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Enhancements to Power Network

Enhancements to Power Network


Monitoring via Synchronized
Monitoring via Synchronized
Measurements
Measurements
Ali Abur
Ali Abur
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Northeastern University
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts
ETH ETH- -Zurich Zurich
November 15, 2010 November 15, 2010
Recommendat i on 12: I nst al l Addi t i onal
Recommendat i on 12: I nst al l Addi t i onal
Ti me
Ti me
-
-
Synchr oni zed Recor di ng Devi ces
Synchr oni zed Recor di ng Devi ces
as Needed
as Needed
A valuable lesson from the August 14 blackout is the importance of having time-

synchronized system data recorders. NERC investigators labored over thousands of data
items to synchronize the sequence of events, much like putting together small pieces of a
very large puzzle. That process would have been significantly improved and sped up if
there had been a sufficient number of synchronized data recording devices.
NERC Planning Standard I.F

Disturbance Monitoring does require location of recording
devices for disturbance analysis. Often time, recorders are available, but they are not
synchronized to a time standard. All digital fault recorders, digital event recorders, and
power system disturbance recorders should be time stamped at the

point of observation
with a precise Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) synchronizing signal. Recording and time-

synchronization equipment should be monitored and calibrated to assure accuracy and
reliability.
Time-synchronized devices, such as phasor measurement units, can also

be beneficial for
monitoring a wide-area view of power system conditions in real-time, such as
demonstrated in WECC with their Wide-Area Monitoring System (WAMS).
State Estimation
State Estimation
Analog Measurements
P
i ,
Q
i

, P
f

, Q
f

, V, I,
k

,
ki
Circuit Breaker Status
State
Estimator
(WLS)
Bad Data
Processor
Network
Observability
Analysis
Topology
Processor
V,
Assumed or Monitored
Pseudo Measurements
[ injections: P
i ,
Q
i

]
Load Forecasts
Generation Schedules
Expected Areas of Enhancement
Expected Areas of Enhancement


Algorithm
Algorithm


Computational speed and numerical robustness
Computational speed and numerical robustness


Observability
Observability


Measurement/PMU design (optimality criteria?)
Measurement/PMU design (optimality criteria?)


Robustness (Error processing)
Robustness (Error processing)


Analog errors
Analog errors


Parameter errors
Parameter errors


Others
Others
Measurement Model
Measurement Model
Given a set of measurements, [z]
Given a set of measurements, [z]
and the correct network topology/parameters:
and the correct network topology/parameters:
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]
Measurements Errors System
State
PMU Measurements:
PMU Measurements:


Several (3 phase ) channels measuring:
Several (3 phase ) channels measuring:


Phase angles or magnitudes of bus voltages
Phase angles or magnitudes of bus voltages


Phase angles or magnitudes of branch currents
Phase angles or magnitudes of branch currents


Contains a receiver which uses the signals
Contains a receiver which uses the signals
from the global positioning satellite (GPS)
from the global positioning satellite (GPS)
system to time stamp samples.
system to time stamp samples.


These are processed and converted to
These are processed and converted to
phasors 30 times a second.
phasors 30 times a second.
State Estimation with PMUs
State Estimation with PMUs
Mathematical model
Mathematical model
r
x h
x h
x h
x h
x h
z
z
z
z
z
I
I
V
trad
I
I
V
trad
+
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(
(

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) Im(
) Re(
) Im(
) Re(
u u
r x h z to Subject
Wr r x J Minimize
T
+ =
=
) (
) (
Impact on Problem Solution:
Impact on Problem Solution:
iterative Non Z R H R H X
e X H Z
ts Measuremen Phasor
Iterative Z R H R H X
e X h Z
ts Measuremen al Convention
T
T
=
+ =
A = A
+ =


1 1 1
1 1 1
) (

) (

) (
Removal of Slack (Ref) Bus
Removal of Slack (Ref) Bus


Eliminate the reference phase angle from
Eliminate the reference phase angle from
the SE formulation.
the SE formulation.


Bad data in conventional as well as PMU
Bad data in conventional as well as PMU
measurements can be detected and
measurements can be detected and
identified with sufficiently redundant
identified with sufficiently redundant
measurement sets.
measurement sets.
PMU
Meas.
Other
Meas.
State
Estimator &
Bad Data
Processor
Estimated/Corrected
PMU Meas.
Estimated State
Network Observability
Network Observability
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]


Given [z], can [x] be estimated?
Given [z], can [x] be estimated?


Which branch flows can be estimated?
Which branch flows can be estimated?
Unobservable branches separate
Unobservable branches separate
observable islands.
observable islands.


How to merge observable islands?
How to merge observable islands?
Optimal measurement placement.
Optimal measurement placement.
Role of pseudo measurements.
Role of pseudo measurements.
Merging Observable Islands
Merging Observable Islands

Using Pseudo
Using Pseudo
-
-
injections
injections
ISLAND 1
ISLAND 2
ISLAND 3
Merging Observable Islands
Merging Observable Islands

Using PMUs
Using PMUs
PMU
PMU
PMU
A Practical Advantage
A Practical Advantage


PMUs can be placed at any bus in the
PMUs can be placed at any bus in the
observable island.
observable island.


Pseudo
Pseudo
-
-
measurements can merge
measurements can merge
observable islands only if they are incident
observable islands only if they are incident
to the boundary buses.
to the boundary buses.
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
OBSERVABLE
CLOSED CB
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
UNOBSERVABLE
BRANCHES IN RED
OPEN CB
Robustness Against Topology Changes
Robustness Against Topology Changes
Observable Observable
Observable
Unobservable
Base Case
Base Case
Meter Placement
Given a set of measurements
z = h(x) + e


Must be able to estimate x using z

if


any one measurement is missing, or


any branch is disconnected


Accomplish the above with least cost
metering upgrade
Three stage solution


Make the network minimally observable.
Identify essential measurements


Find a set of candidate measurements.
To fix each contingency ( a branch outage or loss
of a measurement).


Determine the optimal selection.
To provide secure state estimation under single
contingencies.
Stage 1: Identify the essential measurements
Stage 1: Identify the essential measurements
Use the Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimator
Use the Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimator


For an observable system, essential n out
For an observable system, essential n out
of m measurements will have zero residuals.
of m measurements will have zero residuals.
i i i
w x h z

) (
n
i i i
x
m i
r x h z
9 e
s s
+ =
1
) (
minimize
subject to:
Stage 2: Selecting Candidates
Stage 2: Selecting Candidates
(

=
r
e
H
H
H
n essential measurements
(m - n) redundant measurements
| |
e
r
e
U
M
L
H
(

=
Loss of a measurement
Loss of a measurement
0
L
M
CANDIDATES
(

=
r
red
e
H
H
H
mod
n-1
m- n
Loss of a branch
Loss of a branch
(
(

=
mod
mod
mod
r
e
H
H
H
n
m- n
0
L
M
CANDIDATES
Candidate Matrix [A]
CANDIDATES
Contingencies
Stage 3: Optimal Selection
X C
T

minimize
b X A >
Subject to
0/1 Integer Programming

=
0
1
ij
A
If meas. j is a candidate for contingency i
otherwise
( )

=
0
1
i X
If meas. i is selected
otherwise
b
T
=[1 1 1 1]
( )

=
0
i
c
i C
cost of installing meas. i
if meas. i already exist
30-Bus System Example
PMU Placement for Full Network
PMU Placement for Full Network
Observability
Observability
[z
[z

PMU PMU

] = [H] [x] + [e]
] = [H] [x] + [e]


Select the PMU locations to make it
Select the PMU locations to make it
possible to estimate [x]
possible to estimate [x]


Account for constraints on:
Account for constraints on:


Number of available PMU channels
Number of available PMU channels


Substations without required infrastructure
Substations without required infrastructure
PMUs with Unlimited Channels:
PMUs with Unlimited Channels:
PMU
V phasor V phasor
I phasor s I phasor s
PMU will measure:
V_phasor at the bus
I_phasors for all incident branches
Simple Illustration for Full Observability
Simple Illustration for Full Observability
On ly
On ly
3 PMUs
3 PMUs
m a ke t h e en t ir e s ys t em obs er va ble.
m a ke t h e en t ir e s ys t em obs er va ble.
Not e t h a t
Not e t h a t
bu s 7
bu s 7
is a
is a
zer o in ject ion
zer o in ject ion
bu s .
bu s .
Optimal PMU Placement
Optimal PMU Placement
Set up an integer programming problem where all the
Set up an integer programming problem where all the
system buses are made observable by placing PMUs at a
system buses are made observable by placing PMUs at a
minimum number of buses throughout the system.
minimum number of buses throughout the system.
If there are PMUs already installed or planned to be
If there are PMUs already installed or planned to be
installed at specific buses, start with these already pre
installed at specific buses, start with these already pre
-
-

assigned to their respective buses.
assigned to their respective buses.
If there are zero injection buses, incorporate this
If there are zero injection buses, incorporate this
information into the placement logic and save as many
information into the placement logic and save as many
PMUs as possible.
PMUs as possible.
PMU Placement Problem
PMU Placement Problem
matrix incidence Bus [A]
bus for cost on Installati
=
=

=
i
i
w
otherwise
i bus at installed is PMU a if
i
x
0
1
1

to subject
minimize
>


AX
n
i
i
x
i
w
Illustrative Example
Illustrative Example

=
=
otherwise if 0
connected are m and k if 1
m k if 1
m , k
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1
A

> + + =
> + + =
> + =
> + + + =
> + + + =
> + + + + =
> + =
=
1
7 4 2 7
1
6 3 2 6
1
5 4 5
1
7 5 4 3 4
1
6 4 3 2 3
1
7 6 3 2 1 2
1
2 1 1
x x x f
x x x f
x x f
x x x x f
x x x x f
x x x x x f
x x f
X A
Simulations
Simulations

(With and without accounting
(With and without accounting
for zero injection buses)
for zero injection buses)
Systems
No. of zero
injections
Number of PMUs
Ignoring zero
Injections
Using zero
injections
14-bus 1 4 3
57-bus 15 17 12
118-bus 10 32 29
Impact of Channel Limits


How does the optimal placement change
as a function of available number of
channels?


Assume that one channel corresponds to
one positive sequence measurement.


Number of neighbors of a bus usually has
a small upper limit for typical power
systems due to sparse interconnections.
6 13
6 12
6 11
6 10
6 9
6 8
6 7
7 10 6
7 10 5
7 10 4
8 10 3
9 11 2
14 15 1
5 30-bus
4 4 5
4 4 4
4 4 3
5 5 2
7 7 1
1 14-bus
Consider Zero
Injections
Ignore Zero
Injections
Channels Zero Injections System
Simulation Results
28 32 9
28 32 8
28 32 7
28 32 6
28 32 5
28 32 4
31 33 3
39 42 2
57 61 1
10 118-bus
11 8
11 7
11 17 6
11 17 5
11 17 4
12 17 3
14 19 2
23 29 1
15 57-bus
Consider Zero
Injections
Ignore Zero
Injections
Channels Zero Injections System
Simulation Results
Robustness Against Analog Errors


A measurement is said to be critical

if
the system becomes unobservable upon
its removal.


Bad data appearing in critical
measurements can NOT be detected.


Adding new measurements at strategic
locations will transform them, allowing
detection of bad data which would
otherwise have been missed.
Illustrative Example
Illustrative Example
P
Two Critical
Two Critical
Measurements
Measurements
NO Critical
NO Critical
Measurements
Measurements
IEEE 57
IEEE 57
-
-
bus system
bus system
Critical Critical
Meas. Meas.
Type Type
1 1 F41 F41- -43 43
2 2 F36 F36- -35 35
3 3 F42 F42- -41 41
4 4 F40 F40- -56 56
5 5 I I- -11 11
6 6 I I- -24 24
7 7 I I- -39 39
8 8 I I- -37 37
9 9 I I- -46 46
10 10 I I- -48 48
11 11 I I- -56 56
12 12 I I- -57 57
13 13 I I- -34 34
P
P
Number of Critical Meas. Number of Critical Meas. Number of PMU needed Number of PMU needed
13 13 2 2
IEEE 118
IEEE 118
-
-
bus system
bus system
Number of Critical Meas. Number of Critical Meas. Number of PMU needed Number of PMU needed
29 29 13 13
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Robustness Against Parameter Errors
Robustness Against Parameter Errors


Total number of network parameters is
Total number of network parameters is
typically a very large number
typically a very large number


Parameter error processing is not an on
Parameter error processing is not an on
-
-

line feature in commonly used estimators
line feature in commonly used estimators


It is usually difficult to pinpoint the right
It is usually difficult to pinpoint the right
suspect set simply based on residual
suspect set simply based on residual
analysis due to error masking.
analysis due to error masking.
Using Conventional Measurements
Using Conventional Measurements


Existing practice:
Existing practice:
Augment the state vector with the suspected
Augment the state vector with the suspected
set of parameters and estimate suspect
set of parameters and estimate suspect
parameters
parameters


Recently proposed improved solution:
Recently proposed improved solution:
Eliminates the need to pre
Eliminates the need to pre
-
-
specify a suspect
specify a suspect
set. Detects and identifies parameter and
set. Detects and identifies parameter and
analog measurement errors simultaneously
analog measurement errors simultaneously
Multiple Solutions
Multiple Solutions


What happens when more than one set of
What happens when more than one set of
parameters satisfies all measurements?
parameters satisfies all measurements?


Multiplicity of solutions for [p].
Multiplicity of solutions for [p].
Illustration of Multiple Solutions
Illustration of Multiple Solutions
) , , ( ) , , (
2 1 2 1
p p x J p p x J
' ' '
=
k l
kl
kl
P
x
u u
=
lm
m l
lm
x
P
'

'
=
u u
' '
kl k l
kl k l
x
x
u u
u u

' '
lm l m
lm l m
x
x
u u
u u

l m
lm
lm
P
x
u u
=
kl
l k
kl
x
P
'
'

=
u u
Identifying Parameter Errors
Identifying Parameter Errors
by Phasor Measurements
by Phasor Measurements
: Parameter Error : Parameter Error
: PMU : PMU
TEST A: TEST A:
NO PMUs NO PMUs
TEST B: TEST B:
WITH PMUs WITH PMUs
Simulation Results
Simulation Results
Test A Test B
Meas /Par.
R
N
/
N
Meas /Par.
R
N
/
N
X
X
10-11
27.5040
X
X

13 13- -14 14
29.0162
X
X
13-14
27.3629
X
X

9 9- -14 14
26.0467
X
X
6-11
27.9763
X
X

10 10- -11 11
20.1385
X
X
9-14
24.4732
X
X

6 6- -11 11
20.1349
X
X
9-10
20.2291
X
X

9 9- -10 10
17.0387
Role of State Estimation
Facilitating Smart Grid Operation
Self-healing from power disturbance events
Faster (scan rate) state estimation, wide-area observability, multi-level
monitoring capability
Enabling active participation by consumers in demand response
Monitoring at lower voltage levels
Operating resiliently against physical and cyber attack
Redundancy and strategic placement of measuring devices/sensors
Detection, identification and elimination of errors in data and models
Providing power quality for 21st century needs
Accommodating all generation and storage options
Enabling new products, services, and markets
Wide-area monitoring to facilitate the feedback to address congestion,
avoid spilling renewable energy, active market participation
Optimizing assets and operating efficiently
Monitoring dynamic line loading, equipment operating limits
Final Remarks
Final Remarks


SE performance have significant impact on
SE performance have significant impact on
all other application functions related to
all other application functions related to
smart grid operation
smart grid operation


PMUs can improve SE performance in the
PMUs can improve SE performance in the
following areas:
following areas:


Computational speed and numerical
Computational speed and numerical
robustness
robustness


Merging observable islands
Merging observable islands


Identifying analog and parameter errors
Identifying analog and parameter errors
To download the software:
To download the software:

http://
http://
www.ece.neu.edu/~abur/
www.ece.neu.edu/~abur/

pet.html
pet.html
For further information:
For further information:
http://www.ece.neu.edu/~abur