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The output torque would be

τ LOAD =

POUT

ωm

=

66.5 kW 1 min (1200 r/min ) 60 s

2π rad 1r

= 529 N ⋅ m

In English units,

τ LOAD =

7.04 POUT ( 7.04 )( 66.5 kW ) = = 390 lb ⋅ ft nm (1200 r/min )

(b) To change the motor’s power factor to 0.8 leading, its field current must be increased. Since the power supplied to the load is independent of the field current level, an increase in field current increases E A while keeping the distance E A sin δ constant. This increase in E A changes the angle of the current

I A , eventually causing it to reach a power factor of 0.8 leading.

}

∝P

I A2 I A1 Vφ jX I E A1 E A2

S A

}

∝P

Q ∝ I sin θ

A

(c)

The magnitude of the line current will be

IL =

5-19.

66.5 kW P = = 100 A 3 VT PF 3 ( 480 V )( 0.8)

A 480-V, 60 Hz, 400-hp 0.8-PF-leading eight-pole ∆-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 1.0 Ω and negligible armature resistance. Ignore its friction, windage, and core losses for the purposes of this problem. (a) If this motor is initially supplying 400 hp at 0.8 PF lagging, what are the magnitudes and angles of E A and I A ? (b) How much torque is this motor producing? What is the torque angle δ? How near is this value to the maximum possible induced torque of the motor for this field current setting? (c) If E A is increased by 15 percent, what is the new magnitude of the armature current? What is the motor’s new power factor? (d) Calculate and plot the motor’s V-curve for this load condition. SOLUTION (a) If losses are being ignored, the output power is equal to the input power, so the input power will be

**PIN = ( 400 hp )( 746 W/hp ) = 298.4 kW
**

This situation is shown in the phasor diagram below:

87

80 ) = −36. The angle of the current is − cos −1 (0. so I A = 259∠ − 36.max = 3 Vφ E A ωm X S = (c) If the magnitude of the internal generated voltage E A is increased by 15%.1°) = 0.920 lagging.4 kW = 3166 N ⋅ m 1 min 2π rad ( 900 r/min ) 60 s 1r 3 ( 480 V )( 385 V ) = 5882 N ⋅ m 1 min 2π rad ( 900 r/min ) (1.15 ( 385 V ) = 443 V δ 2 = sin −1 E A1 385 V sin δ 1 = sin −1 sin(− 32. (d) A MATLAB program to calculate and plot the motor’s V-curve is shown below: % M-file: prob5_19d.9° V = 225∠ − 23.0 Ω )( 259∠ − 36. so its rotation speed is nm = 900 r/min. and the power factor is cos (-23. the corresponding phase current is I A = 449 / 3 = 259 A . E A2 = 1.87° A . the new torque angle can be found from the fact that E A sin δ ∝ P = constant .6° V (b) This motor has 8 poles and an electrical frequency of 60 Hz.1° A j1.87° .m % M-file create a plot of armature current versus Ea % for the synchronous motor of Problem 5-19. The internal generated voltage E A is E A = Vφ − jX S I A E A = ( 480∠0° V ) − j (1.9° E A2 443 V The new armature current is I A2 = Vφ − E A2 jX S = 480∠0° V − 443∠ − 27. The induced torque is τ ind = POUT ωm = 298.0 Ω The magnitude of the armature current is 225 A.87° A ) = 385∠ − 32.0 Ω ) 60 s 1r The maximum possible induced torque for the motor at this field setting is τ ind.8) Because the motor is ∆-connected. 88 .6°) = −27.15 E A1 = 1.V φ IA EA jX I S A The line current flow under these circumstances is IL = P 298.4 kW = = 449 A 3 VT PF 3 ( 480 V )( 0.

xlabel('\bf\itE_{A}\rm\bf (V)'). % Initialize values Ea = (1:0.6 * pi/180. % Synchronous reactance Vp = 480. % Magnitude of Ea volts Ear = 385.* (cos(delta2) + j . % Reference Ea deltar = -32.Ea ) / ( j * Xs). At 60 Hz. and the maximum I F is 89 . % Calculate Ia Ia = ( Vp . title ('\bfSynchronous Motor V-Curve'). % Phase voltage at 0 degrees Ear = Ear * (cos(deltar) + j * sin(deltar)). % Plot the v-curve figure(1)./ abs(Ea) .3 Ω.8-PF leading 60-Hz two-pole Y-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 1.'b'. The resulting plot is shown below 5-20.* sin(delta2)).% First.8 A) i_f = (38:1:58) / 10.0).01:1. plot(abs(Ea). its friction and windage losses are 50 kW. % Calculate the phasor Ea Ea = Ea .abs(Ia).'Linewidth'.8-5.70)*385. grid on.2. initialize the field current values (21 values % in the range 3.* sin(deltar) ). A 2300-V 2000-hp 0. The field circuit has a dc voltage of 200 V. and its core losses are 40 kW. ylabel('\bf\itI_{A}\rm\bf (A)').5 Ω and an armature resistance of 0.0. % Reference torque angle Xs = 1. % Calculate delta2 delta2 = asin ( abs(Ear) .

will its synchronous reactance be the same as at 60 Hz. (a) Over what range must the input frequency be varied to provide this speed control range? (b) How large is E A at the motor’s rated conditions? (c) What is the maximum power the motor can produce at the rated conditions? (d) What is the largest E A could be at 300 r/min? (e) Assuming that the applied voltage Vφ is derated by the same amount as E A . If a 60-Hz synchronous motor is to be operated at 50 Hz. Similarly. what is the maximum power the motor could supply at 300 r/min? (f) How does the power capability of a synchronous motor relate to its speed? SOLUTION (a) A speed of 300 r/min corresponds to a frequency of 95 . The higher the frequency. so the total synchronous reactance X S is directly proportional to frequency.85-PF leading 50-Hz six-pole Y-connected synchronous motor has a synchronous reactance of 1. the reactance of the armature self-inductance is directly proportional to frequency. The armature reaction voltage is caused by the armature magnetic field B S . the faster B S sweeps over the stator. This motor is to be operated over a continuous range of speeds from 300 to 1000 r/min. Therefore. or will it change? (Hint: Think about the derivation of X S .5 Ω and a negligible armature resistance. 5-23. The rotational losses are also to be ignored.) SOLUTION The synchronous reactance represents the effects of the armature reaction voltage Estat and the armature self-inductance. and the higher the armature reaction voltage Estat is.5-22. If the frequency is changed from 60 Hz to 50 Hz. the armature reaction voltage is directly proportional to frequency. the synchronous reactance will be decreased by a factor of 5/6. and the amount of voltage is directly proportional to the speed with which the magnetic field sweeps over the stator surface. A 480-V 100-kW 0. where the speed changes are to be accomplished by controlling the system frequency with a solid-state drive.

the power-handling capability of the synchronous motor varies linearly with the speed of the motor. note that X S = (15/50)(1.45 Ω (f) As we can see by comparing the results of (c) and (e).fe = nm P (300 r/min )(6) = = 15 Hz 120 120 nm P (1000 r/min )(6) = = 50 Hz 120 120 A speed of 1000 r/min corresponds to a frequency of fe = The frequency must be controlled in the range 15 to 50 Hz. (a) Find the torque angle δ. This machine is Y-connected.5 A 3 VT PF 3 ( 480 V )( 0.5∠31. The maximum power that the motor could supply would be Pmax = 3 Vφ E A XS = 3(83.1 V )(129 V ) = 71.5 Ω Since E A must be decreased linearly with frequency.78 PF leading? (c) What is the new torque angle in part (b)? 96 .9° V So E A = 429 V at rated conditions. so the phase voltage is Vφ = 480 / The internal generated voltage is 3 = 277 V. The field current flowing under these conditions is 2. 5-24.45 Ω. Also.5 Ω) = 0.300 = (e) 15 Hz (429 V ) = 129 V 50 Hz If the applied voltage Vφ is derated by the same amount as E A .8 Ω. then Vφ = (15/50)(277) = 83. (c) is The maximum power that the motor can produce at rated speed with the value of E A from part (b) Pmax = (d) 3Vφ E A XS = 3 ( 277 V )( 429 V ) = 238 kW 1.8° A ) E A = 429∠ − 24.5 kW 0. Its synchronous reactance is 0. (b) The armature current at rated conditions is I A = IL = P 100 kW = = 141. the maximum value at 300 r/min would be E A. E A = Vφ − R A I A − jX S I A E A = 277∠0° V − j (1.5 Ω )(141. A 208-V Y-connected synchronous motor is drawing 50 A at unity power factor from a 208-V power system.1 V. Assume a linear open-circuit characteristic.5∠31. (b) How much field current would be required to make the motor operate at 0.7 A.85) so I A = 141.8° A .

4 Ω per phase.1∠38. The current flowing in this machine is IA = Vφ − E A R A + jX S = 480∠0° V − 460∠ − 8° V = 33.5 V The new torque angle δ of this machine is –14.00) I A2 = 64. because E A is lagging Vφ .1∠38. the internal generated voltage is E A = Vφ − R A I A − jX S I A E A = 120∠0° V − j ( 0. which is directly proportional to power.4°.7° A The internal generated voltage required to produce this current would be E A2 = Vφ − R A I A2 − jX S I A2 E A2 = 120∠0° V − j ( 0.0 Ω per phase and an armature resistance of 0. ∝P } I A2 I A1 Vφ jX I E A1 E A2 S A } ∝P Since the power supplied by the motor is constant. It is also consuming reactive power. consuming power from the power system.0 Ω 97 .5∠ − 18.7°.8 Ω )( 64. Therefore.35 A I F1 = E A1 126.78 leading is shown below.7° A ) E A2 = 157∠ − 14. is this machine a motor or a generator? How much power P is this machine consuming from or supplying to the electrical system? How much reactive power Q is this machine consuming from or supplying to the electrical system? SOLUTION This machine is a motor. because E A cos δ < Vφ . E A2 157 V (2. the quantity I A cos θ .8 Ω )( 50∠0° A ) E A = 126. Therefore.7° V The internal generated voltage E A is directly proportional to the field flux.4° V The torque angle δ of this machine is –18. Therefore. and we have assumed in this problem that the flux is directly proportional to the field current. If E A = 460∠-8° V and Vφ = 480∠0° V.4 + j 2.78) = ( 50 A )(1. the required field current is IF2 = (c) 5-25. and the armature current is I A = 50∠0° A .SOLUTION (a) The phase voltage of this motor is Vφ = 120 V. A synchronous machine has a synchronous reactance of 2. must be constant.6° A 0.6∠ − 9. (b) A phasor diagram of the motor operating at a power factor of 0. I A2 ( 0.7 A ) = 3.

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