=
(
(
(
(
(
(
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) Im(
) Re(
) Im(
) Re(
u u
r x h z to Subject
Wr r x J Minimize
T
+ =
=
) (
) (
Impact on Problem Solution:
Impact on Problem Solution:
iterative Non Z R H R H X
e X H Z
ts Measuremen Phasor
Iterative Z R H R H X
e X h Z
ts Measuremen al Convention
T
T
=
+ =
A = A
+ =
1 1 1
1 1 1
) (
) (
) (
Removal of Slack (Ref) Bus
Removal of Slack (Ref) Bus
Eliminate the reference phase angle from
Eliminate the reference phase angle from
the SE formulation.
the SE formulation.
Bad data in conventional as well as PMU
Bad data in conventional as well as PMU
measurements can be detected and
measurements can be detected and
identified with sufficiently redundant
identified with sufficiently redundant
measurement sets.
measurement sets.
PMU
Meas.
Other
Meas.
State
Estimator &
Bad Data
Processor
Estimated/Corrected
PMU Meas.
Estimated State
Network Observability
Network Observability
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]
[z] = [h ([x]) ] + [e]
Given [z], can [x] be estimated?
Given [z], can [x] be estimated?
Which branch flows can be estimated?
Which branch flows can be estimated?
Unobservable branches separate
Unobservable branches separate
observable islands.
observable islands.
How to merge observable islands?
How to merge observable islands?
Optimal measurement placement.
Optimal measurement placement.
Role of pseudo measurements.
Role of pseudo measurements.
Merging Observable Islands
Merging Observable Islands
Using Pseudo
Using Pseudo


injections
injections
ISLAND 1
ISLAND 2
ISLAND 3
Merging Observable Islands
Merging Observable Islands
Using PMUs
Using PMUs
PMU
PMU
PMU
A Practical Advantage
A Practical Advantage
PMUs can be placed at any bus in the
PMUs can be placed at any bus in the
observable island.
observable island.
Pseudo
Pseudo


measurements can merge
measurements can merge
observable islands only if they are incident
observable islands only if they are incident
to the boundary buses.
to the boundary buses.
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
OBSERVABLE
CLOSED CB
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
Loss of Observability due to Line Switching
UNOBSERVABLE
BRANCHES IN RED
OPEN CB
Robustness Against Topology Changes
Robustness Against Topology Changes
Observable Observable
Observable
Unobservable
Base Case
Base Case
Meter Placement
Given a set of measurements
z = h(x) + e
Must be able to estimate x using z
if
any one measurement is missing, or
any branch is disconnected
Accomplish the above with least cost
metering upgrade
Three stage solution
Make the network minimally observable.
Identify essential measurements
Find a set of candidate measurements.
To fix each contingency ( a branch outage or loss
of a measurement).
Determine the optimal selection.
To provide secure state estimation under single
contingencies.
Stage 1: Identify the essential measurements
Stage 1: Identify the essential measurements
Use the Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimator
Use the Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimator
For an observable system, essential n out
For an observable system, essential n out
of m measurements will have zero residuals.
of m measurements will have zero residuals.
i i i
w x h z
) (
n
i i i
x
m i
r x h z
9 e
s s
+ =
1
) (
minimize
subject to:
Stage 2: Selecting Candidates
Stage 2: Selecting Candidates
(
=
r
e
H
H
H
n essential measurements
(m  n) redundant measurements
 
e
r
e
U
M
L
H
(
=
Loss of a measurement
Loss of a measurement
0
L
M
CANDIDATES
(
=
r
red
e
H
H
H
mod
n1
m n
Loss of a branch
Loss of a branch
(
(
=
mod
mod
mod
r
e
H
H
H
n
m n
0
L
M
CANDIDATES
Candidate Matrix [A]
CANDIDATES
Contingencies
Stage 3: Optimal Selection
X C
T
minimize
b X A >
Subject to
0/1 Integer Programming
=
0
1
ij
A
If meas. j is a candidate for contingency i
otherwise
( )
=
0
1
i X
If meas. i is selected
otherwise
b
T
=[1 1 1 1]
( )
=
0
i
c
i C
cost of installing meas. i
if meas. i already exist
30Bus System Example
PMU Placement for Full Network
PMU Placement for Full Network
Observability
Observability
[z
[z
PMU PMU
] = [H] [x] + [e]
] = [H] [x] + [e]
Select the PMU locations to make it
Select the PMU locations to make it
possible to estimate [x]
possible to estimate [x]
Account for constraints on:
Account for constraints on:
Number of available PMU channels
Number of available PMU channels
Substations without required infrastructure
Substations without required infrastructure
PMUs with Unlimited Channels:
PMUs with Unlimited Channels:
PMU
V phasor V phasor
I phasor s I phasor s
PMU will measure:
V_phasor at the bus
I_phasors for all incident branches
Simple Illustration for Full Observability
Simple Illustration for Full Observability
On ly
On ly
3 PMUs
3 PMUs
m a ke t h e en t ir e s ys t em obs er va ble.
m a ke t h e en t ir e s ys t em obs er va ble.
Not e t h a t
Not e t h a t
bu s 7
bu s 7
is a
is a
zer o in ject ion
zer o in ject ion
bu s .
bu s .
Optimal PMU Placement
Optimal PMU Placement
Set up an integer programming problem where all the
Set up an integer programming problem where all the
system buses are made observable by placing PMUs at a
system buses are made observable by placing PMUs at a
minimum number of buses throughout the system.
minimum number of buses throughout the system.
If there are PMUs already installed or planned to be
If there are PMUs already installed or planned to be
installed at specific buses, start with these already pre
installed at specific buses, start with these already pre


assigned to their respective buses.
assigned to their respective buses.
If there are zero injection buses, incorporate this
If there are zero injection buses, incorporate this
information into the placement logic and save as many
information into the placement logic and save as many
PMUs as possible.
PMUs as possible.
PMU Placement Problem
PMU Placement Problem
matrix incidence Bus [A]
bus for cost on Installati
=
=
=
i
i
w
otherwise
i bus at installed is PMU a if
i
x
0
1
1
to subject
minimize
>
AX
n
i
i
x
i
w
Illustrative Example
Illustrative Example
=
=
otherwise if 0
connected are m and k if 1
m k if 1
m , k
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
1 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1
A
> + + =
> + + =
> + =
> + + + =
> + + + =
> + + + + =
> + =
=
1
7 4 2 7
1
6 3 2 6
1
5 4 5
1
7 5 4 3 4
1
6 4 3 2 3
1
7 6 3 2 1 2
1
2 1 1
x x x f
x x x f
x x f
x x x x f
x x x x f
x x x x x f
x x f
X A
Simulations
Simulations
(With and without accounting
(With and without accounting
for zero injection buses)
for zero injection buses)
Systems
No. of zero
injections
Number of PMUs
Ignoring zero
Injections
Using zero
injections
14bus 1 4 3
57bus 15 17 12
118bus 10 32 29
Impact of Channel Limits
How does the optimal placement change
as a function of available number of
channels?
Assume that one channel corresponds to
one positive sequence measurement.
Number of neighbors of a bus usually has
a small upper limit for typical power
systems due to sparse interconnections.
6 13
6 12
6 11
6 10
6 9
6 8
6 7
7 10 6
7 10 5
7 10 4
8 10 3
9 11 2
14 15 1
5 30bus
4 4 5
4 4 4
4 4 3
5 5 2
7 7 1
1 14bus
Consider Zero
Injections
Ignore Zero
Injections
Channels Zero Injections System
Simulation Results
28 32 9
28 32 8
28 32 7
28 32 6
28 32 5
28 32 4
31 33 3
39 42 2
57 61 1
10 118bus
11 8
11 7
11 17 6
11 17 5
11 17 4
12 17 3
14 19 2
23 29 1
15 57bus
Consider Zero
Injections
Ignore Zero
Injections
Channels Zero Injections System
Simulation Results
Robustness Against Analog Errors
A measurement is said to be critical
if
the system becomes unobservable upon
its removal.
Bad data appearing in critical
measurements can NOT be detected.
Adding new measurements at strategic
locations will transform them, allowing
detection of bad data which would
otherwise have been missed.
Illustrative Example
Illustrative Example
P
Two Critical
Two Critical
Measurements
Measurements
NO Critical
NO Critical
Measurements
Measurements
IEEE 57
IEEE 57


bus system
bus system
Critical Critical
Meas. Meas.
Type Type
1 1 F41 F41 43 43
2 2 F36 F36 35 35
3 3 F42 F42 41 41
4 4 F40 F40 56 56
5 5 I I 11 11
6 6 I I 24 24
7 7 I I 39 39
8 8 I I 37 37
9 9 I I 46 46
10 10 I I 48 48
11 11 I I 56 56
12 12 I I 57 57
13 13 I I 34 34
P
P
Number of Critical Meas. Number of Critical Meas. Number of PMU needed Number of PMU needed
13 13 2 2
IEEE 118
IEEE 118


bus system
bus system
Number of Critical Meas. Number of Critical Meas. Number of PMU needed Number of PMU needed
29 29 13 13
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Robustness Against Parameter Errors
Robustness Against Parameter Errors
Total number of network parameters is
Total number of network parameters is
typically a very large number
typically a very large number
Parameter error processing is not an on
Parameter error processing is not an on


line feature in commonly used estimators
line feature in commonly used estimators
It is usually difficult to pinpoint the right
It is usually difficult to pinpoint the right
suspect set simply based on residual
suspect set simply based on residual
analysis due to error masking.
analysis due to error masking.
Using Conventional Measurements
Using Conventional Measurements
Existing practice:
Existing practice:
Augment the state vector with the suspected
Augment the state vector with the suspected
set of parameters and estimate suspect
set of parameters and estimate suspect
parameters
parameters
Recently proposed improved solution:
Recently proposed improved solution:
Eliminates the need to pre
Eliminates the need to pre


specify a suspect
specify a suspect
set. Detects and identifies parameter and
set. Detects and identifies parameter and
analog measurement errors simultaneously
analog measurement errors simultaneously
Multiple Solutions
Multiple Solutions
What happens when more than one set of
What happens when more than one set of
parameters satisfies all measurements?
parameters satisfies all measurements?
Multiplicity of solutions for [p].
Multiplicity of solutions for [p].
Illustration of Multiple Solutions
Illustration of Multiple Solutions
) , , ( ) , , (
2 1 2 1
p p x J p p x J
' ' '
=
k l
kl
kl
P
x
u u
=
lm
m l
lm
x
P
'
'
=
u u
' '
kl k l
kl k l
x
x
u u
u u
' '
lm l m
lm l m
x
x
u u
u u
l m
lm
lm
P
x
u u
=
kl
l k
kl
x
P
'
'
=
u u
Identifying Parameter Errors
Identifying Parameter Errors
by Phasor Measurements
by Phasor Measurements
: Parameter Error : Parameter Error
: PMU : PMU
TEST A: TEST A:
NO PMUs NO PMUs
TEST B: TEST B:
WITH PMUs WITH PMUs
Simulation Results
Simulation Results
Test A Test B
Meas /Par.
R
N
/
N
Meas /Par.
R
N
/
N
X
X
1011
27.5040
X
X
13 13 14 14
29.0162
X
X
1314
27.3629
X
X
9 9 14 14
26.0467
X
X
611
27.9763
X
X
10 10 11 11
20.1385
X
X
914
24.4732
X
X
6 6 11 11
20.1349
X
X
910
20.2291
X
X
9 9 10 10
17.0387
Role of State Estimation
Facilitating Smart Grid Operation
Selfhealing from power disturbance events
Faster (scan rate) state estimation, widearea observability, multilevel
monitoring capability
Enabling active participation by consumers in demand response
Monitoring at lower voltage levels
Operating resiliently against physical and cyber attack
Redundancy and strategic placement of measuring devices/sensors
Detection, identification and elimination of errors in data and models
Providing power quality for 21st century needs
Accommodating all generation and storage options
Enabling new products, services, and markets
Widearea monitoring to facilitate the feedback to address congestion,
avoid spilling renewable energy, active market participation
Optimizing assets and operating efficiently
Monitoring dynamic line loading, equipment operating limits
Final Remarks
Final Remarks
SE performance have significant impact on
SE performance have significant impact on
all other application functions related to
all other application functions related to
smart grid operation
smart grid operation
PMUs can improve SE performance in the
PMUs can improve SE performance in the
following areas:
following areas:
Computational speed and numerical
Computational speed and numerical
robustness
robustness
Merging observable islands
Merging observable islands
Identifying analog and parameter errors
Identifying analog and parameter errors
To download the software:
To download the software:
http://
http://
www.ece.neu.edu/~abur/
www.ece.neu.edu/~abur/
pet.html
pet.html
For further information:
For further information:
http://www.ece.neu.edu/~abur