Week II: Cuba Cuba remains a colony of the Spanish.

In the 1760s cuba begins a transition to a big sugar producer. They brought in a large amount of Africans to do their labor. By the time of independence a minority was enslaved. The land holding elite did not wish to risk a massive slave insurrection by cutting links with spain with provided a critical support both political and economically. The Spaniards also had a large military in the country to keep the slaves in check. In the 1790s the people of Haiti revolt and take over the country. Some of the refugees had come to cuba. Everyone was aware that a slave revolt was the worst thing that could happen and they knew that it had happened before in Haiti. For this reason cuba kept close ties with spain. The creole elite elected a government with spain because they had everything they wanted without their freedom. By the 1840’s sugar had become the largest sugar cane export in the world. They had even taken over brazil. Between 1762 and 1840 you had an effective black island. The slaves were a majority. Many of the creoles were uncomfortable with this. They wanted a change but were too relient economically in slaves. A social hierchy much like brazil was created. A lot of poor Spanish came over to cuba to work. You have an increasingly racialized hierchy. A society that increasingly became racist with their legislation. The wealthiest people were the slaves traders. It was a high risk job so it paid well. You charge wonderful prices. Over time the wealthiest people were no land holders it was Spanish slave traders. They had money so their also started to buying land as well. In order to maintain the manufacturing of sugar (centrales) you needed lots of money because of the new technologies. They are in a dead cycle. Go in debt, buy slaves, grow sugar, sell it, come out of debt, and repeat for the new technology. By the 1850s Cuban society is highly raciallized and land owners were mostly Spanish slave traders. Americans were the number one consumer of sugar. During the 1850s many of the planters both Spanish and Cuban decided to stay with the American instead of the Spanish. During the 1840s and 1850s both southern politicians and Cubans were thinking of annexing cuba to the united states. We had just taken half of mexico and we weren’t full yet. This period becomes known as filibuster(ing). We had a lot of people that wanted to fight and grow the country. They believed it as moving and grow the American population enough that eventually annexetion was inevitable. We were interested in Cuba, however, once it became known that the Spanish and cuba were in talks the Cubans backed down because they did not want to seem unpatriotic to spain. (Austin an American politician screwed it up) With the steady domination of the best sugar lands by Spanish instead of creoles, the creoles did not have political power or economic. Tobacco was also a large part of the economy. Sugar was mostly grown on the eastern part of the country. In the western side there is more variation in the economy because they grow coffee, tobacco and other things. The eastern side was Spanish dominted and the west was mostly creole dominated. This is just a gradual process because of what sugar did.

Creoles say that Africanization was an Spanish movement to exploit their land. Very pro slavery in the east and some abolitionists on the west. The creoles believe they have a really bad deal and start thinking about independence. 1850 - 1860 The liberal power takes power in spain with a constitutional monarchy. The want to keep cuba. They start to draw the creoles toward their side by giving the full political rights to voters in cuba (male, land owners, educated). What happens is that quickly the east and west begins to mobilize politically to get their side into the parliament. The creoles had lots of different views, however, they all wanted to have some political voice. Some wanted abolition, some wanted to leave spain, and others wanted to stay with spain. The Spanish party in the east was much more united. They wanted to retain relation with spain, wanted to keep slavery. The implicatins and results is that by creoles mobilizing they started to talk about the future. In the 1860 a conservative party takes over spain again and revokes the voting ability of cuba and start to raise taxes in cuba. They had just given the Cubans some power and they started to mobilize and Cubans believed that things would get better. Now they have taken it away which leads to the 10 years war. From 1868 to 1878 cubans declare a separation from spain and start to revolt, they also start to fight the military outposts in cuba. They all agreed that it was time to break with spain. There would be a policy to start abolition. The process of abolition starts in several levels, from spain with Monet y Siguenza whom gave his name o the Monet law (1867). However, it was not enforced because the war broke out before they could. The creole patriots said that those slaves that wanted to fight with them would become free. Antonio Maceo became one of the most critical generals (he was a mestizo). Most of the political leaders were white, and most of the military leaders were black. Many of the creole leadership hoped that the Americans would intervene and help them out. The Americans did not know what to do and ended up not recognizing cuba as a sovereign country. Without support from the Americans they had to fight with machetes and only use guns by taking them from the Spanish soldiers. Maceo stated that the way to win was by going into east cuba and raise up the slaves and free all those that helped them fight. The white leadership from east cuba did not want Maceo to lead the slaves into a victory because they believed that he would become a black leader in a black island. Eventually the Spanish deafeated the uprising and gave up. Maceo did not want to do that so he kept fighting in a war called “La Guerra Chiquita”. It only lasted about 12 months but he lost. Maximio Gomez – Dominican Republic – President of Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1892. The official American position was neutrality during the cuban revolution. A guerrilla war along the lines of the 10 years war. Emphasize a class alliance, the

role of workers. Material moral support came by the cuban punta through propaganda. Most of the people doing the fighting were people of color. When they didn't destroyed plantations outright, they taxed them. The greatest set backs have to do with two deaths. Marti made it his duty to go with one of the first groups from america to cuba he was celebrated with a white a horse. He was the vision of the revolution and was killed (1895). Maceo was killed in 1896. Most of the country side in Cuba was under their control run by a shadow government that built schools and carried elections. The Spanish were hammered in their attempt to hold the situation. Canovas del Castillo. Interested in maintaining the monarchy. 1896 the Filipinos began a struggle for independence as well. Weyler (butcher). There are various ways to deal with the common people. He assumed the Cubans always support the movement so he separated the Cubans. “Reconcentracion.” They tried to group the rural population. By pulling them all together they could not do their work. They also put them together and they got sick rather quickly. People were dying of illness because of this policy long after the war had ended. This was extremely costly to the Spanish because the Americans viewed it as a horrible war. In the end Weyler had to be withdrawn. The man that brought him in, Canovas del Castillo, was assassinated by an anarchist. Most Americans identified with the cuban struggle. The population wanted the Cubans to win, however, the government figures did not want to intervene. The American government had a political contact with the Spanish that tried to get the Spanish to change the policy toward the Cubans. Every time the Americans asked for a change the Spanish conceded. The Americans kept asking for more looking for something the Spanish would not comply with. In 1898 the ship “Maine” was attacked by the Spanish and the Americans entered war against the Spanish in the Spanish-American War. At this time we are now trying to liberate the Cubans and Philippines from the Spanish empire. We wanted a war, so we kept asking for things until we got what we wanted. The Spanish do not have as much power as we did at the time. We had a top of the line fleet. Now we have a change to use it. The Spanish had an outdated navy and all they could do was die gloriously. They now had a war on two fronts, the cuban and on their own land. When we got into Cuba we went directly from winning the war to military occupation getting ready for annexation to the united states. The Americans wanted to take over the island. During the Spanish surrender in Cuba the Cubans had no voice in the military or civilian matters. The Americans did not believe that Cubans could not run their own country. Cuba & Initial U.S. Policy I. The shift from annexation 1. Initial assumtios of the U.S. 2. The decision for a Protectorate 3. The Plau Amendment II. Neo-Colonialism

1. Initial constraits (frontier) 2. Patron of 3. significance of infrastructure & III. Cuban Politics under Platt 1. Socio-Economic Realities 2. Emergent Political Parties 3. E of the afro-cuban masses Evarista Estenoz 1907 Independent Party of Color Americans started to make some reforms before annexation, such as hygiene, schools, infrastructure. They wanted it to be ready for annexation and make it easier. To start raising Cuba up to a level more toward america. There were forces in the US that did not want to annexe Cuba. In the west there were some congress men that had sugar producing states that did not want a sugar producing country in the united states power. Although even if there was a few people that did not want annexation, only a few thought that Cuba could take care of themselves. As the Americans began a process in 1899 for annexation, there was an immediate response that was very negative from the Cubans that might become violent. Cubans would simply stop shooting Spanish and start shooting Americans. The war in the philippines made it unlikely to have a war in Cuba too. Orgal Platt agress to take direction from the secretary of state (Elihm Root). It was an amendment that Cuba would accept our command or they would not be recognized as a foreign nation. They limited the number of Cubans that would vote on the decision. They selected land holders and middle class, however, they still did not want any form or protection or annexation. The Americans then said that unless they added the Platt Amendment to their constitution they would not leave. It passed by only one vote. We got a military base in guantamo. The United States also got the unilateral right to intervene military in Cuba when we needed to. However, we decided when that time was. Basically the Americans had the right to do anything in the island. The Cubans could not even ask the british for a loan without asking permission to the Americans. They were not really a sovereign nation at all. Ideally we wanted a government in Cuba that would do what we would have done if were in charge. Either you do it our way, or we'll do it for you. The American government set economic penetration. They wanted to make sure that they did not want to be seen as if they took over Cuba to be taken for economic reasons. They engaged with front-men to use their superior power to overtake smaller companies already in place in Cuba. They were easily funded by banks in New York. This people were willing to go to another country to try to do this kind of dangerous business works. Even though Cuba was the first country in latin American with railroads, they also set up street cars, and roads. Other entrepreneurs brought in new plantation crops. Cuba offered a stable environment in which all the risk was at the beginning and afterward it would level out. From the view of a small group of

Americans the reason we were in Cuba was to better their country. Within Cuba itself, political parties start to form. A lot of people wanted to stay with the Americans because they were doing well financially and already had ties with Americans through businesses. The conservative party was comprised to wealthy creole families and some Spanish that were left over. Oppossing the conservative party the liberal party emerged. This party was comprised of the more rural people. The rank and file people of color that were being left out in support, positions, political positions, and opportunities. They formed a party in 1907 called the Independent Party of color, under the leadership of Evarista Estenoz. The Independent Party of color had tried to go with the other parties but were always left out. The party only existed from 1907 to 1912. The party was violently repressed. After this occurred no other party organized along the basis of color. They had other movements, but no political parties.

Cuba Under the Platt Amendment I. Economic Absorption 1. Expansion of Sugar 2. Social & Economic Consequences 3. Political Corruption II. The Political Narrative 1. Initial Partisan Violence 2. Business as Usual 3. Rise of Gerardo Machado Estrada Palma 1902 – 1906 Magoon 1906 – 1909 Gomez 1909 – 1913 Menocal 1913 – 1921 Zayas 1921 – 1925 Sugar in the 19th century now took it's final move toward the island. Sugar now dominated almost all the lands, even the eastern part of Cuba now had sugar. The first world war increased the amount of money coming into Cuba because other growers around the world could not grow it. It became very profitable to grow

sugar. Americans in the island started to buy smaller sugar growers around them and kept growing in a rise toward a monopoly in the island. The Cubans increasingly had less lands to do their growing of sugar. In 1920 the dance of millions stopped since there was a saturation of sugar and the price of sugar collapsed. Increasingly large number of Americans came to Cuba to tour it and manage it. They formed an American colony tat lived in the island and managed it. The island was run by a small ex-patriot American group that pulled strong political and economic support. Only Cubans could run for office. Cubans used their political power to gain financially. They sold many of their votes to large business men and even rigged the lottery. The first administration was under the command of estrada palma. he was interested in annexation. In 1906 the liberal party accused palma of corruption. Magoon and his people took over for three years. (American placed by America). This made it clear that anybody that disputed the political instability with violence you would get in trouble with the Americans. We did not care about whether the President was liberal or conservative, we just wanted a stable government. Gomez comes after Magoon, was liberal. He was called “el tiburon” the shark. He was known as a friendly corruption. Succeeded by Menocal, war veteran, that represented big business in Cuba. He also was corrupted. The sugar boom happened during his command so he was re-elected. The Americans had to intervene during the elections of 1921 because of the violence, but this time they did not stay. The stopped the violence and let them elect their next President. Zayas was then elected in 1921 (liberal), the sugar boom was over then and was viewed as clumsy with the way he dealt with corruption. American investment in Cuba meant that they needed the political stability that the marines ensured. From 1921 to 1922 the sugar boom was over, and corruption was rampant, we put a military guy offshore, that guided American interest in the island as a “guidance” to make sure that everything was peaceful. All of this paved the way for Gerardo Machado (liberal party). He said that we would be an accessible President. He would make real changes. He distributed as much money possible as possible to the political leaders. Essentially buying out both parties. The press was appalled at what he was doing. Political corruption had reached a new low. He tried to buy off the press as well but he could not buying them all. Those that were against him somehow disappeared. Americans did not care about the corruption because the government was stable. Nobody was going to try to overthrow him because then the Americans would intervene. So long as Machado provided political stability then we would leave him alone. Three separate sources of opposition. A growing worker movement on the left. The communist party that was started in the 1920's. A lot of workers in it. They became increasingly interested in opposing this regime. Critial source of opposition. University Campus of Avado. That's were the elites sent their sons. As young men they became for the first time politically involved. They were in the national capital. In the 1920s the politics they were dealing with dealt with Cuban opportunities. The realities were opposite. Their parents, however, were the ones

that created the political environment. So the ones that were opposing the government were those that their parents were profiting from the corruption. In the 1920s we not only see a rise of students against Machado but also a growth of unity amongst people of color. For the first time the african proponent is given value. Part of what made Cuba cuban and not Spanish is the growth of afrocubans. Fernando Ortiz was not afro-cuban, but was the grandfather of the afro-cuban movement. He begins to study afro-cubans as criminal behavior. Raimundo Nina Rodrigues – Brazil. Ortiz after studying the afro-cubans begins to understand the kind of rasicm that was occurring. Alejo Carpentier. The third group if made of middle class professionals. Doctors, lawyers, engineers. They were also increasingly antigonized by the regime. They formed a group that became violent in the hope that the U.S. would intervene. They called themselves the A.B.C's. Bombings, assassinations and that sort of things. After 1929 the single largest support of the regime had decreased. The United States. We suspended the preferential taxes on sugar from the island and we had the stock market crash. A lot of the support started to decrease because Cuba could no longer keep asking for loans to make public works and could not keep giving money to the lower class and keep the corruption going. By 1933 there is no force that can take him out of power. The opposition is not organized. Now that the situation kept increasingly out of hands, the rise of the communist party, the bombings and assassinations Roosevelt decided that it was time for Machado to go. Machado was unhappy with the suggestion of the American ambassidor that he should leave office. The people of the country now realize that Machado has no support from anybody, not even the Americans. So Machado talked to representatives of the ABC and upper-middle class people. They wanted them to organize and oppose the Americans recommendation. They had a general strike and completely stopped the regime. General nationwide strike. A group takes over the national palace and attempt a coup. There was also a Sargent's revolt. Lead by students and professors, and supported by the Sargeants made a coup. Pentarquia takes over the state and it's only support is the Sargent's revolt. They do not have a national following. Gran San Martin, leader of the Pentarquia.

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