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BAKE WISE

The Hows and Whys of Successful Baking with over 200 Magnicent Recipes

Shirley O. Corriher

SCRIBNER

New York London Toronto Sydney

Introduction
My goal in BakeWise is to give you toolsinformation that you can use to make not just successful baked goods, but outstanding baked goods. And in BakeWise, I strive to give you the information that you need to get the product that you want. Many times in cooking there is not a right or a wrong but simply a difference. For example, some people like fudgy brownies, some want cakey brownies, some want a crust on brownies, others want minimum crust. My goal is to explain what ingredient or technique produces these characteristicsreduce the our in the brownie recipe to make it fudgy, beat vigorously with a mixer after you add the eggs to the batter for more crust. I come from a science background (I was a research chemist for the Vanderbilt Medical School). I think it is fascinating that many times master bakers directions follow almost exactly what the science texts say. For example, Chef Roland Mesnier, the White House executive pastry chef for twenty-ve yearshis directions for beating the egg-sugar mixture for a gnoise are right on what the science texts directions are for making the most stable foam. Chef Roland cautions that reducing the speed when you are whipping the eggs is vital, because lengthy whipping at high speed produces large air bubbles, which will rise to the surface and pop during baking and produce a heavy cake. It is the same principle as overleavening a shortened cake. Rolands beating times are 5 minutes on high and 12 minutes on medium, until the foam is completely cool, thick, and shiny. Science texts say beating on high produces larger bubbles, medium speed is ideal for a stable foam, and that, as beating time is extended, the stability of the foam increases. Pastry chef Paul Prosperi at The Culinary Institute of America gives students a clear example of why they should use medium speed and lengthy beating for a gnoise. In Baking Boot Camp, Darra Goldstein describes Chef Paul showing the students how to observe the foam during beating. When beating on high, eventually the foam falls, and the same happens when beating on low. But when beating on medium, the foam remains high regardless of the beating time. Other things that I get excited about are nding something that is really helpfullike how to read the label on baking powder to tell when it will release bubbles in baking (immediately after it is stirred into the batter or dough, after a few minutes, or in the hot oven). I denitely dont want a baking powder that makes 100% of the bubbles instantly. If I am doing several things at once and am slow getting the cake in the oven, or if I get interrupted by a phone call, I may lose most of my leavening.
1

I could never remember long chemical names, so I make a list of the acids that I want in a baking powder before I go to the store. I use the guidelines on page 47, which shows when each acid releases a specic percentage of bubbles for eight different acids used in baking powder. And I see that I want a baking powder that contains one or more of the following acids: monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate, or sodium aluminum phosphate. Most of these release bubbles at all three stages.

Bourbon Pecan Oatmeal Cookies


Makes about 21 2 dozen cookies

This is a family favorite, a slightly more elegant oatmeal cookie. I love the avor combination of bourbon, pecans, and brown sugar. My daughter-in-law, the opera singer Beth McCool, says that when there are friends around and she makes these, the cookies are gone before they can even cool.

What This Recipe Shows


Roasting enhances the avor of nuts. Processing the oats in a food processor makes a slightly smoother texture. Using shortening limits the cookies spread.

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B AKE W ISE

2 cups (7 oz/198 g) pecans 1 2 cup plus 2 tablespoons (5 oz/142 g) unsalted butter, divided 1 teaspoon (6 g) salt, divided 1 cup (3 oz/85 g) old-fashioned or quick-cooking oats 1 4 cup (1.6 oz/45 g) butter-avored shortening 1 cup (7.7 oz/218 g) light brown sugar, packed

1 tablespoon (15 ml) pure vanilla extract 2 tablespoons (30 ml) bourbon 2 tablespoons (30 ml) heavy cream 1 large egg (1.75 oz/50 g) 11 4 cups (5.5 oz/156 g) spooned and leveled bleached all-purpose our 1 teaspoon (5 g) baking soda 1 teaspoon (2 g) ground cinnamon 1 2 teaspoon (1 g) freshly grated nutmeg Nonstick cooking spray, optional

1. Arrange a shelf in the center of the oven and preheat to 350F/177C. 2. Spread the pecans on a baking sheet and roast for 10 minutes. While they are hot, stir in 2 tablespoons (1 oz/28 g) of the butter and sprinkle with 1 4 teaspoon (1.5 g) of the salt. When cool,

coarsely chop and set aside.


3. Process the oats in a food processor with the steel blade for about 10 seconds. 4. With a mixer, in a bowl, beat the remaining 1 2 cup (4 oz/113 g) butter, the shortening, and sugar

until light and uffy. Beat in the vanilla, bourbon, and cream. Add the egg and beat just to blend.
5. In a mixing bowl, stir together the our, baking soda, the remaining 3 4 teaspoon (4.5 g) salt, the

cinnamon, and nutmeg. On the lowest speed, add our mixture into butter mixture in several portions. Stir in the oats and pecans by hand.
6. Cover a baking sheet with Release foil (nonstick side up) or parchment sprayed with nonstick cooking spray. Drop by heaping tablespoons or with a 11 2-inch (#40) ice cream scoop onto the bak-

ing sheet. Bake one sheet at a time for about 10 minutes, until puffy and lightly browned on the edges. Allow to cool on the sheet for 2 minutes, and then remove to a cooling rack.

As the Cookie Crumbles

381

Index
A
acesulfame K, 77, 78 acid(s) in baking powder, 46 with baking soda, 46 buffers in cream and, 65 leavening, reaction times of, 47 acidic ingredients, 6467 with baking soda, 49 cocoa powder as, 109, 427 in ourless cakes, 6467 list of, 68 in pastry crusts, 355 protein cooking speed and, 355, 393, 399 setting of cakes and, 61, 64, 65, 110 spread of cookies and, 404, 427 active dry yeast, 477, 478 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Alberger process, 481482 alitame, 77, 78 all-purpose our bleached vs. unbleached, 60 characteristics of, 60 in cookies, 385 Gold Medal, 60, 62, 63 King Arthur, 82, 461, 477, 478 Northern specialty blended, 372, 377, 385 protein content of, 372, 376377 quantity and weight measures of, 31, 495 Southern. See Southern allpurpose our Southwestern, 372, 385 allspice, quantity and weight measures of, 497 almond(s) Croustade, 281282 Financiers, 230231 FrangipaneAlmond-Hazelnut Paste, 291 Hazelnut-Almond Meringue Layers with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 178180 Hazelnut-Almond Soft Dacquoise, 180181 Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 Lace Cookies, 378 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Rustic Cherry Tart, 291293 Serious Rum Cake, 2729 Take-Your-Breath-Away Lemon Pound Cake, 2527 almond bark, 90 almond our Financiers, 230231 quantity and weight measures of, 495 Simplied La Joconde, 234235 alpha-amylase inactivation of, 335 thinning of dishes with egg yolks and, 110, 335 alternative nutritive sweeteners, 76 amaretti cookies The Creamiest Ever Amaretto Cheesecake, 333335 Golden-Leafed Peach Pie, 312314 amaretto liqueur The Creamiest Ever Amaretto Cheesecake, 333335 ammonium bicarbonate in cookies, 402 for pte choux, 243 angel food cakes, 217219 ingredients for, 218 Mimis Magnicent Angel Food Cake, 218219 proportions for, 217 techniques for, 218 angel pies, 183, 279 antioxidants in cocoa powder, 111 apples Bill Greenwoods Great Dome with a Braided Base, 327328 Croustade, 281282 Denas Great Apple-Walnut Mufns, 129131 dried. See dried apples Fried Apple Pies Extraordinaire, 308 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 Turkey Filling, 258 applesauce Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5152 Shirleys Version of Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5455 apricots Shiny Apricot-Orange Glaze, 253 articial sweeteners, 7781 ascorbic acid in bread, 432, 480 ash in our, 476 aspartame, 77, 78 at-a-glance summary charts chemical leaveners, 59 chocolate, 108 cocoa powder, 117 color, 424 cookie problems, 424, 425

Index

511

at-a-glance summary charts (cont.) creaming cake mixing method, 123 egg-white foams, 194 fat in cookies, 392 ne-tuning cookies, 428 our in cookies, 385 gnoise, 228 meringues, 194 pastry crusts, 309 pte choux, 262 soufs, 208 sugar in cookies, 397 whipped cream, 321 autolysis, 435441

B
bacteria in bread dough, 434, 479480 baguettes Baguettes Made with Poolish, 448450 our for, 62 slashes for, 442 Straight Dough with Autolysis Baguettes, 436438 Baker, Harry, 231 bakers formulas, 2931, 32, 33, 3436, 238 for roulade, 238 bakers percentages, 32, 34, 432 for biga, 452, 455 for cakes, 32, 3435 for poolish, 448 for straight dough with autolysis, 436 bakers sugar, 168 bakers yeast, 477479 action of, 442 active dry, 477, 478 baking powder with, 480 care of, 478 conversions for, 478 food for, 478 fresh (cake), 477, 478 instant (RapidRise, Quick-Rise), 477, 478, 496 order of adding to bread dough, 485 pre-ferments with, 447459 quantity and weight measures of, 496 spices and, 479, 480

spreading by folding dough, 441 temperature and, 434, 478479 bakeware, 6 baking rings, 294 changing size of pans, 49, 128 cookie sheets, 374, 420 mufn pan sizes and, 128 pans for pound cakes, 15 for pastry crusts, 293294 springform pan sizes, 271 baking bread, 443 brownies, at high temperature, 410 cakes. See baking cakes cookies, 374, 420, 424 gnoise, 223 high-altitude, 50, 110 meringues, 191 pte choux, 244 pies. See baking pies baking cakes, 135140 baking stones for, 2, 45, 135 determining doneness and, 136 rise and, 135 shape and, 136140 texture and, 136 baking chocolate, 86 baking pies, 323328 blind, 294, 325326 double-crusted pies, 327 with lling in, 323325 baking powder, 46 amount of, 56 brands of, 46 changing pan size and, 49 checking potency of, 48 composition of, 46 in cookies, 402, 404 double-acting, 46 our type with, 57 leavening process and, 4647 making ones own, 48 quantity and weight measures of, 496 baking rings, 294 baking sheets, 374, 420 baking soda, 46 with acid ingredients, 46 alkalizing cocoa powder with, 111 amount of, 4857, 5557 checking potency of, 48 in cookies, 402403 our type with, 57

leavening process and, 4647 quantity and weight measures of, 496 baking stones, 2, 45 for bread, 443 for cakes, 135 for pte choux, 244 position for, 45 rise and, 135, 443 bananas Moist Banana Nut Bread, 137138 barley our, malted, in bread, 432 barley malt syrup, 477 bar sugar, 168 btards Straight Dough with Autolysis Btards, 438439 beading of meringues, 189 beaters for egg whites, 167 beating after adding eggs, crust created on cookies and brownies by, 409410, 423 beating egg whites, 166167 copper bowl for, 172 cream of tartar for, 172 overbeating, 167 Beauchamp, Gary, 407 beef Piroshkis, 362363 in Turkey Filling, 258 beet sugar, 146 Bennion, E. B., on amount of yolks for gnoise, 220 Beranbaum, Rose Levy on baking powder amounts, 49 on cake mixing methods, 126 our preference of, 63 on pte choux, 242243 on sizes of pastry crusts, 293 on surface for rolling pastry, 287 berry sugar, 168 biga, 452459 bakers percentages for, 452, 455 Basic Dough Made with Biga, 456 Biga, 452453 Biga (50% Water), 455 Ciabatta with Biga, 453454 Focaccia Farcita, 458459 Fougasse with Biga, 457458 biscuits, 151154. See sponge cakes Shirley Corrihers Touch-ofGrace Southern Biscuits, 152153

512

Index

bitterness, suppression of, by salt, 345, 407, 481 bittersweet chocolate, 86, 87 black pepper, quantity and weight measures of, 497 bleached our, characteristics of, 62 blending cake mixing method, 126127 blind-baking pastry crusts, 294, 325326 right-side up, 326 upside down, 326 blueberries Blueberries and Cream Mufns, 131132 Blueberries with Honey Mascarpone Cream in Walnut-Oat Meringue, 183184 Chef Heather Hurlberts Magnicent Moist Whipped Cream Pound Cake, 2021 cooking for pies, 311 Judy Bradys Blueberries and Bordeaux, 269271 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Bobs Red Mills dark rye our, 460 Bordeaux cookies Bordeaux Macadamia Crust, 268269 Judy Bradys Blueberries and Bordeaux, 269271 Boston cream pie Shirleys Boston Cream Pie, 43 boules Rustic Boules Made with Poolish, 450452 Sourdough Rustic Boules, 466467 bourbon Bourbon Pecan Oatmeal Cookies, 380382 Chocolate Pecan Torte with a Hint of Bourbon, 237238 Lane Cake Filling, 45 Lane Cake Soaking Solution, 45 bread(s). See also quick breads; sourdough starters; yeast breads in Simply Wonderful Strata Browned Billows of Cheesy Puff, 201

bread crumbs, for dry, crisp pastry crust, 304305 bread our in cookies, 385 for pte choux, 242 protein content of, 372, 469 quantity and weight measures of, 495 bread-making methods, 444467 pre-ferments with bakers yeast, 447459 sourdough starters (wild yeast levain), 459467 straight dough, 435441, 444446 bread-making techniques, 432468 autolysis, 435441 baking, 443 dough temperature and, 434435 folding vs. punching down, 441 kneading, 433, 479480 rounding (preshaping), 441442 slashing, 442 brioche The Ultimate Brioche I: Light, Airy, Bread-Like Brioche, 486487 The Ultimate Brioche II: Buttery, Cake-Like Brioche, 488489 brownies, 407416 allowing batter to mellow before baking and, 410 brown sugar in, 415 cake-like vs. fudge-like, 410 chocolate for, 414415 cocoa powder in, 415 crust on, 409 cutting, 410 rm vs. soft, 415 high-temperature baking of, 410 history of, 408 ingredients in, 407 Shirleys Cakey Brownies, 413414 Shirleys Fudgy Brownies, 411412 sugar in, 415416 Super Rich Espresso Brownies, 415416 browning articial sweeteners and, 79 of cookies, 392, 404, 423, 424

corn syrup and, 79, 392, 397, 423 fat and, 392 leaveners and, 404, 423 protein in our and, 423 sugar and, 73, 392 brown sugar, 76, 77 in brownies, 415 in cookies, 397 hygroscopic nature of, 393, 397, 423 quantity and weight measures of, 495 spread of cookies and, 393 building sourdough starters, 466467 bulk, sugar and, 73 Bundt pan for pound cakes, 15 butter Buttery Jelly-Jeweled Cookies, 386387 Cherry-Chambord Butter, 154 color of cookies and, 392 combining egg-white foams with, for buttercreams, 209, 210 in cookies, 384, 392, 426 for crumb crusts, 268 cutting for pastry crusts, 301302 Diamond-Edged Melt-in-YourMouth Butter Cookies, 388389 fat content of, 346 avor of, 350 ganache with, 9899 for gnoise, 221 leavening and, 6970 quantity and weight measures of, 496 for snail butter, 259 spread of cookies and, 384, 426 temperature of, for creaming cake mixing method, 122 type used in this book, 6 buttercream(s), 208217 crme anglaise (custard-based), 215217 curdling of, 210 as emulsions, 210 French, 210, 213215 ingredients for, 208209 Swiss and Italian, 209213 techniques for, 209

Index

513

buttercream icings, 145150 Basic Confectioners Sugar Buttercream, 148149 Crusting Confectioners Sugar Buttercream, 149150 smoothing, 146, 149, 150 buttermilk with baking soda, 49 color of pastry crusts made with, 355 curdling of, 35 Greenwoods Great Buttermilk Crust, 347349 tenderness of pastry crusts made with, 355 butter slicers, 301

C
cake(s) angel food. See angel food cakes bad recipes for, spotting, 32 bakers formulas for, 2931, 32, 33, 3436, 238 bakers percentages for, 32, 3435 baking. See baking cakes balancing recipes for, 1213 chocolate. See chocolate cakes creating recipes for, 32, 3436 Dinner-on-the-Grounds Coconut Cake, 4041 eggless, 8285 ourless, 6467 foam. See angel food cakes; chiffon cakes; gnoise; sponge cakes French Cake aux Fruits, 139140 goals for different types of, 32 Golden, Moist Carrot Cake, 7172 Hazelnut-Almond Meringue Layers with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 178180 Hazelnut-Almond Soft Dacquoise, 180181 Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 high-ratio, 3031, 69, 124 intentionally underdone, 136 lean (regular shortened), 30 leaveners for. See baking

powder; baking soda; chemical leaveners Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Creaming Method), 124126 Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Dissolved-Sugar Method), 3738 Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Two-Stage Method), 126127 mixing methods for. See cake mixing methods moist, using formulas to create, 32, 3436 Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5152 pound. See pound cake(s) Serious Rum Cake, 2729 Serious Stuff Gingerbread, 8485 Shirleys Boston Cream Pie, 43 Shirleys Crazy Cake, 8384 Shirleys Not-the-Traditional Lane Cake, 4445 Shirleys Version of Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5455 slicing into layers, 39 sponge. See sponge cakes storing, 54, 150 testing for doneness, 136 variations in composition of ingredients for, 31 wrapping, 150 cake our, 30 acidity of, 68 bakers formulas with, 30 characteristics of, 6061 chlorination of, 30, 61 in cookies, 385 avor and, 61, 343 for gnoise, 220221 leavening with, 57 protein content of, 372 quantity and weight measures of, 31, 495 texture and, 61 cake levelers, 39 cake mixing methods, 119135 creaming (sugar/batter, sugarshortening, or conventional), 120126 dissolved-sugar, 77, 134

emulsion, 135 goals of, 119 to incorporate ne bubbles into batter, 119 lightness and, 120 mufn, 5758, 129134. See also mufn(s) single-stage (dump, one-bowl, or quick-mix), 128 sugar/our batter, 135 texture and, 120 two-stage (blending or pastry blend), 126127 cake yeast, 477, 478 Calvel, Raymond, on lecithin in bread, 480 candied fruit French Cake aux Fruits, 139140 cane sugar, 146 carbon dioxide released by chemical leaveners, 4647 cardamom, yeast activity and, 479 carrots Golden, Moist Carrot Cake, 7172 quantity and weight measures of, 497 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 cayenne pepper, quantity and weight measures of, 497 cereals, for crusts, 267 chalazae freshness of eggs and, 166 removing, 65 Chambord Cherry-Chambord Butter, 154 Cherry-Chambord Butter Icing, 145 Famous Smoothest-Ever Trufes with Chambord and Macadamia Dust, 103104 Strawberry-Chambord Sauce, 8990 cheddar cheese Crispy, Flakey Cheese Coins, 403404 Flakey Cheddar Crust, 354355 Fried Apple Pies Extraordinaire, 308 in pastry crusts, 353, 354 Roosters Famous Fire Crackers, 391

514

Index

cheese. See also cheddar cheese; cream cheese; goat cheese; Gorgonzola cheese; Gruyre cheese; mascarpone cheese; Montrachet cheese; mozzarella cheese; Parmesan cheese; Swiss cheese in pastry crusts, 353355 cheesecakes, 333335 The Creamiest Ever Amaretto Cheesecake, 333335 Herbed Parmesan Cheesecake, 341342 chemical leaveners, 4659. See also baking powder; baking soda at-a-glance summary chart, 59 ammonium bicarbonate, 243, 402 amount to use, 4849 articial sweeteners and, 79 buying, 47 checking potency of, 48 color of cookies and, 404 in cookies, 402407 determining amount of, 35 distribution of, 16, 5759 excess, in cakes, 5057 excess, in cookies, 402403, 404407 in high-altitude baking, 50 leavening process and, 4647 measuring, 4748 quantity and weight measures of, 496 reaction times of acids in, 47 in self-rising our. See self-rising our spread of cookies and, 404, 427 storing, 48 types of, 46 cherries and cherry preserves Cherries and More Cherries, Cherry Pie with Streusel Topping, 316318 Cherry-Chambord Butter, 154 Cherry-Chambord Butter Icing, 145 Dark, Sweet Bing Cherry Pie with Pastry Lattice, 314315 Rustic Cherry Tart, 291293 Streusel Topping, 317318 chicken Real Homemade Chicken Pot Pie, 366368 in Turkey Filling, 258

chiffon cakes, 231233 Lemon-Orange Cream Chiffon Cake, 232233 chlorination of cake our, 30, 61 chocolate, 85119 at-a-glance summary chart for, 108 alkalizing cocoa powder with baking soda to get deep color and, 111 Balis Alabaster Chocolate Tower, 8889 bittersweet, 86, 87 bloom on, 91 in brownies, 407416 buttercream icings, 150 cakes. See chocolate cakes care of, 9091 chocolate chip development, 373374 Chocolate Cream Puffs, 250 Chocolate Crinkle Cookies, 395396 combining with other ingredients, 104 compound, 117 cooling rapidly, 106107 couverture, 87, 88 dark, 87, 105 description of, 85 E-Z Delicious Chocolate-Nut Crust, 278279 Famous Smoothest-Ever Trufes with Chambord and Macadamia Dust, 103104 Featherlight Meringue Spheres with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream and Chocolate, 176177 ourless cakes with, 6467 forms of, 90 ganache. See ganache Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 high-percentage, 87, 94, 101 Lava Cookies, 400401 Luscious, Creamy Chocolate Icing, 143144 melting, 9293, 105, 106 Memorable Silky Chocolate Meringue Pie, 336337 milk, 90, 105 overheating, 92 production of, 8586

ratio of our to, brownie texture and, 410 Religieuses (Little Nuns), 251252 ribbons, 118119 Roasted Pecan Chocolate Chip Cookies, 375376 sculptures in ice made of, 8789 seizing of. See seizing of chocolate semisweet, 86, 87 Shirleys Cakey Brownies, 413414 Shirleys Corrupted Black Gold, 401402 Shirleys Fudgy Brownies, 411412 Simple Chocolate Mousse, 96 spread of cookies and, 427 Super Rich Espresso Brownies, 415416 tempering. See tempering chocolate thin, 88 types of, 8688 unsweetened (baking), 86 white. See white chocolate chocolate cakes Chocolate-on-Chocolate: Dark Moist Cake with ChocolateWalnut Frosting, 113114 Chocolate Pecan Torte with a Hint of Bourbon, 237238 Chocolate-Walnut Frosted Golden Layer Cake, 4142 Deep, Dark Chocolate Cake, 112113 Deep, Dark Chocolate Cake with Ganache and Chocolate Rufes, 116 Flourless Luscious, Decadent Chocolate Torte, 6667 Improved Tunnel of Fudge Cake, 7475 Intense Chocolate Lava Cakes, 229230 Satin-Glazed Midnight Black Chocolate Cake, 115 Shirleys Crazy Cake, 8384 chocolate chips, semisweet, quantity and weight measures of, 497 chocolate liquor, 86 chocolate mass, 86

Index

515

ciabatta Ciabatta with Biga, 453454 cinnamon quantity and weight measures of, 497 yeast activity and, 479 Clabber Girl baking powder, 46 cloves, quantity and weight measures of, 497 coarse sucrose in cookies, 397 Cobasan, 319 cocoa butter Balis Alabaster Chocolate Tower, 8889 in chocolate, 85, 87 in cocoa powder, 109 crystallization of, 104105. See also tempering chocolate forms of, 107 melting chocolate and, 106 source of, 88 in white chocolate, 88 cocoa-derived products, FDA standards of identity for, 91 cocoa powder, 108112 at-a-glance summary chart for, 117 acidity of, 68, 109, 427 alkalizing with baking soda, 111 antioxidants in, 111 in brownies, 415 chocolate cakes with. See chocolate cakes cocoa butter content of, 109 color of cakes and, 109 dark chocolate color and, 111116 dissolving in hot liquids, 110 dryness of products made with, 110 Dutch process, 68, 109110, 111 in high-altitude baking, 110 Mocha Glaze, 252 natural, 68, 109, 111 pH of, 68, 109, 427 quantity and weight measures of, 497 spread of cookies and, 427 substituting for our, 6467, 110, 427 working with, 110117 coconut Betty McCools Ole Time Coconut Soaking Solution, 41

Dinner-on-the-Grounds Coconut Cake, 4041 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 coffee Coffee Cream Puffs, 250 Espresso Syrup, 236 mocha buttercream icings, 150 Mocha Glaze, 252 Shirleys Crazy Cake, 8384 Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 216217 Super Rich Espresso Brownies, 415416 color. See also browning at-a-glance summary chart, 424 of baking sheets, 420 of cakes, cocoa powder and, 109, 111 of pastry crusts, 355, 356 compound coatings, 117 conalbumin, 172 confectioners sugar for buttercream icings, 145, 146 in cookies, 397 quantity and weight measures of, 496 conventional cake mixing method. See creaming cake mixing method cookie(s), 369428. See also cracker(s); graham crackers; saltine crackers at-a-glance summary chart, 428 amaretti. See amaretti cookies baking, 374, 420, 424 Bourbon Pecan Oatmeal Cookies, 380382 brownies. See brownies Buttery Jelly-Jeweled Cookies, 386387 Chocolate Crinkle Cookies, 395396 Cinnamon Walnut Oatmeal Cookies, 379380 cooling, 374 Cracked-Surface Crunchy Gingersnaps, 394 cracked surface on, 393394 crisp, 423 with crunchy surface and gooey center, 395396

Delicate French Meringue, 175176 Diamond-Edged Melt-in-YourMouth Butter Cookies, 388389 drop, 417 E-Z Delicious Peanut Butter Cookies, 383384 fat in. See fat in cookies Featherlight Meringue Spheres with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream and Chocolate, 176177 with our and other grains, 379383 our for. See our for cookies ourless, 383384 Grandmothers Pecan Macaroons, 398 Great Grandmother Schorrs Moravian Molasses Cookies, 418419 hydration of dough for, 374375 Lace Cookies, 377378 Laura Berrys Extra-Crunchy Oatmeal Cookies, 382383 Lava Cookies, 400401 leaveners in, 402407 low-our, 377378 meringues, 175177, 399 mixing, 416417 Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 Original Toll House Chocolate Chip Cookies, 373374 refrigerator, 417 Roasted Pecan Chocolate Chip Cookies, 375376 rolled, 417418 salt in, 407 shaping, 417418 Shirleys Corrupted Black Gold, 401402 snowake cookies, 419 spread of. See spread of cookies stained glass, 387 sugar in. See sugar in cookies Taste Sensation Lemon-White Chocolate Butter Cookies, 389390 texture of, leaveners and, 405 Wedding Cookies, 422

516

Index

cookie crumbs, 266278 crusts. See crumb crusts Dark, Sweet Bing Cherry Pie with Pastry Lattice, 314315 Golden-Leafed Peach Pie, 312314 Rolled-In Crumbs Crust, 324325 cookie crusts, 351 cookie cutters, snowake, 418, 419 cookie problems at-a-glance summary charts, 424, 425 crumbling, 373 crumbly cookies, 421422 limp cookies, 423 overbaking, 424 pale colored cookies, 423, 424 shiny crust, 423 sticking, 424 cookie sheets, 374, 420 cooling. See also temperature of chocolate, rapid, 106107 of cookies, 374 copper bowl for beating egg whites, 172 corn All-Time Favorite E-Z, Dee-licious Sour Cream Cornbread, 157 Great Shell with Fresh Crabmeat and Sweet Creamed Corn, 364365 cornmeal All-Time Favorite E-Z, Dee-licious Sour Cream Cornbread, 157 Anadama Bread, 474475 Old-Fashioned Spoon Bread, 158159 quantity and weight measures of, 495 cornstarch in buttercream icings, 146 clouding of dishes prepared with, on refrigeration, 311 for meringues, 173, 186, 190 quantity and weight measures of, 497 corn syrup, 76, 77 for browning when using articial sweeteners, 79 in buttercreams, 147 for chocolate ribbons, 118

color of pastry crust made with, 355 in cookies, browning and, 392, 397, 423 for crumb crusts, 268 in ganache, 97, 99100 cottonseed oil, compound coatings made from, 117 couverture, 87 cows, breed of, whipping cream and, 319 crabmeat Great Shell with Fresh Crabmeat and Sweet Creamed Corn, 364365 cracker(s). See also graham crackers; saltine crackers Crispy, Flakey Cheese Coins, 403404 Roosters Famous Fire Crackers, 391 cracker crumbs for crusts, 267 cracking eggs, 165 crazy cake, 8284 Shirleys Crazy Cake, 8384 cream. See also heavy cream; sour cream; whipped cream buffers in, acidity of batter and, 65 cream cheese Carrot Cake Cream Cheese Icing, 72 Cherry-Chambord Butter, 154 Cherry-Chambord Butter Icing, 145 Cream Cheese Crust, 288289 The Creamiest Ever Amaretto Cheesecake, 333335 Herb-Crusted Goat Cheese Tart, 274275 Herbed Parmesan Cheesecake, 341342 icings made with, 144145 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Simple Cream Cheese Icing, 84 tenderness of pastry crusts made with, 353 White Chocolate Cream Cheese Icing, 144145 Cream Glaze for Pound Cake, 24 creaming cake mixing method, 120126 at-a-glance summary chart, 123

duration of creaming and, 122123 gluten development in, 123124 insufcient blending of leaveners and our in, 123 Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Creaming Method), 124126 pitfalls in, 122123 creaming step in cookie making, 416 cream of tartar in baking powder, 46 for egg-white foams, 172, 218 making ones own baking powder using, 48 quantity and weight measures of, 497 reaction time of, 47 cream pies, 335339 Butterscotch Meringue Pie, 338339 Memorable Silky Chocolate Meringue Pie, 336337 Rum Cream Pie, 276 temperature for cooking llings for, 335 crme anglaise buttercreams, 215217 Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 216217 Crisco. See also shortening leavening and, 69, 70 crispness of cookies, 423 sugar and, 73 croissants Flakey, Buttery Croissants, 490494 crumb liquid and, 31 mufn cake mixing method and, 129134 sugar and, 31, 73 crumb crusts, 267278 Bordeaux Macadamia Crust, 268269 Chocolate Cookie Crumb Crust, 275276 Cracker-Nut Crust, 273 Gingersnap-Pecan Crust, 277278 ingredients for, 267268 Judy Bradys Blueberries and Bordeaux, 269271

Index

517

crumb crusts (cont.) Modern Basic Honey Graham Crumb Crusts, 271 Monroe Boston Strauses Crumb Crust, 272 crust(s) crumb. See crumb crusts meringue, 183184, 279 pastry. See pastry crusts phyllo, 279285 press-in-the-pan, 278279 crust on cookies and brownies, 409410, 423 curdling of buttercreams, 210 of buttermilk, 35 of low-fat dairy products, preventing, 329 prevention of, by cornstarch, 328329, 335 custard(s), 328335 cheesecakes, 333335 Crme Anglaise, 331 Custard Pie Supreme, 332333 Pastry Cream (Crme Ptissire), 330 texture of, 331332 custard buttercreams, 215217 Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 216217 custard pies, 323, 328335 Custard Pie Supreme, 332333 cutting brownies, 410 cyclamates, 77, 78

Dimick, Paul, 92, 105, 106, 107 dissolved-sugar cake mixing method, 77, 134 Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Dissolved-Sugar Method), 3738 docking pastry crusts, 294 Dodge, Jim, atten-on-the-counter technique of, 302 doneness, testing cakes for, 136 double-acting baking powder, 46 double-crusted pies, baking, 327 double-icing technique, 141142 dried apples Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 quantity and weight measures of, 496 dried egg whites, 166 dried fruit Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 drop cookies, 417 dry mustard quantity and weight measures of, 497 yeast activity and, 479 dump cake mixing method, 128 durum our. See semolina our Dutch process cocoa powder, 68, 109110. See also cocoa powder antioxidants in, 111 quantity and weight measures of, 497

D
dark chocolate, 87 tempering, 105 date(s) Lane Cake Filling, 45 Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 quantity and weight measures of, 496 date-nut bread crumbs Golden-Leafed Peach Pie, 312314 decorating pastry crusts, 295 dental tape for slicing cakes into layers, 39 Diamond Crystal kosher salt, 7, 481482 diastatic malt extract, 477

E
egg(s). See also egg white(s); egg yolks adding in creaming cake mixing method, 121 adding to cookie dough, 416 in bakers formulas, 2931, 32, 33, 3436 in cake recipes, 12, 8185 chalazae of, 65, 166 in cookies. See eggs in cookies cracking, 165 high-altitude baking and, 50 need for acid to set, 61, 64, 65, 110 for pte choux, 242 salmonella in, killing, 184186

separating, 165166 temperature of, for creaming cake mixing method, 122 type used in this book, 6 warming, 6 weight of, 35, 496 egg foam. See also egg-white foams adding fat to, 223 folding our into, 223 for gnoise, beating, 222 eggs in cookies, 397402 beating after adding, crust formation and, 409, 423 setting of cookies and, 399 spread and, 399, 427 as structural ingredient, 397399 whole eggs, egg whites, and egg yolks and, 399402 egg white(s) beating, 166167 in cookies, 399 copper bowl for beating, 172 cream of tartar for beating, 172 dried, 166 as drying agents, 12, 81 fat in, 166 freshness of, determining, 166 frozen, 166 as leavening agents, 81 overbeating, 167 in pastry crusts, 356 for pte choux, 242 salmonella in, killing, 184186 separating eggs and, 165166 warming, for meringue, 190192 weight of, 496 egg-white foams, 164241 at-a-glance summary chart, 194 buttercreams and. See buttercream(s) combining with butter for buttercreams, 209, 210 foam cakes and. See angel food cakes; chiffon cakes; gnoise; sponge cakes handling eggs and, 165167 how they work, 164165 meringues and. See meringue(s); soft pie meringues soufs and. See soufs

518

Index

egg yolks in cookies, 399 as emulsiers, 81 in gnoise, 220 in pastry crusts, 356 salmonella in, killing, 102, 104, 184 separating eggs and, 165166 thinning of dishes with, 110, 335 weight of, 496 emulsiers egg yolks as, 81 in fats, 30, 69 lecithin as, 480 shortenings with. See Crisco; shortening emulsion(s), 210 buttercreams as, 210 in ganache, 102 emulsion cake mixing method, 135 English toffee Denas Great Apple-Walnut Mufns, 129131 E-Z Delicious Peanut Butter Cookies, 383384 quantity and weight measures of, 497 Equal, 77, 78 equipment. See also specic pieces of equipment sources for, 507509 espresso. See coffee extracts for buttercreams, 147

F
fat(s), 6972. See also butter; lard; margarine; shortening; solid fats adding to egg foam, 223 as aerators, 390 in bakers formulas, 2931, 32, 33, 3436 beating egg whites and, 166 in bread. See fat in bread for buttercreams, 147 in cake recipes, 12 coating of our by, 345346 combining with our, absorption of liquid by pastry crust and, 351 combining with our for akey pastry crusts, 301302

combining with our for tender pastry crusts, 296, 297 in cookies. See fat in cookies crystal size and type in, 349 determining combination of, 35 emulsiers in, 30, 69 fat content of, 346 as avor carrier, 16, 69, 121 avor of, 349, 350 grain and, 31 interference with gluten formation, 372373, 421, 485 leavening and, 6970, 390 mouthfeel and, 31 for pastry crusts, 345350 for pte choux, 243 quantity and weight measures of, 496 ratio to our, brownie texture and, 410 ratio to our, in pastry crust, 340 ratio to our, spread of cookies and, 426 solid vs. liquid, 69 spread of cookies and, 426 tenderness and, 69, 70, 345 waterproong of crusts by, 345, 351 weight of, 35 whipping cream and, 319 fat bloom, 91 fat in bread, 485494 layered doughs and, 490494 order of adding to dough, 485 temperature and, 490 fat in cookies, 384392 at-a-glance summary chart, 392 color and, 392 avor and, 385390 spread and, 384 texture and, 390392 fermentation, temperature for, 434 llings Lane Cake Filling, 45 Lemon Curd, 284 akiness of pastry crusts, 296, 301308, 346, 347, 349350 of yeast breads, 490494 an rings for pastry crusts, 294 avor of brownies, brown sugar and, 415

with cake our, 61, 343 of fat, 349, 350 fat as carrier of, 16, 69, 121 fat in cookies and, 385390 our and, 62 kneading bread and, 433 of lard, 349 lecithin in bread and, 480 salt and, 345, 407, 481 sugar and, 73 temperature of bread dough and, 434 avorings adding to fat, 121 for buttercreams, 147 our, 6064 adding in creaming cake mixing method, 121122, 123124 all-purpose. See all-purpose our available to home cooks, 372, 377 in bakers formulas, 2931, 32, 33, 3436 barley, malted, in bread, 432 bleached vs. unbleached, 6263 bread. See bread our cake. See cake our in cake recipes, 12 combining fat with, liquid absorption by pastry crusts and, 351 combining with fat for akey pastry crusts, 301302 combining with fat for tender pastry crusts, 296, 297 in cookies. See our for cookies in eggless cakes, 82 avor and, 62 folding into egg foam, 223 for gnoise, 220221 high-protein. See high-protein our instant. See instant our measuring, 6 milling of, 469 pastry. See pastry our for pastry crusts, 343345 for pte choux, 242 protein content of, 62, 343, 371373, 377, 403, 468470. See also highprotein our; low-protein our

Index

519

our (cont.) for puff pastry, 357 quantity and weight measures of, 495 ratio of fat and chocolate to, brownie texture and, 410 ratio of fat to, in pastry crust, 340 ratio of fat to, spread of cookies and, 426 regional differences in, 469 role in cakes, 60 rye. See rye our self-rising. See self-rising our semolina. See semolina our sequence of combining ingredients for cookies and, 426 spread of cookies and, 426 substituting cocoa powder for, 6467, 110, 427 tapioca. See tapioca starch (tapioca our) texture and, 60 types of, 6063 types used in this book, 6 water to produce gluten in cookie dough and, 421, 426 weight of, 31, 34, 495 our for bread, 431, 468476. See also bread our ash content of, 476 barley, malted, 477 choosing type of, 470471 gluten formation and, 468469 with malted barley our added, 477 other than wheat, 473475 protein content of, 468470 regional differences in, 469 vital wheat gluten in, 476 whole-grain, 475476 our for cookies, 372373 at-a-glance summary chart, 385 browning and, 423 protein content of, 371373, 377 substituting types of, 373374 variations in, 376377 ourless cakes, 6467 chocolate, 6467 ourless cookies, 383384 uting pastry crusts, 295

foam cakes, 217241. See also angel food cakes; chiffon cakes; gnoise; sponge cakes focaccia Focaccia Farcita, 458459 folding bread dough, 441 folding our into egg foam, 223 food for yeast, 478 food processor akey pastry crusts mixed by, 305306 tender pastry crusts mixed by, 297298 Form V and VI crystals, 105 fougasse Fougasse with Biga, 457458 Straight Dough with Autolysis Fougasse, 439441 free-form soufs, 204205 French buttercreams lightened, Italian meringue as, 215 Silky French Buttercream la Roland Mesnier, 214215 French meringues Delicate French Meringue, 175176 Featherlight Meringue Spheres with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream and Chocolate, 176177 French rolling pins, 287 freshness of egg whites, determining, 166 fresh yeast, 477, 478 frostings. See buttercream(s); icings and frostings; toppings frozen egg whites, 166 fruit. See also candied fruit; dried fruit; specic fruits cooked, for pies, 310311 fresh, glazed, for pies, 309310 preservation of shape by sugar, 73 quantity and weight measures of, 496 fruit pies Bill Greenwoods Great Dome with a Braided Base, 327328 Clide Ogletrees Famous Strawberry Pie, 322323 cooked fruit for, 310311

Dark, Sweet Bing Cherry Pie with Pastry Lattice, 314315 Fried Apple Pies Extraordinaire, 308 glazed fresh fruit for, 309310 Golden-Leafed Peach Pie, 312314 lattice for, 314315 pastry cutouts for, 312314 streusel topping for, 316318 whipped cream toppings for, 318323 fruit preserves Buttery Jelly-Jeweled Cookies, 386387 Cherry-Chambord Butter, 154 Cherry-Chambord Butter Icing, 145 Salzburger Nockerl, 204205 Shiny Apricot-Orange Glaze, 253 fruit tarts Lemon Tartlets, 283284 Pear Tart with Frangipane in Puff Pastry, 360361 Rustic Cherry Tart, 291293 Rustic Pear Tart, 289291

G
ganache, 95102 with butter, 9899 corn syrup in, 97, 99100 emulsions in, 102 failure of, 100101 rm, 95 medium, 95 Satin-Smooth Ganache Glaze, 99100 Shiny Ganache Glaze, 97 Simple Chocolate Mousse, 96 soft, 95 techniques for, 100102 Velvety Ganache Glaze, 9899 gelatin quantity and weight measures of, 497 as stabilizer for whipped cream, 320 gnoise, 219231 at-a-glance summary chart, 228 baking, 223 Delicate Hazelnut Gnoise, 227 Financiers, 230231

520

Index

Improved Gnoise, 224226 ingredients for, 220221 Intense Chocolate Lava Cakes, 229230 proportions for, 220 techniques for, 221223 ginger Cracked-Surface Crunchy Gingersnaps, 394 quantity and weight measures of, 497 Sweet Pears and Crunchy, Roasted Walnut Mufns, 133134 yeast activity and, 479 gingerbread Serious Stuff Gingerbread, 8485 Gisslen, Wayne on beating egg foam for gnoise, 222 nut meringue recipes of, 178 glass, heatproof, precautions with, 5 glass pie dishes, 293294 glazes Cream Glaze for Pound Cake, 24 Lemon Glaze, 2627 Mocha Glaze, 252 Satin-Smooth Ganache Glaze, 99100 Serious Rum Cake Glaze, 29 Shiny Apricot-Orange Glaze, 253 Shiny Ganache Glaze, 97 Shiny Glaze for Pound Cake, 18 Velvety Ganache Glaze, 9899 gliadin, 343 amount in gluten, 470471 combination with sugar, 350, 485 gluten formation from. See gluten lacking in non-wheat ours, 473 glucono-delta-lactone, reaction time of, 47 glucose. See corn syrup gluten aligning by rounding bread dough, 441 with all-purpose our, 60 with cake our, 61 cutting of, by acidic ingredients, 355 developing by folding bread dough, 441

extensibility of, 470471 fats interference with formation of, 372373, 421, 485 our types and, 60, 61, 468469 formation of, 343, 353 with high-protein our, 372 insufcient to hold cookies together, 373, 421 limiting amount formed in cakes, 1819, 120, 123124 limiting amount formed in pastry crusts, 343, 345346, 353 need for wheat our to obtain, 473 in puff pastry, 356, 357 roughness of pastry crust caused by, 343 shrinking of pastry crust and, 343 strengthening and tightening of, by salt, 481 sugars interference with formation of, 350, 372373, 421, 485 vital wheat gluten, 476 water absorption differences in our and, 468 water to produce in cookie dough, 421, 426 glutenin, 343 amount in gluten, 470471 combination with sugar, 350, 485 gluten formation from. See gluten lacking in non-wheat ours, 473 glycyrrhizin, 77 goat cheese Herb-Crusted Goat Cheese Tart, 274275 Gold Medal our all-purpose, 60, 62, 63 Harvest King unbleached, 461, 477, 478 protein content of, 377 Gorgonzola cheese Focaccia Farcita, 458459 graham crackers. See cookie crumbs grain (of cake), fat, liquid, and sugar and, 31 granulated sugar for buttercream icings, 145 in cookies, 397

cracked surface on cookies and, 393396 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Greenwood, Bill on meringue, 190192 on pies, 266 Gruyre cheese EasyWithout FoamSouf, 199200 Golden Brown Puffed Cheesy Rice Spoon Bread, 159160 GougresMagnicent Little Bits of Cheese Clouds, 255257 Incredibly Creamy Soufs, 206207 Simply Wonderful Strata Browned Billows of Cheesy Puff, 201 Souf Magnique!, 196198

H
ham Simply Wonderful Strata Browned Billows of Cheesy Puff, 201 hand-held pies Fried Apple Pies Extraordinaire, 308 strong crust for, 306307 hand mixers, 2 hard red winter wheat our for baguettes, 62 unbleached, for bread, 431 hard wheat, 468, 471 hazelnuts Delicate Hazelnut Gnoise, 227 FrangipaneAlmond-Hazelnut Paste, 291 Hazelnut-Almond Meringue Layers with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 178180 Hazelnut-Almond Soft Dacquoise, 180181 Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 quantity and weight measures of, 496

Index

521

Healy, Bruce chocolate fan-making procedure of, 106 on creaming cake mixing method, 122 on creaming of butter and sugar, 121 our preferred by, 60, 62, 63 on gnoise, 220 lightened French buttercream of, 215 on liquid for pte choux, 242 nut meringue recipes of, 177 on overheating chocolate, 92 on pound cake, 13 on temperature of foam for gnoise, 222 heatproof glass, precautions with, 5 heavy cream substituting for milk in cakes, 1619 whipped. See whipped cream Herm, Pierre, puff pastry technique of, 358 Hersheys Special Dark Cocoa, 111 high-altitude baking, 50 cocoa powder and, 110 high-percentage chocolate, 87, 94, 101 high-protein our, 468 for cookies, browning and, 423 gluten formation in, 372 liquid absorption by, 372 for pte choux, 242 for puff pastry, 357 high-ratio cakes, 3031, 69, 124 Hocking, Sylvia, 13 homogenized cream, whipping, 319 honey, 76 in cookies, 397 Honey Mascarpone Cream, 270271 hygroscopic nature of, 76, 393, 397, 423 hot-oil crusts, 346 hot syrup, pouring, 187, 209 Hurlbert, Heather, 19 on buttercreams, 209 chocolate sculptures made by, 8788 hydration of cookie dough, 374375 hydrogenated starch, 77

I
icings and frostings, 141150. See also toppings Betty McCools Coconut Icing, 41 buttercream. See buttercream icings Carrot Cake Cream Cheese Icing, 72 Cherry-Chambord Butter Icing, 145 chocolate, 143144. See also ganache cream cheese, 144145 double-icing technique for, 141142 ganaches. See ganache goal of, 141 Icing for Pound Cake, 18 Luscious, Creamy Chocolate Icing, 143144 meringue, 145 Pound Cake Icing, 24 Scone Icing, 156 Serious Rum Cake Icing, 29 Simple Cream Cheese Icing, 84 soft chocolate, 142143 whipped cream, 142 White Chocolate Cream Cheese Icing, 144145 ingredients, 67. See also specic ingredients acidity of, 68 bakers formulas for, 2931, 32, 33, 3436, 238 bakers percentages, 32, 3435, 432 balance of, for cakes, 1314, 2931, 33 improvements in, 30 quantity and weight measures of, 495497 sifting for even distribution of leaveners, 58 sources for, 88, 146, 509510 instant coffee powder, quantity and weight measures of, 497 instant our in cookies, 385 Lard Crust, 349350 for pastry crust, 343345 protein content of, 343, 372

quantity and weight measures of, 495 Shirleys Adaptation of Strauses Special Crust for Pumpkin Pie, 298299 Simple Very Flakey Crust, 302304 instant-read thermometers to test cakes for doneness, 136 instant yeast, 477, 478 quantity and weight measures of, 496 insulated cookie sheets, 420 isomalt, 77 Italian buttercreams, 209211, 212213 Italian Buttercream, 212213 Italian meringues, 186188 Italian Meringue (Magnicent Pie Meringue), 187188 in lightened French buttercream, 215

K
King Arthur our, 385 all-purpose, 82 protein content of, 377 rye, 460 unbleached all-purpose, 461, 477, 478 kiwi Turkey Filling, 258 kneading bread, 433, 479480 knives for slicing cakes into layers, 39 kosher salt in bread dough, 481 production process for, 481482 substituting for table salt, 7 Kummer, Corby, 63

L
lactitol, 77 lame, 442 lane cake Shirleys Not-the-Traditional Lane Cake, 4445 lard fat content of, 346 akiness of pastry crust made with, 346, 349, 350 avor of, 349

522

Index

Lard Crust, 349350 quantity and weight measures of, 496 layers, slicing cakes into, 39 leaf lard, 349 lean cakes (regular shortened cakes) bakers percentages for, 32 formulas for, 30 leavening and leaveners bubbles in fats as, 6970, 390, 402 chemical. See ammonium bicarbonate; baking powder; baking soda; chemical leaveners egg white foams as. See eggwhite foams; meringue(s); soft pie meringues steam as. See steam yeast as. See bakers yeast; wild yeast; yeast breads lecithin in bread, 432, 480 lemons and lemon juice E-Z Crust with the Fresh, Sparkling Taste of Lemon Zest, 340341 Lemon Curd, 284 Lemon Glaze, 2627 Lemon-Orange Cream Chiffon Cake, 232233 Lemon Tartlets, 283284 Take-Your-Breath-Away Lemon Pound Cake, 2527 Taste Sensation Lemon-White Chocolate Butter Cookies, 389390 Lentre, Gaston, on egg foam for gnoise, 221, 222 levain, wild yeast. See sourdough starters lightness, cake mixing method and, 120, 124 limp cookies, 423 liquids. See also specic liquids absorption of, protein content of our and, 372 adding in creaming cake mixing method, 122, 123124 adding to melted chocolate, 101 in bakers formulas, 31 crumb and, 31 dissolving leaveners in, 59 dissolving salt in, 122, 345 in emulsions, 210

grain and, 31 order of adding to bread dough, 485 for pastry crusts, 353 for pte choux, 242243 for puff pastry, 357 seizing of chocolate and. See seizing of chocolate spread of cookies and, 427 texture and, 31 volume and metric measures of, 497 weight of, 35 loaf cakes, oven temperature for, 137 low-fat dairy products, preventing curdling of, 329 low-protein our, 470. See also cake our; instant our; Southern all-purpose our; White Lily our protein content of, 469

M
macadamia nuts Bordeaux Macadamia Crust, 268269 Famous Smoothest-Ever Trufes with Chambord and Macadamia Dust, 103104 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Maldon sea salt, 7 malitol, 77 malted barley our, 432, 477 malt extract, 477 mangoes in Great Flower Cake, 241 mannitol, 77 maple syrup, 76 in cookies, 393 margarine disadvantages of, 70 fat content of, 346 akiness and, 346 marshmallow creme Carol Moores Easy Magnicent Meringue, 193 marshmallow to stabilize whipped cream, 320, 321 Martha White our, 377 mascarpone cheese Honey Mascarpone Cream, 270271

McGee, Harold, on cream of tartar with copper bowl, 172 measurement, 2 of chemical leaveners, 4748 metric measures and, 2, 495 weighing vs. volume for, 6 weights for ingredients, list of, 495497 Medrich, Alice on combining melted chocolate with other ingredients, 94, 95 on high-percentage chocolate, 87, 101 salmonella, procedure for killing of, 185186 melting chocolate, 9293, 105 cocoa butter and, 106 melting curves for, 106 meringue(s), 167193 at-a-glance summary chart, 194 cakes (nut meringues), 177184 cookies, 175177, 399 crust on brownies as, 409 Floating Islands, 170171 French (meringue ordinaire), 174177 hard, 174177, 186 heat and, 168 ingredients for, 168174 Italian, 186188 nut, 177184 for pies, stable, 186188 proportions in recipes for, 174, 177178 salmonella-safe, 184186 shrinkage of, preventing, 173 soft, moist hard meringue, 181 soft pie meringues, 188193 Swiss, 184186 tearing of, preventing, 173 weeping of, 168, 189, 191 meringue crusts, 183184, 279 meringue icings, 145 meringue powder, sources of, 146 Mesnier, Roland on buttercreams, 213 on cooking fruit for pies, 311 on egg foam for gnoise, 221222 nut meringue recipes of, 177 on sealing meringue and lling, 189 metric measures, 2, 495 microbial activity, sugar and, 73

Index

523

milk in bread, 482485 for pte choux, 242243 substituting sour cream or heavy cream for, in cakes, 1619 type used in this book, 7 milk chocolate, 90 tempering, 105 milling of our, 469 minerals in our, 476 mixers, 2 in creaming cake mixing method, 123 akey pastry crusts mixed by, 304305 tender pastry crusts mixed by, 297 mixing of bread dough, temperature for, 434435 of cookies, 416417 of pte choux, 243 mocha buttercream icings, 150 Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 moistness brown sugar and, 393, 397, 423 formulas to create moist cakes and, 32, 3436 honey and, 76, 393, 397, 423 icings and frostings to retain, 141 molasses and, 423 oil and, 52 of pound cakes, increasing, 1829 sugar and, 52, 73, 393, 397, 423 moisture. See also liquids; moistness; steam; water; specic liquids seizing of chocolate and, 93 molasses, 76 Anadama Bread, 474475 Great Grandmother Schorrs Moravian Molasses Cookies, 418419 hygroscopic nature of, 423 Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 snowake cookies, 419 monocalcium phosphate anhydrous, reaction time of, 47 in baking powder, 46 reaction time of, 47

monopotassium tartrate. See cream of tartar Montrachet cheese Herb-Crusted Goat Cheese Tart, 274275 Mortons kosher salt, 7, 482 mousse Simple Chocolate Mousse, 96 mouthfeel, fat and, 31 mozzarella cheese Focaccia Farcita, 458459 mufn(s) Blueberries and Cream Mufns, 131132 Denas Great Apple-Walnut Mufns, 129131 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 shape of, 136137 Sweet Pears and Crunchy, Roasted Walnut Mufns, 133134 mufn cake mixing method, 5758, 129134. See also mufn(s) mufn pans, sizes of, 128 mustard. See dry mustard Myerss rum, 27

ground, substituting for our, 64 roasted, to improve avor and texture of cakes, 52 nutmeg quantity and weight measures of, 497 yeast activity and, 479 nut meringues, 177184 Blueberries with Honey Mascarpone Cream in Walnut-Oat Meringue, 183184 Hazelnut-Almond Meringue Layers with Silky Crme Anglaise Coffee Buttercream, 178180 Hazelnut-Almond Soft Dacquoise, 180181 Heavenly Mocha HazelnutAlmond Meringue Cake, 182 as pie crusts, 183184 storing, 182

O
oats Blueberries with Honey Mascarpone Cream in Walnut-Oat Meringue, 183184 Bourbon Pecan Oatmeal Cookies, 380382 Cinnamon Walnut Oatmeal Cookies, 379380 Laura Berrys Extra-Crunchy Oatmeal Cookies, 382383 quantity and weight measures of, 497 oils for chiffon cake, 231233 in emulsions, 210 to increase moisture in cakes, 52 substituting for part of fat in pound cakes, 1819, 2529 tenderness and, 69, 70, 390 one-bowl cake mixing method, 128 oranges and orange juice Fried Apple Pies Extraordinaire, 308 Lemon-Orange Cream Chiffon Cake, 232233 Orange Cream Puffs, 250 Shiny Apricot-Orange Glaze, 253

N
natural cocoa powder, 109. See also cocoa powder antioxidants in, 111 quantity and weight measures of, 497 nondiastatic malt extract, 477 nonrolled pastry crusts, 266285 crumb crusts, 267278 meringue, 183184, 279 phyllo, 279285 press-in-the-pan, 278279 Northern specialty blended allpurpose our in cookies, 385 protein content of, 372, 377 nut(s). See also almond(s); hazelnuts; macadamia nuts; peanut butter; pecans; pistachios; walnuts Cracker-Nut Crust, 273 for crusts, 267 FrangipaneAlmond-Hazelnut Paste, 291

524

Index

ovens bakeware and, 6 operation of, 3 steam in, 5 oven spring, 442 oven temperature baking stones and, 2, 45, 135, 244, 443 for cakes, 136 fast preheating and, 4 uctuation of, 34 for high-altitude baking, 50 for loaf cakes, 137 for mufns, 136137 opening door and, 5 rise and, 135 temperature settings and, 3 texture and, 136 overbaking cookies, 424 overbeating egg whites, 167 overleavening, 5057 of cookies, 402403, 404407 examples of recipes with, 5557 xing overleavened recipes and, 57 improving overleavened recipes and, 5152 overwhipping cream, 320 oxygen, incorporating into bread dough, 479480

P
palm kernel oil in compound coatings, 117 in white chocolate, 88 in white coatings, 90 parchment paper, 424 Parmesan cheese Cheese n Rice Bread, 444446 GougresMagnicent Little Bits of Cheese Clouds, 255257 Herbed Parmesan Cheesecake, 341342 Old-Fashioned Spoon Bread, 158159 in pastry crusts, 353, 354 quantity and weight measures of, 496 paste FrangipaneAlmond-Hazelnut Paste, 291 pasteurized cream, whipping, 319

pastry blend cake mixing method, 126127 pastry crusts, 286309, 339356 at-a-glance summary chart, 309 acidic ingredients for, 355 baking pans for, 293294 basic recipe for, 339340 Bill Greenwoods Great Dome with a Braided Base, 327328 cheese in, 353355 color of, 355, 356 combining our and fat for, 296, 301302 Cream Cheese Crust, 288289 Crust for Hand-Held Pies, 306307 Crust with Instant Flour, 344345 decorating, 295 eggs in, 356 E-Z Crust with the Fresh, Sparkling Taste of Lemon Zest, 340341 fat for, 345350 akey, 296, 301308, 346 Flakey Butter Crust in a Mixer, 304305 Flakey Cheddar Crust, 354355 Flakey Crust in a Food Processor, 305306 our for, 343345 Greenwoods Great Buttermilk Crust, 347349 hot-oil, 346 Lard Crust, 349350 liquids for, 353 pte brise, 351 Pte Sabl, 352353 pte sabl, 351 pte sucre, 351 phyllo. See phyllo crusts placing in pan, 295 pre- or blind-baking, 294, 325326 proportions for, 347 ratio of fat to our for, 340 Rolled-In Crumbs Crust, 324325 rolling, 286288 Rustic Cherry Tart, 291293 Rustic Pear Tart, 289291 salt for, 345 setting of dough and, acidic ingredients and, 355

shaping, 293, 295 Shirleys Adaptation of Strauses Special Crust for Pumpkin Pie, 298299 shrinkage of, 295, 343 Simple Very Flakey Crust, 302304 strong, for hand-held pies, 306307 sugar for, 350353 super akey, 302 tender, 296301, 345346, 350 time required for, 286 waterproof, 296297, 298, 324325, 345, 351 pastry our in cookies, 385 protein content of, 343, 372, 470 pte choux, 241262 at-a-glance summary chart, 262 baking, 244 Cocktail Puffs with Escargots, 259 Cream Puffs, 250 clairs, 251 GougresMagnicent Little Bits of Cheese Clouds, 255257 ingredients for, 241243 Pte Choux Ordinaire, 245247 Pte Choux Somewhat Spciale, 247249 Pont Neuf, 254 Puits dAmour (Wells of Love), 252253 Religieuses (Little Nuns), 251252 Shirleys Mile-High Popovers, 260261 sticking of, 244 techniques for, 243244 Turkey Gougre, 257258 pte brise, 351 Patent, Greg, puff pastry technique of, 358 pte sabl, 351 pte sucre, 351 peaches Fresh Peach Souf la Roland Mesnier, 202203 Golden-Leafed Peach Pie, 312314 in Great Flower Cake, 241 Peach Sauce, 203

Index

525

peanut butter E-Z Delicious Peanut Butter Cookies, 383384 quantity and weight measures of, 497 pears Croustade, 281282 Pear Tart with Frangipane in Puff Pastry, 360361 Rustic Pear Tart, 289291 Sweet Pears and Crunchy, Roasted Walnut Mufns, 133134 pecans Bourbon Pecan Oatmeal Cookies, 380382 Chocolate Pecan Torte with a Hint of Bourbon, 237238 Croustade, 281282 French Cake aux Fruits, 139140 Gingersnap-Pecan Crust, 277278 Golden, Moist Carrot Cake, 7172 Grandmothers Pecan Macaroons, 398 Great Flower Cake, 239241 Improved Tunnel of Fudge Cake, 7475 Lane Cake Filling, 45 Laura Berrys Extra-Crunchy Oatmeal Cookies, 382383 Lava Cookies, 400401 Moist Banana Nut Bread, 137138 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Roasted Pecan Chocolate Chip Cookies, 375376 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 Shirleys Cakey Brownies, 413414 Shirleys Corrupted Black Gold, 401402 Shirleys Fudgy Brownies, 411412 Shirleys Version of Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5455 Wedding Cookies, 422 pepper black, quantity and weight measures of, 497

cayenne, quantity and weight measures of, 497 white, quantity and weight measures of, 497 Pepperidge Farm Bordeaux cookies. See Bordeaux cookies phenylalanine, 78 phyllo crusts, 279285 The Best-Ever Chess Tarts, 285 Croustade, 281282 Lemon Tartlets, 283284 shaped and prebaked shells, 282285 phyllo pastry handling, 280 store-bought, 280 phyllo shells, shaped and prebaked, 282285 pie(s), 263368 baking. See baking pies cream. See cream pies custard. See custard pies double-crusted, baking, 327 fruit. See fruit pies hand-held, strong crust for, 306307 Memorable Creamy Pumpkin Pie, 300301 pie crusts, 266309. See also crumb crusts; nonrolled pastry crusts; pastry crusts pie meringues Alice Medrichs Safe Meringue, 185186 Carol Moores Easy Magnicent Meringue, 193 Greenwoods Great High Meringue, 191192 Italian Meringue (Magnicent Pie Meringue), 187188 soft, 188193 stable, 186188 pie pans, 293294 glass, 293294 with holes, 294 pie weights, 326 Pillsbury our, 377 piping of pte choux, 244 pistachios, quantity and weight measures of, 496 pizza stones. See baking stones plums in Great Flower Cake, 241

poolish, 447452 Baguettes Made with Poolish, 448450 bakers percentages for, 448 Poolish, 448 Rustic Boules Made with Poolish, 450452 popovers Shirleys Mile-High Popovers, 260261 pork in Turkey Filling, 258 potato starch about, 7 in pound cakes, 18, 2224 quantity and weight measures of, 497 substituting for part of our, 6263 texture and, 6263 potency of chemical leaveners, checking, 48 pot pies Real Homemade Chicken Pot Pie, 366368 pound cakes, 1329 balance of ingredients for, 1314 Bundt or tube pan for, 15 Chef Heather Hurlberts Magnicent Moist Whipped Cream Pound Cake, 2021 The Great American Pound Cake, 1619, 3334 Icing for Pound Cake, 18 increasing moistness of, 1829 potato starch in, 18, 2224 Serious Rum Cake, 2729 Shiny Glaze for Pound Cake, 18 Shirleys Even Greater American Pound Cake, 2224 Soaking Solution for Pound Cake, 18 substituting oil for part of fat in, 1819, 2529 Take-Your-Breath-Away Lemon Pound Cake, 2527 whipped cream in, 1929 pouring hot syrup, 187, 209 prebaking pastry crusts. See blindbaking pastry crusts pre-ferments, 447467 with bakers yeast, 447459 with wild yeast, 459467 preheating ovens, 4

526

Index

preshaping bread dough, 441442 press-in-the-pan crust, 278279 E-Z Delicious Chocolate-Nut Crust, 278279 protein amount in our, 62, 343, 403, 468470. See also highprotein our; low-protein our coating of, by oil, tenderness and, 390 denaturation of, 164165 in egg-white foams, 165 factors inuencing content in our, 468469 gluten and. See gliadin; gluten; glutenin liquid absorbed by our and, 372 prevention of denaturation by starch, 328329, 335 in self-rising our, 403 speed of cooking of, acidic ingredients and, 355, 393, 399 puff pastry, 356368 brush-it-with-ice-water technique for, 357358 classic, 358368 our for, 357 folding technique for making, 356, 360 Great Shell with Fresh Crabmeat and Sweet Creamed Corn, 364365 lattice, 367368 liquid for, 356 Mustard-Dill Salmon en Crote, 361362 Pear Tart with Frangipane in Puff Pastry, 360361 Piroshkis, 362363 Quick Puff Pastry or Rough Puff, 359360 Real Homemade Chicken Pot Pie, 366368 working with, 356358 pumpkin Memorable Creamy Pumpkin Pie, 300301 pumpkin seeds Rye with Pumpkin and Sunower Seeds, 462463 punching down bread dough, 441, 479480

Purdy, Susan on creaming butter and sugar, 121 on high-altitude baking, 50 Pyler, E. J. on eggs, 220 on temperature of foam for gnoise, 221

Q
quick breads All-Time Favorite E-Z, Dee-licious Sour Cream Cornbread, 157 Golden Brown Puffed Cheesy Rice Spoon Bread, 159160 Moist Banana Nut Bread, 137138 Old-Fashioned Spoon Bread, 158159 oven temperature for, 137 quick-mix cake mixing method, 128 Quick-Rise yeast, 477, 478 quantity and weight measures of, 496

R
raisins Cinnamon Walnut Oatmeal Cookies, 379380 French Cake aux Fruits, 139140 Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5152 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Ruth Fowlers Beautiful Morning Glory Mufns, 8081 seedless vs. seeded, 53 Shirleys Version of Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5455 Rapadura, 76 RapidRise yeast, 477, 478 quantity and weight measures of, 496 raspberries Shirleys Not-So-Sconey Scones, 155156 raspberry jam Judy Bradys Blueberries and Bordeaux, 269271

raspberry liqueur. See Chambord reducing sugar, corn syrup as, 423 refrigerator cookies, 417 Reinhart, Peter, on whole-grain our, 475476 Release foil for baking cookies, 374, 424 rice Cheese n Rice Bread, 444446 cooking Carolina style, 160 Golden Brown Puffed Cheesy Rice Spoon Bread, 159160 rice malt syrup, 76 rise baking stones and, 135, 443 need for gluten in yeast bread for, 473 oven spring and, 442 steam and, 5, 135 roasted nuts to improve avor and texture of cakes, 52 rolled cookies, 417418 rolling pastry dough, 286288 to even thickness, 288 rolling pins for, 287 surface for, 287 technique for, 287288 rolling pin(s), 287 rolling pin rings, 288 room temperature in U.S. homes, 122 rope edge of pastry crusts, 295 roulades, 238241 Great Flower Cake, 239241 proportions for, 238 rounding bread dough, 441442 rum Myerss, 27 Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 Rum Cream Pie, 276 Rum Drizzle, 76 Serious Rum Cake, 2729 Serious Rum Cake Glaze, 29 Serious Rum Cake Icing, 29 Rumford baking powder, 46 rye our, 460 quantity and weight measures of, 495 Rye with Pumpkin and Sunower Seeds, 462463 Shirleys Adaptation of Whitleys Rye Sourdough Starter, 460461

Index

527

rye our (cont.) Working Rye or Wheat Starter, 461462

S
saccharin, 7778 salmon Mustard-Dill Salmon en Crote, 361362 salmonella, killing in eggs, 102, 104, 184186 salt adding in creaming cake mixing method, 122 adding to pastry dough, 345 in bread, 481482 for buttercream icings, 146 in cookies, 407 dissolving in liquid, 122, 345 gluten in bread dough and, 481 kosher, 7, 481482 for pastry crusts, 345 production of, 481482 quantity and weight measures of, 497 sea, 7, 481, 482 shelf life of bread and, 481 suppression of bitterness by, 345, 407, 481 sweetness and, 407 table, 7, 481 time of addition to bread dough, 481 types of, 7, 481482 saltine crackers Cracker-Nut Crust, 273 Roosters Famous Fire Crackers, 391 sauces Caramel, 171172 Cream Sauce, 363 Peach Sauce, 203 Strawberry-Chambord Sauce, 8990 scones, 154156 Shirleys Not-So-Sconey Scones, 155156 sea salt brands of, 7 in bread dough, 481 composition of, 482 substituting for table salt, 7

seeded raisins seedless raisins vs., 53 substitution for, 53 seedless raisins, seeded raisins vs., 53 seizing of chocolate, 93 combining chocolate with other ingredients and, 9495, 101 preventing, 9394 rescuing chocolate after, 93 self-rising our, 57, 151 advantage of, 5859 characteristics of, 63 for cookies, 403404 protein content of, 403, 470 quantity and weight measures of, 495 White Lily, 61, 63, 151 semisweet chocolate, 86, 87 semisweet chocolate chips, quantity and weight measures of, 497 semolina our, 471 quantity and weight measures of, 495 Semolina Bread, 471473 Straight Dough with Autolysis Baguettes, 436438 separating eggs, 165166 Shake & Blend. See instant our shaping of cookies, 417418 of pastry crusts, 293, 295 of pte choux, 244 shortening for buttercreams, 147, 208209 butter-avored, in cookies, 385, 392, 426 coating of our by, 345346 in cookies, 392 ease of working with crust made from, 346 with emulsiers. See Crisco fat content of, 346 akiness of pastry crust made with, 346, 347, 350 as leavener, 390, 402 quantity and weight measures of, 496 spread of cookies and, 384 in sticks, for pastry crusts, 302 tenderness and, 347 shrinkage of fruit llings, solution to, 310311

of meringues, preventing, 173, 190 of pastry crusts, 295, 343 sifting to distribute leaveners, 58 single-stage cake mixing method, 128 slashing bread dough, 442 snails Cocktail Puffs with Escargots, 259 snowake cookie cutters, 418, 419 soaking solutions Betty McCools Ole Time Coconut Soaking Solution, 41 Chocolate-on-Chocolate Cake Soaking Solution, 114 Golden Layers Soaking Solution, 42 Lane Cake Soaking Solution, 45 Soaking Solution for Pound Cake, 18 sodium acid pyrophosphate, reaction time of, 47 sodium aluminum phosphate, reaction time of, 47 sodium aluminum sulfate baking powders made with, 46 reaction time of, 47 soft chocolate icings, 142143 soft pie meringues, 188193 baking, 191 beading of, 189 Carol Moores Easy Magnicent Meringue, 193 Greenwoods Great High Meringue, 191192 proportions in recipes for, 188 shrinkage of, preventing, 173, 190 tearing of, 190 warming egg whites for, 190192 weeping of, 189, 191 soft wheat, 468469, 471 soft winter wheat our, protein content of, 377 solid fats leavening and, 6970 tenderness and, 69 sorbitol, 77 soufs, 195208 at-a-glance summary chart, 208 base for, hot, 195, 196 EasyWithout FoamSouf, 199200

528

Index

ourless, 202203 free-form, 204205 freestanding, 205207 Fresh Peach Souf la Roland Mesnier, 202203 Incredibly Creamy Soufs, 206207 with no egg-white foam, 198200 Salzburger Nockerl, 204205 Simply Wonderful Strata Browned Billows of Cheesy Puff, 201 Souf Magnique!, 196198 stratas, 200201 sources for equipment, 507509 for ingredients, 88, 146, 509510 sour cream All-Time Favorite E-Z, Dee-licious Sour Cream Cornbread, 157 with baking soda, 49 color of pastry crust and, 355 The Creamiest Ever Amaretto Cheesecake, 333335 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Simple Very Flakey Crust, 302304 Sour Cream Topping, 301 substituting for milk in cakes, 1619 tenderness of pastry crusts made with, 353, 355 sourdough starters, 459467 building, 466467 Rye and Wheat Starter, 463465 Rye with Pumpkin and Sunower Seeds, 462463 Shirleys Adaptation of Whitleys Rye Sourdough Starter, 460461 Sourdough Rustic Boules, 466467 temperature for, 459460, 463 Working Rye or Wheat Starter, 461462 Southern all-purpose our, 63, 151 in cookies, 385 protein content of, 372, 377, 469, 470

Southwestern all-purpose our in cookies, 385 protein content of, 372 soybean oil, compound coatings made from, 117 spices. See also specic spices quantity and weight measures of, 497 yeast activity and, 479, 480 Splenda, 77, 79 sponge (pre-ferment), 447 sponge cakes, 233241 Chocolate Pecan Torte with a Hint of Bourbon, 237238 Great Flower Cake, 239241 La Joconde, 233238 rolled (roulades), 238241 Shirleys Simplied Clichy Cake (Opera Cake), 235236 Simplied La Joconde, 234235 spoon breads, 158160 Golden Brown Puffed Cheesy Rice Spoon Bread, 159160 Old-Fashioned Spoon Bread, 158159 spread of cookies, 425427 acidity and, 404, 427 chocolate and, 427 cocoa powder and, 427 eggs and, 399, 427 fat and, 384, 426 our and, 426 leaveners and, 404, 427 liquid and, 427 sugar and, 393, 427 springform pan sizes, 271 spring wheat, 468, 471 starch. See also cornstarch; potato starch; tapioca starch (tapioca our) custard texture and, 331332 hydrogenated, 77 for meringues, 173174 prevention of protein coagulation by, 328329, 335 types used in this book, 7 steam, 161262 creating in oven, 5, 246, 248, 443 egg-white foams and. See angel food cakes; buttercream(s); chiffon cakes; egg-white foams; gnoise; meringue(s); soft pie meringues; soufs; sponge cakes

as leavener, 47 misting pte choux to create, 244 pte choux and. See pte choux rise and, 5, 135, 443 steamer, making, 5, 246, 248, 443 stevia, 77 sticking of cookies, 424 of pte choux, 244 storage of cakes, 54, 150 of chemical leaveners, 48 of nut meringues, 182 straight dough bread-making method, 444446 with autolysis, 435441 stratas, 200201 Simply Wonderful Strata Browned Billows of Cheesy Puff, 201 Strause, Monroe Boston on cooking fruit for pies, 310311 on crumb crusts, 267268 on meringues, 173 on pies, 266 strawberries Clide Ogletrees Famous Strawberry Pie, 322323 Great Flower Cake, 239241 Strawberry-Chambord Sauce, 8990 streusel topping, 316318 Streusel Topping, 317318 string test for checking temper, 107 Sucanat, 76 sucralose, 77, 79 sucrose in cookies, 397 sugar(s), 7379 adding to our before folding into egg foam, 222 amount required for meringues, 168169 in bakers formulas, 2931, 32, 33, 3436 beet, 146 in bittersweet chocolate, 87 in bread, 485 brown. See brown sugar in brownies, 415 browning and, 73 bulk and, 73 for buttercream icings, 145146

Index

529

sugar(s) (cont.) in cake recipes, 12 cane, 146 Caramel, 171172 confectioners. See confectioners sugar control of microbial activity by, 73 in cookies. See sugar in cookies cooking fruit for pies with, 310311 crisp vs. limp cookies and, 423 crumb and, 31 for crumb crusts, 267268 in dissolved-sugar cake mixing method, 134 avor and, 73 grain and, 31 granulated. See granulated sugar high-altitude baking and, 50 hygroscopic nature of, 73, 393, 397, 423 to increase moisture in cakes, 52 interference with gluten formation, 350, 372373, 421, 485 for meringues, 168172 moisture retention and, 73, 393, 397, 423 for pastry crusts, 350353 preservation of fruit and vegetable shape by, 73 quantity and weight measures of, 495496 Rapadura, 76 reducing, corn syrup as, 423 sources of, 146 spread of cookies and, 427 Sucanat, 76 superne (bakers, bar, berry), 168, 233 table. See granulated sugar tenderness and, 73 texture and, 73 texture of, surface texture of cookies and, 393396 timing of addition for meringues, 169 turbinado, 76, 397 types used in this book, 6 weight of, 34 sugar/batter cake mixing method. See creaming cake mixing method

sugar beets, 146 sugar bloom, 91 sugar/our batter cake mixing method, 135. See creaming cake mixing method sugar in cookies, 392397 at-a-glance summary chart, 397 browning and, 392 crisp vs. limp cookies and, 423 spread and, 393 texture and, 393396 sugar-shortening cake mixing method. See creaming cake mixing method summer coatings, 117 Sunett, 77, 78 sunower seeds Rye with Pumpkin and Sunower Seeds, 462463 superne sugar making ones own, 168, 233 for meringues, 168, 233 sweeteners. See also articial sweeteners; corn syrup; honey; maple syrup; molasses; rice malt syrup; sugar(s); specic types of sugars types of, 76 sweetness, salt and, 407 Sweet n Low, 7778 Swiss buttercreams, 209211 Swiss Buttercream, 211 Swiss cheese Golden Brown Puffed Cheesy Rice Spoon Bread, 159160 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Swiss meringues, 184186 Alice Medrichs Safe Meringue, 185186 syrup(s), 77. See also corn syrup; maple syrup Basic Heavy Syrup, 226 Espresso Syrup, 236 Gnoise Syrup, 226 hot, pouring, 187, 209

T
table salt in bread dough, 481 substituting kosher salt for, 7 substituting sea salt for, 7

table sugar. See granulated sugar tapered French rolling pins, 287 tapioca starch (tapioca our) about, 7 for meringues, 173174 quantity and weight measures of, 497 tart(s) The Best-Ever Chess Tarts, 285 fruit. See fruit tarts Herb-Crusted Goat Cheese Tart, 274275 tartaric acid, in baking powder, 46 tearing of meringues, preventing, 190 temperature bacterial activity in bread dough and, 434 for baking brownies, 410 of bread dough, 434435 of butter and bowl for creaming cake mixing method, 122 coating of our by fat and, 346 combining cool chocolate with ice-cold ingredients and, 104 for cooking cream pie llings, 335 for cooking custard, 328 cooling chocolate rapidly and, 106107 of cream for ganache, 101 for creaming cake mixing method, 121, 122 of eggs for creaming cake mixing method, 122 of fat, for akey breads, 490 fermentation in bread and, 434 avor of bread and, 434 of foam for gnoise, 221222 for gelatin added to whipping cream, 320 for mixing bread dough, 434435 of oven. See oven temperature overheating chocolate and, 92 room, in U.S. homes, 122 for souf bases, 195, 196 for sourdough starters, 459460, 463 testing cakes for doneness and, 136 texture of fat and, 346 for whipping cream, 318319 yeast activity and, 434, 478479

530

Index

tempering chocolate, 104107 checking the temper and, 107 easy tempering and, 105 low-temperature, 105106 old-fashioned method for, 106107 tempering machines for, 107 tenderness articial sweeteners and, 79 cake mixing method and, 120 of cookies, fat and, 390 dissolved-sugar cake mixing method and, 134 fats and, 69, 70 of pastry crusts, 296, 345346, 347, 350, 353, 355 texture of brownies, 410 cake mixing method and, 120, 134 of cookies, 390392, 393396, 405 of custard, starch and, 331332 fat and, 390392 our type and, 60, 61, 6263 leaveners and, 405 liquid and, 31 oven temperature and, 136 potato starch and, 6263 sugar and, 73, 393396 thaumarins, 77 thermometers, instant-read, to test cakes for doneness, 136 thin chocolate, 88 thinning of dishes with egg yolks, alpha-amylase and, 110, 335 thyme, yeast activity and, 479 toppings Honey Mascarpone Cream, 270271 meringue. See pie meringues Rum Drizzle, 76 Sour Cream Topping, 301 streusel, 316318 Streusel Topping, 317318 whipped cream, 142, 318323 Whipped Cream Topping, 321 trufes, 102104 Famous Smoothest-Ever Trufes with Chambord and Macadamia Dust, 103104 tube pan for pound cakes, 15 turbinado sugar, 76 in cookies, 397

turkey Turkey Gougre, 257258 two-stage cake mixing method, 126127 Magnicent Moist Golden Cake (Two-Stage Method), 126127

U
ultra-pasteurized cream, whipping, 319 unbleached our for bread, 469470 characteristics of, 62 quantity and weight measures of, 495 unsweetened chocolate, 86 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, 2, 495

V
vacherins, 174 vanilla extract for buttercreams, 147 vanilla wafers. See cookie crumbs; crumb crusts Velvety Ganache Glaze, 9899 vital wheat gluten, 476 vitamin C in bread, 432, 480 volume, measuring ingredients by, 6

W
wacky cake Shirleys Crazy Cake, 8384 Wakeeld, Ruth, 373374 walnuts Blueberries with Honey Mascarpone Cream in Walnut-Oat Meringue, 183184 Chocolate-on-Chocolate: Dark Moist Cake with ChocolateWalnut Frosting, 113114 Chocolate-Walnut Frosted Golden Layer Cake, 4142 Cinnamon Walnut Oatmeal Cookies, 379380 Denas Great Apple-Walnut Mufns, 129131

E-Z Delicious Chocolate-Nut Crust, 278279 Golden, Moist Carrot Cake, 7172 Improved Tunnel of Fudge Cake, 7475 Lava Cookies, 400401 Old New England Hermit Bars, 405407 quantity and weight measures of, 496 Shirleys Version of Pop Corrihers Original Applesauce Cake, 5455 Super Rich Espresso Brownies, 415416 Sweet Pears and Crunchy, Roasted Walnut Mufns, 133134 water. See also liquids for bread, 481 in emulsions, 210 for meringues, 172173 for pte choux, 242, 243 to produce gluten in cookie dough, 421, 426 waterproof pastry crusts, 296297, 298, 324325, 345, 351 weeping of meringues, 168, 189, 191 weight(s) in bakers formulas, 2931 for ingredients, list of, 495497 measuring ingredients by, 6, 31 used in this book, 2 wheat ash content of, 476 durum (semolina). See semolina our hard, 471 soft, 468469, 471 spring, 468, 470, 471 strains of, amount of protein in our and, 468469 winter, 468469, 471 Whip it stabilizer, 319 whipped cream, 318323 at-a-glance summary chart, 321 for gnoise, 221 icings and toppings, 142, 318323 incorporating into other ingredients, 320 liquid draining from, 319

Index

531

whipped cream (cont.) overwhipping, 320 in pound cakes, 1929 stabilizers for, 319320 Whipped Cream Topping, 321 white chocolate, 88, 90 Balis Alabaster Chocolate Tower, 8889 Shirleys Not-So-Sconey Scones, 155156 Taste Sensation Lemon-White Chocolate Butter Cookies, 389390 tempering, 105 White Chocolate Cream Cheese Icing, 144145 white confectionery coating, 90 White Lily our in cookies, 385 protein content of, 372, 377 quantity and weight measures of, 495 self-rising, 61, 63, 151 white pepper, quantity and weight measures of, 497 whole-egg buttercreams, 210, 213215 whole-grain breads, 475476 whole-wheat bread Land of Milk and Honey Whole Wheat, 483485 wild yeast, 478 pre-ferments with. See sourdough starters wild yeast levain. See sourdough starters

Williams, Chuck, 151 winter wheat, 468469, 471 Wondra. See instant our wrapping cakes, 150

X
xylitol, 77

Y
yeast. See bakers yeast; sourdough starters; wild yeast yeast breads, 429494 Anadama Bread, 474475 Baguettes Made with Poolish, 448450 bakers percentages for, 432, 436 barley malt syrup for, 477 Basic Dough Made with Biga, 456 Cheese n Rice Bread, 444446 Ciabatta with Biga, 453454 dairy products in, 482485 fat in. See fat in bread akey, 490494 Flakey, Buttery Croissants, 490494 avor of, 480 our for. See our for bread Focaccia Farcita, 458459 Fougasse with Biga, 457458 Land of Milk and Honey Whole Wheat, 483485 lecithin in, 480

malted barley our in, 477 malt extract in, 477 methods for. See bread-making methods milk in, 482485 order of combining ingredients for, 485 Rustic Boules Made with Poolish, 450452 salt in, 481482 Semolina Bread, 471473 shelf life of, 481 sourdough. See sourdough starter Straight Dough with Autolysis Baguettes, 436438 Straight Dough with Autolysis Btards, 438439 Straight Dough with Autolysis Fougasse, 439441 strange ingredients for, 431432 sugar in, 485 techniques for. See breadmaking techniques The Ultimate Brioche I: Light, Airy, Bread-Like Brioche, 486487 The Ultimate Brioche II: Buttery, Cake-Like Brioche, 488489 vitamin C in, 480 water for, 481 whole-grain, 475476 yeast for, 477479 yogurt with baking soda, 49

532

Index

scribner A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Copyright 2008 by Condent Cooking, Inc. Photographs by AKELstudio, Inc. All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information, address Scribner Subsidiary Rights Department, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. First Scribner hardcover edition October 2008 scribner and design are registered trademarks of The Gale Group, Inc., used under license by Simon & Schuster, Inc., the publisher of this work. For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, please contact Simon & Schuster Special Sales: 1-800-456-6798 or business@simonandschuster.com designed by erich hobbing Text set in Sabon Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008032681 ISBN-13: 978-1-4165-6078-4 ISBN-10: 1-4165-6078-5