This article is about the country.

For other uses of terms redirecting here, see Germany (disambiguation) and Deutschland (disambiguation). Federal Republic of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem:

The third stanza of Das Lied der Deutschen The Song of the Germans

Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) — [Legend] Capital (and largest city) Berlin 52°31′N 13°23′E

Official language(s) Ethnic groups

German[1] Germans 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)[1] German Federal parliamentaryconstitutional republic Joachim Gauck Angela Merkel Norbert Lammert Horst Seehofer

Demonym Government - President - Chancellor - President of the Bundestag - President of the Bundesrat Legislature - Upper house - Lower house

Bundesrat Bundestag Formation 2 February 962 18 January 1871 23 May 1949 3 October 1990 Area 357,021 km2 (63rd) 137,847 sq mi

- Holy Roman Empire - Unification - Federal Republic - Reunification

- Total

- Water (%)

2.416 Population 81,799,600[2] (16th) 229/km2 (55th) 593/sq mi 2011 estimate $3.099 trillion[3] (5th) $37,896[3] (18th) 2011 estimate $3.577 trillion[3] (4th) $43,741[3] (19th) 27 (low) 0.905[4] (very high) (9th) Euro (€)[2](2002 – present) Swiss franc (de facto inBüsingen) (EUR, CHF) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) right DE .de [3] 49

- 2010 estimate - Density GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2006) HDI (2011) Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code
1

^ Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany and Frisianare officially

recognised by the ECRML.
2 3

^ Before 2002: Deutsche Mark (DEM). ^ Also .eu, shared with European Union member states.

Germany ( i/ˈdʒɜrməni/), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ( listen)),[5] is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With 81.8 million inhabitants, it is the most populous member state and the largest economy in the European Union. It is one of the major political powers of the European continent and a technological leader in many fields. A region named Germania, inhabited by several Germanic peoples, was documented before AD 100. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward, and established successor kingdoms throughout much of Europe. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.[6] During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation while southern and western parts remained dominated by Roman Catholic denominations, with the two factions clashing in the Thirty Years' War, marking the beginning of the Catholic–Protestant divide that has characterized German society ever since.[7] Occupied during the Napoleonic Wars, the rise of PanGermanism inside the German Confederation resulted in the unification of most of the German states into the German Empire in 1871 which wasPrussian dominated. After the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and the subsequent military surrender in World War I, the Empire was replaced by theWeimar Republic in 1918, and partitioned in the Treaty of Versailles. Amidst the Great Depression, the Third Reich was proclaimed in 1933. The latter period was marked by Fascism and World War II. After 1945, Germany was divided by allied occupation, and evolved into two states, East Germany andWest Germany. In 1990 Germany was reunified. Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area and since 1999 a member of the eurozone. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, the OECD and the Council of Europe,

2 Foreign relations o 4.5 East and West Germany o 2. It is the second largest exporter and third largest importer of goods.1 Climate o 3.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire o 2.3 Military 5 Economy o 5.1 Religion o 6. Contents [hide]       1 Etymology 2 History o 2.6 Berlin Republic and the EU 3 Geography o 3.1 Constituent states o 4.2 Science and technology 6 Demographics o 6. Germany has been the home of many influential scientists and inventors.2 Holy Roman Empire o 2.3 German Confederation and Empire o 2.1 Infrastructure o 5.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Regime o 2.2 Languages o 6.3 Education . and is known for its cultural and political history. It has the world's fourth largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. The country has developed a very high standard of living and a comprehensive system of social security.and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011– 2012 term.2 Biodiversity 4 Politics o 4.

4 Cuisine o 7. The German term Deutschland (originally diutisciu land.3 Media o 7. "the German lands") is derived from deutsch. descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.5 Sports 8 See also 9 References 10 External links o Etymology Main article: Names of Germany The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania. e. belonging to the diot or diota "people".[9] History Main article: History of Germany Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania and Migration Period . This in turn descends from ProtoGermanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus).    6.4 Health 7 Culture o 7. derived from *þeudō. descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂"people".2 Literature and philosophy o 7.1 Arts o 7..[8] In other languages it has various names. originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants). which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.

Sicambri. Around 260. Austria. however. Franks.[11] Holy Roman Empire Main article: Holy Roman Empire . were Roman provinces.[12] After the invasion of the Huns in 375. In AD 9. three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius. Frisii. Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced the smaller Germanic tribes. they expanded south. east and west from the 1st century BC.[10] Under Augustus. coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian. Large areas (known since the Merovingian period as Austrasia) were occupied by the Franks. when Tacitus wroteGermania. the Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands. Germanic tribes moved further south-west. southern Bavaria and the western Rhineland. and Northern Germany was ruled by the Saxons and Slavs. By AD 100.[11] In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Alemanni. occupying most of the area of modern Germany. Saxons. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany. Chatti. the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germania (an area extending roughly from the Rhineto the Ural Mountains). Baltic. and Thuringii. and with the decline of Rome from 395.Map of the Germania and the Roman Empire The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age. and Slavic tribes inEastern Europe. Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus).

[17]The population of the German . Its territory stretched from the Eider River in the north to the Mediterranean coast in the south. challenging the Roman Catholic Church and initiating the Protestant Reformation. A separate Lutheranchurch became the official religion in many German states after 1530. which devastated German lands.[13] The Holy Roman Empire resulted from the eastern portion of this division. the German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs. and the German king was crowned Holy Roman Emperor of these regions in 962. On 25 December 800. which was divided in 843.[15] The edict of the Golden Bull in 1356 provided the basic constitution of the empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven princeelectors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.[16] Martin Luther publicised The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the reign of the Salianemperors (1024–1125).Martin Luther initiated theProtestant Reformation. Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254).[13] Under the reign of the Ottonian emperors (919–1024). Charlemagne founded the Carolingian Empire. then the Black Death of 1348–50. preceding German settlement in these areas and further east(Ostsiedlung). the population of Germany plummeted.[14] Starting with the Great Famine in 1315. although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy. Northern German towns grew prosperous as members of the Hanseatic League. Religious conflict led to the Thirty Years' War (1618– 1648). several major duchies were consolidated.

a loose league of 39 sovereign states. and the king appointed Otto von Bismarck the new Minister President of Prussia.[20] National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many. Disagreement with restorationpolitics partly led to the rise of liberal movements. he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution. leading to a temporary setback for the movement. Germans. but the empire was de facto divided into numerous independent principalities.[19] German Confederation and Empire Main articles: German Confederation. the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund). 1871. German Empire.states was reduced by about 30%. King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor. intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated German history. In 1806. Prussian victory in . In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe. Conflict between King William I of Prussia and the increasingly liberal parliament erupted over military reforms in 1862. Bismarck successfully waged war on Denmark in 1864. a tariff union. especially young. followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. From 1740 onwards. The Zollverein.[18] The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended religious warfare among the German states. and PanGermanism Following the fall of Napoleon. furthered economic unity in the German states.[21] Foundation of the German Empire inVersailles. which established a republic in France. but with a loss of power. the Imperium was overrun and dissolved as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Bismarck is at the centre in a white uniform.

the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) and to exclude Austria. and Emperor Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated. took an imperialisticcourse leading to friction with neighbouring countries. isolating France by diplomatic means. as part of the Central Powers. Prussia was the dominating constituent of the new state. The treaty was perceived in Germany as a humiliating continuation of the war.[25] Weimar Republic and Nazi Regime Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany . the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor. and new alliances excluded the country. Togo.[23] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 triggered World War I. from the federation's affairs. Germany. however. and Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919. and is often cited as an influence in the rise of Nazism. and Berlin became its capital. As a result of the Berlin Conference in 1884 Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa.[24] The German Revolution broke out in November 1918. An armistice ended the war on 11 November. With almost two thirds of its territory and population. An estimated two million German soldiers died in World War I. formerly the leading German state. German South-West Africa. and Cameroon. the German Empire was proclaimed 1871 in Versailles. and avoiding war.[21] In the Gründerzeit period following theunification of Germany. Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances. like other European powers. suffered defeat against the Alliesin one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Under Wilhelm II. Germany. uniting all scattered parts of Germany except Austria (Kleindeutschland. or "Lesser Germany").[22] Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.

and a consequent emergency decree abrogated basic citizens' rights. President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a . fuelled by discontent with the Weimar government. Hitler styled himself"Führer und Reichskanzler"[26] At the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918. or stab-in-theback legend. By 1932. Anenabling act passed in parliament gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power.[29][30] Using his powers to crush any actual or potential resistance. when the democratic Weimar Constitution was signed by President Friedrich Ebert. Germany was declared a republic. and a long succession of unstable governments. This was exacerbated by a widespread right-wing Dolchstoßlegende.[27] Suffering from the Great Depression of 1929. The revolution came to an end on 11 August 1919. Only the Social Democratic Party voted against it. chancellor and president1 1933–1945 1: office formally vacant from August 1934. while Communist MPs had already been imprisoned. with radical-left communists seizing power in Bavaria. which argued that Germany had lost World War I because of those who wanted to overthrow the government.[28] On 27 February 1933 the Reichstag building went up in flames. The Weimar government was accused of betraying Germany by signing the Versailles Treaty. the harsh peace conditions dictated by the Treaty of Versailles. However. the struggle for power continued. the German Communist Party and the Nazi Party controlled the majority of parliament. After a series of unsuccessful cabinets.Adolf Hitler. Germans increasingly lacked identification with the government.

The UK and France declared war on Germany. Soviet POWs. Germany broke the Molotov– Ribbentrop pact and invaded the Soviet Union. Industry was revitalised with a focus on military rearmament. Germany reacquired control of the Saar and in 1936 military control of the Rhineland.[34] Berlin in ruins after World War II In what later became known as The Holocaust.[31] In 1935. D-Day opened a Western front. Germany and its allies quickly gained control of most of continental Europe and North Africa.[35] World War II was responsible for more .Austria was annexed. people with mental and/or physical disabilities. and German troops were forced to defend an additional front in Italy.[32] In 1938.[33] As the war progressed. Millions of people were murdered by the Nazis during the Holocaust. On 22 June 1941. Czechoslovakia was brought under German control.[33] In September 1943. and a sizeable number of Romani people. and members of the political and religious opposition. which was swiftly occupied by Germany and by the Soviet Red Army. though plans to force the United Kingdom to an armistice or surrender failed. both of which had been lost in the Treaty of Versailles. homosexuals. the German armed forces surrenderedafter the Red Army occupied Berlin. Germany's ally Italy surrendered. the Third Reich regime had enacted policies directly subjugating many dissidents and minorities. The invasion of Poland was prepared through the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact andOperation Himmler. Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor led Germany to declare war on the United States. as Allied forces advanced towards German territory. On 1 September 1939 the German Wehrmacht launched a blitzkrieg on Poland. and in 1939. Poles and other Slavs. Jehovah's Witnesses. including approximately six million Jews. The Battle of Stalingradforced the German army to retreat on the Eastern front. marking the beginning of World War II.centralised totalitarian state within months. On 8 May 1945.

mass rape of German women. to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo. are shown as white as is the detached Saar protectorate. under Polish and Soviet de jureadministration and de facto annexation. controlled by France.[45] West Germany.[44]and the destruction of multiple major cities. the remaining German territory and Berlin were partitioned by the Allies into four military occupation zones. East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) Occupation zones in Germany. After the surrender of Germany. The territories east of the OderNeisse line.than 40 million dead in Europe. . The country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s (Wirtschaftswunder).[36] The Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals were held after World War II. the United Kingdom.3 million German soldiers[38] millions of German civilians. on 7 October 1949. the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik. was allied with the United States. or DDR). established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital. The western sectors. 1947. the expulsion of about 15 million Germans from the eastern areas of Germany and other countries.[39][40][41][42][43] and losing the war resulted in large territorial losses. while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital.[37] The war casualties for Germany are estimated at 5. the UK and France. and the United States. were merged on 23 May 1949 to form theFederal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland). They were informally known as "West Germany" and "East Germany". West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957.

[21] . allowing East German citizens to travel to the West.[47] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion. This had devastating effects on the GDR. supported by the Stasi. an immense secret service. many of her citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity. the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process. The East German authorities unexpectedly eased the border restrictions. In summer 1989.East Germany was an Eastern bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via the latter's occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact.[46] and a variety of sub-organisations controlling every aspect of society. Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders. with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR (new states or "neue Länder"). and Germany regained full sovereignty.[21] The Berlin Wall in front of theBrandenburg Gate shortly before its fall in 1989 Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy Brandt'sOstpolitik. A Soviet-style command economy was set up. built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping to West Germany. political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communistcontrolled Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September 1990. causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary. under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under theInstrument of Surrender. where regular mass demonstrationsreceived increasing support. the GDR later became a Comecon state. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990. originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state.[48] The Berlin Wall. Though East Germany claimed to be a democracy. became a symbol of the Cold War.

Austria and Switzerland in the south.021 km2 (137.[49] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N (the tip of Sylt is just north of 55°). Berlin once again became the capital of the reunified Germany. Poland and the Czech Republic in the east.[53] . Germany was bound by domestic law only to deploy troops for defence roles.[50] Since reunification. Angela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition. bordering Denmark in the north. The territory covers 357. Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union and NATO.011 sq mi) of water. and Belgium and the Netherlands in the north-west.798 km2 (3.[52] In 2005. after the war.[51] These deployments were controversial since.847 sq mi).Berlin Republic and the EU Main article: History of Germany since 1990 Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act.836 sq mi) of land and 7. Franceand Luxembourg in the south-west.[21] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany Topographic map Germany is in Western and Central Europe. consisting of 349. while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries. adopted on 10 March 1994. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 62nd largest in the world. Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.223 km2 (134. and longitudes 5° and 16° E.

though temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F). copper.Rainfall occurs year-round. and long dry periods are frequent.[56] .[54] Biodiversity The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: EuropeanMediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine. Danube and Elbe.[53] Climate Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate in which humid westerly winds predominate. salt.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine. the Alpine regions in the extreme south and. 11. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift. Winters are mild and summers tend to be cool. nickel.[55] As of 2008 the majority of Germany is covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30. Significant natural resources are iron ore.[54] The east has a more continental climate. lignite. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country. arable land and water. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarschat 3.Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2.1%). potash. consequently in the north-west and the north the climate is oceanic.54 metres / 11. winters can be very cold and summers very warm. coal. uranium.962 metres / 9.8% is covered by settlements and streets. only 13. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea. Glaciers are found in the Alpine region.718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the north-west and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the north-east. some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. but are experiencing deglaciation. the northern extension of the Gulf Stream.4% of the area consists of permanent pastures. characterised by lower temperatures and greater precipitation. timber. especially in the summer. natural gas. to a lesser degree.

conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). the Saxon Switzerland National Park and the Bavarian Forest National Park.[58] The Zoologische Garten Berlin is the oldest zoo in Germany and presents the most comprehensive collection of species in the world. parliamentary. Beeches.[57] The national parks in Germany include the Wadden Sea National Parks. while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. the Lower Oder Valley National Park. wild boar. fox. the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park.The eagle is a protected bird of prey and the national heraldic animal. representative democratic republic. badger. and small numbers of beavers. . Germany is a federal.[59] Politics Main article: Politics of Germany See also: Judiciary of Germany and Law enforcement in Germany The Reichstag in Berlin is the site of the German parliament (Bundestag). There are many species of ferns. flowers. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany. mouflon. fungi. and other deciduous trees constitute one third of the forests. the Harz National Park. the Müritz National Park. Wild animals include deer. oaks. which is believed to be the largest number in any country. the Jasmund National Park. hare. and mosses. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains. Plants and animals are those generally common to middle Europe.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament. the federal structure. and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.[60] The president is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.[21] . currently Angela Merkel. by proportional representation (mixed-member). the fundamental principles of the constitution. an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention). similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. the separation of powers. The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor. The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (President of the Bundestag). as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity. President of Germany The chancellor. The Bundestag is elected through direct elections. who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council).[53] The members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federated states and are members of the state cabinets.[21] Joachim Gauck. who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag. which together form the legislative body. is the head of government and exercises executive power.

As of 2009 Germany is divided into 403 districts (Kreise) on municipal level.[65][66] Constituent states Main article: States of Germany Germany comprises sixteen states that are collectively referred to as Länder. Due to differences in size and population the subdivision of these states varies. called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters.[67] Each state has its own state constitution[68] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. For regional administrative purposes five states. and serious political crimes. Bavaria.[64] Except for petty crimes. the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court. the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice. genocide and war crimes. all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[21][62] Germany's supreme court system.[63] Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. and gives German courts universal jurisdiction in some circumstances. consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). and for other affairs the courts are theFederal Labour Court. with power of judicial review. the Federal Social Court. The German penal system is aimed towards rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the general public. Hesse. especially between city states (Stadtstaaten) and states with larger territories (Flächenländer). which are tried before a single professional judge.[61] Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany with all chancellors hitherto being member of either party. these consist of 301 rural districts and 102 urban districts. North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony. The Völkerstrafgesetzbuch regulates the consequences of crimes against humanity. is specialised: for civil and criminal cases.Since 1949. However.[69] . the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (which has had members in the Bundestag since 1949) and the Alliance '90/The Greens(which has controlled seats in parliament since 1983) have also played important roles. namely Baden-Württemberg.

Lower Saxony Bremen Hamburg MecklenburgVorpommern SaxonyAnhalt Saxony Brandenburg Berlin Thuringia Hesse North RhineWestphalia RhinelandPalatinate Bavaria BadenWürttemberg Saarland .

056.043 19.098.000 18.444.000 1.000 4.549 892 29.000 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin Lower Saxony North Rhine-Westphalia Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland Hanover Düsseldorf Mainz Saarbrücken .569 Population Baden-Württemberg Bavaria Berlin Brandenburg Bremen Hamburg Hesse Stuttgart Munich Berlin Potsdam Bremen Hamburg Wiesbaden 10.000 3.000 1.075.618 34.720.061.477 404 755 21.000 12.000 8.568.174 47.000 2.400.115 23.000 663.001.847 2.752 70.SchleswigHolstein State Capital Area (km²) 35.000 1.735.000 6.717.

494. the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).416 20.355. Germany seeks to advance the creation of a more unified European political. It has played a leading role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France since the end of World War II.[72] Germany is a member of NATO. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international .000 Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel hosting the G8summit in Heiligendamm Germany has a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[70] As of 2011 it is the largest contributor to the budget of the European Union (providing 20%)[71] and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%).000 2. defence.000 2. and security apparatus. the G8.829.000 2. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and carried out by the implementing organisations. the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).Saxony Saxony-Anhalt Schleswig-Holstein Thuringia Dresden Magdeburg Kiel Erfurt 18.296. the G20.445 15.763 16.[73][74] The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German foreign policy.172 4.

8% of German exports are U. Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since World War II. the Bundeswehr. Marine (Navy). However. As of 2011.[82] In peacetime. Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik was a key factor in the détente of the 1970s.3% of the country's GDP.S.-bound and 6.[79] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies.S. Germany's military.[83] .[75] It is the world's third biggest aid donor after the United States and France.[21] The 1948 Marshall Plan and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries. the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. although Schröder's vocal opposition to the Iraq War suggested the end of Atlanticism and a relative cooling of German-American relations.[78] In 1999.[81] Military Main article: Bundeswehr The Eurofighter Typhoon is part of theLuftwaffe. If Germany went to war.community.6% of German imports originate from the U. the Chancellor would become commander in chief of the Bundeswehr. military spending was an estimated 1. which according to the constitution is allowed only for defensive purposes. German military expenditure is the ninth-highest in the world. Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service andStreitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. is organized in Heer (Army).[76][77] During the Cold War.[80] The two countries are also economically interdependent: 8. that is low in a ranking of all countries. Germany's partition by the Iron Curtain made it a symbol of East-West tensions and a political battleground in Europe. in absolute terms. Luftwaffe (Air Force).

000 professionals and up to 15. or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. On 1 July 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. 1. conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian service).As of March 2012 the Bundeswehr employs 183.000 short-time volunteers (voluntary military service). a new reserve concept of their future strength and functions was announced 2011.[87][88] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.500 women on active duty and a number of female reservists.[84] The German government plans to reduce the number of soldiers to 170. military service was compulsory for men at age 18.150 German soldiers in Kosovo. There are presently some 17.[89] Economy Main article: Economy of Germany Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany and Energy in Germany . the German military had about 6.[86] Until 2011. and conscripts served six-month tours of duty.900 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces.900 Bundeswehr troops in the NATOled ISAF force in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.[85] Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. including about 4.[85] As of April 2011. and 300 troops with UNIFIL in Lebanon.000 volunteers.000 professional soldiers and 17. but they are not subject to conscription.

Energy efficiency has been improving since the early 1970s.[112] Science and technology Main articles: Science and technology in Germany and List of German inventors and discoverers . energy sources were: oil (33.[104] As of 2008. and other renewable sources (7. which will become Berlin Brandenburg Airport in 2012.7%).9%).[111] Nevertheless the country's greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU as of 2010.[110] The German government has initiated wide-ranging emission reduction activities and the country's overall emissions are falling. while Air Berlin has hubs at Berlin Tegel and Düsseldorf.[106] Government policy promotes energy conservation and renewable energy.[105] and 60% of its primary energy was imported.The ICE 3 train With its central position in Europe.8%).[102] Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is a transport hub. Cologne/Bonn and Leipzig/Halle.[109] Germany is committed to the Kyoto protocol and several other treaties promoting biodiversity. and the use of renewable energy. coal. hydro-electric and wind power (1.[107] In 2010. Germany was the world's sixth largest consumer of energy. both hubs of Lufthansa. the government aims to meet the country's electricity demands using only renewable sources by 2050. Both airports in Berlin will be consolidated at a site adjacent to Berlin Schönefeld. Hamburg.8%). recycling. the government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021. The InterCityExpress or ICEnetwork of the Deutsche Bahn serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 kph (186 mph). low emission standards.5%).9%). natural gas (21.[103] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport. Other major airports include Berlin Schönefeld.[108] In 2000. nuclear (10. including lignite (22. The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third largest worldwide in length. This is reflected in its dense and modern transport networks. and supports sustainable development at a global level.

such as Johannes Gutenberg. Gottfried Leibniz. chemistry. engineers and industrialists such as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin. Karl Weierstrass. Bernhard Riemann.Albert Einstein Germany's achievements in sciences have been significant. and physiology or medicine).[113] The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 103 German laureates. With a maximum of €2. and Konrad Zuse. Otto Lilienthal.[115][116] The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was crucial to the foundation of modern physics. Gottlieb Daimler. the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society.[118] Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany.[117] Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays and was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. including Carl Friedrich Gauss.[120] German inventors.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.[114] For most of the 20th century. Hermann Weyl and Felix Klein. Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology. Rudolf Diesel. credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe. David Hilbert. especially in the sciences (physics.Hans Geiger.[121] Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket and later on was a prominent . the creator of the Geiger counter. German laureates had more awards than those of any other nation.[119] Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers. which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born developed further. and research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Research institutions in Germany include theMax Planck Society. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

4 inhabitants per square kilometre.member of NASA and developed the Saturn V Moon rocket. sustainable mobility. sustainable water management.8 million in January 2010. As of 2010. science and research of Germany is eminently respectable.[126] The Federal Statistical Office of Germany forecast that the population will shrink to between 65 and 70 million by 2060 (depending on the level of net migration). The lead markets of Germany's green technology industry are power generation.[124] Itspopulation density stands at 229. which paved the way for the success of the US Apollo program. material efficiency. Germans.[122] Germany is also one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies. The fertility rate of 1.[2] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union and ranks as the 16th most populous country in the world. about seven million foreign citizens were registered in Germany.4 children per mother.9 years. and 19% of the country's residents were of foreign or partially foreign descent . energy efficiency.[127] Population pyramid of Germany in 2012 from International Futures German nationals make up 91% of the population of Germany. The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 79.[123] Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany. is one of the lowest in the world. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication. Especially the expertise in engineering. Companies specializing in green technology have an estimated turnover of 200€ billion.9 births per 1000 inhabitants in 2009. Germany's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. or 7.[125] Since the 1970s. and Social issues in Germany With its estimated population of 81. waste management and recycling.

[131] As of 2008. Duisburg. 20% of the population had immigrant roots.186 Rank 11 12 13 City name Dresden Leipzig Hannove . the highest since 1945.786. about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants.5 million).[129] As a consequence of restrictions to Germany's formerly rather unrestricted laws on asylumand immigration.756 1. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11. including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia).[134]  view talk edit view talk edit      Largest cities of Germany List of statistical offices in Germany 24 Decemb Rank 1 2 3 City name Berlin Hamburg Munich State Berlin Hamburg Bavaria Pop.[133] Germany has a number of large cities.(including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).353.471. the number of immigrants seeking asylum or claiming German ethnicity (mostly from the former Soviet Union) has been declining steadily since 2000. and Bochum. the largest national group was from Turkey (2. Dortmund. mainly from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union—have resettled in Germany since 1987.000).448 1. 96% of whom lived in West Germany or Berlin.7 million as of 2008). 3. followed by Italy (776.[130] In 2009.[128] The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of international migrants worldwide.000) and Poland (687. Cologne.[132] About 3 million "Aussiedler"—ethnic Germans. Essen.

635 547. belonging to the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD).9% areProtestants.[7] 1.0% are Catholics and 29. the remainder consists of small denominations (each less than 0.007.[135] .[136] Protestantism is concentrated in the north and east and Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west.8%) in 2008.5% of the German population).6% of the country's overall population declare themselves Orthodox Christians.444 574.Berlin 4 5 6 Cologne Frankfurt Stuttgart North RhineWestphalia Hessen 1. with around 51.588 598.786 580.664 606.340 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Nurembe Duisburg Bochum Hamburg 7 8 9 10 BadenWürttemberg North RhineDüsseldorf Westphalia North RhineDortmund Westphalia North RhineEssen Westphalia Bremen Bremen (state) Wupperta Bonn Bielefeld Mannheim Religion Main article: Religion in Germany The Cologne Cathedral at the Rhine river is a UNESCO World Heritage Site Christianity is the largest religion in Germany.119 688.5 million adherents (62.[135] of which 30.

The second largest religion is Islam with an estimated 3.[136]German reunification in 1990 greatly increased the country’s nonreligious population. Kurdish.[141] It is one of 23 official languages in the European Union. traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes.1% of the population.000 and Judaism with around 200. German dialects. and Russian.[7] Languages Main article: Languages of Germany German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. a large portion of whom are of Turkish origin.000 adherents (0.[137] German Muslims. and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Dutch. German is written using the Latin alphabet.3%).6% to 5. Hinduism has some 90. To a lesser extent. Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish. 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two languages other than their own. they are officially protected by the ECRML. are distinguished . Romany. particularly among Protestants. and the Frisian languages. especially in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas. lack full official state recognition of their religious community.8 to 4.000 adherents. most are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey. Polish. a legacy of the state atheism of the previously Sovietcontrolled East.[139] Approximately 50% of the Buddhists in Germany are Asian immigrants.[137] followed by Buddhism with 250.2%).1%).3 million adherents (4.[138] Of the roughly 4 million Muslims. Low German. The most used immigrant languages areTurkish.[142] Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. it is also related to theEast (extinct) and North Germanic languages.[7] Germany has Europe's third largest Jewish population (after France and the United Kingdom). Low German.[140] Germans with no stated religious adherence make up 34. the Balkan languages. and Frisian. Christian church membership has decreased in recent decades. Sorbian. All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50. but there are a small number of Shi'ites and other denominations.[141] Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside English. with a smaller amount from French and most recently English (known as Denglisch).000 adherents (0.

the university and the subject.[144]Responsibility for educational oversight in Germany lies primarily with the individual federated states.[145] In contrast. secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different levels of academic ability: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies. phonology. Over 99% of Germans age 15 and above are estimated to be able to read and write.[143] Education Main article: Education in Germany Heidelberg University was established in 1386. and precise requirements vary.from varieties of standard German by their lexicon. in .[53] However.[146] The general entrance requirement for university is Abitur. depending on the state. several West German states later simplified their school system to two or three tiers. and syntax. Since the 1960s. Germany's universities are recognised internationally. after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. a growing number of inhabitants are functionally illiterate. a qualification normally based on continuous assessment during the last few years at school and final examinations. the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education. a reform movement attempted to unify secondary education in a Gesamtschule (comprehensive school).[145] Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old. however there are a number of exceptions. the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung ("dual education") allows pupils in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run vocational school. Primary education usually lasts for four years and public schools are not stratified at this stage.

[152] As of 2008.[151] In 2005. dating back to Otto von Bismarck's Social legislation in 1883. the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease. but this option was dropped in 2009.000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26. Germany spent 11% of its GDP on health care.[147] Nearly all German universities are public institutions. at 41%. at 26%. six of the top 100 universities in the world are in Germany.[153] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany . and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1. Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2005. followed by malignant tumours.[151] As of 2010. these groups could also choose to do without insurance. charging tuition fees of €50–500 per semester for each student.[149] Currently the population is covered by a fairly comprehensive health insurance plan provided by statute. selfemployed persons.[150] According to the World Health Organization.the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2008. about 82.[148] Health Main article: Health in Germany Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system.000 had died from the disease (cumulatively. since 1982). Previously. Certain groups of people (lifetime officials. 27% of German adults are smokers.[153] According to a 2005 survey. and 18 of the top 200. Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women. employees with high income) can opt out of the plan and switch to a private insurance contract.000 live births).

and is legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. 3. There are 240 subsidised theatres. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their partner's biological children.[161] Arts Main articles: German art.[154] The federated states are in charge of the cultural institutions.S. Historically Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker (the land of poets and thinkers). the government and the majority of Germans have begun to acknowledge that controlled immigration should be allowed based on qualification standards.[158] Germany has also changed its attitude towards immigrants. thousands of museums and over 25. and Music of Germany J. hundreds of symphonic orchestras. Beethoven R. Hans Holbein the Younger. since the mid-1990s.[157] promotes disability rights. 20 million go to theatres and operas. These cultural opportunities are enjoyed by many: there are over 91 million German museum visits every year.6 million per year listen to the symphonic orchestras. annually. and civil unions have been permitted since 2001.000 libraries spread in Germany.[160] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011. Wagner Toccata und Fuge Symphonie 5 c-moll Die Walküre Numerous German painters have enjoyed international prestige through their work in diverse artistic styles. Caspar David Friedrich of Romanticism. Architecture of Germany.[159] Germany has been named the world's second most valued nation among 50 countries in 2010.Bach L. Matthias Grünewald.[155]The UNESCO inscribed 33 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. and Max .[156] Germany has established a high level of gender equality. and Albrecht Dürer were important artists of theRenaissance. composer From its roots.v. both religious and secular. culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe.Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827).

. Friedrich Schiller. Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Tokio Hotel. Renaissance and Baroque art. Germany was particularly important in the early modern movement. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. Johann Sebastian Bach. Rammstein. The region later became the site of Gothic. As of 2008. Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature and German philosophy The Brothers Grimm German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. especially through the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.Boney M. Johannes Brahms. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass. and Paul van Dyk. Nico. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles. which were precursors ofRomanesque. Germany is the fourth largest music market in the world[163] and has influenced popular music through artists such as Kraftwerk. Nena. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Scorpions.[164] Germanspeaking book publishers produce some 700 million books every year. Alphaville. including Ludwig van Beethoven. Thomas Mann.Ernst of Surrealism. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraper. Hermann Hesse. Die Toten Hosen. [162] German music includes works by some of the world's most well-known classical music composers. with . Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann. Nina Hagen.

with a tradition spanning over 500 years. the first major German sound film.[169] The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin. Germany comes third in quantity of books published. Wim Wenders.[171] Germany's television market is the largest in Europe. home of the European Film Academy (EFA). Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn ofanalytic philosophy. New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff. In 1930 the Austrian-American Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue Angel.[168] During the 1970s and 1980s. Herbert Marcuse andJürgen Habermas have been particularly influential. Austria. Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries. which was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. nearly 60.000 of them new. and the development of the Frankfurt school by Max Horkheimer. with some 34 million TV . is one of the world's foremost film festivals. the Berlin Film Festival.[170] More recently. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling.Johann Gottlieb Fichte. held annually since 1951. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first modern science-fiction film.[165] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading. the establishment of classical German idealism by Immanuel Kant. Theodor Adorno. In the 21st century Germany has contributed to the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe. Werner Herzog. Gegen die Wand (Head-On) (2004). after the English-speaking book market and the People's Republic of China. Martin Heidegger's works on Being.about 80. and Rainer Werner Fassbinder put West German cinema on the international stage.000 titles. along with France. the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979. Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism.[166] German philosophy is historically significant. Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism. and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. to Nowhere in Africa in 2002. Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004).[167] Media German cinema dates back to the earliest years of the medium with the work of Max Skladanowsky. and The Baader Meinhof Complex (2008) have had international success. Lenin! (2003). films such as Good Bye. Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism.

The southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia. for instance.[175] The Michelin guide has awarded nine restaurants in Germany three stars.households.[177] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany Signal Iduna Park is the biggest stadium in Germany . the national alcoholic drink is beer.[176] German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France. In all regions.[172] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine A Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte (literally. share a culinary culture with Switzerland and Austria.4 litres in 2009 it is still among the highest in the world.[174] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany. and is expected to increase further. but at 121. the highest designation. German beer consumption per person is declining. Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV. with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels. while 15 more received two stars.) German cuisine varies from region to region. "Black Forest cherry torte". 2%. meat is often eaten in sausage form.[173] Organic food has gained a market share of ca.

Among the most wellknown footballers areFranz Beckenbauer. theGerman Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide.[178] Association football is the most popular sport. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Formula One driverMichael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career. See also Germany portal European Union portal Outline of Germany  Index of Germany-related articles References  .[178] Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Other popular spectator sports include handball. The German national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954. Additionally. 1974 and 1990 and the UEFA European Football Championship in 1972. Lothar Matthäus. he is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. combining East and West German medals. and tennis.[181] Germany has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice.basketball. Jürgen Klinsmann. 1980 and 1996. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans. and Oliver Kahn. With more than 6. Germany finished fifth in the medal count.Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. volleyball. and Audi has won it 9 times. Gerd Müller. The Winter Olympic Games took place in Germany once in 1936 in the twin towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen. in Berlin in1936 and in Munich in 1972.3 million official members. ice hockey. having won more Formula One World Drivers' Championships and more Formula One races than any other driver. German sportsmen have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games.[180] while in the 2006 Winter Olympics they finished first.[178]The Bundesliga attracts the second highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.[179] Historically. Germany hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Football Championship in 1988. In the2008 Summer Olympics. 16 times. an annual endurance race held in France. ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.

Germany is an advocate of closer European economic and political integration.5%.9%. a large capital stock.[98] Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2010. with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion. on 1 January 2002. standards of living and per capita incomes remain significantly higher in the states of the former West Germany than in the former East.[53] The average national unemployment rate in 2010 was about 7. Germany introduced the common European currency.[93] and the fifth largest by PPP[93] in 2009.[92]It has the largest national economy in Europe. Its commercial policies are increasingly determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. 37 are headquartered in . the Eurozone (dark blue). and agriculture 0. the fourth largest by nominal GDP in the world. and of the EU single market. The service sectorcontributes approximately 71% of the total GDP.[90] Germany has a social market economy with a highly qualified labour force. industry 28%.A Mercedes-Benz car. the euro.[53] Germany is part of a monetary union.[94][95] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank. a low level of corruption.[97] In January 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn and a subsequent rise in unemployment rates.[96] The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process scheduled to last until the year 2019. Two decades after German reunification.[91] and a high level of innovation. Germany was the world's leading exporter of goods from 2003 to 2008. the Fortune Global 500.

000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.065 95. €) Profit (Mil.Germany.516 569 241.305 2 Daimler AG Stuttgart 99.951 4. and Nivea. BMW.399 72. Volkswagen. Adidas.897 4.[100] The list includes the largest companies by turnover in 2009. Well-known global brands are MercedesBenz. € ) Employee s (World) 1 Volkswagen AG Wolfsburg 108.ON AG 5 Metro AG Deutsche Post AG Düsseldorf Düsseldorf 6 Bonn 63.815 242.512 1.731 64.175 .389 475.806 7. Allianz.200 87.488 68. Around 1.426 8 BASF SE 57. SAP.[99] Germany is recognised for its specialised small and medium enterprises.Audi.120 329. the German stock market index.378 3 Siemens AG Munich/Berlin 4 E.337 3.100 7 Deutsche Bonn Telekom AG Ludwigshafen 62. 30 Germany-based companies are included in the DAX.985 3. Porsche.382 398. Unranked are the largest bank and the largest insurance company in 2007: Rank[10 1] Name Headquarter s Revenu e (Mil.204 825 272. Siemens.

350 Infrastructure Main articles: Transport in Germany and Energy in Germany The ICE 3 train With its central position in Europe. €) 56.018 Profit (Mil.723 2.102 191. Germany is a .126 Employee s (World) 107.Rank[10 1] Name Headquarter s Revenu e (Mil.539 9 BMW AG Munich 10 ThyssenKrup Essen/Duisburg p AG 51. € ) 3.

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