Week I: Lecture 2 III. Latin a. b. c. Part 2 b. Middle part of the 19th century. Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela.

Peru emerged in the middle of the 19th century. Rough transition during the beginning of the century. The discovery of Guano helped the country economy. Copper, Silver, and plantation crops, such as cotton, which emerged in the middle and end of 19th century. Looking at a country that pulled itself together from a rough 19th century. Bananas helped Colombia do the same End of the 19th century Venezuela rose up helps to the discovery of petroleum. In Argentina, cereal, wheat, and sheep helped the economy. In México after a difficult 19th century, pulled itself together through civil war and started using natural resources such as petroleum, copper, silver, and others. Central America broke along from New Spain through a federation, and created their separate states. By the end of the 19th century the countries found crops that had expanding markets such as bananas, tobacco and coffee. A strong export base and political system created a successful integration with the north Atlantic. (USA, Europe) Part 3: Internal Trends Agricultural expansion, one trend in the region is for greater expansion. Railroads helped the expansion by lowering costs of transportation from the interior. The lands that are being opened up were owned or managed by native people, which had been left alone in many ways American Trends Agricultural Expansion Transition from Slavery Increase in Peonage &

during the period of economic difficulties. Now with economic expansion those lands were being taken away to grow more. In México they move into land were they could never dominate. They clear out whole native peoples in order to sell the land to the higher bidders. (Indian Wars – Genocide) Another trend is the transition from slavery. Most of the 11 mill of slaves were brought over to the Caribbean and Latin America. Specially Brazil and Cuba. The end of the slave trade was in 1863 with Cuba being the last one. People did not have enough children to manage the work, so they had to get more slaves to work the lands. High death rate and lack of women to reproduce they increased the number of slaves. With the end of slavery they had to find new ways to find workers. The land was owned by the great land holding families and the previously were slaves now worked on the land as an employee. A new class became rampant which were the people who never found enough jobs to move out of the plantations they were in previously. The new laborers were now called “freed man” worker. (Sharecroppers) Increase of Peonage and Proletariats. (People who make their way by a wage – wageworkers) Most of the people did not receive wages; they just lived from the land they worked. Once they move to another plantation they become peons or become roamers, or move to the cities involved in the industrialization of countries. They also became indentured slaves, and created a source of cheap and almost free labor from the desperation. Since the Indians were happy working on their lands, the landowners had to tax them in order to get them to work in order to pay for the taxes so as to not lose their lands.

Lecture 2: First National Case Study: Brazil Second Reign Structures I. Evolving Political Authoritarian a. Monarchy & the Party of Order. (1840’s) b. Emergence of the Emperor (“Conciliation & Parliamentary Decline”) War and Reform a. Palatine Troubles b. The Coupe of 1868 c. Political Radical nation

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First Rein 1822-1831 Pedro I Regency 1831-1340 Second Reign 1840-1889 Pedro II Brazil is an enormous region. There were regional differences, which were important. They were afraid of a political change. Local elites wanted greater control for their region. They wanted a more decentralized system. A more democratic form of government. They wanted a constitutional monarchy and a representative one. During the regency the emperor was only 4-5 years old. The decentralizing elites had their way during this period. During this period of weakness local authorities gained more power, and was revolted by local people that were oppressed. It was a very tumultuous period. The local elites wanted more local power, but now the people were revolting against them and they had no way to be helped by a strong government. They now wanted to move back to a monarchy. There was a reaction against decentralization. The second reign became even more centralized than the first reign. 1837 Party of Order is created and the young emperor is brought in a form of a coup while he was only 16-17 years old. Even though the party of order emphasized a majority in the cabinet the emperor had the choice of whom to appoint. Thereby in paper being close to a democracy, yet not in practice. The emperor was untrusting of any politician. He was not willing to take directions from the leaders of the party of order. He did not want to be seen as a puppet, he was not going to be taking orders. By the end of the 1840s, by the appointments he had made it became clear that the emperor was ruling and not the people through the cabinet. They had too much respect for the young emperor so they did not challenge his ruling.

One of the most critical reaction that passed, was that gave the power of the cabinet members to appoint people that ran the lowest forms of government. They could tell the electoral leaders that they wanted their party to win, and they would only appoint those who would do as they said. Instead of having a parliament, what the voters wanted. They had a fake voting system. So the emperor chose the cabinet, and the cabinet would make the parliament members they wanted to get elected. The emperors would chose moderates of both parties and tell them to get things done. This became known as the “Conciliation.” A strong exporting of goods helped the increasing strength of the government. When they decided to go back to a strong government, it was the local elites, not the local farmers. The political leaders are basically the same as the monetary leaders. Brazil, 1830’s, was very rapidly becoming the number producer of coffee in the WORLD. Brazil has always been a great producer in the world, all that changes was the product, either sugar, or coffee, gold, diamonds. This kind of economic strength created a strong correlation between political leaders and commerce, plantation owners, and slavery. The elite let the gutting of the parliamentary system because they had a stable economy. Since the 18th century Portugal and Spain had been in a constant struggle over access to the Rio de la Plata. Those rivers provide easier access to the interior of Brazil is to take a river that starts in Argentina and Uruguay. With independence the nations were still interested in controlling the access. The Spanish Americans want the Brazilians out, and the Brazilians want easier access to their internal providences. The War of the Triple Alliance from 1865 to 1870 over access to the rivers. The emperor felt disrespected and Paraguay was badly destroyed, and fell into guerilla war. Duque de Caxias was the best general that Brazil had. Related to the radical wing. Made up of modern conservatives and liberals. Progressive League wants to appoint Duque de Caxias. Caxias was a member of the opposing party and put Caxias above the party. In 1868, the leader of the Progressive League gets him fired and uses propaganda to change the system. They create a new political party in 1868 for government reform. They wanted a representative form of government. They knew all along how the emperor worked, but now they wanted a change. They let the general populace know how the emperor was corrupting the system.

Brazil: Abolitionism & The Monarchy’s fall I. Law of the Free Womb (1871) a. Political Realities after 1868 b. Triumph of the Crown c. Legacy for the Crown The Movement for Abolition (1878 - 1888) a. Shifts in Opinion & Politics b. Origins of the Movements c. Strategy & Success

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The Coup of 1868: The King wanted to win the war in Paraguay. His best general was a conservative and his cabinet was not. The general was going to resign because he was not receiving the proper support from the cabinet. The King put the general ahead of the cabinet and the cabinet found a way to resign and embarrass the Emperor. They call it a coup because the Emperor made the choice without input from the cabinet. The cabinet members later create a liberal party that wants a change in the form of government. This activity further demonstrated to the political leaders that the Emperor was not following the law, even though he had not been following it for years, this is the time in which politicians decided that the Emperor’s powers had grown too much and decided to do something in order to change it. 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation in the United States happened in 1863, after that Brazil was the only nation-state that still had slavery. The British started to pressure the Emperor to stop slavery. The Emperor already wanted to get rid of slavery, however, economically was not feasible. The politicians and land owners (ruing class) all had a vested interested in slavery. They believed that the only dependable form of labor was slavery. Brazil contrasts the United States in which some ruling class people are actually black. Brazilians had a less prejudicial society since mixing of the races had started generations ago and most of the free people were actually of mixed blood. The Emperor wanted to change the laws about slavery and started to take action, however, the government was set in a way in which the Emperor just oversaw the country, not lead it. The Emperor started to move toward abolition from the top to bottom. This move was resisted

in the highest levels of government and parliament. When he brought in a new cabinet during the 1868 Coup, he told the cabinet to win the war and keep moving toward abolition. The Emperor pushed forward the Law of the Free Womb (1871). This law said that children of slaves born after 1871 were free. This created a form of abolition in which a slow transition to the end of slavery so that the economy does not go down and could say to the Europeans that they finally have moved toward abolition. However, if this law had been the only abolitionist law then Brazil would have had slaves well into the 1920’s and 1930’s. This move is mostly seen as a political move. The ruling class was afraid of what this law would create in the mindset of slaves, how they would feel about their owners from now on. The cabinet that just had started passed the law and was told to win the war told the Emperor that for now that is all they could do about abolition. The Emperor having just placed the cabinet could not get rid of them again and start anew. Once the war had finished the Emperor asked now that the war is finished let’s get some abolition going. The cabinet stonewalled him. Visconde do Rio Braneo – Prime Minister of Brazil selected by the Emperor. He got the majority in the chamber of deputies vote against slavery. The only way he got them to accept was by the use of Patronage. Basically he made political deals with the providences that if they favor his plan he would favor the use of Patronage (state funds) to help the local business. At the end of this the conservatives were questioning whether the government was a façade for the Emperor or if the cabinet was really in charge. The conservatives came up with a law in which the slaveholders themselves would decide if the slaves would become free. After 1871 any illusion about the nature of this regime had vanished and knew the Emperor would do whatever he wanted regardless of the cabinet, or any other form of government. The conservatives had split into two camps, one side would follow the Crown regardless and another party that wanted a change. Once the Crown makes it clear that he will do anything to get what he wants the Legacy for the Crown was dead. At this time Coffee is set as the major export of the nation and its capacity to expand was helped by railroads. Sugar in the northeastern part of the country was on a decline and never really recovered (now it is picking up). Cotton had a brief boom during the 1860’s. Tobacco has always been for export. The rubber boom was mainly for the Amazonians and it was relatively minimum. It eventually became second to only coffee but only at its height. Sao Paulo became a leader in producing coffee, and became the most successful state in Brazil. Local politicians had a live tenure and became more powerful as they became older even if their localities

were becoming economically unsuccessful. In Sao Paulo there was no strong local government, which helped, it’s ascend. A Republican Party rose up which was landowner that wanted more local power that was mainly in Sao Paulo. The second pillar of the Republican Party was going after a societal increase. They wanted a more democratic system like France or United States. The second pillar is made up of two constituents. One can be characterized as Federalists, and the second one was called Positivists. Conservative and Liberal Party. The Liberal Party has an offshoot the Republican Party. The Republican has two pillars. One of the farmers, and one of Positivists. The Positivists: there is a man in France named Auguste Comte, widely known as the father of sociology. How to have the results of the French Revolution without having the Revolution. They want orderly revolution. His idea was that we should have a scientific state. He said that we should study history and analyze through careful study the universal laws of progress. He imagined in which you have an enlightened dictator with a scientific cabinet. Instead of having a society in which they think is the best, we should have a society in which the way society is meant to be. We should go toward what a progressive society should go. The social scientists should tell the dictator where to move because it is the way that it has to be. The government is a dictatorship and is inclusive. In positive society the dictator should take care of everybody even the lowest of the classes. A society that creates good things for ALL people. By setting this up you will not have political parties, revolutions, wars, or civil unrest. It just lets the society move faster toward progress without conflict or delay. It is anti-democratic; he assumes that only competent people should make the decisions for the people. Enlightenment - Positivism o Fascism o Fascism o Marxism - Democratic Republican Abolitionist Movement 1878 – 1888 The abolitionist movement had to be enforced locally and by the state. The problem is that local government did not enforce the abolitionist laws. Over the course of the 1870’s there is a change in public opinion. If there wasn’t any public support during the 1868 – 1871 then afterward it did happen. The man mostly associated with the Abolitionist movement was Joaquim Nabueo. He was highly educated,

good speaker, and started thinking about abolition when he was a law student. After 1878 he joined the parliament and joined the abolitionist movement once somebody else brought it up. He is important because of his connections. Connected to the railroads. Members of the urban middle class were important to the abolitionist movement. The significant ideological support for the abolitionist movement were republicans, and a large majority of republicans were the urban middle class. Another two supporters of the abolitionist movement were Andre Reboucas and Jose Patroeinio. Andres was a afro-brazilian. Jose was a journalists. Completely engaged with the movement that he viewed as a crusade. He too was afro-brazilian. He tried to make the movement into a racial issue and tried to mobilize working people toward the movement. He said to those that were afro-brazilians that because they were afro-brazilians they should support the movement. He made it into a moral issue. Luis Gama was born as slave. He was born free, and sold into slavery. He was sold to the south because of the expanding coffee. Eventually became free and a lawyer. He was a radical and brought up the issue that in the 1830’s there was a law of stop-trade with Africa. Therefore all slaves brought after 1830’s were brought illegally. Newspapers had become cheap to produce and engaged the issue of abolition. They reach out to a large readership and were meant to mobilize that readership. Middle of 1880’s two providences in the north of brazil said they were free of slaves, so people used an underground “railroad” to bring slaves from the south to the north. There were agents sent out from the more radical groups that helped slaves run to the north. It’s not restricted to urbans people, afro-brazilians or social classes. It was an organized movement from every side. The movement was a success because the vested interest in slaves were much less than before. Because of the end of the slave trade, slaves became much more expensive. Now only very wealthy people could afford slaves. That meant that the north east was less and less invested in slave holding. Slave holding was no longer a universal need. Sao Paulo now the most wealthy city thought it was smarter to just get rid of slavery than having to deal with the mess and they saw it as an eventual fact anyways. They broke away and became free of slaves. In 1888, the Emperor was in Italy and his daughter Isabel was the regent. She was strongly toward abolition. She made Joao Alfredo (Prime Minister) pass the abolitionist laws. The fact of a corrupted government led to an easy passing. On the 13th of May of 1888 the abolitionist law was passed. The younger men that were slaveholders almost immediately became Republicans. The older ones did not change to Republicans but they support for the Crown had diminished. (The Golden Law.)

Fall of the Monarchy I. Progress and Politics a. Perceptions of the Regime b. Regional Differences c. The Coup of 15 November 1889 Emergence of the Oligardical Republic a. The Positivist Militants b. Paulista Penetration & Triumph c. A politica dos governadores

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Positivists among the military. Some of the most foremost military professors were positivists. They felt that they were embarrassed by Paraguay because it took them five years to defeat those Indians. They believe that Brazil with they higher economy and government should have been those people much easily. They did not like the civilian leadership because they were not given the support they needed. In 1883 the military had organized into a club to have a political voice. The President of that club was considered the spokesperson for the military. Deodoro da Fonseca was President. Younger men in the military were usually positivists unlike the older officers. A significant portion of the incoming officer court became positivists. From 1888 to 1889 the Republican party having tried to come to power by elections start thinking of coming into power through a Coup. The Republican party that were mostly not positivists reach to their minority that were positivist to get the militant positivists into accomplishing a coup. Isabel became Emperor but her dad did not train her. She was not prepared at all to be a ruler. It is believed that the Emperor never thought his daughter would take over for him. Deodoro was frustrated with the way the government was working and

agreed to support the Republican positivists for a Coup. He believed he was just changing the cabinet and prime minister. Immediately after the emperor was asked to advicate and left to Europe the leaders of both parties were asked what was going to happen next. They said that the deed was done and now we should just go with the institution that has been placed and move on. There was no civil unrest. It was a bloodless coup. When the coup took place the people that made the coup was military. A temporary government was in place. They then made constitution and had elections for a President and Deodoro was elected as President. They understood that Brazils future depended on unity and lack of civil unrest. Step back and led the military do their thing and support them. They now had a republican form of government in local providences, however, most of the previous leaders became now elected leaders in the providences. All except Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sol. You get a short period of positivist civil command from 1890 to 1894. A small civil war occur. Deodoro has a problem running the government with civilians because he is used to the military way of life. So he has a small coup against his own government, then Floriano de Poixato has a coup against Deodoro. When this happens the Navy says they are toward the Monarchy. The Navy leaves and goes to the most southern state of the nation (Rio Grande do Sol). They associate with a group that is against the current government. Rio Grande do Sol is the only providence in power by positivists. A very bloody civil war occurred between the republicans and the monarchist. In order to get the support of the most powerful providence (Sao Paulo) they ask the most powerful political leaders that were located between the providence in turmoil and the capital. They agree, but only if they elect one of them as President. Floriano do Poixoto becomes President in 1894 once the civil war has ended. He stops the positivists movement and says the way to move forward was by exports. There was a coup attempt in 1897 but was unsuccessful. This starts the Paulistas. This lead the change from one Paulista President to another. By the mid of 1890’s Brazils money was almost worhless internationally. Other countries did not believe them to be stable enough to lend them money. He restored credit by clumping all the outstanding loans and guaranteeing that they will all be paid. Part C: Campos Sales became President in 1898. He tried to fix the problem of national debt. He went to London to get credit. The arrangement that he made was called a political do governadores.

President at the top, governors of the state in the middle, and coronels are at the bottom. All of them are already in place, what changes is the patronage, power, and pain. The President says to the local leaders that if they back up his economic plan then he will leave them alone, keep them in power, or patronage (state money). He is offering goods, or the lack of pain. Either he will leave you alone during elections or he will find a way to take you off power. He consolidates power with the governors in the middle of the chain. The governadores are now keeping the coronels in check, and they will do what the governadores want, which in turn is what the President wants. From 1898 to 1930 this is basically the reality of how the government worked. Fraud, corruption and political patronage. If they did not fall in line with the President then the politicians did not get goodies or they were easily taken out of power. His goal was to create new credit. He needed to make the economy deflationary, the government is not going to be spending much of the money. Once the biggest bank in London approved Brazil credit, other banks allowed them to receive credit as well. Over time they country would have enough money to become industrialized if they wanted to. However, they decided to keep doing the natural resources export, such as fruits, sugar, tobacco. The Presidency was dominated by the major states, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. Sao Paulo was known for coffee and Minas Gerais for milk. Sometimes they called it the Café con leite. Rio Grande do Sol supported the café con leite political system. Rio Grande do Sol politicians had seniority and they often ran most of the politics. They wanted to be in good relations with the Presidency. “The Block” ran the federal government, Rio Grande do Sol, Minas Gerais, and Sao Paulo. Rio Grande do Sol wanted to be left alone and run their state as a dictatorship. In order to get that they had to give something, and they gave their loyalty and support to whatever the federal government wanted. The Old Republic & It’s Fall I. Old Republic, Old Realities a. Agro export basis. b. Neo-colonialism c. Dependent development Winners & Losers a. Regional Variation b. The losers c. The opposition

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Coffee now reaches new heights. Sao Paulo is now making 50% of the world’s coffee. Rio Grande do Sol the main occupation is beef cattle. Main supplier for beef in the nation. Sugar in the north east largely for internal consumption and tobacco for exporting. Cows are also for export. Minas has the largest population then, devoted to domestic production, along with pork for domestic production. Rubber starts to boom in 1870’s and reaches it’s height during the old republic. Natural rubber grows only in the southern region of the Amazonian valley. And it is the only rubber until the creation of synthetic rubber. The Amazonian monopoly was destroyed around 1912 because of the emergence of the south east asian rise of rubber quality and quantity. The Brazilian state makes most of it’s money by taxing both imports and exports, and remains at a neo-colonial type. Because the state depends on export taxes then they are dependent on foreign markets. If the foreign markets do not want Brazilian products then the state becomes bankrupt and no longer would receive credit. Formally they are independent, however, the are extremely dependent of Britain to buy their products. The assumption in Brazil is that by doing this relationship that they will accumulate enough capital over time, little by little, they will then rise to a much better country, with better schools, cities, trying to imitate European nations (OVER TIME). Most of the politicians could read and write French, and Latin. They were highly educated. Sewage systems had come to Brazil, railroads, streets, they believed that they were indeed moving toward progression. If the ruling class is doing well then why would they change their way of life. They did not believe that if they kept being dependent on Europe, then they will always remain dependent. However, they really had no other choice. The cities grew in absolute terms larger and larger. They are also enjoying more of the humanities of the 20th century. Rio de Janeiro, Manaus and Salvador grew the most. They had a growth of middle class, and non-durable goods, beer, hats, and such. Consumer goods. The industralization goes on in two cities in Rio and Sao Paulo by 1919. Abolition of slaver meant that many slaves went to the cities for work. The cities are expanding all classes, upper, middle, and lower. Most of the people that worked in Rio de Janeiro during the 1910’s worked as servants for elites. Change IS occurring. Substantial amount of people came from Europe such as Italy that went to Argentina and Brazil. They came through the rural parts of Sao Paulo and left to the cities as soon as possible. The Brazilians also had a large amount of Japanese, however, not Chinese. The largest amount

of Japanese outside of Japan is now Brazil. The Europeans that came to Brazil and Japanese were treated like garbage. The losers throughout the nation were the lower class, and the winners were the upper class. By 1910 this was called the Civilista campaign. A civilian wanted to become president but he did not come from one of the block states. Rui Barbosa campaigned and so did his opponent, however, the votes were counted funny and he lost. He ran again in 1919 with same results. The masses of workers in the rural areas are starting to be organized. Anarcho-syndicalism is a marragie between anarchism and syndicalism. The state is the instrument of the ruling class and a state in it of itself is the oppressor. They wanted to destroy the state and the ruling class so that the rural workers could run the stae. They believed in violent revolution. It differs from classical anarchism because it believed that there should be some kind of organization after the revolution but only at the union level. They wanted to stat this revolution with a General Strike and they all struck at the same time then they would be free and could take over. III. The Revolution of 1930 a. Breakdown of the Ruling Alliance b. Vargas & the Athanca Liberal c. Election & Revolutionary Coup The urban middle class was alienated since they were under an oligarchic system. They had no real power. In the 1920’s a shift toward Marxism begins. The rural working class is alienated but they are not politically active. The challenge to the regime would start from the rural section. The most significant opposition to the old republic in the 1920’s came from two groups, the military and the intellectual sector. In both cases they say they are fighting for the middle class. In the 1922 a small group of tenentes tried to revolt by attacking the President. They were stopped and killed, or arrested close to the Presidential Palace. Although they failed, it planted the seed for revolt throughout the country. In 1924 another group tried to do the same thing. However, instead of dying they ran away to Sao Paulo under the leadership of Luis Carlos Prestes. He led them on a long military retreat by going through the bad lands of Brazil. Most of these guys had never seen the country side. For the first time they saw the illiteracy, poor people and failure of the regime. They had seen people that were living as if it was in the 18th or 17th century. They wrote letters regarding this issue. Thy

escaped and went into Bolivia and letter on received amnesty. Most of the leaders of this movement became leaders in the revolutionary movement in the 1930s. Most of the guys went to the right, Prestes, however, moved to the left and eventually became leader of the communist party. Semana de Ante Modorne (Modernismo). The week of modern art in Sao Paulo. This movement was started by young artists. It is against the traditions of the fine arts which were always following the Paris arts. Before this movement the way to do art was the French way, this movement wanted to create art in the Brazilian style and not follow they French way. It was attempt to make a Brazilian art style. They wanted to break with the pass because they did not believe that they could make Brazilian art if they always followed the French style. It was a movement against French style of art. It was violently opposed and thoroughly national. The best and the brightest are always taking positions against the governement. Basically the children from those who benefited from the way the government was setup are now revolting. The economy was no longer predictable so there was a lot of uncertainty. In the European world and American world their views followed the path of the arts. The sense of steady progress is now gone. So Brazilians are now looking for a new direction since everybody else was doing the same. In the 1920s feel that liberalism was a 19th century artifact that was no longer working. They look at Italy and Russian and believed they have a way to work after WWI. The political system associated with WWI is thought to be passé. People began to think there was a new way to do things, and that no nation could be possible without a strong government that had to intervene with the economy. After WWI no nation believed that a small state was a good state. The 1920s were a period in which people believed things could go no wrong. The Church has a resurgence in the 1920s. After the 1870s has a slow steady buildup. By the 1920s the Church wants an official relation with the state. They did not like the separation of state and Church by the Constitution in the 1890s. The last president of the old republic was called Washington (something). He was not about to leave everything he had achieved to somebody that would change everything he made. The person that was the best bet to take over his place was against his economic policy. So Washington made sure that people would elect the person he wanted. Liberal Alliance - Minas Gerais

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Sao Paulo – Washington Luis Percira de Sousa Rio Grande do Sul o Getulio Vargas o Joao Pessoa NE states, urban sector (middle class workers)

Vargas had successfully mobilized people in the rural areas, however, Vargas lost the election. The vice presidential candidate was assassinated in a café for his doings in his home states. However, people did not see it that way and believed that it was payback. Because of an apparent contribution action begins violence against the regime. The state army marches on the streets to keep peace. The Federal Army top guys get together and they are on the fence whether they want to help the President. They got together and put the President in house arrest until he was exiled. As far as the military was concerned the elections had been rigged and did not want to keep supporting a corrupt government.