its gates the after . 113. though some peepul have rooted themselves where the bolt of Indra fell. Rampol. 42. 3 XXTII. is or near a million and this only one of the many within magnificent works of Rana Kumbha Chitor. called after the Bhairavapol. verse Verse 183 says that in Kartik S. the temples to Krishna. the temple and foun- Kookereoo (Kukreshwar).D. It is said to have cost ninety lakhs of sterling. rupees. 83 . 1 The old present bulbous injured dome was removed and the dome constructed by Maharana Swarup Singh after A. solar Rama the great hero of the the Hanumanpol. Archaeological Survey Report. 1507 (A. 1 is no semshoots of blance of decay.Iftabarana Kumbha. but generally there The the dome some Malwa. Mahadeva having been erected by him. Vol.

which is now wrongly called Mira nHe also built a Rama Kund 4 but 8 temple. 1534-35 and Lakshmipol. in bha 1505 (A. who fought bravely and was killed at that spot in the battle against Bahadur Shah of Gujrat in A.Iflabarana kumbba* since called after Bhairavadas Solankhi. GaneshapoJ and Padalpol. six miles north of Chitor.D. 3 According to Tod. Kamabai. and near the Tower of Victory stands the "graceful ^y> at 1 " The last four puis are now known as Lakshmanapol. built jr* by the imposter Banbir in A. Midway between the Nava Lakhd Hhandar and the Nava Kothd. Cha. * The well-known lake Rama Kund at Jawar 1 (Mewar) was built in 1497 A. By its side Maharana Kumbha built the temple of Adi S. who had been married to Baja Maudalik of Girnar.'"f This temple st ands to the south S) of the Badd Mahal and is mentioned as the his temple of Govind Shy am by Abul Fazal in It was built* by KumAkbarnama.D. Tarapol and Rajpol. Shloka 63. Jorlapol. 1448). this temple was constructed from wrecks of more ancient shrines brought from the ruins of a city of remote antiquity called Nagari. ^W^ * Varaha. s mundapol. M .D.D. a jf* Chitor. 537. by Kumbha's daughter. which was like the crown of 1 the world. 2 Commentary on Gila Govind. Kumbha built at Chitor the magnificent temple of u Kumbhaswami.



built the present Rana Kumbha up the the hill road* fort. by Bhaudari Bela.Ittabaratia Kumbha. temple of Kumbha Shy am is a noteworthy one. 1438 by Dharnak. and is dedicated to first Rishabnath or Kishabdeva.r Chauri or Vedi. It consists of three stories 1 and 2 8 Archaeol. son of Sah Kola. 118. the Jaina Tirthankaras.D. yet of resuscitated in all the temples erected or his time. Treasurer to Maha- rana Kumbha in 1505 (A. The Chitorgarh Kirtistambha Inscription. S. XXIII. 3 supported is the Rana's favourite architect. 85 .D. 1443-49). 217. p. Vol. /-^cJ^^- Its foundations were laid in A. Reports. Though the at Chitorgarh TEMPLES. the temple of Ranpur is the most important.carved " ] building built called Si7iga. evidently selected for It is of the ^ U^~ its situated in a spot natural beauties. S. leading It was erected in the Sadri Pass the f&vJf- from the western descent of highlands of Mewar. the and richly. by which carriages can go up to Before his time there was only a foot-path. p. Archaeological Survey of India Annual Report : for 1907-8.

Notwithstanding long neglect. however. occupied. both ecclesiastical. Fergusson says that Maharana Kum" bha. it is still nearly perfect. p. by one cell. " It is one of the largest edifices existing." 1 Mr. and cost upwards of a million sterling. exclusive of the In the centre each face. by numerous columns of granite upwards of ^ mosaics forty feet in height. in 1 but by four. 289. not. and is the most ^_ complicated and extensive Jaina temple I have myself ever had an opportunity of inspecting. The interior is inlaid with o f cornelian and agate. as usual. each of which Tod's Ilajasthan. I. 200 ft. below his favourite fort Kumbhalgarh. or rather four great niches. situated glen. and deserted of running into the western slope of the A ravalli. by 225 ft. 133) it would be perceived that it is nearly a square. 86 .Waharana Kutnbba. projections on the stands "From the great shrine. civil and Amongst others he in a lonely built this temple of Sadri. during his long and prosperous reign filled his country with beautiful buildings. Vol." plan (woodcut No. towards which Kumbha contributed eighty thousand pounds.

and is 36 ft. Above this are four other niches. or on each side of them. others and one is entrance that facing the principal supported by the very unusual number of 16 columns. in diameter. gathered from the view (woodcut 143) taken across one of its courts. the others being only 24 ft.mabarana Kumbha. similarly occupied. opening on the terraced roofs of Near the four angles of the the building. and tower over the . court are four smaller shrines. each of which has a pyramidal roof of its The internal effect of this forest of own. the first and greatest of the Jaina saints. many of them now unoccupied. and the whole is surrounded by a range of cells. or Rishabdeva. but it is impossible that any view can columns may be reproduce the endless variety of perspective and the play of light and shade which results from the disposition of the pillars and of the domes. domes the central ones of each group are 3 storeys in height. and from the mode in which the . and around them. are 20 domes supported by about 420 columns 4 of these . Light is admitted to the building by four uncovered courts. is placed a statue of Adinatha.

and. 241-244. is light introduced. I of the know same of no other building in India class that leaves so pleasing an impression or affords so graceful interior.000 square ft. are ^ by no means to be despised it covers altogether about 48.i amount of labour and of sculptural decorations far l it surpasses any. H .. and all their facades more or less adorned with sculpture Indeed. A wonderful effect also results from the number of containing cells." Maharana Kumbha renovated the famous temple of Eklingaji in Me war and constructed 1 History of Indian and Eastern Architecture. which everywhere meet the view.Il>abiirana Kumbha. many hints for the in arrangement of columns an " Besides its merits of design. is . its dimensions . there are eighty-six cells of very varied form and size surrounding the interior. most of them images of Tirthankars. while i. Besides the twelve in the cantral Sikhars. or nearly as much as one of our ordinary Mediaeval Cathedrals account. pp. taking the basement into nearly of equal bulk.

Kathdawan. Amalkhera and Bhiman (Bhuvana). named Nagda. the ancient Buddhist king of GandhSra.D. He bestowed on the temple four villages. Early in the 8th century the saga' . the magnificent Kumbha Mandapa in front of He built the the sanctum sanctorum. Nandi (bull). The temple Ishvara. The road. is the Defender of the Faith and the Head of the Church.rnafcarana Kumbha. surrounding wall and presented the temple with its gold flagstaff and kolas. Eklingji is the Cathedral like town of Mewar. which has recently been improved. It is situated in a defile about 14 miles north of Udaipur. beyond which it is more level and surrounded by a number of small lakes which beautify the country. and the Rana. is here represented by a brazen statue. the steed of god. passes over undulating hills/ particularly along a valley and over a gorge about two-thirds of the way. 1488). 1 is dedicated to Mahadeva or A four-faced image was placed in life-size the temple in Sambat 1545 (A.

both ranking high as specimens of ancient Hindu architecture. It is shut in by wooded hills and on its western temples. 90 five generations before Bappa. having a double-storied porch and a double-storied sanctuary. and to this day the Maharanas of Mewar.(Rabaratta Ktimbba* Harita conferred on Bappa Rawal the title of Regent of Eklingji. margin*|are two interesting . The town and its bund or dam was built by Bhogaditya and has since been frequently repaired. as Diwans or Regents high priest in his duties and themselves perform the ceremonies of Siva. of Eklingji is separated from a lake. The temple is unusual design. Early in the fifteenth century Maharana Mokal rebuilt the edifice which the Muhammadans had destroyed. the of former covered by a flat pyramidal roof circular knobs. supersede the when they visit the temple. composed of many hundred the latter roofed by a lofty tower of more than ordinary elaboration. which is one of the many Nagda by artificial waters that beautify the Udaipur valley.

CHAPTER Kumbha X. compose dramas. Great lar as Kumbha was as a sovereign and a commander. while constantly engaged in defending his empire against his warfare. He was regarded as the . It is mar- how. one part of the continually moving from country to another. the Maharana could his find opportunities to develop literary abilities and time to write poetry. building forts. as a Scholar. strengthenthe defences of the country. un- possessed a equalled in his time. He was an accomplished musician and knowledge of the science. annotate old poems and write treatises on the Science of Music. highest authority on music ~~ 91 and because of . The Kumbhalgarh Inscription says that it was as easy for him to write poetry as vellous it was to go to battle. conquering new territories and adding to Mewar. embellishing ing it them with works of art. he was equally great as a scho- and a poet. foes.

'2 The important contemporary work. in ancient India. as distinguished from the old Bharatacharya. Sangita Mimdnsd and Rasika Priyd (commentary 1 1 on the celebrated his lyric Gita Govinda) 2 and are commentary on Sangita Ratnakar evidence of his mastery of the science. 1874 A. Sangitardja. Bhdn (monologue in. shows that Rami Kumbha knew ibe Vedas* and Way well versed in the Smrities (law). 3 The Chitorgarh Inscription says that in his four dramas he made use of Karnataki. 92 . Mahdtmya. the title of Abhinava Bharatdchdrya (new Bharatacharya).D. one act). Rwpaka (drama generally) he was a new Bbarata. two actors) iXatikd (a play in 4 acts). the Central Provinces by F. the authority on Ndtya Shastra ferred on him. was con- His works o njnnslc. Prahasana (farcical or comical satire in one act). Medapati and Maharashtri languages. Keilhorn.Ittabarana Kuittbba* this. Nagpur. See also Catalogue of Mss. Other works known to have been written by him are four dra mas and a commentary on Chandi Shataka. and adds that in Ndtaka (play par excellence) Prakarana (play that takes a less elevated range than Nataka) Vithi (one act play performed existing in by one or. 2 Chitorgarh Kirthistambha Inscription. Eklinga 1 Chitorgarh Inscription.

and musical. none of his plays has so far been discovered. lie knew and Tarka (logic. This would show that he was a scholar of Prdkrita.) (mathematics).) Upnishads the Karnataki. Natya Shastra (dra- matic writings. 98 . Mimdnsd (philosophy).mabaratia Kumbha. Ohitorgarb Eirtislambka Inscription. 1 (sloka 74) mentions four dramas written by him. Rajaniti (polity). part of Eklinga poetry is sweet Mahdtmya and is a lyric. it is neither possible to speak of his proficiency in the . famous as Chohan Emperor Visaladeva but. like the . vinda. the Maharashtri and other languages. of The commentary on Gita Gonamed Rasika Priyd and the last part Eklinga Mahdtmya. which was written by Kumbha himself. Ganita Vyakarana (grammar). and that he wrote good poetry with as much ease as prose. Prdkrita nor to assign him a place due to him amongst the dramatists 1 of India. show that he was a great Sanskrit scholar. and full of The Eklinga Mahdtmya grace and beauty. The former work contains quotations from numerous Sanskrit works and shows that Kumbha The last its was a man of extensive reading.

^JL^>^-^t Ittabaratia Kumbba* scholar. Mandan's son. as from the magnificent buildings and works of art constructed during his time in Mewar at Chitor. Ranpur and other places. number of books on this noble art were written under his auspices. R. Abu. The books on architecture and sculpture were written by architect Rana Kumbha's Mandan (see I. existence at Udaipur and were seen by ^ * with Champalal. Govind.. 730-1.) Catalogorum. ^gTT^ftj^ ^r^TTf^f^. Bhandarkar. a descendant of Mandan. A&recht's Catalogue pp. is them respect and He clear took great interest in architecture. and ^n^ftft^T. by <4 r ^4*J ^TTt> are in Mandan's brother. Kumbhalgarh. S. and showed appreciation. A some of which have come to following eight ' : light. Natha. part (\) TT^nrew i (*>) ^t^tt: i i ^Y^ Three other works. as mentioned by 94 . by Prof. Himself a great always valued Rana Kumbha men of learning.

Hlabaratia Kumbha. part of the first tablet.D. him in his u Report of a second tour in search of Sanskrit manuscripts in Central India in Rajputana and 1904-6 A. says that the work was written under the orders of Maharana Kumbha. and had it engraved Rana Kumbha had a work on on stone tablets. written of Kirtistambha (Tower by one of his architects. A. ." JjJ^' the subject of Fame). found at Chitor and since deposited in the Udaipur Museum.





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