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ns. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page nd all choices before answering. 001 10.0 points Planet A and planet B of equal mass m orbit the same star of mass M in circular trajectories of radii rA = R and rB = 2R respectively. Calculate the ratio of the kinetic energy of A to the kinetic energy of B. 1. 8 2. 2 correct 3. 1/8 4. 16 5. 1/16 6. 1/2 Explanation: Since A has a circular orbit,

2 m vA GmM = , R R2

where K is the total kinetic energy of the atoms (in the rest frame of the molecule) and U is the potential energy stored in their interaction (U = 0 at large distance). Assume there is no rotation. Which is true regarding the rest mass of diatomic oxygen? 1. mO2 c2 = 2mO c2 + Eint correct 2. mO2 c2 = 2mO c2 Eint 3. mO2 c2 = 2mO c2 Explanation: A bound system has negative total energy by denition, so Eint < 0. Since the internal energy of O2 is negative, the molecules rest mass will be less than the sum of its constituent oxygen atoms rest masses. mO2 c2 = 2mO c2 + Eint satises this requirement. 003 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points Which is true regarding the binding energy of diatomic oxygen at any time after the chemical bonding has taken place? 1. |Ebind | = |Eint | correct 2. |Ebind | = K 3. |Ebind | = |U | Explanation: The amount by which it is lower is called the binding energy. Thus, |Ebind | = |Eint | is correct. 004 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points Consider the following situations and choices of system: A. A hair dryers heating element is kept at a constant high temperature while it receives an input of electric energy. (System: hair dryer)

2 m vB GM m = , 2R 4 R2

which implies 1 GM m 2 KEB = m vB = . 2 4R Therefore, KEA = 2. KEB 002 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points Two oxygen atoms pass near each other and form a bound state of diatomic oxygen, O2 . Its internal energy is given by Eint = K + U,

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) B. A hot Aluminum ingot is placed into a well-insulated Styrofoam container full of cold water. The ingot and water temperatures equalize after a certain length of time. (System: ingot and water) C. A hot Aluminum ingot is placed into a well-insulated Styrofoam container full of cold water. The ingot and water temperatures equalize after a certain length of time. (System: ingot) Which of the following is the complete list of situations+systems for which Q is nonzero? 1. A, B 2. A, B, C 3. B, C 4. None 5. B 6. A, C correct 7. C 8. A Explanation: A: Constant temperature implies that Ethermal = 0. Thus, the electrical energy input must have been converted to heat, so Q < 0. B: The container is insulated, so Q = 0. Since there are no energy inputs, Ethermal = 0. C: The ingot cools by transmitting heat to the surrounding water, so Q < 0. As it cools, it loses thermal energy, so Ethermal < 0. 005 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points Which of the following is the complete list of situations+systems for which Ethermal is nonzero? 1. A 2. A, C 3. A, B 4. C correct 5. B 6. A, B, C 7. None 8. B, C Explanation: See part 1 explanation.

006 10.0 points The escape speed from an asteroid whose radius is 10 km is only 8 m/s. If you throw a rock away from the asteroid at a speed of 16 m/s, what will be its nal speed? Use G = 6.7 1011 N m2 /kg2 . 1. 17.3205 2. 22.5167 3. 19.0526 4. 25.9808 5. 8.66025 6. 13.8564 7. 12.1244 8. 20.7846 9. 10.3923 10. 24.2487 Correct answer: 13.8564 m/s. Explanation: First use the escape speed to get the mass of the asteroid:

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) Ui + K i = Uf + K f GM m 1 1 2 2 + m vi = 0 + m vf ri 2 2 2GM 2 vf = vi R = 13.8564 m/s . 007 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points A pendulum consists of a very light but sti rod of length L hanging from a nearly frictionless axle, with a mass m at the end of the rod. Calculate the gravitational potential energy as a function of the angle, , measured from the vertical. Set U = 0 at the location of the mass when the pendulum is hanging straight down. 1. U = m g L sin() 7. vi = 2. U = m g L cos() 3. U = m g L 4. U = m g L(1 sin()) 5. U = m g L(1 cos()) correct 6. U = m g L sin() 7. U = m g L cos() Explanation: We must nd the vertical distance the mass is from the bottom so we can use the potential energy formula for gravity on Earth. We can see that the height y can be found by subtracting L cos() from L. The rst value is the vertical distance of the mass from the pivot, while hanging at an angle of , and the second is the distance of the U = 0 location from the pivot. Subtracting these two values gives us the height of the mass from the U = 0 location. Therefore, the potential energy is given by: U =m g y =m g (L L cos()) U =m g L(1 cos()) .

008 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points Suppose that you hit the stationary hanging mass so it has an initial speed vi . What is the minimum initial speed needed for the pendulum to go over the top ( = 180 )? 1. vi = 2. vi = 2 3. vi = 4 4. vi = 5. vi = 8 6. vi = 1 2 gL g L correct gL gL 2 gL gL 2gL

Explanation: At the initial state, right after the instant that the mass is given the initial speed, we have zero potential energy and nonzero kinetic energy. At the nal state, if we had given the pendulum the absolute minimum speed for the pendulum to go over the top, then it would have zero kinetic energy at the top and nonzero potential energy. Thus we conserve energy to get: Ei =Ef KEi + Ui =KEf + Uf 1 2 m vi + 0 =0 + m g L(1 cos(180 )) 2 2 vi =2 g L(2) vi =2 gL

009 10.0 points Many heavy nuclei undergo spontaneous alpha decay, in which the original nucleus emits an alpha particle (a helium nucleus containing two protons and two neutrons), leaving behind a daughter nucleus that has two fewer protons and two fewer neutrons than

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) the original nucleus. Consider a radium-220 nucleus that is at rest before it decays to radon-216 by alpha-decay. The mass of the radium-220 nucleus is 219.962 u (unied atomic mass units) where 1 u = 1.6603 1027 kg (approximately the mass of one nucleon). The mass of a radon-216 nucleus is 215.953 u, and the mass of an alpha particle is 4.00151 u. Radium has 88 protons, radon 86, and an alpha particle 2. Calculate the nal kinetic energy of the alpha particle. Assume that its speed is small compared to the speed of light. Use c = 3 108 m/s. 1. 1.09885 1012 J correct 2. 9.88962 1013 J 3. 9.3402 1013 J 4. 1.26367 1012 J 5. 1.15379 1012 J 6. 1.20873 1012 J 7. 1.37356 1012 J 8. 1.31862 1012 J 9. 1.0439 1012 J 10. 8.79078 1013 J Explanation: We begin by using conservation of energy to write Ei = Ef Erest,Ra = Erest,Rn + Erest, + KRn + K = Erest,Rn + Erest, + = Erest,Rn + Erest, + p2 2 1 1 + mRn m p2 p2 Rn + 2mRn 2m

ticle was at rest (pRa = 0). By conservation of momentum, the sum of the two nal momenta must be zero, meaning their squares will be equal. Let p2 1 1 . + 2 mRn m Now we solve for p : = Erest,Ra Erest,Rn Erest, = mRa c2 mRn c2 m c2 = 1.11921 1012 J 2(1.11921 1012 J) = 1 1 + mRn m p = 1.20834 1019 kg m/s . p2 Dont forget to make the appropriate conversions. Now that we know the momentum, the kinetic energy is just KE = p2 2 m

= 1.09885 1012 J . 010 10.0 points The force due to a deected cantilever beam can be modeled using a linear and cubic term, i.e. Fbeam = k1 k3 3 where is the deection at the end of the beam. What work must be done on the beam to deect it by 28 cm if k1 = 95 N/m and k3 = 30000 N/m3 ? 1. 2.25615 2. 44.64 3. 17.0116 4. 9.43189 5. 5.6355 6. 49.8232 7. 16.6635 8. 20.1351 9. 4.3578 10. 1.27655

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) Correct answer: 49.8232 J. Explanation: The work done on the beam is given by Won beam = Wby beam

max

=

0 max

Fbeam d k1 + k3 3 d

Explanation: A real spring will break when stretched suciently, so A is true. The ideal spring also has bound states, so B is false. The ideal spring has no unbound states, so C is true. The ideal spring does not have a steep region of U to represent coils touching, so D is true. The ideal spring also has an equilibrium point, or local minimum, so E is false. 012 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points Suppose a block of mass M is sliding down an inclined plane which makes an angle with the horizontal. The coecient of kinetic friction between the plane and the block is (assume tan > ). The block is initially at rest. What is the work done by friction as the block travels a distance d along the plane? 1. M g sin d 2. M g sin d 3. M g cos d correct 4. M g tan d 5. M g cos d 6. M g tan d Explanation: From the free-body diagram of the block, the normal reaction force N = M g cos .

=

0

1 1 = k1 2 + k3 4 2 4 = 49.8232 J

max 0

011 10.0 points Which of the following is a physical feature of a real spring which is NOT represented by the ideal spring potential energy graph, 1 Uideal = ks s2 ES ? 2 A. A yield and breakage region B. The existence of bound states C. The existence of unbound states D. A region of compression where coils are touching E. An equilibrium point of minimum energy 1. A, B, D, E 2. A, C, D correct 3. A, C, E 4. A, B, C, D, E

The frictional force 5. A, C, D, E Ff = M g cos . 6. A, B, C, E 7. B, C, E 8. B, D, E 9. B, C, D, E 10. A, B, C, D 013 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points What is the speed of the block at this point? Since the block moves in a direction opposite to that of friction, Wf = Ff d = M g cos d.

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2 g d (sin cos ) 2 g d (sin cos ) 2 g d (tan cos ) 2 g d (sin + cos ) 2 g d (sin tan ) 2 g d (sin cos ) correct (III) K K +U r Ei = M g d sin . The nal energy 1 2 Ef = M vf . 2 Therefore, energy conservation Ei + Wf = Ef implies, 1 2 M g d sin M g cos d = M vf , 2 or

2 vf = 2 g d (sin cos ).

(I)

K +U K U r

(II)

K +U r

(IV)

K +U r

Explanation:

(V)

K K +U U

(VI) r K +U K U r

4. Figure VI 014 10.0 points Which of the following diagrams corresponds to a system of a proton and an electron that start out far apart, moving toward each other (that is, their initial velocities are nonzero and they are heading straight at each other)? Note that the horizontal and vertical axes in each plot are the separation between the particles and energy, respectively. To clarify, the kinetic energy line K is always the dotted line, the potential energy line U is always dashed, and the sum K + U is always a solid black line (sometimes lying on the x axis). 5. Figure III 6. Figure I Explanation: When the two particles are very far away, their potential energy is 0, and since they have nonzero initial velocities, this means that they are unbounded and thus have an overall positive energy at r = , which is also equal to the kinetic energy at that location. As the electron and proton get closer, due to their Coulomb attraction their kinetic energies in-

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) crease while the negative potential energy decreases even further. Thus the correct answer is Figure (II). 015 10.0 points The gure below is a graph of the energy of a system of a planet interacting with a star. The gravitational potential energy Ug is shown as the thick curve, and plotted along the vertical axis are various values of K + Ug . r1 r2 r, from star to planet K + Ug A B C 5. Statements II, III, IV 6. Statements I, II, III 7. Statements I, II, III, IV 8. Statements II, IV, V, VI 9. Statements I, III, IV, V 10. Statements I, III, IV

Suppose that K + Ug of the system is A. Which of the following statements are true? I. The potential energy of the system decreases as the planet moves from r1 to r2 . II. When the separation between the two bodies is r2 , the kinetic energy of the system is (A B). III. The system is a bound system; the planet can never escape. IV. The planet will escape. V. When the separation between the two bodies is r2 , the kinetic energy of the system is B C). VI. The kinetic energy of the system is greater when the distance between the star and planet is r1 than when the distance between the two bodies is r2 . 1. Statements I, IV, V, VI 2. Statements I, II, III, VI

Explanation: Statement I is false because as we move to the right from r1 to r2 , U increases. Statement II is true because the kinetic energy is given as the total energy minus the potential energy, and since the total energy is A, and U (r2 ) = B, the kinetic energy is A B. Statement III is true because the total energy A is negative, which indicates a bound system. Statements IV-VI can be understood from the previous three explanations. 016 10.0 points Given that the y axis represents energy and the x axis represents separation, which graph correctly shows the potential energy U for two interacting electrons? I II

III

IV

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) 4. II correct 5. I and IV 6. IV 7. I and II 8. III 9. None 10. III and IV Explanation: Electrons interact repulsively, so the correct potential energy graph will decrease to zero at large separation. Only graph B has this feature. 017 10.0 points In the Niagara Falls hydroelectric generating plant, the energy of falling water is converted into electricity. If the volume ow rate is V and the height of the falls is h, what is the amount of electrical power produced, assuming the plants eciency is k? Let the density of water be notated by . 1. P = gh2 kV V gh 2. P = k V gh2 3. P = k 4. P = kV gh2 kgh V 6. P = kV gh correct 5. P = gh kV kgh2 8. P = V Explanation: The electrical power of a hydroelectric plant 7. P =

is the potential energy converted to electrical energy per second. The mass of water owing through the plant per second is M = V . The potential energy change of this mass is: U = M gh = V gh. Therefore, the electrical energy produced per second is this potential energy times the conversion eciency: P = k(U ) = kV gh. 018 10.0 points In a star, a secondary fusion process involves helium-3 and helium-4 fusing together into beryllium-7. Helium-3 has a mass of 3.01603 u, helium-4 has a mass of 4.0026 u, and beryllium-7 has a mass of 7.01693 u. The atomic mass unit u is 1.66054 1027 kg. Each one of these fusion reactions will convert rest mass energy into kinetic energy. If you want to have a total of E = 87 J of energy that has been converted from rest mass energy, how many of these reactions must take place? Keep six signicant gures throughout this problem, and use c = 2.99792 108 m/s. 1. 1.73426e+14 2. 90654500000000.0 3. 3.42911e+14 4. 2.40432e+14 5. 3.90209e+14 6. 19707500000000.0 7. 2.089e+14 8. 3.19262e+14 9. 1.34011e+14 10. 1.18245e+14 Correct answer: 3.42911 1014 . Explanation: The rest mass energy released by one of these reactions is (mHe3 + mHe4 mBe ) c2 = 2.5371 1013 J. In order to get the number of reactions to produce energy E, we divide E by the energy per reaction that is found above:

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) E 87 J = 13 J 2.5371 10 2.5371 1013 J = 3.42911 1014 . 019 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points You pull a block of mass m across across a frictionless table with a constant force. You also pull with an equal constant force a block of larger mass M . The blocks are initially at rest. If you pull the blocks through the same distance, which block has the greater kinetic energy, and which block has the greater momentum, respectively? 1. M , same momentum 9. Same kinetic energy, M 2. M , m 3. m, same momentum 4. Same kinetic energy, m 5. m, m 6. M , M 7. Same kinetic energy, same momentum 8. m, M 9. Same kinetic energy, M correct Explanation: You do the same work on each block. According to the Energy Principle, each block will have the same K. Since they both start from rest, Kf is the same for each block. , 2m so the larger mass block will have the larger nal momentum. 020 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points If instead you pull the blocks for the same amount of time, which block has the greater kinetic energy, and which block has the greater momentum, respectively? Kf = p2 f 1. M , m 2. M , M 3. m, same momentum correct 4. m, M 5. M , same momentum 6. m, m 7. Same kinetic energy, m 8. Same kinetic energy, same momentum

Explanation: If you pull the blocks for the same amount of time, then according to the Momentum Principle, p = Fnet t will be the same for the two blocks. Since they both start from rest, pf will be the same. Since pf vf = , m we know that vf is greater for the smaller block and the smaller block will have the greater nal kinetic energy. 021 (part 1 of 2) 5.0 points A fan cart of mass 0.88 kg initially has a velocity of vi = 0.81, 0, 0 m/s. Then the fan is turned on, and the air exerts a constant force of F = 0.47, 0, 0 N on the cart for 1.5 s. What is the change in the x component of momentum of the fan cart over this 1.5 s time interval? (Since the force is only applied

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) along the x direction, the other components of momentum will not change.) 1. -0.555 2. -0.435 3. -0.795 4. -0.345 5. -0.36 6. -0.42 7. -0.705 8. -0.585 9. -0.81 10. -0.465 Correct answer: 0.705 kg m/s. Explanation: The change in momentum is given by p m 0.705, 0, 0 kg m/s = 0.88 kg = 0.801136, 0, 0 m/s . So the nal velocity is v =

10

vf = vi + v = 0.00886364, 0, 0 m/s . Now, the change in kinetic energy is given by KE = KEf KEi 1 1 2 2 = m vf m vi 2 2 1 = (0.88 kg) (0.00886364 m/s)2 2 1 (0.88 kg) (0.81 m/s)2 2 = 0.288649 J . 023 10.0 points Starting from rest, a woman lifts a barbell of mass mbb with a constant force F through a distance h, at which point she is still lifting, and the barbell has acquired a speed v. Let Ewoman stand for the following energy terms associated with the woman: Ewoman = Echemical,woman + Kwoman + Ugrav,woman+Earth + Ethermal,woman The change in the kinetic energy of the barbell is 1 1 mbb v 2 0 = mbb v 2 . 2 2 The general statement of the energy principle is: Esys = Wsurr For which of the following systems will the left hand side of this equation have ONLY the 1 terms +mbb gh and mbb v 2 ? 2 1. woman + barbell + Earth

So the x component is 0.705 kg m/s . 022 (part 2 of 2) 5.0 points What is the change in kinetic energy of the fan cart over this 1.5 s time interval? 1. -0.3132 2. -0.367048 3. -0.3885 4. -0.23865 5. -0.288649 6. -0.300888 7. -0.2352 8. -0.380739 9. -0.225273 10. -0.1953 Correct answer: 0.288649 J. Explanation: To nd the change in kinetic energy, we need to know the initial and nal velocities. We know the initial velocity; to get the nal, we rst nd v:

Version 100/ABCBA Exam 3 haley (56465) 2. woman only 3. there is no such system 4. woman + barbell 5. barbell + Earth correct 6. barbell only 7. Earth only 8. woman + Earth Explanation: We may rst note that +mbb gh on the left hand side of the energy principle equation represents a potential energy change, which only multibody systems can exhibit. Thus the single body answer choices cannot be correct. Of the multibody choices, any containing woman must have the term Ewoman on the left side of the energy principle. The only remaining choice is barbell + Earth. This is correct because the change in potential energy of this system is +mbb gh due to the barbell rising, and the change in kinetic energy of this 1 system is mbb v 2 due to the barbell gaining 2 speed v.

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