Bapton Books Aphorisms Observ ations on Politics and Economics

Markham Sha w Pyle GMW Wemyss

Bapton Books

References to: The Bapton Books Sampler: a literary chrestomathy Amazon UK Amazon US The Transatlantic Disputations: Essays & Observations Amazon UK Amazon US Paperback on demand The Confidence of the House: ay !"#$ Amazon UK Amazon US Paperback on demand %&ools' Drunks' and the (nited States): *u+ust !,' !"#! Amazon US Amazon UK Paperback on demand -hen That .reat Ship -ent Do/n: the le+al and political repercussions of the loss of 0 S Titanic Amazon US Amazon UK Paperback on demand

On public choice economics (and Titanic):
Pro!ressi"es ob#ect to capitalism onl$ %hen it is not re!ulated and not cronies %ith the re!ulators: the insi!hts of public choice economics& the risks of re!ulator$ capture ' as the (US Senate) subcommittee had itself been s%iftl$ and silent captured b$ *arconi ' do not occur to the Pro!ressi"e mind& because the$ rest upon a premise that the Pro!ressi"e mind cannot entertain: that re!ulators& bureaucrats and politicians& ha"e the same failin!s& passions& susceptibilit$ to corruption& and price as ha"e capitalists (and e"er$one else)+ Pro!ressi"ism cannot reco!nise the doctrine of Ori!inal Sin: it admits that& as *adison %rote in The &ederalist' !o"ernment is necessar$ because the !o"erned are men and not an!els, but it cannot bear that the !o"ernors are realised to be mortal and unan!elic+

On re!ulator$ capture and cron$ capitalism (and Titanic):
The Atlantic liners %ere all of them s$mbols& then and after& to the end of the trade+ -unard %ere subsidised b$ .* /o"ernment to 0l$ the 0la!+ American shippin! lines %on subsidies+ The 0rench !o"ernment to the "er$ end assisted the 0rench 1ine& the Compa+nie .1n1rale Transatlanti2ue' %ith mail contracts and fleet concessions& a method that continued throu!h the launch of &rance in 2342+ There %ere S%edish lines& 5utch lines& 6orth /erman 1lo$d& .ambur! America + 7f the industr$ had captured its re!ulators& it had

first been captured itself b$ !o"ernments: enterprises that had been undertaken as bold capitalist "entures had lon! since become "essels of cron$ capitalism+ And if this %as so of the shippin! companies& it %as still more so of the *arconi companies+ The stor$ of Titanic is& then& the stor$ ' as it is the stor$ of all liners ' not onl$ of re!ulator$ capture, it& and the stor$ of all the liners of the da$& is not the stor$ onl$ of an en!ineerin! consensus& a smu! belief that The Science 8as Settled: it is

also the stor$ of an industr$ that %as as a %hole beset b$ and happil$ entoiled in corporatism& bein! a monopolistic and rent9seekin! :interlockin! directorate; of business and !o"ernment in restraint of trade and a!ainst the public interest and public safet$+2 ( ) The onl$ colourable ar!ument a!ainst capitalism is the beha"iour of capitalists& as the ar!ument a!ainst the -hurch is the beha"iour of -hristians+ 7n the first instance& at an$ e"ent (theolo!$ bein! out%ith the scope of this %ork)& the beha"iour of capitalists that brin!s capitalism into disrepute is precisel$ not capitalistic beha"iour+ The !reat enem$ of cron$ capitalism is the true capitalist+ <et the un9 capitalistic beha"iour of capitalists ' heretical& as it %ere& beha"iour ' is the result of po%erful temptations& difficult to resist: and speciall$ so for the lar!er concerns& =i! =usiness+ The lar!er the business concern& the more fa"ourabl$ it re!ards& despite its loud but pro forma protests& !o"ernmental re!ulation+ After all& the !o"ernmental re!ulations establishin! a minimum standard of beha"iour or safet$ or %hat ha"e $ou& ine"itabl$ become the ma>imum standard& and a defence in la%+ The politicians and bureaucrats %ho establish these re!ulations are either nescient in the technical aspects of the matter& in %hich case the$ are amenable to bein! !uided and
1 Of course it is possible to be pro-(big)-business and anti-free-market. Simply read the Financial Times to see how they do it. It’s pink for a reason, you know....

informed b$ the e>pertise of industr$& or& if the$ are themsel"es technicall$ informed& are amenable to remunerati"e positions in that industr$ %hen the$ shall ha"e left their ill9pa$in! !o"ernment posts+ 7n either case& re!ulator$ capture is fatall$ eas$ for a ma#or industr$ and its lar!er concerns+ All re!ulation acts as a dra! upon commerce: but there are al%a$s loopholes& commonl$ inserted b$ the re!ulated industr$ in the process of re!ulator$ capture and political influence& and the$ are carefull$ desi!ned to be e>ploited and e>ploitable onl$ b$ the lar!e corporations that possess the %here%ithal to deplo$ men of la%& chartered accountants& and lobb$ists b$ the dozen+ 0or a lar!e corporation& !o"ernment is an anno$ance: it is not the enem$+ The enem$ is competition& and particularl$ upstart competition+ 7t is %ith business concerns as it is %ith ships: size matters+ ?"en as Olympic and Titanic could upset smaller "essels in their %akes& a lar!e compan$ can e>ploit re!ulation to cripple a smaller+ A lar!e ship& of considerable burthen and drau!ht& %ith its centre of !ra"it$ %ell belo% the %aterline& can pass throu!h currents and %inds that li!hter "essels are %recked b$+ A re!ulator$ scheme that reduces a lar!e compan$;s di"idend b$ tuppence can cripple and bankrupt three smaller firms& thereb$ protectin! the lar!e corporation from their %ould9be competitors; inno"ation& in"ention& superior customer ser"ice& and competiti"e reduction in price+

=i! =usiness also naturall$ en#o$s the benefits of cron$ capitalism& %ith the State in its pocket and contrari%ise: a commercial protection racket to %hich !o"ernments of a "a!uel$ 1eftist stripe are peculiarl$ and speciall$ prone+ Of course =i! =usiness makes the appropriate noises& and rails and screams a!ainst oppressi"e re!ulation the bank+ 7n this is the !enesis of all trusts and anti9competiti"e arran!ements+ all the %a$ to

On constitutional reform (and Titanic):
The Parliament Act 2322 %hich emasculated the 1ords had ' t$picall$ of a 1iberal bill in the a!e after /ladstone ' been at once practical and starr$9e$ed& and& a!ain t$picall$& it had not been %ithout its tincture of humbu!+ Sir ?d%ard /re$ %as& as 0orei!n Secretar$& incisi"e and clear9thinkin! as became one of =arin!;s ' 1ord -romer;s ' prot@!@s, but his romantic 1iberalism had come too much to the fore %hen he had charmed -abinet and the P* into insertin!& in the preamble of %hat became the Parliament Act 2322& the fateful statement that it is intended to substitute for the House of 3ords as it at present e4ists a Second Chamber constituted on a popular instead of hereditary basis' but such substitution cannot be immediately brou+ht into operation5 and /hereas provision /ill re2uire hereafter to be made by 6arliament in a measure effectin+ such substitution for limitin+ and definin+ the po/ers of the ne/ Second Chamber' but it is e4pedient to make such provision as in this *ct appears for restrictin+ the e4istin+ po/ers of the House of 3ords78 Practicall$& this Aui>otic aspiration has bede"illed =ritish

politics for the succeedin! centur$+ ?ither the Upper .ouse is popularl$ elected& or it is not+ 7f it is& then the loss of the 1ord;s "eto& and the practical impossibilit$ of restrictin! to members of -ommons the opportunit$ to become prime minister& are no lon!er supportable& althou!h it %as precisel$ to secure these ends that the Act %as put throu!h+ 7t %as felt necessar$ that it be put throu!h because the 1ords in 23B3 comprised a permanent -onser"ati"e and Unionist bod$ that simpl$ %ould not cease to block -ommons le!islation that %as not either introduced or accepted b$ the -onser"ati"e and Unionist Part$+ <et if the Upper .ouse is not to be elected& it can be composed onl$ either of hereditaries and life peers& or b$ appointment b$ the !o"ernment of the da$: in the latter case especiall$ recreatin! the problems of 23B3& in %hich an out!oin! ministr$ of one part$ can create a ma#orit$ in the appointed Upper .ouse that ma$ and shall then th%art as much as possible the ne% ministr$ as put in place b$ the people in a !eneral election+ And as -arson %as so soon to sa$ %ith scorn in repl$in! to the .ome Rule =ill& %hich proposed for 7reland an Upper .ouse nominated b$ an 7rish premier& a nominated Upper .ouse is the lumber room of prime9ministerial cronies& and ser"es thus to reduce the abilit$ of the le!islature to check the o"er%eenin! e>ecuti"e+

*SP on Pro!ressi"ism:
7n man$ %a$s& -harles A+ 1indber!h %as a "er$ simple man: simple9minded& half the time+ That %as not an e>cuse+ .e %as b$ back!round a prairie Republican& and b$ s$mpath$ a Pro!ressi"e& and both those breeds had and ha"e a marked tendenc$ to belie"e in that spectrum of thou!ht that mi>es en"ironmental crusadin! %ith eu!enics to create a bien9pensant form of racism+ O"er the course of his life& 1ind$ %ould e>hibit e"er$ s$mptom of this intellectual conta!ion& up to and includin! the /reat 8hite 0ather S$ndrome that& in the name of en"ironmentalism and protection of the Cnati"es&D treats Cprimiti"eD ' i+e+& non9%hite ' peoples as pets or zoo e>hibits to be preser"ed in parks and forbidden to chan!e their Auaint& charmin! little %a$s& m$ dear& ho% deliciousl$ primitive and natural + 7n Au!ust of 23E2& much of the =ritish 1abour Part$ ' its intelli!entsia and the Parliamentar$ part$ alike ' %as& like the 0abian Societ$& casuall$ racist in a sei!niorial& paternalistic %a$& and %holl$ persuaded of the claims of Ceu!enic science+D 7n America& %hite Southerners %ere& in ninet$9nine

cases out of a hundred& unapolo!eticall$ racist& %ith the full appro"al of their consciences& althou!h& dependin! upon class and breedin!& that racism ran the !amut& from outri!ht& po; %hite trash& mudsill hatred and an itch for l$nchin!& to Ol; *assa kindliness so lon+ as the :;e+ro< :kne/ his place< and didn)t +et :uppity8< =ut Republicans and 5emocrats alike %ere liable to the more CscientificD claims of eu!enics and racism+ Oli"er 8endell .olmes& Fr+& had fou!ht for the Union and for abolition and emancipation, but he had also %ritten the ma#orit$ opinion in Buck v Bell' GHE US GBB& EH S+ -t+ IJE& H2 1+ ?d+ 2BBB (23GH)& upholdin! a pro!ram of eu!enics and compulsor$ sterilization of the CunfitD that %ould ha"e passed muster at a 6urember! Rall$+ (The sole dissenter %as Fustice Pierce =utler& an 7rish -atholic 5emocrat from *innesota+) Unionists& patricians& Kuakers& en"ironmentalists& conser"ationists& Transcendentalists& eminentl$ %ise #urists& clerics& la%$ers& and doctors (althou!h& naturall$& no 7ndian chiefs)& all banded to!ether to craft and promote theories of Cracial h$!ieneD and policies of sterilization and restrictions on the immi!ration of the 1esser =reeds 8ithout the 1a% (that the$ mi!ht ha"e been misreadin! Kiplin! s%eated them "er$ li!htl$& if at all)+ ( ) Pro!ressi"ism then as no% had that trul$ a!!ra"atin! habit of assertin! that the claimed purit$ of its ends #ustified an$ means %hate"er, and as %e;"e seen& the pro!ressi"es9so9

called had (as the$ still ha"e) some monstrousl$ u!l$ bedfello%s and a ri!ht smart of filth$ associations& %ith racism and eu!enics and all the rest of it+ Anti9Semitism %as included free of char!e+ ( ) The pacifists and isolationists and distrusters of international (i+e+& CFe%ishD) finance %ho %ere hi!h behind the 6$e -ommittee from the !et9!o %ere prett$ lar!el$ the same people %ho %ould !o on to be True =elie"ers in America 0irst: pro!ressi"es& modernists& isolationists& beer9 hall =undists& Socialists (6orman Thomas %as to be a prominent America90irster)& the bien9pensant and the ele"ated+ (America 0irst %as to ha"e as members Potter Ste%art& /erald 0ord& /ore Lidal& e+ e+ cummin!s& Sinclair 1e%is& F0K& and Sar!ent Shri"er+) Support for the 6$e -ommittee& like later support for America 0irst and for isolationism (and pacifism) in !eneral& combined the %orst elements of the -hildren;s -rusade& the .itler <outh& and the Komsomol+ (+++) ?i!ht$ $ears before& Oli"er 8endell .olmes& Fr+& had been ' as he had ne"er ceased to remind people (the problem %ith *r+ Fustice .olmes %as that he %as a !reat and !ood man and kne% it) ' C%ounded in the breast at =all;s =luffD as a $oun! Union soldier+ .e %as no% si> $ears in his !ra"e& but his influence& like Fohn =ro%n;s& %ent marchin! on: not least in Pro!ressi"e circles+ 7n Schenck v (nited States' GE3 US EH& M3 S+ -t+ GEH& 4M 1+ ?d+ EHB (2323)& he had %ritten for a unanimous -ourt in upholdin! a con"iction under the

?spiona!e Act of 232H: *r+ Schenck had pamphleted a!ainst the draft in the /reat 8ar+ This& the -ourt found& %as akin to shoutin! C0ireND in a cro%ded theater& and free speech did not protect C%ords used in such circumstances and of such a nature as to create a clear and present dan!er that the$ %ill brin! about the substanti"e e"ils that -on!ress has a ri!ht to pre"ent+D .is subseAuent dissent to the application of that test& in *brams v (nited States' GIB US 424& EB S+ -t+ 2H& 4M 1+ ?d+ 22HM (2323)& and the -ourt;s retreat from that position in -hitney v California' GEH US MIH& EH S+ -t+ 4E2& H2 1+ ?d+ 2B3I (23GH)& did not chan!e the impress he had made upon the American mind+ And of course it %as *r+ Fustice .olmes %ho had made eu!enics and racial Ccleansin!D respectable in Buck v Bell' GHE US GBB& EH S+ -t+ IJE& H2 1+ ?d+ 2BBB (23GH)+ 7n a final& bitter iron$& the .olmesian road ' hi!h9minded& Abolitionist and Unionist& Transcendentalist& Pro!ressi"e ' led ine>orabl$ from .ar"ard and =all;s =luff and Antietam O Sharpsbur! and the hi!h court in 8ashin!ton& to the %inds%ept& bleak& bakin! dust of the internment camp at *anzanar+

/*88 on the totalitarian itch:
=lood9and9thunder %riters& artists& composers& in"erts& Psthetes, blood9and9soil a!rarians of the Ri!ht and of the 1eft, 71P chaps and ultramontanists, morris dancers& neo9pa!ans& self9proclaimed druids& folklorists& economic illiterates and anti9Semites++++ 7t %as a smooth& hand9%orn trade& in its %a$& as Ri!ht or 1eft %as b$ turns the more popularl$ respectable: the totalitarian instinct to interfere& to bull$& and to e>clude took man$ forms+ ( ) Kueer thin!s %ere stirrin!& e"en no%& e"en in the midst of a stark stru!!le that ou!ht b$ ri!hts to ha"e concentrated men;s minds %onderfull$+ =ut the far Ri!ht and their blood9and9soil fantasies& of fat feudal peace and a societ$ of :true9bred =ritons;& these %ere none so far from the far 1eft;s san!uinar$ and Facobin ideal of a %orker;s paradise: both hated and feared capitalists& industrialism& and pro!ress& and eAuated capitalists and industrialists %ith those reall$ "er$ inoffensi"e people the unfortunate and persecuted Fe%s+ 7t %as no accident that the Kinsmen of the Kindred of the Kibbo Kift or!anised in robed -lans: it %as merel$ prudent of

them not to spell :clan; %ith a :K;& like so man$ American Klansmen in a Sherlock .olmes stor$+ And their 8oodcraft 0olk offsprin! %ere little better& in their ori!ins+ That cle"er fello% at the 1S? ' .a$ek& %asn;t itQ ' %as Auite ri!ht to see the links bet%een the ultras of Ri!ht and 1eft+ Keir .ardie and that ra%9boned Rasputin of Red -l$deside& Fames *a>ton& the *ember for /las!o% =rid!eton& %ere not alto!ether remo"ed from the "ie%s of Fenks and /ardiner and that sho%er& at the end of the da$+ That detecti"e stor$ %riter ' the 6e% Realander %ith the odd -hristian name ' had cau!ht the mood of the last fe% $ears all too %ell in Death in Ecstasy' %ith its characters; absurd :6ordic; neo9 pa!anism& their febrile search for thrills& heroic m$th and heroin and rather 6azified nostal!ia for a pre9histor$ that had ne"er been++++ The$ didn;t trust democrac$: that %as the problem+ The$ trusted in folk or blood or class or absurd little plaster reli!ions the$;d made up+ 7t had s%ept the -ontinent after the Kaiser;s 8ar& and s%ept the dictators into po%er %ith it, but ' for all that the failures and follies of the .ouse had half9 #ustified that distrust ' he;d be damned if it %ere !oin! to s%eep =ritain a%a$ %ith it+ ( ) 0i"e $ears pre"ious& %hen both men had died& Kiplin! and -hesterton had seemed relics of an a!e that had died centuries before the men themsel"es+ The$ had been the t%o most9Auoted men of the Auarter9centur$ past, $et in 23MI&

the$ had been alread$ vieu4 =eu8 8ell& *iss *arsh;s !entleman turned -75 man %as no lon!er surrounded b$ =ri!ht <oun! Thin!s in the thrillers& and *iss Allin!ham %as in ?sse> turnin! a %ar diar$ into a memoir& and Fan Struther;s *rs *ini"er %as no lon!er so comfortable and bien9pensant, and dukes& dons& and dustmen %ere& in this sterner hour Auotin!& %ith a sense of redisco"er$& %hole stanzas of Kiplin! and of /K- to one another+ The national mood had chan!ed ' re"erted& perhaps& to the basic mood that accorded %ith the national character+ The air in%ith the -hamber %as stuff$, outside& the airs had chan!ed& fined into keenness+ ( ) Ultras of the 1eft and of the Ri!ht continue to distrust capitalism and $earn for some terrestrial paradise to be created and enforced b$ totalitarian means& united in disdain for commerce and libert$& as Professor .a$ek ne"er ceased to point out+ Fust as 7nterpol can ne"er be %holl$ free of its past as& from 23MJ to 23EI& a fiefdom of the SS and S5& %ith .e$drich and Kaltenbrunner amon!st its past chiefs& so too are the Soil Association and the /reen and or!anic mo"ements& and all of =ritish en"ironmentalism& not free of their histor$ as born of the ne>us of 0ar 1eft and 0ar Ri!ht blood9and9soil racism& eu!enics& nati"ism& and the totalitarian itch for control& the mad& Facobin desire to immanentise the eschaton& b$ force and re"olution if necessar$+

/*88 on Parliamentar$ democrac$:
8ars come and !o, all men must die, but politics and place !o on fore"er+ ( ) :8ithout lookin! for causes& 7 belie"e that if the speeches to %hich %e ha"e listened toda$& criticisin! the /o"ernment in !eneral and the Prime *inister in particular& had substance behind them& the$ %ould be full$ reflected in the postba!s of *embers of Parliament+ 7 ha"e al%a$s found& and 7 am sure other hon+ *embers ha"e found& that %hene"er there is an$ !eneral feelin! of !rie"ance or dissatisfaction one;s constituents are al%a$s read$ to %rite to their *ember and e>press it+; *r Speaker reflected that it %as more often the %indba!s than the postba!s that made the most impression ' for a time+ ( ( ) 8ars come& !o"ernments fall& place and politics ) And as -olonel Sir /eor!e -ourthope *P and outlast all thin!s+ -ommander Southb$ *P had noted& e"en in the midst of their fatuit$& it %as the dictators %ho %ent ' for all their ruthless efficienc$ of command ' and Parliament that sta$ed&

in the end "ictorious+ 7t is in this& perhaps& that inheres and reposes the #ust -onfidence of the .ouse+

The authors on Parliamentar$ democrac$ (and Titanic):
There is and can be no e>cuse for /u!lielmo *arconi;s later adherence to 0ascism: there is no such e>cuse for an$one& at an$ time& full stop+ =ut if one seeks an e>planation& it ma$ be Auite likel$ found in the impression of parliamentar$ democrac$ Si!nor *arconi concei"ed bet%een 232B and 232M& courtes$ of 1lo$d /eor!e& the *aster of ?libank& Samuel& and 7saacs+ 0ascism is a ne!ation& a refusal& a denial of parliamentar$ democrac$& and is nurtured b$ the failures& %hich it cannot see as temporar$ and aberrant& of parliamentar$ democrac$+

/*88 on conser"atism:
There are t%o primar$ strains in the -onser"ati"e Part$: !rocers& and !randees+ 6o%& > am a !rocer+ 7 shall& as al%a$s& e>plain+ =$ :!randees; and :!rocers;& 7 am not referrin! to social class or an$ of that, nor do 7 refer to the 8orshipful -ompan$ of /rocers& all clo"es and camels+ 7 refer rather to t%o fundamental positions %ithin the -onser"ati"e Part$& re!ardless of one;s antecedents+ Super*ac& to be sure& %as a !randee, as %ere 5ou!las9.ome& ?den& and so on+ So is 5a"e -ameron+ =ut so also %as Ted .eath, so also had been =ald%in& 6e"ille -hamberlain& and& thou!h he at least %as ne"er P*& thank /od& Foe -hamberlain+ *ar!aret Thatcher %as a !rocer, so %as Salisbur$+ So %as Peel+ So %as 8inston+ So %as 5izz$& and so ' perhaps because he %as the master of lo!istics and of the aterielschlacht ' %as the duke of 8ellin!ton& bullock9train and all+ 8hat& then& is a !randeeQ A !randee -onser"ati"e sees the countr$ as a "illa!e: a "illa!e of %hich he and his part$& %hen in !o"ernment& act the SAuire+ As the SAuire& the

!randee mo"es #o"iall$ amon!st his tenants in their tied cotta!es& dispensin! lar!esse and reproof + There are t%o problems %ith this model+ The first is that .*/ is not the SAuire and the sub#ects of the -ro%n are not the smocked tenantr$ of the !o"ernment of the da$+ The second is that these principles ' or instincts& as one can hardl$ call them principles ' ho%e"er different the$ ma$ be to the fiercel$ held ma>ims of 1abour old and ne%& lead in the end to the same statist solutions as those the 1eft proposes& and to acceptin! and :mana!in!; statism %hen a -onser"ati"e !o"ernment succeeds a 1abour one+ 7t is the !rocers %ho %ill al%a$s and ri!htl$ attempt to roll back the State and its reach in fa"our of libert$+ 7t ma$ readil$ be seen from this that the -ameroon :!reen -onser"ati"es; are ' like most /reens& %ith their pull9the9 ladder9up9behind9them& %e9;a"e9ours& %e;re9all9ri!ht9Fim attitude ' natural !randees& statists+ The !rocers& b$ contrast& are classical 1iberals+ 7n m$ o%n case& 7 could %ell ha"e been a 1iberal at least as late as 1ord Roseber$;s premiership& or e"en as late& perhaps& as -ampbell9=annerman;s ' until 23BM& sa$+ 8e !rocers are follo%ers of the *anchester School in economics& the heirs of .a$ek and "on *ises& firm belie"ers in economic libert$ as a foundation for personal libert$& the libert$ of the sub#ect+ And it is the libert$ of the sub#ect ' the idea of a "illa!e of free traders and freeholders& not tenants in tied

cotta!es ' that dri"es the !rocer Tor$+ 7t is a commonplace to sa$ that American -onser"ati"es are all 1iberals& there bein! no :blood and soil; Ri!htism in American politics+ There isn;t reall$ an$ such strain in Tor$ism& either (that is %h$ /od created ' or the 5e"il inspired ' the =6P)& and hasn;t been& actuall$& since that rene!ade Radical& Foe -hamberlain& ser"ed under 1ord Salisbur$+ :Soil;: $es, thus the -ountr$side Alliance+ =ut not :blood; ' not e"en if $ou recall the furore o"er the probabl$ misapprehended remarks that effecti"el$ ended ?noch Po%ell;s career+ /rocers and !randees alike are& it is rashl$ belie"ed& eAuall$ attached to the monarch$& the ?stablished -hurch& and the traditions, but those of $ou %ho ha"e read Dr Thorne %ill understand me %hen 7 sa$ that the romanticism of the !randee lea"es off& as a !eneral rule& %here the romanticism of the !rocer be!ins: the !randee& like the duke of Omnium& does not much care %hat happens to the countr$& or the -hurch& or the -ro%n& sa"e as it affects the !randee;s position& pri"ile!es& and emoluments, the !rocer has the innate& =urkean lo$alties of 1ord 5e -ourc$+ =ut these are =urkean and or!anic& and are #ustified to the !rocer as bein! bul%arks of& $es& the libert$ of the sub#ect+ And these classical 1iberals are no%ada$s in the Tor$ part$ ' and there is no real 1iberal Part$ as historicall$ understood ' for t%o reasons: firstl$& that the -onser"ati"e Part$ is the -onser"ati"e and (nionist Part$, and& lastl$& the -onser"ati"e

Part$ is the onl$ a"ailable political home for them+ And this is %here the !rocer Tor$& %hate"er his back!round& finds himself actuall$ preferrin! actual !rocers to actual !randees: for the .i!h Street tradesman is far more likel$ to apprehend the relations bet%een economic and personal libert$ than are an$ number of dukes+ /rocer Tories ' %hether an actual !rocer;s dau!hter or the !randson of the duke of *arlborou!h ' can and do !rasp the romance of commerce as part of the epic of libert$+ .ere endeth the 1esson+

?>plicit 1iber

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