This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
12, DECEMBER 2008 2145
Wireless Optical CDMA LAN:
Digital Design Concepts
Babak M. Ghaffari, Student Member, IEEE, Mehdi D. Matinfar, Student Member, IEEE,
and Jawad A. Salehi, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—In this paper we study and present an indepth
analysis on the operability and the viability of a typical wireless
optical CDMA (OCDMA) local area network. Three receiver
structures for OCDMA systems, using optical orthogonal codes
(OOC) with minimum auto and crosscorrelations as signature
sequence, namely, correlation, correlation with hardlimiter,
and chiplevel detection are studied and proposed for such a
network. For the synchronization circuit design the performance
of two algorithms for OOC based OCDMA networks, namely,
simple serialsearch and multipleshift in the context of wireless
OCDMA LAN are studied. Furthermore, we study a synchroniza
tion method based on matched ﬁltering and show that it presents
a much better performance in our wireless OCDMA system.
The effect of sampling rate and its performance on tracking
circuit is analyzed. Biterrorrate (BER) analysis is performed
by photon counting methodology. Multiuser interference (MUI),
ambient light, and photodetector dark current are considered in
our analysis. Our analysis strongly indicates the viability and
practicality of such systems in certain important wireless optical
communications systems.
Index Terms—OCDMA, wireless optical LAN, optical orthogo
nal codes, synchronization, acquisition, tracking, sampling effect.
I. INTRODUCTION
W
IRELESS local area networks have attracted an un
expected growth in research and development due
to its feasibility, wide range of applications, market needs,
and consumers’ considerable demands. Consequently various
standards have been developed for many speciﬁc applications
and systems. Along with radio wireless LANs, optical wireless
LANs are beginning to enjoy their special growth [13]. It is
believed that wireless optical LANs will acquire in importance
where security is of concern and where obtaining radio fre
quency band would not be economical. Furthermore optical
wireless LANs are of immense interest in places such as
hospitals and inside planes where electromagnetic interference
is of utmost concern. And with progress in optical devices
technologies considerable improvement in quality of service
for these types of networks is within the reach [410].
In this paper we study and analyze practical digital de
signs in implementing a typical CDMA based infrared lo
Paper approved by W. C. Kwong, the Editor for Optical Networks of
the IEEE Communications Society. Manuscript received September 4, 2006;
revised February 10, 2007. This work was supported in part by Iran National
Science Foundation (INSF).
The authors are with the Optical Networks Research Laboratory
(ONRL), Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Tech
nology, Tehran, Iran (email: babakghf@ieee.org, matinfar@ee.sharif.edu
jasalehi@sharif.edu).
Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TCOMM.2008.060495
cal area network prototype. Optical code division multiple
access (OCDMA) was ﬁrst suggested for use in ﬁberoptic
communications [1114]. However, applying this technique
to infrared media has been proposed recently [1520]. This
paper begins by studying and discussing the structures and
principles of a wireless OCDMA LAN. In this system, all
users communicate asynchronously. Optical Orthogonal Codes
(OOCs) are used as the signature sequence to separate the
active users’ information. In this paper we assume a simple
Line of Sight (LoS) model for the optical channel, and we
focus on the performance of various types of OCDMA re
ceivers using photon counting process. In the next part of this
paper we consider a diffused or nondirected optical channel
and the analysis takes into account the multipath effect and
the corresponding channel models [58]. Optical transmitters
and receivers considered here use Intensity Modulation/Direct
Detection (IM/DD) technique with OnOff Keying (OOK)
signaling for data communication.
In the analysis, the sampled value of the detected photons
is assumed to be a random variable with Poisson distribution.
The effect of background noise such as sunlight and ﬂorescent
lights and also the effect of photodetector dark current on the
system performance is obtained. The main difference between
a ﬁberoptic and a wireless OCDMA receiver is that in the
former the detection process can be performed in the optical
domain. For example, optical hardlimiter can be placed in the
path of incident optical signal. Also ﬁber tappeddelay lines
can be designed to act as a correlator before photodetection.
But in our wireless optical system which is implemented
on a digital platform all detection operations including hard
limiting and correlation is performed after photodetection. For
this reason we study various receiver structures proposed for
ﬁberoptic CDMA that can be used in a typical indoor wireless
optical network such as chiplevel receiver and correlation
+ hardlimiter with sunlight, ﬂorescent lights, and photode
tector dark current as the background noise. Synchronization
circuitry which plays an important role in a typical CDMA
receiver consists of acquisition and tracking blocks. In the
acquisition stage the CDMA receiver is synchronized with an
accuracy which is within half of chip time with its corre
sponding code in the startup phase. The exact and dynamic
synchronization is achieved during the tracking stage. Some
algorithms have been proposed to be used in the acquisition
block of an OCDMA receiver using OOC sequence [21
23]. In this paper we suggest one such acquisition technique
namely matchﬁltering, and compare its performance with
00906778/08$25.00 c 2008 IEEE
2146 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008
Fig. 1. A typical wireless OCDMA LAN containing a base station and n
users.
simple and multipleshift serial search algorithms. In a digital
system, tracking circuit precision depends on the rate of
the fastest achievable clock. Consequently, tracking action in
digital systems may not be performed exactly as in some
analog systems. Thereby we evaluate the effect of sampling
on tracking operation and obtain the power penalty needed to
mitigate this undesired effect.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section
II a typical wireless OCDMA network with three receiver
structures in their digital forms are discussed. In section III
we obtain expressions corresponding to BER for each receiver
structure. Section IV describes and obtains the acquisition
methods and their performance. In section V tracking circuit
and the effect of sampling on its performance is discussed.
Section VI concludes the paper.
II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND VARIOUS RECEIVER
STRUCTURES
It is almost impossible to implement an irregular and ad
hoc network architecture for a wireless optical LAN due to the
limitations of optical waves propagation properties. Especially,
one or more base stations are needed to act as a bridge
when a local network needs to be connected to a global
network such as internet. Fig. 1 shows our system architecture
which includes one base station, with a single pair of optical
transmitter and receiver, and n user stations, each having a
pair of optical transmitter and receiver.
With respect to the maximum number of permitted active
users in the network and the desired code length, a set of
OOCs is deﬁned and each code is assigned to each active user.
In this system each active user is assigned a signature sequence
from a set of OOC which is speciﬁed by (F, w, λ
a
, λ
c
) , where
F indicates the code length, w is the code weight, λ
a
and
λ
c
are the maximum value allowed for autocorrelation and
crosscorrelation of the code set in use. It is well known that
the minimum value for λ
a
and λ
c
is equal to one due to the
fact that in IM/DD format optical pulses are unipolar. For
λ
a
= λ
c
= 1 the maximum number of codes in an OOC set,
which limits the network capacity, is obtained as follows [11],
N ≤
_
F − 1
w(w −1)
_
(1)
Assuming each user’s coded data as a binary stream we
consider the downlink signal as the logically gated OR
(summer + limiter) of all users’ OOC coded data stream
simultaneously which drives an optical transmitter such as
a LED. So downlink can be considered as a synchronous
OCDMA link.
Lemma 1: For an OOC set (F, w, 1, 1) , downlink multiuser
interference can be omitted if N <
F
w
2
+ 1.
Proof : Consider user 1 OOC code as the reference code.
So, there are F −w
2
possible cyclic shifts for OOC code 2 in
which there are no interference between code 1 and code 2.
Likewise, there are F − 2w
2
possible cyclic shifts for OOC
code 3 in which there are no interference between code 1,
code 2, and code 3. Continuing this process if we have F −
(N − 1)w
2
> 0 then all the N OOC codes, each one with a
proper cyclic shift, can be inserted into a F chips length frame
such that no overlap, i.e., no interference, between them would
exist.
Downlink Signal Channel
From the above lemma we can deﬁne the downlink signal
to be as follows,
Y
downlink
(t) = y
(1)
downlink
(t)∨y
(2)
downlink
(t)∨... ∨y
(N)
downlink
(t)
(2)
where y
(k)
downlink
is the kth user’s downlink OOC signal and
∨ indicates the OR logic operation among the signals. Note
that since downlink signal channel is based on synchronous
OCDMA then all the elements that constitute Y
downlink
(t)
are 0 or 1. By using OOK modulation each y
(k)
downlink
can be
expressed as:
y
(k)
downlink
(t) =
∞
i=−∞
F
j=1
d
(k)
i
c
(k)
j
P
T
c
(t −iT
b
−jT
c
) (3)
where {d
(k)
i
}
i
is downlink bit stream of user k with bit
duration T
b
and chip duration T
c
= T
b
/F , and {c
(k)
j
}
F
j=1
denotes the kth OOC code pattern and P
T
c
(t) is a rectangular
pulse deﬁned as,
P
T
c
(t) =
_
1 0 ≤ t < T
c
0 otherwise
(4)
Uplink Signal Channel
On the other hand in the uplink channel all active users send
their data bits asynchronously on the common channel and
therefore uplink signal is comprised from analog summation
of all users’ optical intensity transmitted signals. Hence, we
can write the uplink signal as follows,
Y
uplink
(t) =
N
k=1
y
(k)
uplink
(t −τ
k
) (5)
where y
(k)
uplink
(t) is uplink signal due to the kth user and τ
k
indicates kth user delay time with respect to the base station
reference clock and we have,
y
(k)
uplink
(t) =
∞
i=−∞
F
j=1
u
(k)
i
c
(k)
j
P
T
c
(t −iT
b
−jT
c
) (6)
where {u
(k)
i
}
i
is uplink bit stream of user k.
In the design of any wireless CDMA communication net
work nearfar problem needs to be addressed and for wire
less OCDMA LAN the nearfar problem and the required
power control algorithms are discussed in [17]. From [17] the
nearfar problem in wireless OCDMA LAN requires speciﬁc
GHAFFARI et al.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2147
Fig. 2. Various digital structures for a wireless OCDMA receiver (a)
Correlator (b) Correlator + Hardlimiter (c) Chiplevel detector.
algorithms to mitigate its effect such as the use of proper
AGC circuit. Hence, in this paper we assume the existence
of power control algorithms therefore we can safely ignore
the nearfar problem such that all users have equal power in
the uplink channel. Appendix B discusses a methodology on
power budget computation and obtains the minimum required
power level of an optical transmitter that guarantees proper
operation of a typical wireless OCDMA receiver.
In what follows we describe three viable and relevant
receiver structures for a wireless OCDMA system, discuss
their pros and cons in the context of digital design and
implementation, and obtain their performance in both uplink
and downlink channels and compare their performance.
A. Simple Correlator
Correlation receiver is the most propounded structure for
OCDMA systems. This simple receiver involves a matched
ﬁlter, corresponding to its code pattern, and an integrator
followed by a sampler. In optical ﬁber CDMA systems the
matched ﬁlter can be implemented by ﬁber tappeddelay lines
at their receivers. However, in a typical wireless OCDMA
LAN system where the speed of operation is not very high and
the distances are relatively short correlation may take place
after the photodetection at the receiver. In such a receiver the
signal at the output of photodetector is sampled by an analog
todigital converter (A/D) at a rate which is n
s
times of the
OOC chip rate, as shown in Fig. 2(a). The correlation of the
received signal with the desired users’ code can be evaluated
by the summation of wn
s
samples of received signal in all
marked pulse chips of one bit duration using a simple adder.
A buffer after the A/D operation saves the results of addition
at each sampling time instant and resets at the end of the bit
time. At the end of the bit duration, the accumulated value
that is saved in the buffer, i.e., correlation value, is compared
with an optimum threshold.
B. Correlator + Hardlimiter
It is shown that multiuser interference effect can be reduced
by using an optical hardlimiter or optical AND logic gate
in a ﬁberoptic CDMA receiver using unipolar codes such
as OOCs, [11,13]. But as discussed before for our wireless
OCDMA LAN receiver, the hardlimiter (electronic) is placed
after the photodetector instead of being placed before the
photodetector, Fig. 2(b). In our analysis, the electronic hard
limiter is modeled by a oneinput oneoutput block with a
predetermined threshold value. A simple hard limiting takes
place using an analog circuit as shown in Fig. 2(b). Thus, each
sample from wn
s
samples has a binary value at the sampler
output. The remaining operations are similar to the correlator
receiver. In this structure, due to hardlimiting, the effect of
multiuser interference is substantially reduced [25], as well
as it simpliﬁes the implementation since sampling operation
can be done along with other processes for example in a Field
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) without using a separate
A/D circuitry.
C. Chiplevel Detector
Chiplevel receiver was ﬁrst introduced for ﬁberoptic
CDMA [14] where decision is based upon each pulsed mark
chip received power, constituting the desired OOC, instead
of their combined power value. In this structure, the received
power of each pulsed mark chip is compared with an optimum
threshold. Bit ’1’ is decided if and only if all the w pulsed
chips’ power are greater than the optimum threshold otherwise
bit ’0’ is decided. The notion and the operation of chiplevel
receiver is not the same as correlation and correlation + hard
limiter receiver, but its digital implementation is similar to
correlation + hardlimiter structure. From a digital design point
of view a decision on each pulsed mark chips is made based
on the summation of each pulsed mark chip samples. Fig.
2(c) shows the operation of the chiplevel detector. Each arm
is dedicated for detecting one pulsed mark chip. At the ﬁrst
step the summation of the samples in each pulsed mark chip is
evaluated by an adder and buffer in each arm. Finally, if all the
resulting values due to w arms are greater than the optimum
threshold bit ’1’ is decided otherwise bit ’0’ is decided.
III. BER ANALYSIS
A. Simple Correlator
In this section we study and obtain the performance of the
above mentioned receiver structures from digital design and
implementational point of view. In digital structures, a low
pass ﬁlter followed by an analog to digital converter, A/D,
are placed after the photodetector as discussed in section II.
By assuming a lowpass ﬁlter with rectangular shape response
equal to P
T
f
(t) with T
f
= T
c
/n
s
, then the digital receiver
acts as an integrate and dump circuit which is an optimum
receiver for single user case in optical communication systems
with Poisson channel [28]. Although, n
s
= 1 is sufﬁcient
for chipsynchronous multiuser interference pattern for a
proper detection, but for implementation purposes and for
tracking circuitry we require to have more samples per chip as
discussed in section V. However, for the sake of mathematical
2148 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008
simplicity and without any loss of generality we obtain the
performance result on detection schemes for n
s
= 1 and
generalization to higher values of n
s
will easily follow from
the above simple case.
Let us consider α = (α
1
, α
2
, ..., α
w
) as the interference
pattern occurred on the pulsed mark chips. In other words α
j
is the number of interferences on the jth pulsed mark chip of
the desired OOC. In a simple correlator receiver structure the
signal generated by integrate and dump circuit has a Poisson
distribution function with a mean equal to [12],
m
d
(l) = [(wd + l)γ
s
+ wγ
b
] T
c
(7)
where l =
w
j=1
α
j
,γ
s
≡ (
2
w
)P
av
η
hν
,γ
b
≡ P
b
η
hν
+
i
dc
q
, and d ∈ {0, 1} indicates the transmitted data bit. P
av
is
the average received signal power on the photodetector area,
P
b
is ambient noise power, γ
s
is the photoelectron count
rate of received signal in a chiptime duration and γ
b
is
the sum of photoelectron count rate of background and dark
current in a chiptime duration, i
dc
and η are the photodetector
dark current and quantum efﬁciency, respectively. Also q,
ν , and h indicate electron charge, optical frequency, and
Planck constant, respectively. To give an insight on the use
of the above parameters, we assume the simplest possible
case namely when there is no multipleaccess interference,
i.e., N − 1 = 0. For this case m
1
= w(γ
s
+ γ
b
)T
c
and m
0
= wγ
b
T
c
, for onoff modulation. If we assume
P
b
= −10.9 dBm, P
av
= −52 dBm and T
c
= n
s
T
f
we
have: m
1
∼
= 8.93722 × 10
7
and m
0
∼
= 8.90184 × 10
7
.
By Gaussian approximation and choosing optimum threshold
the probability of error can be obtained as follows (see for
example [28]):P (errorambient noise) ≈ Q
_
m
1
−m
0
√
m
1
+
√
m
0
_
= Q(18.7) →0
Note that in a typical indoor optical wireless channel,
bandwidths are in the order of 1040MHz [24]. For such low
bandwidths in optical wireless channels, preampliﬁer’s thermal
noise can be ignored with respect to ambient noise [24]. We
consider I
b
= 100μW/cm
2
as the irradiance of ambient noise
on the photodetector area. This value is typical for a receiver
with optical bandwidth as high as 150nm, provided that it
is placed in an environment without direct illumination of
sunlight and without any incandescent lamps at the vicinity
of the receiver [24]. P
b
is related to I
b
as P
b
= I
b
A
d
where
A
d
is the photodetector area.
For a correlator receiver the probability of error conditioned
on l is obtained as follows,
P(El) =
1
2
g
th
(m
0
(l)) +
1
2
−
1
2
g
th
(m
1
(l)) (8)
where,
g
th
(x) =
∞
n=th
x
n
e
−x
n!
(9)
and th is an optimum threshold that minimizes the total
probability of error. Total probability of error is computed by
averaging over l as follows,
P
E
=
N−1
l=0
P
l
(N −1, l)P(El) (10)
where l has a Bionomial distribution function for the uplink
channel, [25]
P
l
(N −1, l) =
_
N −1
l
__
w
2
2F
_
l
_
1 −
w
2
2F
_
N−1−l
(11.a)
In applying the condition of lemma 1, for the downlink
channel we have,
P
l
(N −1, l) = δ(l) (11.b)
where δ(·) denotes Dirac delta function.
B. Correlator + Hardlimiter
For a receiver structure based upon a correlator with a hard
limiter, probability of error depends upon speciﬁc interference
patterns instead of just the total number of interferences. In
this structure we need to have two optimum thresholds instead
of one as in simple correlator receiver. The ﬁrst threshold,
denoted as th
1
, relates to the analog hardlimiter used right
after the photodetector and the front and lowpass ﬁlter. It
means that the average number of incident photons in each
pulsed mark chip is compared to th
1
and a twobinary signal
0 or 1 will be generated. We show the output of analog hard
limiter by a w elements binary vector as n = (n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
w
).
Decision on the transmitted bit is based on the weight k of
vector n. If the weight k is greater than another optimum
threshold, which we denote as th
2
, then bit ’1’ is decided
otherwise bit ’0’ is decided. In Appendix A, we show that for
the correlator + hardlimiter receiver structure the probability
of error conditioned on the interference pattern is as follows,
P(El,
−→
α) =
1
2
w
k=th
2
n∈A
k
w
j=1
_
[g
th
1
(m
0
(α
j
))]
n
j
×
[1 −g
th
1
(m
0
(α
j
))]
(1−n
j
)
_
+
1
2
−
1
2
w
k=th
2
n∈A
k
w
j=1
_
[g
th
1
(m
1
(α
j
))]
n
j
×[1 −g
th
1
(m
1
(α
j
))]
(1−n
j
)
_
(12)
Where A
k
is the set of all welement binary vectors,n , with
weight k. Note that the optimum thresholds are computed iter
atively such that the whole probability of error is minimized.
Also we have,
m
d
(α
j
) = ((d + α
j
)γ
s
+ γ
b
) T
c
, d ∈ {0, 1} (13)
which indicates the average number of incident photons on the
jth pulsed mark chip assuming data bit d ∈ {0, 1} , and α =
(α
1
, α
2
, ..., α
w
) is the occurred interference pattern. Using (9)
in (12) the probability of error for a correlator with a hard
limiter is computed as,
P
E
=
N−1
l=0
α∈B
l
P
l
(l, α)P(El, α) (14)
Where B
l
is the set of all interference patterns with l interfer
ing users. The probability distribution function of interference
pattern with α = (α
1
, α
2
, ..., α
w
) and l =
w
j=1
α
j
can be
evaluated as follows,
P
l
(l, α) = P
l
( αl)P
l
(l, N −1) (15)
GHAFFARI et al.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2149
TABLE I
SYSTEM PARAMETERS
F OOC Length 128
w OOC Weight 5
N Active users number 4,5,6
n
s
Samples per chip 4
η Photodetector quantum efﬁciency 0.8
λ Optical wavelength 870 nm
I
b
Ambient light irradiance on the photodetector 100 μW/cm
2
i
d
Photodetector dark current 10 nA
A
d
Photodetector area 1 cm
2
T
f
Low pass ﬁlter response time 15.625 ns
α can be produced in
_
l
α
1
,α
2
,...,α
w
_
=
l!
w
j=1
(α
j
)!
ways each with
probability
1
w
l
[12]. Thus for the uplink channel we have:
P
l
( αl) =
l !
w
l
w
j=1
(α
j
)!
(16.a)
and for the downlink channel:
P
l
( αl) = δ( α) (16.b)
Finally, using (11.a), (11.b), (16.a) and (16.b) in (15) the
probability distribution function of interference pattern is
evaluated as follows for the uplink channel,
P
l
(l, α) =
(N −1)!
w
l
(N −1 −l)!
w
j=1
(α
j
)!
_
w
2
2F
_
l
_
1 −
w
2
2F
_
N−1−l
(17.a)
and for the downlink channel,
P
l
(l, α) = δ(l)δ( α) (17.b)
C. Chiplevel Detector
In a chiplevel structure, received power of each pulsed
mark chips is compared with an optimum threshold. Bit ’1’ is
decided if and only if all w pulsed chips’ power are greater
than an optimum threshold and ’0’ is decided otherwise.
Following the analytical approach of the correlator with a
hardlimiter, one can conclude that if the second threshold
value in the correlator with a hardlimiter structure, th
2
, is
replaced by the code weight, w, equations (12)(17) are still
valid for chiplevel structure. However, the value of the ﬁrst
threshold, th
1
, for these two structures may not be the same.
Considering the parameters of Table I which correspond to
a realistic scenario for multiple RS232 outputs (a low speed
system), we have evaluated the analytical result of this section.
Fig. 3 depicts the performance of the three above mentioned
receivers’ structure versus received average optical power, P
av
, in uplink direction. We have considered 6 active users in
this part of the analysis. As we can observe, the probability
of error does not approach zero by increasing average optical
power, since the number of active users are greater than the
code weight which is equal to 5 in this example. Correlator
+ hardlimiter receiver obtains the best performance in signal
−60 −55 −50 −45
10
−7
10
−6
10
−5
10
−4
10
−3
10
−2
10
−1
10
0
P
av
(d Bm)
E
r
r
o
r
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
F = 128
w = 5
N = 6
Correlator
Chip level
Correlator+Hard−limiter
Fig. 3. Performance of various types of receivers vs. received optical power
(uplink).
−60 −59 −58 −57 −56 −55 −54 −53 −52 −51
10
−15
10
−10
10
−5
10
0
P
av
(d Bm)
E
r
r
o
r
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
F = 128
w = 5
N = 6
Correlator
Chip−Level
Correlator+Hard−limiter
Fig. 4. Performance of various types of receivers vs. received optical power
(downlink).
powers of practical interest when compared with other two
receiver structures. For sufﬁciently high signal power, e.g., 
55dBm and higher chiplevel detector performance is fairly
close to correlator + hardlimiter. On the other hand the
simple correlator receiver obtains a better performance than
correlator + hardlimiter and chiplevel receivers, in the low
average power region. But the increase in average received
power P
av
, which indicates stronger interfering users, then
hardlimiter and chiplevel receivers obtain better performance
than the simple correlator, as it is shown in Fig. 3. By
considering the results of Fig. 3, one can conclude that using
chiplevel or hardlimiter structure is a better choice than the
correlator receiver speciﬁcally in the high signal power, i.e.,
≥ −55dBm. For P
av
= −52dBm we observe that the chip
level and hardlimiter structures present an improvement of
about three orders of magnitude over correlation structure.
Fig. 4 shows the performance of the above three receiver
2150 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008
−60 −58 −56 −54 −52 −50 −48
10
−15
10
−10
10
−5
10
0
P
av
(d Bm)
E
r
r
o
r
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
F = 128
w = 5
N = 4
N = 5
N = 6
Fig. 5. Performance of correlator + hard limiter receiver vs. received average
optical power and various number of users for uplink channel.
structures with the same parameters for downlink direction.
The probability of error in this case is considerably lower
than uplink channel since multiuser interference is omitted
in downlink channel as described in section II. Only ambient
light, shot noise effect, and dark current may cause errors
in downlink direction. In Fig. 5 we depict the performance
for various number of active users in the uplink channel for
correlator + hardlimiter receiver. For N = 4 and N = 5 the
probability of error approaches zero by increasing the received
average optical power, since the number of interfering users
is always lower than the code weight. However, with N = 6 ,
probability of error approaches a ﬂoor limit due to multiuser
interference effect.
IV. ACQUISITION ALGORITHMS
In order to extract properly data bits from a spread stream
of pulses, which constitutes the desired OOC receiver needs
to know the correct initial reference time or the phase of the
speciﬁed code pattern that carries the desired information bit.
Assuming chipsynchronous, receiver encounters an ambiguity
equal to F cells, each corresponding to one possible cyclic
shift of the indicated OOC code. At the end of the acquisition
level the correct cell, or equivalently the correct shift is
found. This can be obtained for example by using training
bits which are inserted at the beginning of each frame. Some
algorithms are suggested to be used in acquisition state. For
each algorithm, different number of training bits is required to
meet acquisition with a probability near one. It is evident that
the less training bits required the more efﬁcient the algorithm
in use will be. In the following we present three recently
suggested algorithms for OOC based OCDMA and compare
their performance from digital design point of view in a
wireless OCDMA system.
A. Simple SerialSearch Method
In this approach, one cell is randomly selected and it is
assumed to be the correct cell. A correlation between the
Fig. 6. Markov chain model for simple serial search algorithm
received data and the selected code over a bit time duration
(dwell time) is obtained and the outcome is compared with
an optimum threshold. If the output of the correlation is
greater than the optimum threshold, then the ﬁrst randomly
selected cell is the correct cell. Otherwise, we examine the
next cell. By next cell we imply that a chipsized rotation
replica of the initial cell or phase of the speciﬁed code.
So by continuing this algorithm and in maximum F stages
we obtain the correct cell in the ideal case. Markov chain
model simpliﬁes the analysis of various acquisition algorithms.
Such a model is depicted in Fig. 6 for the so called simple
serialsearch model. Each cell is represented by a node. Here
we assume that the correct cell is the Fth cell. P
D
is the
probability of correct detection. Transmission between each
two cells is represented by a transfer function with parameter
z. The power of z indicates delay in bit duration (T
b
). So we
observe that the transfer function of correct decision on correct
cell is P
D
z and incorrect decision is (1 −P
D
) z. P
D
is not
equal to 1 in the real case due to shot noise effect. Transfer
function between each two incorrect cells is deﬁned as H(z).
Also we denote the false alarm probability by P
FA
. When
correlation on an incorrect shift exceeds optimum threshold a
false alarm is occurred. P
FA
is not equal to zero because of
multipleaccess interference and environmental noise effects.
L indicates the time that the tracking circuit requires to
recognize false decision in an acquisition block. According
to ﬁgure 6 transfer function between each two incorrect cells
is as follows [21],
H (z) = (1 −P
FA
) z + P
FA
z
L+1
(18)
If U
i
(z) denotes the transfer function from cell i to correct cell,
U(z) is obtained by averaging over U
i
(z) for i = 1, 2, . . . , F.
It is shown that the average time to reach the correct cell is
as follows,
E{N
ACQ
} =
d U (z)
d z

z=1
(19)
GHAFFARI et al.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2151
Using the result of [21] for OOC based OCDMA system we
have,
E {N
ACQ
} =
F −1
2
(P
FA
L −1)
+
1
P
D
[F + L(F −1) (1 −P
D
) P
FA
] (20)
Considering correlator structure, P
D
and P
FA
are probabilities
of correct detection and false alarm conditioned on bit ’1’
respectively. So using (8)(11) and according to [21], these
parameters can be computed as follows,
P
D
=
N
l=0
P
l
(N, l)g
th
(m
1
(l)) (21.a)
P
FA
=
N
l=0
P
l
(N, l)g
th
(m
0
(l)) (21.b)
where g
th
(x) and P
l
(N, l) are deﬁned in (9) and (11),
respectively. The threshold th is computed iteratively such
that E{N
ACQ
} achieves its minimum possible value.
B. Multipleshift Method
To reduce average time of acquisition, multipleshift method
was proposed recently [22]. In this method F cells are divided
into Q groups each containing M cells. In the ﬁrst stage of the
algorithm, all M cells of group 1 are examined simultaneously.
If the output of the correlation is greater than a predetermined
optimum threshold then we proceed to second stage, otherwise
examine cells which belong to group 2. In continuing this
process and from [22] in maximum Q steps we obtain the
true group. In the second stage the M possible cells will
be examined one by one similar to the simple serialsearch
method. Fig. 7 shows Markov diagram for multipleshift
method. Assuming that the Qth group contains the correct
cell then the transfer functions H(z) and h(z), between two
incorrect node in the ﬁrst and second stage respectively, are
computed as follows,
H (z) =(1 −P
FA
) z + P
FA
z h
M
(z) (22)
h(z) = (1 −p
fa
) z + p
fa
z
L+1
(23)
Note that in (22) and (23) capital letters refer to the ﬁrst
stage and small letters refer to the second stage respectively.
Assuming that we have found the correct group then similar
to simple serialsearch method an initial random phase v is
then selected. The other transfer functions that are needed to
describe multipleshift method are H
det
(z) and H
miss
(z), the
former being the transfer function from node Q to acquisition
state and the latter being the transfer function from node Q
to node 1. Considering Fig. 7 and using (19) then the average
number of the training bits is computed as,
E(N
Acq
) =
H
det
(1) + H
miss
(1)
p
d
P
D
+ (Q−1) H
(1)
2 −p
d
P
D
2p
d
P
D
(24)
Fig. 7. Markov chain model for Multipleshift algorithm
where
H
(1) = 1 + M P
FA
(1 + Lp
fa
) (25.a)
H
det
(1) =
1
2
p
d
P
D
[(M + 3) + L(M −1)p
fa
] (25.b)
H
miss
(1) = (1 −P
D
)+
P
D
(1 −p
d
)[M + 1 + L(M −1)p
fa
] (25.c)
Considering a correlator structure and from [22], P
D
, p
d
,
P
FA
and p
fa
can be computed as follows,
P
D
=
NM
l=0
P
l
(NM, l)g
TH
(l, m
1
(l)) (26.a)
p
d
=
1
P
D
N
l
1
=0
N(M−1)
l=0
{P
l
(N, l
1
)P
l
(N(M −1), l)}
×{g
th
(m
1
(l
1
)) g
th
(m
1
(l))} (26.b)
P
FA
=
NM
l=0
P
l
(NM, l)g
TH
(m
0
(l)) (26.c)
p
fa
=
1
P
FA
N
l
1
=0
N(M−1)
l=0
{P
l
(N, l
1
)P
l
(N(M − 1), l)}
×{g
th
(m
0
(l
1
)) g
th
(m
0
(l))} (26.d)
where TH and th indicate the ﬁrst and second stage
thresholds respectively and their values are deﬁned such that
E {N
ACQ
} obtained from (24) achieves it’s minimum value.
C. MatchFilter Method
Assume a matchﬁlter containing w delay lines. Each, delay
line value is proportional to the position of pulsed chips
corresponding to its respective OOC. When training bits enter
the matchﬁlter then the output signal is a periodic training
pulse with a width equal to T
c
and a period equal to T
b
.
This implies that in one bit duration we can observe the peak
correlation of the incident signal and code pattern without any
knowledge of the correct initial time reference. As an example
we depict the digital implementation of a matchﬁlter for an
OOC stream with w = 3 in Fig. 8. Considering this idea,
matchﬁltering automatically searches all the F cells within
2152 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008
Fig. 8. An example of digital matchﬁlter for an OOC stream with w=3.
one bit duration instead of F bits duration as in the simple
serialsearch method. The Markov chain model is similar to
that represented for simple serialsearch method, Fig. 6, except
that the dwell time in serialsearch method is equal to one bit
duration, T
b
, but in the matchﬁlter method the dwell time is
reduced to chip duration, T
c
= T
b
/F . According to Fig. 6
and (16), the transfer function H(z) for matchﬁlter method
is,
H (z) = (1 −P
FA
) z
1/F
+ P
FA
z
L+(1/F)
(27)
Inserting (27) in (18) and using (19) we have,
E {N
ACQ
} =
1
P
D
−
F −1
2F
+
L
_
1 −P
D
P
D
_
(F −1) P
FA
+ L
_
F −1
2
_
P
FA
(28)
In Fig. 9 we have depicted the required average number of
training bits for the above three mentioned algorithms. Match
ﬁlter method presents a more efﬁcient algorithm than the other
two methods. Speciﬁcally, in relatively high received power
region one bit is sufﬁcient to acquire acquisition. For multiple
shift algorithm the optimum value for M is ﬁve for nominal
values given in table I. Although multipleshift method is not
as efﬁcient as matchﬁlter, but it represents a more efﬁcient
algorithm when compared to simple serialsearch method.
V. DIGITAL TRACKING CIRCUIT
Tracking circuit performs two key operations in a typical
OCDMA receiver. In general, the received code from acquisi
tion block has an ambiguity in phase or initial time reference
which is less than T
c
/2. The ﬁrst task of the tracking circuit is
to minimize this ambiguity. Digital tracking accuracy depends
on the systems fastest clock speed. The second task for the
tracking circuit is to alarm the out of synchronization state to
the acquisition block. We choose earlylate method for digital
implementation of the tracking circuit [26]. In this method
two separate early and late replica of the reference code,
which is produced by the acquisition block, is generated by
the tracking block. If c(t) denotes the reference code, then
c (t + T
c
/2) and c (t −T
c
/2) are the corresponding early and
late codes, respectively. Now, correlation action takes place
between the training bit stream and the early and late codes.
If the output of both early and late correlators are less than
a threshold that is determined by the detection block and is
computed such that (10) is minimized for L sequential bits,
then ”synchronization out” signal is activated. This signal is
passed to the acquisition block to switch on the acquisition
Fig. 9. Average number of training bits required for various types of
acquisition algorithms
state. To track the original code, the values of early and late
correlator outputs are subtracted, and three actions may be
initiated based on the subtraction result. Selecting a proper
threshold, say th
c
, then a shifted replica to the correlator is
selected as the new reference code if the subtraction result
is greater than th
c
. A shifted replica to the late correlator is
selected if subtraction result is less than −th
c
, otherwise the
main code is selected. To select the proper threshold value,
th
c
, we need to consider two main issues namely th
c
value
must not be so low in order to cause the tracking circuit to
oscillate and not so high in order for tracking circuit not be
able to follow the phase shifts ﬂuctuations.
Furthermore, the sampling rate dramatically affects the
performance of tracking circuit. For very high value of the
sampling rate, digital tracking circuit operation is then fairly
equal to an analog circuit. But in the real cases, the fastest
clock speed of the system limits the number of samples
per chip. To evaluate the effect of sampling on the tracking
operation, and consequently on the system performance, we
need to consider interferences on the ﬁrst cyclic shift of the
desired code as well as interferences on the original phase of
the desired code. In this way, for a correlator structure we show
the number of interferences on the desired code by l
1
and the
number of interferences on the ﬁrst cyclic shift of the desired
code by l
2
. In general the two random variables l
1
and l
2
are
dependent, therefore their joint probability density function is
required for BER analysis of the tracking circuit. To obtain the
joint probability density function of l
1
and l
2
we need to know
all the possible code patterns in the system which prove to be
mathematically tedious and impractical. Let us assume as in
[22], as a simplifying approximating assumption that random
variables l
1
and l
2
are independent. Also we assume that the
offset of tracking circuit reference code and the original phase
of the desired code is equal to τ. Then the average photon
counts that is generated by correlating the incident signal and
the tracking reference code is as follows,
m
d
(l
1
, l
2
, τ) = (wγ
b
+ l
2
γ
s
)τ+
GHAFFARI et al.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2153
−60 −55 −50 −45
10
−20
10
−15
10
−10
10
−5
10
0
P
av
(d Bm)
E
r
r
o
r
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
ns = 3
ns = 4
ns = 5
ns = 8
ns = 16
Analog case ( ns = infinity)
F = 128
w = 5
N = 4
Fig. 10. Effect of sampling on the system performance
[wγ
b
+ (l
1
+ wd)γ
s
] (T
c
−τ) , d ∈ {0, 1} (29)
To compute probability of error conditioned on l
1
, l
2
and τ
we can write,
P(El
1
, l
2
, τ) =
1
2
g
th
[m
0
(l
1
, l
2
, τ)] +
1
2
−
1
2
g
th
[m
1
(l
1
, l
2
, τ)] (30)
g
th
(x) is deﬁned in (9) and th denotes the optimum threshold
for the tracking circuit. The total probability of error, condi
tioned on τ, is computed as follows,
P
E
(τ) =
N−1
l
1
=0
N−1
l
2
=0
P
l
1
(N −1, l
1
)P
l
2
(N −1, l
2
)P(El
1
, l
2
, τ) (31)
P
l
(N − 1, l) is deﬁned in (11) for uplink and downlink
directions. Assuming a sampling rate of n
s
/T
c
then the offset
of tracking reference code and original code can be up to
T
c
/n
s
. Hence, to obtain probability of error, P
E
, we need to
take an average over τ on (31) over the interval [0, T
c
/n
s
].
Assuming a uniform distribution for offset value we can write,
P
E
=
n
s
T
c
T
c
/n
s
_
0
P
E
(τ) dτ (32)
Fig. 10 shows the effect of sampling rate on the system
performance for uplink direction. The results obtained are for
a correlator receiver with several values of sampling rate per
chip. From Fig. 10, we clearly observe that an increase in
sampling rate the digital system performance approaches that
of a perfect analog tracking circuit as expected.
VI. CONCLUSION
We evaluated the performance of various types of digital
receivers in a typical wireless OCDMA indoor local area
network based on photon counting process. Considering the
implementation criteria, digital structures were introduced.
The results show that correlation with hardlimiter not only
obtains the best performance among other receiver structures
such as the simple correlator and chiplevel receivers it
also constitutes a simple implementational structure. However
chiplevel detection performance approaches that of correla
tion with hardlimiter in high power region. Three algorithms
proposed for acquisition circuit are studied using correlator
structure. We show that matchﬁlter method is the superior
algorithm in reducing the number of required training bits.
Also we evaluated the performance of digital tracking circuit
in a wireless OCDMA environment. In our performance
evaluation we considered the effect of the sampling rate on
its performance. The results obtained for the various stages
of the proposed wireless OCDMA LAN strongly indicate
the operability and viability of such networks in certain
applications.
APPENDIX A
In this appendix, we obtain eq. (12). The probability of
error, conditioned on l (the number of interferences) and α
the interference pattern, can be expressed as follows:
P(El, α) =P(d = 0)P(Ed = 0, l, α)
+ P(d = 1)P(Ed = 1, l, α) (A.1)
Where d indicates the transmitted information bit. Assuming
equal probability for transmitting bit ’1’ and ’0’ and indicating
the decided bit with parameter r we can write:
P(El, α) =
1
2
P(r = 1d = 0, l, α)
+
1
2
(1 −P(r = 1d = 1, l, α)) (A.2)
As discussed in section (III.B), the output of the hardlimiter
in one bit duration is denoted by a welement binary vector
α. If the weight of this vector is greater than th
2
, bit ’1’ is
decided, therefore:
P(r = 1d, l, α) =P(
w
j=1
n
j
≥ th
2
d, l, α)
=
w
k=th
2
P(
w
j=1
n
j
= kd, l, α) (A.3)
Let, A
k
denote the set of all welement binary vectors with
weight k, then:
P(
w
j=1
n
j
= kd, l, α) =
n∈A
k
P(n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
w
d, l, α)
(A.4)
Let s
j
denote the number of photoelectrons in the jth pulsed
mark chips, then:
P(n
j
= 1d, l, α) = P(s
j
≥ th
1
d, l, α) = g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
))
P(n
j
= 0d, l, α) = 1 −g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
)) (A.5)
The generalized form for the above equations is as follows,
P(n
j
d, l, α) = [g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
))]
n
j
[1 −g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
))]
(1−n
j
)
(A.6)
2154 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 56, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008
Since random variables {s
j
}
w
j=1
conditioned on l and α are
mutually independent it implies that the random variables
{n
j
}
w
j=1
are also independent and we can write:
P(n
1
, n
2
, n
3
, ..., n
w
d, l, α) =
w
j=1
[g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
))]
n
j
[1 −g
th
1
(m
d
(α
j
))]
(1−n
j
)
(A.7)
Inserting (A.7) in (A.4) and using (A.3) and (A.2) equation
(12) is obtained.
APPENDIX B
In this appendix we discuss the methodologies used to
obtain the minimum power level of an optical transmitter that
guarantees proper operation of a typical short range wireless
OCDMA receiver in the presence of multiuser interference
signal. For the optical transmitter module we consider a fast
LED with a relatively wide angle for optical transmission.
The operational wavelength for the above LED is 870 nm
and its propagation pattern is Lambertian with a halfangle
θ
1/2
equal to 15 degrees. Using a proper driver circuit, the
LED can generate narrow optical pulses with a peak power
as high as 400 mW. For optical receiver module we consider
a PIN photodiode with an operational wavelength which is
compatible to LED’s in use. An optical lens with a 1cm
2
effective area is mounted over this PIN photodiode. In order
to obtain the required power for each chip of the coded data
stream we use a set of OOC with length equal to 128 and
weight equal to 5 to encode the OOC’s pulses. The number of
active users is equal to 4 and TxRx distance has a range of 0.5
to 3 meters. Power budget is obtained under two conditions.
First, we must consider IEC’s class A standard to meet eye
safety conditions [27]. Second, in the worst case misalignment
for TxRx from the ideal line of sight in the presence of all
interfering users, system must operate at a BER less than
10
−9
. In this case we consider received optical power as
follows [3],
P
r
=
_
P
t
R(θ, φ)
d
2
_
A
eff
(B.1)
where P
t
and d are transmitted optical power and TxRx
distance, respectively. A
eff
indicates lens effective area which
is considered 1cm
2
in our analysis, and R(θ, φ) is the prop
agation pattern function of LED. θ and φ are the elevation
and azimuth angles, respectively. The propagation function of
a Lambertian source with order m is deﬁned as [3],
R(θ, φ) =
m + 1
2 π
cos
m
θ (B.2)
If propagation halfangle of optical transmitter is equal to θ
1/2
then m is obtained as follows,
m =
ln (1/2)
ln (cos θ
1/2
)
(B.3)
For a correlator structure with hardlimiter, to obtain a BER
less than 10
−9
, the received optical power P
r
needs to be
at least −52dBm. For the worst case scenario we assume
TxRx distance and misalignment, to be d = 3 m and
θ = 30
◦
respectively. For the above mentioned LED we have
θ
1/2
= 15
◦
and using (B.3) Lambertian order m is equal to 20.
Using (B.2) R(θ, φ) = 0.188 for the worst case. From (B.1)
we obtain P
t
= 3.01mW which is the average transmitted
optical power per bit. Using results of [27] we observe that
maximum allowable transmission power for a typical optical
transmitter operating at 870 nm and a 15
◦
propagation half
angle is equal to 28mW. Hence, our optical transmitter meets
class A standard of IEC. To compute optical power for each
OOC chip pulse in an infrared CDMA transmitter we can
write,
P
t/OOC chip pulse
=
2F
w
P
t
(B.4)
where F and w are OOC code length and weight, respec
tively. So optical power per chip is 154mW, which is less
than maximum achievable power, i.e., 400mW, of the above
mentioned LED.
REFERENCES
[1] F. R. Gfeller and U. H. Bapst, “Wireless inhouse data communication
via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1474–1486,
Nov. 1979.
[2] J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications. Boston: Kluwer, 1994.
[3] J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc.
IEEE, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 265–298, Feb. 1997.
[4] M. Abtahi and H. Hashemi, “Simulation of indoor propagation channel
at infrared frequencies in furnished ofﬁce environments,” in Proc. Sixth
IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio
Communications 1995 (PIMRC’95), vol. 1, pp. 306–310, Sept. 1995.
[5] M. R. Pakravan and M. Kavehrad, and H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless
infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Veh.
Technol., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1053–1073, July 2001.
[6] H. Hashemi, Yun Gang, M. Kavehrad, F. Behbahani, and P. A. Galko,
“Indoor propagation measurements at infrared frequencies for wireless
local area networks applications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 43, no.
3, Part 12, pp. 562–576, Aug. 1994.
[7] S. Jivkova and M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characteriza
tion for multispot highbitrate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE
Trans. Commun., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2145–2153, Dec. 2001.
[8] J. B. Carruthers and J. M. Kahn, “Modeling of nondirected wireless
infrared channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1260–1268,
Oct. 1997.
[9] K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, and S. Jivkova, “Highspeed powerefﬁcient
indoor wireless infrared communication using code combining .I,” IEEE
Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1098–1109, July 2002.
[10] M. Kavehrad and S. Jivkova, “Indoor broadband optical wireless com
munications: optical subsystems designs and their impact on channel
characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 30–35,
Apr. 2003
[11] J. A. Salehi, “Code division multipleaccess techniques in optical ﬁber
networks—part I: fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37,
pp. 824–833, Aug. 1989.
[12] S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, “Analytical comparison of various ﬁberoptic
CDMA receiver structures,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 12,
pp. 1718–1727, Dec. 2000.
[13] S. Mashhadi and J. A. Salehi, “Code division multipleaccess techniques
in optical ﬁber networks—part III: optical AND gate receiver structure with
generalized optical orthogonal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 45, pp.
1457–1468, Aug. 2006.
[14] H. M. H. Shalaby, “Chip level detection in optical code division multiple
access,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 1077–1087, June 1998.
[15] J. M. Elmirghani and R. A. Cyran, “Indoor 1nfrared wireless networks
utilizing PPMCDMA,” in Proc. ICCS, pp. 334–337, 1994.
[16] S. Zahedi and J. A. Salehi, “MAry infrared CDMA for indoors wireless
communications,” in Proc. IEEE PIMRC’ 01, vol. 2, pp. 6–10, Sept./Oct.
2001.
[17] A. AminzadehGohari and M. R. Pakravan, “Analysis of power control
for indoor wireless infrared CDMA communication,” in Proc. 25th IEEE
International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communica
tions Conference (IPCCC 2006), Apr. 2006.
[18] R. Vento, J. Rabadan, R. PerezJimenez, A. Santamaria, and F. J. Lopez
Herandez, “Experimental characterization of a direct sequence spread
spectrum system for inhouse wireless infrared communications,” IEEE
Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1038–1045, Nov. 1999
GHAFFARI et al.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2155
[19] K. K. Wong and T. O’Farrell, “Spread spectrum techniques for indoor
wireless IR communications,” IEEE Wireless Commun. , vol. 10, no. 2,
pp. 54–63, Apr. 2003.
[20] X. N. Fernando, “Performance of an infrared wireless CDMA system,”
in Proc. Digital Wireless Communication V at SPIE’s 17th Annual
Aerosense Symposium, pp. 412–417, Apr. 2003.
[21] A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, “Optical orthogonal code acquisition
in ﬁberoptic CDMA systems via the simple serialsearch method,” IEEE
Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 473–483, Mar. 2002.
[22] A. Keshavarzian and J. A. Salehi, “Multipleshift code acquisition
of optical orthogonal codes in optical CDMA systems,” IEEE Trans.
Commun., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 687–697, Apr. 2005.
[23] M. M. Mustapha and R. F. Ormondroyd, “Performance of a serialsearch
synchronizer for ﬁberbased optical CDMA systems in the presence of
multiuser interference,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3899, pp. 297–306, Nov. 1999.
[24] R. Otte, L. P. de Jong, and A. H. M. van Roermund, LowPower Wireless
Infrared Communications. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.
[25] J. A. Salehi and C. A. Brackett, “Code division multipleaccess tech
niques in optical ﬁber networks—part II: system performance analysis,”
IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, pp. 834–842, Aug. 1989.
[26] R. L. Peterson, D. E. Borth, and R. E. Ziemer, Introduction to Spread
Spectrum Communications. PrenticeHall, 1995.
[27] Int. Electrotech. Commission, CEI/IEC 8251: Safety of Laser Products,
1993. J. D. Rancourt, Optical Thin Film. New York: Macmillan, 1987.
[28] R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications. John Wiley,
1995.
Babak M. Ghaffari (S’06) was born in Tehran,
Iran, on February 18, 1978. He received the B.S.
and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from
Sharif University of Technology (SUT), Tehran, in
2000 and 2002 respectively. He is currently work
ing toward the Ph.D. degree in the Department of
Electrical Engineering at SUT. Since 2002 he has
been with Optical Networks Research Lab (ONRL)
as a member of technical staff. His research interests
include wireless optical and ﬁberoptic communi
cation systems, optical CDMA and multipleaccess
communications.
Mehdi D. Matinfar (S’06) was born in Tehran,
Iran, on May, 1980. He received the B.S. degree
in electrical engineering from Sharif University of
Technology (SUT), Tehran, in 2002 and the M.S.
degree in electrical engineering from Khajeh Nasir
University of Technology (KNUT), Tehran, in 2004.
He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in
the Department of Electrical Engineering at SUT.
From June 2001 to September 2002, he was a mem
ber of Research Staff of the Mobile Communications
Division at Iran Telecommunication Research Cen
ter (ITRC), and since 2003 he has been with Optical Networks Research Lab
(ONRL) as a member of technical staff. His research interests include wireless
communication systems and optical communication systems, speciﬁcally,
optical CDMA and indoor optical communications.
Jawad A. Salehi (M’84SM’07) was born in Kaze
main, Iraq, on December 22, 1956. He received
the B.S. degree from the University of California,
Irvine, in 1979, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
from the University of Southern California (USC),
Los Angeles, in 1980 and 1984, respectively, all
in electrical engineering. He is currently a Full
Professor at the Optical Networks Research Lab
oratory (ONRL), Department of Electrical Engi
neering, Sharif University of Technology (SUT),
Tehran, Iran, where he is also the CoFounder of
the Advanced Communications Research Institute (ACRI). From 1981 to
1984, he was a FullTime Research Assistant at the Communication Science
Institute, USC. From 1984 to 1993, he was a Member of Technical Staff
of the Applied Research Area, Bell Communications Research (Bellcore),
Morristown, NJ. During 1990, he was with the Laboratory of Information and
Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge,
as a Visiting Research Scientist. From 1999 to 2001, he was the Head of the
Mobile Communications Systems Group and the CoDirector of the Advanced
and Wideband CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA) Laboratory, Iran
Telecom Research Center (ITRC), Tehran. From 2003 to 2006, he was the
Director of the National Center of Excellence in Communications Science,
Department of Electrical Engineering, SUT. He is the holder of 12 U.S. patents
on optical CDMA. His current research interests include optical multiaccess
networks, optical orthogonal codes (OOC), ﬁberoptic CDMA, femtosecond
or ultrashort light pulse CDMA, spreadtime CDMA, holographic CDMA,
wireless indoor optical CDMA, alloptical synchronization, and applications
of erbiumdoped ﬁber ampliﬁers (EDFAs) in optical systems. Prof. Salehi
is an Associate Editor for Optical CDMA of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
COMMUNICATIONS since May 2001. In September 2005, he was elected
as the Interim Chair of the IEEE Iran Section. He was the recipient of
several awards including the Bellcore’s Award of Excellence, the Nationwide
Outstanding Research Award from the Ministry of Science, Research, and
Technology in 2003, and the Nation’s Highly Cited Researcher Award in
2004. In 2007 he received Khwarazmi International prize, ﬁrst rank, in
fundamental research and also the outstanding Inventor Award (Gold medal)
from World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Geneva, Switzerland.
He is among the 250 preeminent and most inﬂuential researchers worldwide
in the Institute for Scientiﬁc Information (ISI) Highly Cited in the Computer
Science Category. He is the corecipient of the IEEE’s Best Paper Award in
2004 from the International Symposium on Communications and Information
Technology, Sapporo, Japan.
12. It is well known that the minimum value for λa and λc is equal to one due to the fact that in IM/DD format optical pulses are unipolar. Consequently. With respect to the maximum number of permitted active users in the network and the desired code length. VOL. In the design of any wireless CDMA communication network nearfar problem needs to be addressed and for wireless OCDMA LAN the nearfar problem and the required power control algorithms are discussed in [17]. λc ) . So. A typical wireless OCDMA LAN containing a base station and n simple and multipleshift serial search algorithms. where F indicates the code length. ∨ ydownlink (t) (2) (k) where ydownlink is the kth user’s downlink OOC signal and ∨ indicates the OR logic operation among the signals. In this system each active user is assigned a signature sequence from a set of OOC which is speciﬁed by (F. Thereby we evaluate the effect of sampling on tracking operation and obtain the power penalty needed to mitigate this undesired effect. can be inserted into a F chips length frame such that no overlap. with a single pair of optical transmitter and receiver. In a digital system. In section II a typical wireless OCDMA network with three receiver structures in their digital forms are discussed. λa .e. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. one or more base stations are needed to act as a bridge when a local network needs to be connected to a global network such as internet. w. a set of OOCs is deﬁned and each code is assigned to each active user.. In section V tracking circuit and the effect of sampling on its performance is discussed. there are F − w2 possible cyclic shifts for OOC code 2 in which there are no interference between code 1 and code 2. is obtained as follows [11]. PTc (t) = 1 0 0 ≤ t < Tc otherwise (4) Uplink Signal Channel On the other hand in the uplink channel all active users send their data bits asynchronously on the common channel and therefore uplink signal is comprised from analog summation of all users’ optical intensity transmitted signals. Section IV describes and obtains the acquisition methods and their performance. N Yuplink (t) = k=1 (k) yuplink (t − τk ) (k) (5) where yuplink (t) is uplink signal due to the kth user and τk indicates kth user delay time with respect to the base station reference clock and we have. w is the code weight. and n user stations. no interference. Hence. i. tracking action in digital systems may not be performed exactly as in some analog systems. which limits the network capacity. N≤ F −1 w (w − 1) (1) a LED. Downlink Signal Channel From the above lemma we can deﬁne the downlink signal to be as follows. II. λa and λc are the maximum value allowed for autocorrelation and crosscorrelation of the code set in use. Section VI concludes the paper. each having a pair of optical transmitter and receiver. 1. there are F − 2w2 possible cyclic shifts for OOC code 3 in which there are no interference between code 1.. w. Ydownlink (t) = ydownlink (t) ∨ ydownlink (t) ∨ . downlink multiuser F interference can be omitted if N < w2 + 1.2146 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS. In section III we obtain expressions corresponding to BER for each receiver structure. Note that since downlink signal channel is based on synchronous OCDMA then all the elements that constitute Ydownlink (t) (k) are 0 or 1. 56. yuplink (t) = i=−∞ j=1 (k) (k) ∞ F ui cj PTc (t − iTb − jTc ) (k) (k) (6) Assuming each user’s coded data as a binary stream we consider the downlink signal as the logically gated OR (summer + limiter) of all users’ OOC coded data stream simultaneously which drives an optical transmitter such as where {ui }i is uplink bit stream of user k. users. and {cj }F j=1 denotes the kth OOC code pattern and PTc (t) is a rectangular pulse deﬁned as. NO. tracking circuit precision depends on the rate of the fastest achievable clock. 1) . each one with a proper cyclic shift. we can write the uplink signal as follows. 1. Continuing this process if we have F − (N − 1)w2 > 0 then all the N OOC codes. Proof : Consider user 1 OOC code as the reference code.. For λa = λc = 1 the maximum number of codes in an OOC set. Lemma 1: For an OOC set (F. between them would exist. So downlink can be considered as a synchronous OCDMA link. 1 shows our system architecture which includes one base station. S YSTEM D ESCRIPTION AND VARIOUS R ECEIVER S TRUCTURES It is almost impossible to implement an irregular and ad hoc network architecture for a wireless optical LAN due to the limitations of optical waves propagation properties. By using OOK modulation each ydownlink can be expressed as: ydownlink (t) = i=−∞ j=1 (k) (k) ∞ F (1) (2) (N ) di cj PTc (t − iTb − jTc ) (k) (k) (3) where {di }i is downlink bit stream of user k with bit (k) duration Tb and chip duration Tc = Tb /F . From [17] the nearfar problem in wireless OCDMA LAN requires speciﬁc . Especially. code 2. Likewise. and code 3. Fig. DECEMBER 2008 Fig.
ns = 1 is sufﬁcient for chipsynchronous multiuser interference pattern for a proper detection. i. Fig. Correlator + Hardlimiter It is shown that multiuser interference effect can be reduced by using an optical hardlimiter or optical AND logic gate in a ﬁberoptic CDMA receiver using unipolar codes such as OOCs. Fig. Chiplevel Detector Chiplevel receiver was ﬁrst introduced for ﬁberoptic CDMA [14] where decision is based upon each pulsed mark chip received power. By assuming a lowpass ﬁlter with rectangular shape response equal to PTf (t) with Tf = Tc /ns . Simple Correlator In this section we study and obtain the performance of the above mentioned receiver structures from digital design and implementational point of view.13]. Bit ’1’ is decided if and only if all the w pulsed chips’ power are greater than the optimum threshold otherwise bit ’0’ is decided. the hardlimiter (electronic) is placed after the photodetector instead of being placed before the photodetector. A/D. Finally. In optical ﬁber CDMA systems the matched ﬁlter can be implemented by ﬁber tappeddelay lines at their receivers. 2(c) shows the operation of the chiplevel detector. . From a digital design point of view a decision on each pulsed mark chips is made based on the summation of each pulsed mark chip samples.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2147 B. Simple Correlator Correlation receiver is the most propounded structure for OCDMA systems. At the ﬁrst step the summation of the samples in each pulsed mark chip is evaluated by an adder and buffer in each arm. the received power of each pulsed mark chip is compared with an optimum threshold. In our analysis.e. but its digital implementation is similar to correlation + hardlimiter structure. Each arm is dedicated for detecting one pulsed mark chip. corresponding to its code pattern. a lowpass ﬁlter followed by an analog to digital converter. in this paper we assume the existence of power control algorithms therefore we can safely ignore the nearfar problem such that all users have equal power in the uplink channel. In this structure. discuss their pros and cons in the context of digital design and implementation. and an integrator followed by a sampler. However. the electronic hardlimiter is modeled by a oneinput oneoutput block with a predetermined threshold value. if all the resulting values due to w arms are greater than the optimum threshold bit ’1’ is decided otherwise bit ’0’ is decided. instead of their combined power value. III. are placed after the photodetector as discussed in section II. 2(b).. C. A. algorithms to mitigate its effect such as the use of proper AGC circuit. 2(b). In this structure. The notion and the operation of chiplevel receiver is not the same as correlation and correlation + hardlimiter receiver. Hence. The correlation of the received signal with the desired users’ code can be evaluated by the summation of wns samples of received signal in all marked pulse chips of one bit duration using a simple adder. Thus. the accumulated value that is saved in the buffer. [11. The remaining operations are similar to the correlator receiver. is compared with an optimum threshold. constituting the desired OOC. as well as it simpliﬁes the implementation since sampling operation can be done along with other processes for example in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) without using a separate A/D circuitry. But as discussed before for our wireless OCDMA LAN receiver. In digital structures. In such a receiver the signal at the output of photodetector is sampled by an analogtodigital converter (A/D) at a rate which is ns times of the OOC chip rate. A buffer after the A/D operation saves the results of addition at each sampling time instant and resets at the end of the bit time. Various digital structures for a wireless OCDMA receiver (a) Correlator (b) Correlator + Hardlimiter (c) Chiplevel detector. Appendix B discusses a methodology on power budget computation and obtains the minimum required power level of an optical transmitter that guarantees proper operation of a typical wireless OCDMA receiver. At the end of the bit duration. A simple hard limiting takes place using an analog circuit as shown in Fig. in a typical wireless OCDMA LAN system where the speed of operation is not very high and the distances are relatively short correlation may take place after the photodetection at the receiver. In what follows we describe three viable and relevant receiver structures for a wireless OCDMA system. Although. but for implementation purposes and for tracking circuitry we require to have more samples per chip as discussed in section V. and obtain their performance in both uplink and downlink channels and compare their performance. for the sake of mathematical Fig. 2. the effect of multiuser interference is substantially reduced [25]. due to hardlimiting. as shown in Fig. 2(a). then the digital receiver acts as an integrate and dump circuit which is an optimum receiver for single user case in optical communication systems with Poisson channel [28]. BER A NALYSIS A. correlation value.GHAFFARI et al. This simple receiver involves a matched ﬁlter. However. each sample from wns samples has a binary value at the sampler output.
N − 1) (15) . and h indicate electron charge. Pl (l. αw ) is the occurred interference pattern. The ﬁrst threshold. Also q. 12. Also we have. denoted as th1 . N − 1 = 0. We show the output of analog hardlimiter by a w elements binary vector as n = (n1 . If the weight k is greater than another optimum threshold. probability of error depends upon speciﬁc interference patterns instead of just the total number of interferences. N −1 gth (x) = n=th xn e−x n! (9) PE = l=0 α ∈Bl Pl (l. with weight k.. α2 .9 dBm. Pb is related to Ib as Pb = Ib Ad where Ad is the photodetector area.. Correlator + Hardlimiter For a receiver structure based upon a correlator with a hardlimiter. For a correlator receiver the probability of error conditioned on l is obtained as follows. . Let us consider α = (α1 . . Pb is ambient noise power.. α2 . αw ) as the interference pattern occurred on the pulsed mark chips. provided that it is placed in an environment without direct illumination of sunlight and without any incandescent lamps at the vicinity of the receiver [24]. 1} . md (l) = [(wd + l)γs + wγb ] Tc w where l has a Bionomial distribution function for the uplink channel. optical frequency. Decision on the transmitted bit is based on the weight k of vector n. In Appendix A.. . αw ) and l = w αj can be j=1 evaluated as follows.n . respectively. for onoff modulation. α)P (El. For this case m1 = w(γs + γb )Tc and m0 = wγb Tc . α) = Pl (αl)Pl (l. which we denote as th2 .. l) = N −1 l w2 2F l 1− w2 2F N −1−l (11. − ) = α 1 2 w w (11. d ∈ {0. n2 . If we assume Pb = −10. Pav is the average received signal power on the photodetector area. NO. for the downlink channel we have. Pl (N − 1. [25] Pl (N − 1. l)P (El) (10) Where Bl is the set of all interference patterns with l interfering users.γb ≡ Pb hν + q .93722 × 107 and m0 ∼ 8. we assume the simplest possible case namely when there is no multipleaccess interference. For such low bandwidths in optical wireless channels. respectively. To give an insight on the use of the above parameters.90184 × 107 . then bit ’1’ is decided otherwise bit ’0’ is decided. N −1 PE = l=0 Pl (N − 1.. Total probability of error is computed by averaging over l as follows..2148 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS. We consider Ib = 100μW/cm2 as the irradiance of ambient noise on the photodetector area. → P (El. The probability distribution function of interference pattern with α = (α1 .e. Pav = −52 dBm and Tc = ns Tf we have: m1 ∼ 8. This value is typical for a receiver with optical bandwidth as high as 150nm. 56.. 1} (13) P (El) = where. Using (9) in (12) the probability of error for a correlator with a hardlimiter is computed as. idc and η are the photodetector dark current and quantum efﬁciency. VOL.. and Planck constant.. α2 .a) In applying the condition of lemma 1.γs ≡ ( w )Pav hν . It means that the average number of incident photons in each pulsed mark chip is compared to th1 and a twobinary signal 0 or 1 will be generated.. α) (14) and th is an optimum threshold that minimizes the total probability of error.. .b) (7) η η idc 2 where l = j=1 αj . 1 1 1 gth (m0 (l)) + − gth (m1 (l)) 2 2 2 ∞ (8) which indicates the average number of incident photons on the jth pulsed mark chip assuming data bit d ∈ {0. relates to the analog hardlimiter used right after the photodetector and the front and lowpass ﬁlter. we show that for the correlator + hardlimiter receiver structure the probability of error conditioned on the interference pattern is as follows. In other words αj is the number of interferences on the jth pulsed mark chip of the desired OOC. Note that the optimum thresholds are computed iteratively such that the whole probability of error is minimized. i. B. γs is the photoelectron count rate of received signal in a chiptime duration and γb is the sum of photoelectron count rate of background and dark current in a chiptime duration. 1} indicates the transmitted data bit. = = By Gaussian approximation and choosing optimum threshold the probability of error can be obtained as follows (see for √0 example [28]):P (errorambient noise) ≈ Q √m1 −mm0 m1 + = Q (18. md (αj ) = ((d + αj )γs + γb ) Tc .7) → 0 Note that in a typical indoor optical wireless channel. [gth1 (m0 (αj ))]nj × k=th2 n∈Ak j=1 (1−nj ) [1 − gth1 (m0 (αj ))] [gth1 (m1 (αj ))] nj + 1 1 − 2 2 w w k=th2 n∈Ak j=1 × [1 − gth1 (m1 (αj ))](1−nj ) (12) Where Ak is the set of all welement binary vectors. bandwidths are in the order of 1040MHz [24]. In this structure we need to have two optimum thresholds instead of one as in simple correlator receiver. nw ). preampliﬁer’s thermal noise can be ignored with respect to ambient noise [24]. and d ∈ {0. ν .. l) = δ(l) where δ(·) denotes Dirac delta function. DECEMBER 2008 simplicity and without any loss of generality we obtain the performance result on detection schemes for ns = 1 and generalization to higher values of ns will easily follow from the above simple case. In a simple correlator receiver structure the signal generated by integrate and dump circuit has a Poisson distribution function with a mean equal to [12]. and α = (α1 .
b) in (15) the probability distribution function of interference pattern is evaluated as follows for the uplink channel.a). For Pav = −52dBm we observe that the chiplevel and hardlimiter structures present an improvement of about three orders of magnitude over correlation structure. Performance of various types of receivers vs.a) Pav (d Bm) (αj )! Fig.625 ns 10 0 10 −1 Correlator Chip level Correlator+Hard−limiter 10 −2 Error Probability F = 128 w=5 N=6 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 α can be produced in probability 1 wl l α1 . Chiplevel Detector In a chiplevel structure. received optical power (downlink). We have considered 6 active users in this part of the analysis.b). Pav . For sufﬁciently high signal power.a) and (16. ≥ −55dBm. But the increase in average received power Pav . As we can observe. received power of each pulsed mark chips is compared with an optimum threshold. one can conclude that if the second threshold value in the correlator with a hardlimiter structure.e. using (11. 3.α2 . as it is shown in Fig. 3. the value of the ﬁrst threshold.GHAFFARI et al. the probability of error does not approach zero by increasing average optical power.. is replaced by the code weight. (11.6 4 0. e. w. α) = δ(l)δ(α) (17. 55dBm and higher chiplevel detector performance is fairly close to correlator + hardlimiter. for these two structures may not be the same. th2 . 3 depicts the performance of the three above mentioned receivers’ structure versus received average optical power.. Correlator + hardlimiter receiver obtains the best performance in signal −60 −59 −58 −57 −56 −55 −54 −53 −52 −51 Pav (d Bm) Fig. in the low average power region.b) Finally. Considering the parameters of Table I which correspond to a realistic scenario for multiple RS232 outputs (a low speed system). Thus for the uplink channel we have: Pl (αl) = wl l! w j=1 j=1 10 −60 −7 −55 −50 −45 (16. However.5. we have evaluated the analytical result of this section. which indicates stronger interfering users. 4 shows the performance of the above three receiver . Pl (l.b) F = 128 w=5 N=6 Correlator Chip−Level Correlator+Hard−limiter 10 −15 C.. received optical power (uplink). 4. th1 . then hardlimiter and chiplevel receivers obtain better performance than the simple correlator.. Performance of various types of receivers vs. Bit ’1’ is decided if and only if all w pulsed chips’ power are greater than an optimum threshold and ’0’ is decided otherwise. 10 0 and for the downlink channel: Pl (αl) = δ(α) (16. By considering the results of Fig.. in uplink direction.a) Error Probability Pl (l.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2149 TABLE I S YSTEM PARAMETERS F w N ns η λ Ib id Ad Tf OOC Length OOC Weight Active users number Samples per chip Photodetector quantum efﬁciency Optical wavelength Ambient light irradiance on the photodetector Photodetector dark current Photodetector area Low pass ﬁlter response time 128 5 4. Fig. Following the analytical approach of the correlator with a hardlimiter. On the other hand the simple correlator receiver obtains a better performance than correlator + hardlimiter and chiplevel receivers. one can conclude that using chiplevel or hardlimiter structure is a better choice than the correlator receiver speciﬁcally in the high signal power. (16.8 870 nm 100 μW/cm2 10 nA 1 cm2 15. since the number of active users are greater than the code weight which is equal to 5 in this example. powers of practical interest when compared with other two receiver structures. (N − 1)! wl (N − 1 − l)! w j=1 10 −5 (αj )! w2 2F l 1− w2 2F N −1−l (17. 3. α) = 10 −10 and for the downlink channel.αw = w l! (αj )! ways each with 10 −6 [12].. equations (12)(17) are still valid for chiplevel structure. i. Fig.g.
Transfer function between each two incorrect cells is deﬁned as H(z). 5. d U (z) z=1 E {NACQ } = (19) dz . VOL. 56. F . Each cell is represented by a node. Markov chain model simpliﬁes the analysis of various acquisition algorithms. Fig. 6. A. PD is the probability of correct detection. Markov chain model for simple serial search algorithm structures with the same parameters for downlink direction. or equivalently the correct shift is found. However. In Fig. By next cell we imply that a chipsized rotation replica of the initial cell or phase of the speciﬁed code. Transmission between each two cells is represented by a transfer function with parameter z. L indicates the time that the tracking circuit requires to recognize false decision in an acquisition block. At the end of the acquisition level the correct cell. 2. probability of error approaches a ﬂoor limit due to multiuser interference effect.2150 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS. Such a model is depicted in Fig. Simple SerialSearch Method In this approach. . shot noise effect. 12. one cell is randomly selected and it is assumed to be the correct cell. NO. . PF A is not equal to zero because of multipleaccess interference and environmental noise effects. For N = 4 and N = 5 the probability of error approaches zero by increasing the received average optical power. . receiver encounters an ambiguity equal to F cells. This can be obtained for example by using training bits which are inserted at the beginning of each frame. since the number of interfering users is always lower than the code weight. with N = 6 . Some algorithms are suggested to be used in acquisition state. which constitutes the desired OOC receiver needs to know the correct initial reference time or the phase of the speciﬁed code pattern that carries the desired information bit. For each algorithm. PD is not equal to 1 in the real case due to shot noise effect. According to ﬁgure 6 transfer function between each two incorrect cells is as follows [21]. Otherwise. Only ambient light. ACQUISITION A LGORITHMS In order to extract properly data bits from a spread stream of pulses. and dark current may cause errors in downlink direction. DECEMBER 2008 10 0 F = 128 w=5 N=4 N=5 N=6 10 −5 Error Probability 10 −10 10 −15 −60 −58 −56 −54 −52 −50 −48 Pav (d Bm) Fig. Also we denote the false alarm probability by PF A . It is evident that the less training bits required the more efﬁcient the algorithm in use will be. then the ﬁrst randomly selected cell is the correct cell. Here we assume that the correct cell is the F th cell. So we observe that the transfer function of correct decision on correct cell is PD z and incorrect decision is (1 − PD ) z. It is shown that the average time to reach the correct cell is as follows. we examine the next cell. So by continuing this algorithm and in maximum F stages we obtain the correct cell in the ideal case. . received average optical power and various number of users for uplink channel. When correlation on an incorrect shift exceeds optimum threshold a false alarm is occurred. 6 for the so called simple serialsearch model. If the output of the correlation is greater than the optimum threshold. A correlation between the received data and the selected code over a bit time duration (dwell time) is obtained and the outcome is compared with an optimum threshold. Assuming chipsynchronous. U (z) is obtained by averaging over Ui (z) for i = 1. 5 we depict the performance for various number of active users in the uplink channel for correlator + hardlimiter receiver. each corresponding to one possible cyclic shift of the indicated OOC code. In the following we present three recently suggested algorithms for OOC based OCDMA and compare their performance from digital design point of view in a wireless OCDMA system. H (z) = (1 − PF A ) z + PF A z L+1 (18) If Ui (z) denotes the transfer function from cell i to correct cell. The probability of error in this case is considerably lower than uplink channel since multiuser interference is omitted in downlink channel as described in section II. different number of training bits is required to meet acquisition with a probability near one. IV. The power of z indicates delay in bit duration (Tb ). Performance of correlator + hard limiter receiver vs.
B.b) where H (1) = 1 + M PF A (1 + L pf a ) 1 Hdet (1) = pd PD [(M + 3) + L(M − 1)pf a ] 2 Hmiss (1) = (1 − PD )+ PD (1 − pd )[M + 1 + L(M − 1)pf a ] (25. C. l)gT H (l. l1 )Pl (N (M − 1). these parameters can be computed as follows. Assuming that we have found the correct group then similar to simple serialsearch method an initial random phase v is then selected. l)gth (m1 (l)) Pl (N. Considering this idea.d) Note that in (22) and (23) capital letters refer to the ﬁrst stage and small letters refer to the second stage respectively. all M cells of group 1 are examined simultaneously. the former being the transfer function from node Q to acquisition state and the latter being the transfer function from node Q to node 1.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2151 Using the result of [21] for OOC based OCDMA system we have. Each. If the output of the correlation is greater than a predetermined optimum threshold then we proceed to second stage. 7.a) Fig. Markov chain model for Multipleshift algorithm PF A = (21. 8. l)gT H (m0 (l)) 1 N l1 =0 N (M−1) pf a = PF A {Pl (N.c) PF A = l=0 Pl (N M. Assuming that the Qth group contains the correct cell then the transfer functions H(z) and h(z). NM PD = l=0 Pl (N M. are computed as follows. E (NAcq ) = Hdet (1) + Hmiss (1) pd PD 2 − pd PD + (Q − 1) H (1) 2pd PD where T H and th indicate the ﬁrst and second stage thresholds respectively and their values are deﬁned such that E {NACQ } obtained from (24) achieves it’s minimum value. H (z) = (1 − PF A ) z + PF A z hM (z) h (z) = (1 − pf a ) z + pf a z L+1 Considering a correlator structure and from [22]. The threshold th is computed iteratively such that E {NACQ } achieves its minimum possible value. l1 )Pl (N (M − 1).c) where gth (x) and Pl (N. N PD = l=0 N Pl (N. In the second stage the M possible cells will be examined one by one similar to the simple serialsearch method. In continuing this process and from [22] in maximum Q steps we obtain the true group.b) (25.a) (25. matchﬁltering automatically searches all the F cells within (24) . l)} l=0 × {gth (m1 (l1 )) gth (m1 (l))} NM (26. between two incorrect node in the ﬁrst and second stage respectively. PD and PF A are probabilities of correct detection and false alarm conditioned on bit ’1’ respectively. When training bits enter the matchﬁlter then the output signal is a periodic training pulse with a width equal to Tc and a period equal to Tb . delay line value is proportional to the position of pulsed chips corresponding to its respective OOC. 7 shows Markov diagram for multipleshift method. The other transfer functions that are needed to describe multipleshift method are Hdet (z) and Hmiss (z). MatchFilter Method Assume a matchﬁlter containing w delay lines. PD . l)} l=0 (22) (23) × {gth (m0 (l1 )) gth (m0 (l))} (26. Multipleshift Method To reduce average time of acquisition. l) are deﬁned in (9) and (11). PF A and pf a can be computed as follows. In the ﬁrst stage of the algorithm. m1 (l)) N l1 =0 N (M−1) (26. So using (8)(11) and according to [21]. As an example we depict the digital implementation of a matchﬁlter for an OOC stream with w = 3 in Fig. E {NACQ } = F −1 (PF A L − 1) 2 1 + [F + L (F − 1) (1 − PD ) PF A ] PD (20) Considering correlator structure. otherwise examine cells which belong to group 2. pd .b) (26. l)gth (m0 (l)) l=0 (21. Considering Fig. This implies that in one bit duration we can observe the peak correlation of the incident signal and code pattern without any knowledge of the correct initial time reference. In this method F cells are divided into Q groups each containing M cells.a) pd = 1 PD {Pl (N. multipleshift method was proposed recently [22].GHAFFARI et al. 7 and using (19) then the average number of the training bits is computed as. respectively. Fig.
but it represents a more efﬁcient algorithm when compared to simple serialsearch method. and consequently on the system performance. For multipleshift algorithm the optimum value for M is ﬁve for nominal values given in table I. for a correlator structure we show the number of interferences on the desired code by l1 and the number of interferences on the ﬁrst cyclic shift of the desired code by l2 . then c (t + Tc /2) and c (t − Tc /2) are the corresponding early and late codes. We choose earlylate method for digital implementation of the tracking circuit [26]. the transfer function H(z) for matchﬁlter method is. Matchﬁlter method presents a more efﬁcient algorithm than the other two methods. To select the proper threshold value. In this way. In this method two separate early and late replica of the reference code. This signal is passed to the acquisition block to switch on the acquisition state. Now. in relatively high received power region one bit is sufﬁcient to acquire acquisition. V. md (l1 . According to Fig. Tc = Tb /F . To track the original code. except that the dwell time in serialsearch method is equal to one bit duration. we need to consider interferences on the ﬁrst cyclic shift of the desired code as well as interferences on the original phase of the desired code. then ”synchronization out” signal is activated. In general. respectively. we need to consider two main issues namely thc value must not be so low in order to cause the tracking circuit to oscillate and not so high in order for tracking circuit not be able to follow the phase shifts ﬂuctuations. is generated by the tracking block. one bit duration instead of F bits duration as in the simple serialsearch method. If the output of both early and late correlators are less than a threshold that is determined by the detection block and is computed such that (10) is minimized for L sequential bits. If c(t) denotes the reference code. τ ) = (wγb + l2 γs )τ + . which is produced by the acquisition block. 56. NO. the received code from acquisition block has an ambiguity in phase or initial time reference which is less than Tc /2. DECEMBER 2008 Fig. 6 and (16). To evaluate the effect of sampling on the tracking operation. The ﬁrst task of the tracking circuit is to minimize this ambiguity. but in the matchﬁlter method the dwell time is reduced to chip duration. Selecting a proper threshold. To obtain the joint probability density function of l1 and l2 we need to know all the possible code patterns in the system which prove to be mathematically tedious and impractical. An example of digital matchﬁlter for an OOC stream with w=3. 8. Digital tracking accuracy depends on the systems fastest clock speed. H (z) = (1 − PF A ) z 1/F + PF A z L+(1/F ) (27) Inserting (27) in (18) and using (19) we have. 1 F −1 E {NACQ } = − + PD 2F 1 − PD L (F − 1) PF A + L PD Fig. as a simplifying approximating assumption that random variables l1 and l2 are independent. and three actions may be initiated based on the subtraction result. say thc . But in the real cases. therefore their joint probability density function is required for BER analysis of the tracking circuit. The Markov chain model is similar to that represented for simple serialsearch method. digital tracking circuit operation is then fairly equal to an analog circuit. Then the average photon counts that is generated by correlating the incident signal and the tracking reference code is as follows. In general the two random variables l1 and l2 are dependent. Furthermore. 12. The second task for the tracking circuit is to alarm the out of synchronization state to the acquisition block. otherwise the main code is selected. 9 we have depicted the required average number of training bits for the above three mentioned algorithms. D IGITAL T RACKING C IRCUIT Tracking circuit performs two key operations in a typical OCDMA receiver. thc . the fastest clock speed of the system limits the number of samples per chip. l2 . Let us assume as in [22]. Average number of training bits required for various types of acquisition algorithms F −1 2 PF A (28) In Fig.2152 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS. then a shifted replica to the correlator is selected as the new reference code if the subtraction result is greater than thc . correlation action takes place between the training bit stream and the early and late codes. Also we assume that the offset of tracking circuit reference code and the original phase of the desired code is equal to τ . Speciﬁcally. Tb . VOL. 9. the values of early and late correlator outputs are subtracted. For very high value of the sampling rate. the sampling rate dramatically affects the performance of tracking circuit. Although multipleshift method is not as efﬁcient as matchﬁlter. Fig. A shifted replica to the late correlator is selected if subtraction result is less than −thc . 6.
α) + P (d = 1)P (Ed = 1. From Fig. l2 . In our performance evaluation we considered the effect of the sampling rate on its performance. can be expressed as follows: P (El. l2 )P (El1 . α) =P (d = 0)P (Ed = 0. the output of the hardlimiter in one bit duration is denoted by a welement binary vector α. PE (τ ) = N −1 N −1 (A. α)) 2 Fig.5) The generalized form for the above equations is as follows. l2 . digital structures were introduced. α) = gth1 (md (αj )) P (nj = 0d. we obtain eq. Hence. Also we evaluated the performance of digital tracking circuit in a wireless OCDMA environment. τ ) (31) l1 =0 l2 =0 Pl (N − 1. we clearly observe that an increase in sampling rate the digital system performance approaches that of a perfect analog tracking circuit as expected. α) = P (sj ≥ th1 d. l. α) (A. α) = P (r = 1d = 0. 10. However chiplevel detection performance approaches that of correlation with hardlimiter in high power region. bit ’1’ is decided. l. Tc /ns ]. Ak denote the set of all welement binary vectors with weight k.. . then: P (nj = 1d. 10 shows the effect of sampling rate on the system performance for uplink direction. Considering the implementation criteria. l. α) =P ( j=1 w nj ≥ th2 d. PE . P (nj d. τ ) = 1 1 1 gth [m0 (l1 . 10.4) Let sj denote the number of photoelectrons in the jth pulsed mark chips.2) Pl1 (N − 1. l. l) is deﬁned in (11) for uplink and downlink directions. α) = [gth1 (md (αj ))]nj [1 − gth1 (md (αj ))](1−nj ) (A. l. Effect of sampling on the system performance [wγb + (l1 + wd)γs ] (Tc − τ ) . l. n2 . l. l2 . Assuming equal probability for transmitting bit ’1’ and ’0’ and indicating the decided bit with parameter r we can write: 1 P (El. l1 )Pl2 (N − 1. d ∈ {0. α) = n∈Ak P (n1 . l. 1} (29) To compute probability of error conditioned on l1 . to obtain probability of error.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 0 2153 10 10 −5 Error Probability F = 128 w=5 N=4 10 −10 ns = 3 ns = 4 ns = 5 10 −15 ns = 8 ns = 16 Analog case ( ns = infinity) 10 −20 obtains the best performance among other receiver structures such as the simple correlator and chiplevel receivers it also constitutes a simple implementational structure. τ )] + − gth [m1 (l1 . conditioned on τ . l. then: w Fig. l.1) Where d indicates the transmitted information bit. The probability of error. l. nw d. If the weight of this vector is greater than th2 . C ONCLUSION We evaluated the performance of various types of digital receivers in a typical wireless OCDMA indoor local area network based on photon counting process. α) (A. l. −45 −60 −55 −50 Pav (d Bm) A PPENDIX A In this appendix. α) 2 1 + (1 − P (r = 1d = 1. α) = 1 − gth1 (md (αj )) (A. The results show that correlation with hardlimiter not only P( j=1 nj = kd.6) . therefore: w P (r = 1d. α) (A. l2 and τ we can write. (12). l2 . VI. α) w = k=th2 P( j=1 nj = kd. The results obtained for the various stages of the proposed wireless OCDMA LAN strongly indicate the operability and viability of such networks in certain applications. Three algorithms proposed for acquisition circuit are studied using correlator structure. P (El1 . l. we need to take an average over τ on (31) over the interval [0. conditioned on l (the number of interferences) and α the interference pattern. τ )] (30) 2 2 2 gth (x) is deﬁned in (9) and th denotes the optimum threshold for the tracking circuit. Assuming a uniform distribution for offset value we can write.. We show that matchﬁlter method is the superior algorithm in reducing the number of required training bits. The total probability of error.3) ns PE = Tc PE (τ ) dτ 0 (32) Let.GHAFFARI et al..B). The results obtained are for a correlator receiver with several values of sampling rate per chip. Tc /ns As discussed in section (III. Assuming a sampling rate of ns /Tc then the offset of tracking reference code and original code can be up to Tc /ns . is computed as follows.
IEEE PIMRC’ 01. θ and φ are the elevation and azimuth angles. we must consider IEC’s class A standard to meet eyesafety conditions [27]./Oct.. Dec. vol. φ) is the propagation pattern function of LED.. Part 12. First. and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2006). Barry. The number of active users is equal to 4 and TxRx distance has a range of 0. 306–310.7) in (A. Kavehrad. 1260–1268. vol. A. m= ln (1/2) ln (cos θ1/2 ) (B. [4] M.. pp. Lightwave Technol. Jivkova. ICCS. Kavehrad.” in Proc. 2006. 2F Pt (B. φ) = 2π If propagation halfangle of optical transmitter is equal to θ1/2 then m is obtained as follows. M. “Wireless inhouse data communication via diffuse infrared radiation. Commun. 562–576.” IEEE Trans. AminzadehGohari and M. φ) = 0. “MAry infrared CDMA for indoors wireless communications. 49. R. Aef f indicates lens effective area which is considered 1cm2 in our analysis. B. pp. and R(θ. 1098–1109. no. no. 12. 1457–1468. 1995. 37. Feb. Computing. pp. Aug.1) Pr = d2 where Pt and d are transmitted optical power and TxRx distance. 1. n2 . M. “Analysis of power control for indoor wireless infrared CDMA communication. Using results of [27] we observe that maximum allowable transmission power for a typical optical transmitter operating at 870 nm and a 15◦ propagation halfangle is equal to 28mW . A. vol. vol. Kavehrad. vol. Using a proper driver circuit. 12. Hashemi. Rabadan. 2. n3 . R. Kavehrad and S. “Code division multipleaccess techniques in optical ﬁber networks—part III: optical AND gate receiver structure with generalized optical orthogonal codes. Veh. the received optical power Pr needs to be at least −52dBm. and S. which is less than maximum achievable power.3) and (A. “Code division multipleaccess techniques in optical ﬁber networks—part I: fundamental principles. vol. 25th IEEE International Conference on Performance.2) equation (12) is obtained. R EFERENCES [1] F. Salehi.3) Using (B. 1997. respectively. Nov. Commun. [12] S.. M. Nov. M.3) Lambertian order m is equal to 20. 45. pp. Galko.. 1474–1486. “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multispot highbitrate wireless infrared communications. m+1 cosm θ (B. 334–337. [3] J. In order to obtain the required power for each chip of the coded data stream we use a set of OOC with length equal to 128 and weight equal to 5 to encode the OOC’s pulses. 2001. [5] M. vol. Vento.. [9] K. 1994. [8] J. Akhavan. PerezJimenez.. [14] H. 1053–1073. and H. system must operate at a BER less than 10−9 . no. “Indoor 1nfrared wireless networks utilizing PPMCDMA.” in Proc. 43. Technol. Lightwave Technol. 18.” IEEE Trans. 56. 1989. nw d. “Simulation of indoor propagation channel at infrared frequencies in furnished ofﬁce environments.” Proc. Commun.4) and using (A.” IEEE Trans. Aug. LopezHerandez.2) R(θ. 400mW . Kahn. Sept. M. H.” IEEE Trans. 7. [10] M. pp. 2. no. The operational wavelength for the above LED is 870 nm and its propagation pattern is Lambertian with a halfangle θ1/2 equal to 15 degrees.5 to 3 meters. From (B. . Boston: Kluwer. respectively. Zahedi and J. Zahedi and J. 6–10. 50.. Wireless Commun. 45. 2145–2153. 67. “Wireless infrared communications. Dec. “Experimental characterization of a direct sequence spread spectrum system for inhouse wireless infrared communications. For optical receiver module we consider a PIN photodiode with an operational wavelength which is compatible to LED’s in use. Pakravan and M. Behbahani.” Proc. respectively. “Analytical comparison of various ﬁberoptic CDMA receiver structures. F. Yun Gang.. pp. vol. 45. 11. R.” in Proc. 4. 1999 For a correlator structure with hardlimiter. no. [15] J. no. 2001.4) Pt/OOC chip pulse = w where F and w are OOC code length and weight. A. For the above mentioned LED we have θ1/2 = 15◦ and using (B. Salehi. 1979. J. 4. Salehi. l. H. in the worst case misalignment for TxRx from the ideal line of sight in the presence of all interfering users. pp. Pakravan. 1718–1727. no. Commun. 30–35. [13] S. Commun. A. of the above mentioned LED. [18] R.” IEEE Trans. . An optical lens with a 1cm2 effective area is mounted over this PIN photodiode. So optical power per chip is 154mW . pp. “Indoor propagation measurements at infrared frequencies for wireless local area networks applications.” IEEE Trans. [2] J. Apr.. 85. Jivkova. no. 16. “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements. NO. Aug. Cyran. Oct. 1997. Mashhadi and J. the LED can generate narrow optical pulses with a peak power as high as 400 mW. June 1998.. July 2001. VOL. Carruthers and J. to obtain a BER less than 10−9 . i. Veh. our optical transmitter meets class A standard of IEC. Bapst.7) Inserting (A. Jivkova and M. Kahn and J. to be d = 3 m and θ = 30◦ respectively. The propagation function of a Lambertian source with order m is deﬁned as [3]. vol.. pp. pp. α) = w j=1 [gth1 (md (αj ))]nj [1 − gth1 (md (αj ))](1−nj ) (A. 824–833. Technol. Second. A.. 1038–1045. 1994. A.2) R(θ. For the worst case scenario we assume TxRx distance and misalignment. J. Abtahi and H. R. “Modeling of nondirected wireless infrared channels. Gfeller and U.. 1077–1087. Apr. 1994.” IEEE Trans. Power budget is obtained under two conditions.” in Proc. Kavehrad.” IEEE J. vol. Hence. vol. Pt R(θ. To compute optical power for each OOC chip pulse in an infrared CDMA transmitter we can write. Salehi. vol.2154 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS. [16] S.” IEEE Trans. R. Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal. Wireless Infrared Communications. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications 1995 (PIMRC’95). vol. no. 2006.188 for the worst case.” J. DECEMBER 2008 Since random variables {sj }w conditioned on l and α are j=1 mutually independent it implies that the random variables w {nj }j=1 are also independent and we can write: P (n1 . pp. Sept. 50. Shalaby. and P.I. “Chip level detection in optical code division multiple access. pp. Elmirghani and R. no. In this case we consider received optical power as follows [3]. A. 3.” IEEE Trans. pp. 265–298. 10. Santamaria. pp. [7] S.. Hashemi. vol. and F. pp.1) we obtain Pt = 3. “Indoor broadband optical wireless communications: optical subsystems designs and their impact on channel characteristics. [6] H. pp. vol. 2000. A PPENDIX B In this appendix we discuss the methodologies used to obtain the minimum power level of an optical transmitter that guarantees proper operation of a typical short range wireless OCDMA receiver in the presence of multiuser interference signal. 10. For the optical transmitter module we consider a fast LED with a relatively wide angle for optical transmission. July 2002. [17] A. Barry.e. Hashemi. R. IEEE. 2003 [11] J. M. “Highspeed powerefﬁcient indoor wireless infrared communication using code combining . 2. 12. φ) Aef f (B. IEEE. Consumer Electron.01mW which is the average transmitted optical power per bit.
54–63. he was a Member of Technical Staff of the Applied Research Area.S. Switzerland. optical CDMA and multipleaccess Mehdi D. Optical Communications. 53. pp.S. Commun.S. Optical Thin Film. degree in the Department of Electrical Engineering at SUT. 412–417. Gagliardi and S. Japan. Apr. LowPower Wireless Infrared Communications. in 1979. Irvine. and R. In September 2005. Department of Electrical Engineering. wireless indoor optical CDMA. on February 18. Ghaffari (S’06) was born in Tehran. His research interests include wireless optical and ﬁberoptic communication systems. D. 3899. 2.” in Proc. and M. He is among the 250 preeminent and most inﬂuential researchers worldwide in the Institute for Scientiﬁc Information (ISI) Highly Cited in the ComputerScience Category. 1999. Rancourt. CEI/IEC 8251: Safety of Laser Products. no. and since 2003 he has been with Optical Networks Research Lab (ONRL) as a member of technical staff. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. in 2000 and 2002 respectively. vol. and applications of erbiumdoped ﬁber ampliﬁers (EDFAs) in optical systems. optical CDMA and indoor optical communications. E. femtosecond or ultrashort light pulse CDMA. 2003.S. Salehi is an Associate Editor for Optical CDMA of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON C OMMUNICATIONS since May 2001. J. Mustapha and R. 10. [24] R. Fernando. Los Angeles. vol. Keshavarzian and J. degree in electrical engineering from Khajeh Nasir University of Technology (KNUT). 1995. he was a member of Research Staff of the Mobile Communications Division at Iran Telecommunication Research Center (ITRC). vol. optical orthogonal codes (OOC). Iran. Iran. degrees in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology (SUT). “Performance of a serialsearch synchronizer for ﬁberbased optical CDMA systems in the presence of multiuser interference. 50. 3. . Department of Electrical Engineering. he was elected as the Interim Chair of the IEEE Iran Section. Prof. 2002. Brackett. vol. 37. and the M. Ormondroyd. His current research interests include optical multiaccess networks.D. A. He is currently working toward the Ph. Apr. He received the B. [27] Int. Commun. and A.” IEEE Trans. 2003. no. on December 22.S. N. New York: Macmillan.D. [22] A. 1995.S. L. Salehi. Aug. Babak M. as a Visiting Research Scientist.. E. degrees from the University of Southern California (USC). Sapporo. USC. From 1984 to 1993. L. where he is also the CoFounder of the Advanced Communications Research Institute (ACRI). M. Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications. and the Nation’s Highly Cited Researcher Award in 2004. [26] R. and Technology in 2003. on May. Peterson. 834–842. pp. M. Electrotech. he was with the Laboratory of Information and Decision Systems. Salehi and C. he was the Head of the Mobile Communications Systems Group and the CoDirector of the Advanced and Wideband CodeDivision Multiple Access (CDMA) Laboratory. in 2004. Since 2002 he has been with Optical Networks Research Lab (ONRL) as a member of technical staff. Jawad A. holographic CDMA.. in fundamental research and also the outstanding Inventor Award (Gold medal) from World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). communications. In 2007 he received Khwarazmi International prize. Commission. degree from the University of California. From June 2001 to September 2002. [21] A. 1989. speciﬁcally. patents on optical CDMA. A. SPIE. ﬁberoptic CDMA. Salehi (M’84SM’07) was born in Kazemain. in 1980 and 1984. vol. . “Code division multipleaccess techniques in optical ﬁber networks—part II: system performance analysis. degree in the Department of Electrical Engineering at SUT. Tehran. “Spread spectrum techniques for indoor wireless IR communications. Mar.” IEEE Trans.GHAFFARI et al. He is the corecipient of the IEEE’s Best Paper Award in 2004 from the International Symposium on Communications and Information Technology. Nov. 473–483. NJ. ﬁrst rank. 2005. He is currently a Full Professor at the Optical Networks Research Laboratory (ONRL). He is the holder of 12 U. 1956. Digital Wireless Communication V at SPIE’s 17th Annual Aerosense Symposium. Commun. H. degree in electrical engineering from Sharif University of Technology (SUT). Karp. K.. the Nationwide Outstanding Research Award from the Ministry of Science. no. Morristown. “Multipleshift code acquisition of optical orthogonal codes in optical CDMA systems. de Jong. Tehran. and Ph.” IEEE Trans. He is currently working toward the Ph. 297–306. From 1999 to 2001. Salehi. spreadtime CDMA. Wong and T. pp. [25] J. pp. O’Farrell. Apr. P. D. all in electrical engineering. He received the B. 1993. 1980. M. pp. Research.” IEEE Wireless Commun. Otte. A.: WIRELESS OPTICAL CDMA LAN: DIGITAL DESIGN CONCEPTS 2155 [19] K. “Optical orthogonal code acquisition in ﬁberoptic CDMA systems via the simple serialsearch method. he was the Director of the National Center of Excellence in Communications Science. [28] R. Borth. Tehran. alloptical synchronization. SUT. Keshavarzian and J. “Performance of an infrared wireless CDMA system. 1999. [23] M. Matinfar (S’06) was born in Tehran.” in Proc. in 2002 and the M. Iran Telecom Research Center (ITRC). From 1981 to 1984. A.S. Tehran. Tehran. van Roermund. he was a FullTime Research Assistant at the Communication Science Institute. He was the recipient of several awards including the Bellcore’s Award of Excellence. [20] X. respectively. Cambridge. 1987. PrenticeHall. Bell Communications Research (Bellcore). 687–697. His research interests include wireless communication systems and optical communication systems. 1978. Iran. John Wiley.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Geneva. pp. During 1990. F. He received the B. Sharif University of Technology (SUT). From 2003 to 2006. 4. Iraq. Ziemer.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.