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Turning Points in History
Listed below are major turning points in American history. In each case, identify the implied event, comment on its significance, and then list at least three contemporaneous movements, trends, or activities in literature, science, art, or economics. This brainstorming activity will help you to develop the skills to put your freeresponse essays in historical context. For purposes of this activity, define “contemporaneous” as any event within a five-year period of the event. Turning Points: 1763 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1776 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1789 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1800 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1803 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1814 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1848 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1861 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c.
1865 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1877 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1914 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1919 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1929 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c.
1941 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1945 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1954 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1960 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c. 1964 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. c.
c. 1989 Event: Significance: Related events: a.1968 Event: Significance: Related events: a. 1994 Event: Significance: Related events: a. b. b. b. c. c. b. c. Document1 04/30/12 . 1973 Event: Significance: Related events: a.
1974. 1879. DuBois. The Souls of Black Folk. “Common Sense. “The Gospel of Wealth. Upton Sinclair. “On Civil Disobedience. The Promises of American Life. 1961. The Shame of the Cities. Michael Harrington. William Lloyd Garrison. Looking Backward. 1906. 23. A Wealth of Nations. Martin Luther King. The New Negro. Jr. Washington. On your own paper. 11. 1660-1783. Thomas Jefferson. 2.” 1895. 1888.Name Date The Power of the Printed Word Part A. 1925 Adam Smith. 12. 1776. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Frederick Taylor. 1787. Alain Locke. write the main idea and significance of each of the following books. “The Report on Manufactures. pamphlets. 1. Jacob Riis. 1881. Thomas Paine. Jane Addams. Andrew Carnegie. Daniel Ellsberg. 1890.” 1963. 30. 1852. The Other America. “Letter from Birmingham Jail. Document1 04/30/12 4 . The Feminine Mystique. Alfred Thayer Mahan. Herbert Croly. “The Atlanta Compromise. 1910. 15.” 1791. Lincoln Steffens. 20. 1890. 1911.E. W. Alexander Hamilton. The Federalist Papers. 26. 8. 18. 1971.B. 1831. Edward Bellamy. Twenty Years at Hull House. Declaration of Independence. How the Other Half Lives. 3. Alexander Hamilton. 25. 1904.” 1849.” 1889. 28. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Booker T. The Pentagon Papers. 27. James Madison. 22. 7. 1939. 14.” 1776. Henry David Thoreau. or documents which had important consequences for American development. The Liberator. Henry George. All the President’s Men. 5. A Century of Dishonor. 16. 1961. John Steinbeck. 1909. 17. Helen Hunt Jackson. 4. 21. 6. Frederick Jackson Turner.. Rachel Carson. Progress and Poverty. 1903. 1776. 29. 10. Principles of Scientific Management. and John Jay. “The Significance of the Frontier in American History. Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. The Grapes of Wrath. 19. Betty Friedan. 1963.” 1893. 9. 24. 13. Silent Spring. The Jungle. The Influence of Sea Power upon History.
” 8. Presidential Administrations In this section. “It is at the bottom of life we must begin. not at the top. 1941—a date that will live in infamy. Dollar Diplomacy 3. New Frontier Part B. “All we ask is to be left alone. Part A. when and in what context it was used.” 6.” 3.” Document1 04/30/12 5 . New Freedom 5. “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. key policies of his administration associated with the motto. 1.Remembering Your Ps and Qs— Presidential Promises and Quotable Quotations Names given to presidential administrations and significant quotations from speeches. “A house divided against itself cannot stand. and writings often serve as shorthand keys to conveying larger themes of American history. Recalling these ideas can be one of many effective strategies in a comprehensive review of the course in preparation for the Advanced Placement examination.” 7. “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. Supreme Court decisions. identify the source of the quotation. Fair Deal 10. “The power to tax involves the power to destroy. Great Society 9. Modern Republicanism 4.” 4. and its larger significance in illuminating a theme of American history. identify the president associated with each designation. New Deal 6.” 2. Manifest Destiny 7. Quotable Quotations In this section. Rugged Individualism 8. documents. 1. “A war to end all wars. Square Deal 2.” 5. “December 7. and the motto’s importance in conveying a major theme of our history at the time.
you will go far. now and forever. “With malice toward none. “Free trade and sailors’ rights. “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union.” 12. Let justice make us friends. “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. “Millions for defense. with charity for all…. “We must be the great arsenal of democracy.” 18. “Peace without victory. “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” 13. now let him enforce it.” 19. “To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. 10. “A law repugnant to the Constitution is void.” 25.” 27. “And so. one and inseparable.” 24. “Fifty-four forty or fight.” 22.” 26. “We…covenant and combine ourselves into a civil body politic. “Remember the Alamo.” 28.” 21. my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you.9. “John Marshall has made his decision.” 16. “God made us neighbors.” 11.” 23. “It is our policy to stay clear of permanent alliances.” 14.” 15.” 17. “Liberty and Union. but what you can do for your country.” Document1 04/30/12 6 . “Remember the Maine. but not one cent for tribute.” 20.
“Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community. a steady growth of independence on American lines.” 40. “No one can make you feel inferior without your consent. “Government is not the solution to our problem.” 35. “The American continents. by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain. “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. “What hath God wrought!” 39.” 38. I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within these said designated States and parts of States are.” 36.” Document1 04/30/12 7 . in order to form a more perfect Union.” 33. by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid. “The advance of the frontier has meant a steady movement away from the influence of Europe. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.” 31.” 34. “The ideals and traditions of our nations demanded that we come to the aid of Greece and Turkey and that we put the world on notice that it would be our policy to support the cause of freedom wherever it was threatened…. “Women of the world unite! You have nothing to lose but your vacuum cleaner.29. “We the people of the United States.” 30. “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. And to study this advance…is to study the really American part of our history.” 32. are henceforth not to be considered as subject for future colonization by any European powers. Government is the problem. “And. and henceforward shall be free.” 37.….
This state is known as the “Sooner State. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 28.” The Mormons finally settled here. 18. This was the first colony to grant complete freedom of worship and separation of church and state. 13. author of the Great Compromise. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 29. 26. This state was admitted as a free state in 1820. The Green Mountains are in this state.A.Name Date Where In the U. This state’s Progressive governor made it “the laboratory of democracy” and a model for others interested in reform. 40. 30. 15. This future state experienced a small civil war in 1856. 16. This was the site of the attack on Pearl Harbor. 25. 7. 50. The conference to start the United Nations was held in this state. 8 ______ The Battle of Gettysburg took place here. 10. The Mexican Cession included all of these four states. Did It Happen. The Comstock Lode is in this state. 32. The author of the small-state plan represented this state. write the number of the state on the map on the following page to indicate where the event occurred or the state (or states) implied in the statement. Document1 04/30/12 . ______ 44. 24. Seward’s Folly referred to this area. 5. This state is the location of Wounded Knee. This is the site of Teapot Dome. 19. 1. This was the last of the continental forty-eight states to be admitted to the Union. Most of the Gadsden Purchase is in this state. Shay’s Rebellion took place here. The House of Burgesses sits in this state. The National Guard was called here to facilitate school integration in 1957. The Oregon Compromise set the northern border of these two states. Ohio’s Western Reserve was originally a part of this state. This state was the site of the Homestead Strike. 31. 20. 41. 17. 38. 35. 8. Vicksburg is in this state. The Potawatomie Massacre took place here. This is the Centennial State. 3. 4. Fort Sumter is located in this state. 47. 45. These four border states remained loyal to the Union. This colony was originally set up for debtors. Roger Sherman. The Adams-Onis Treaty dealt with this state. This was the site of the Haymarket Riot. Tuskegee Institute is located here. Lexington and Concord are located here. 34. represented this state. 39. This was the first state to secede. 37. The Whiskey Rebellion took place here. This colony passed an Act of Toleration in 1649. 36. 43. 27. 33.S. 6. The line implied in “Fifty-four forty or fight!” is the southern border of which state? The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed here. John Brown’s famous raid at Harper’s Ferry was in this state. Be prepared to state the larger significance of each of the items. This area separated from an existing state in 1863. ______ This became the first state in the Northwest Territory to become a state. 11. 2. 49. 42. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ The Webster-Ashburton Treaty established the border of this eastern state. Muscle Shoals is in this state. This state was originally the Bear Flag Republic. 9. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ The Constitutional Convention was held here. 22. Carmen? Beside each item. 46. The United States annexed this area in 1845. 23. The author of the large-state plan came from here. 12. The area known as Watts is located in a large city in this state. 14. 21. 48.
Document1 04/30/12 .
Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel Tilden Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact Document1 04/30/12 10 . Franklin Roosevelt v. Woodrow Wilson v. Alexander Hamilton v. 1.Name Date Points of Conflict—The Focus of History Review the following conflicts that set the tone for the ages by identifying the main characters and the conflict. Supreme Court Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 4. Thomas Jefferson Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 3. and impact. Henry Cabot Lodge Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 2. Supreme Court Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 5. Richard Nixon v. issues. time.
William McKinley Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 9. Truman v. Stephen Douglas Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 10. Harry S. Tories v. Phyllis Schlafly Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 7. Anti-Federalists Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact Document1 04/30/12 11 . Patriots Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 11. Douglas MacArthur Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 8.6. Gloria Steinem v. Abraham Lincoln v. William Jennings Bryan v. Federalists v.
Jr. Martin Luther King. v. Herbert Hoover v. Booker T.12. W. Roosevelt Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 14. DuBois Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact Document1 04/30/12 12 .B. Washington v. Malcolm X Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 15.E. Franklin D. Andrew Jackson v. Nicholas Biddle Characters Conflict Time Issues Impact 13.
do several tasks. Civil War. 1793. 1936 Group 3 Immigration 1882. 1832. 1945. 1863. 1783. identify the event and its significance for each date on the time lines assigned to your group. 1860. 1907. 1961 Labor in American history 1869. 1898. 1929. 1828. 1823. WWII. 1859. 1858. 1619. 1886. 1791 1807. but to state its significance and its relationship to the theme and to what came before and what follows. 1834. 1636. 1853. 1861. 1950s Wars in American history 1754. try to state a connection between events on one time line and the time line below it. 1865. 1867. 1892. 1765. 1793. Second. 1920s. 1950. 1852. 1814. 1775. To make effective use of the time lines. 1939 Agriculture in American history 1619. 1917. 1953. 1877 Intolerance and threats to civil liberties 1798. 1890. end of nineteenth century. Civil War. and Reconstruction 1820. 1832. 1902.Name Date Continuity and Change in American History To this point much of your study of American history has probably been chronological. 1849. 1902. 1833. 1933. 1787. 1886. 1935. 1917. 1920s. 1973 Development of political parties approx. 1776. Reconstruction. 1877. try to state at least one generalization or one trend over time. 1770. 1906. 1952. 1816. This is important to help you start drawing connections between areas of American life. 1790. Work cooperatively! It eases the burden and makes greater insights possible. 1812. 1824. 1792. Many Advanced Placement questions require you to make generalizations. 1947 Document1 04/30/12 13 . 1938. Group 1 Colonial history 1607. Civil War. First. and trace continuity and change over time. 1620. 1814. 1894. 1954. 1887. For this reason. 1892. 1832 Group 2 Sectionalism. 1914. 1639. 1918. 1865. 1854. Finally. 1754. 1890. the more the better applies. 1783 1789. 1767. 1848. 1777. 1649. WWII. 1812. 1862. 1846. 1763 1773. 1877. 1781. creating time lines is a useful review strategy. 1861. Third. 1647. 1820. 1778. 1914. 1846. of course. 1850. 1919. 1828. 1860. 1965 Business enterprise in America 1791. 1735. The key. 1763. Here. 1816. 1867. is not merely identifying an event to match the date. 1797. note trends. 1924. 1676. 1930. 1913. 1941. 1887. 1857. 1886. 1878. 1775. National period 1789. 1786. 1803. 1783. American Revolution 1763. create time lines with the dates indicated. Confederation to Constitution 1781. 1903.
Wagner Act 9. Munn v Illinois. Think about: what each item is how it relates to that particular decade what other terms could be associated with it 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1600-1650 1650-1700 1700-1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s 1800s 1810s 1. Freedom Summer. brain trust. XYZ Affair. ______ Agricultural Adjustment Adm. Boston Tea Party 12. ______ American Colonization society. Thomas Paine/Common Sense. ______ “lost generation”. Congress of Industrial Organization. Casablanca Conference. Sacco and Vanzetti. Ralph Nader (Unsafe at any Speed) 13. détente 2. phony war. Harding. U-2 incident. Scottsboro boys. ______ baby boomers. Marcus Garvey 3. ______ Battle of Saratoga. Henry Ford. Greensboro sit-ins. “Crime of '73” Document1 04/30/12 14 . Second great Awakening. Tariff of Abominations. Whiskey Rebellion. Henry George (Progress and Poverty). South Carolina Exposition 6. Virginia-Kentucky resolutions. ______ Bank War. beat generation. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg 8. Thomas Nast. transcendentalism. Era of Good Feelings. Haymarket Square Incident 7. ______ Alger Hiss. Jay Treaty 10.Name Date The Decades Place the correct time period or decade beside each group of specific factual information. Missouri Compromise. ______ Bay of Pigs. ______ Bank of the United States. ______ “long hot summers”. Henry Wallace 5. some items can fit into more than one decade so be sure to read through the entire group. Alfred Thayer Mahan horizontal integration/vertical integration. ______ American Federation of Labor. gag rule 11. NSC 68. (AAA). ______ Bland-Allison Act. Dawes Act. Olive Branch Petition. Remember. National Recovery Administration. NATO. War on Poverty. destroyer deal. Coercive/Intolerable Acts. Brown v Board of Education. spoils system/rotation in office. Huey Long (Kingfish) 4. Warren Commission. Don’t simply go through the exercise mindlessly. Sputnik. Warren G. ______ bank holiday. Malcolm X.
Yalta Conference. Boss Tweed 16. Sumner-Brooks Affair 21. Frederick Olmstead. Lucretia Mott 20. Watergate. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. ______ Creel Committee.W. Crittenden Compromise 22. ______ Insular Cases. Gerald Ford 35. Northern Securities Case. Washington naval Conference 23. Keynesian economics. Teller Amendment. Scopes trial Document1 04/30/12 15 . ______ Emancipation Proclamation. Fugitive Law. ______ Freeport Doctrine. Bonus March. popular sovereignty. Harlem Renaissance. GI Bill of Rights. Article X. Truman Doctrine. "Back to Africa movement". Barbary Pirates. great White Fleet. Lincoln-Douglas debates. 17th. Miller v Oregon. Taft-Hartley Act 24. ______ Boxer Rebellion. Battle of Little Bighorn. America First Committee. ______ Kellogg-Briand Pact. "good and bad" trusts. ______ Jimmy Carter. Elijah Mohammad (Black Muslims). Eisenhower Doctrine. ______ F. Nashville Convention 27. James K. abolitionists. Federal Reserve System. Japanese interment. removal of deposits 36. Herbert Hoover. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Polk. Salutary neglect. H. Albany Plan. ______ French and Indian War. Trent Affair. Virginia/New Jersey Plans. Homestead Act.L.14. dole 25. bleeding Kansas. Charles River Bridge case. Albert Fall 29. Coxey's Army. ______ Federal Highway Act. ______ John C. affirmative action. ______ Jacob Riis. Ostend Manifesto. Henry Cabot Lodge. ______ Committee on Public Information. Square Deal 32. ______ Chautauqua movement. 16th. 'waving the bloody shirt". Gadsden Purchase. ______ Dred Scott v Sandford. ______ Connecticut (Great) Compromise. Lecompton Constitution 30. San Francisco Conference 33. 21st amendment. "Birth of a Nation"/D. Charles and Mary Beard. ______ cult of domesticity/true womanhood. Roe v Wade. Montgomery bus boycott. Marshall Plan. Calhoun. Korean War. Neal Dow. International Workers of the World. William Pitt 28. Scott Fitzgerald. Manifest Destiny. Charles Lindbergh. 18th Amendments 17. Menken. Alan Ginsberg (The Howl) 26. ______ Fair Deal. ______ Hinton Helper/Impending Crisis. Freedmen's Bureau. Griffith. mercantilism. ______ hundred days. Berlin Airlift. ______ Fair Labor Standards Act. Wobblies 19. DeTocqueville/Democracy in America. ______ Jackie Robinson. New Deal. cultural isolation. National labor Relations Act 31. Edward Hopper. treaty of Paris 18. Robert LaFollette 34. League of Nations. Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones. Wounded Knee 15. Stephen Douglas. normalcy. Battle of Antietam. disestablishment. ______ Georgia O'Keeffe. quota system.
______ Panama Canal.37. Joseph Pulitzer. Judicial Review 40. Granger Laws 45. headright system. ______ Oregon Territory. ______ Palmer Raids. Universal Negro Improvement Assoc. Cuban Missile Crisis) 44. John F Kennedy (New Frontier). Rockefeller. ______ Marbury v Madison. Gibbons v Ogden 46. Ku Klux Klan. TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority). Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (FDIC). Anne Hutchinson. Mugwumps 51. 13th. New Freedom 50. ______ National Industrial Recovery Act. ______ Platt amendment. Commonwealth v Hunt.. Teapot Dome/Elk Hills Scandals. Mann-Elkins Act. preparedness 53. Yeomen farmers. Farmer's Alliances. Andrew Mellon. John D. Corrupt bargain. Roosevelt Corollary 54. "Black Jack" John Pershing. Populist (People's) Party. ______ Peace Corps. ______ Langston Hughes.B. nature of the union. 14th 15th amendments. Calvin Coolidge 39. ______ Molly McGuires. Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion. Chinese Exclusion Act 56. Embargo Act. National Banking Act. Horace Mann. Kansas-Nebraska Act. antebellum. Stokely Carmichael (Black Power). Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. National Labor Union. Louis Sullivan. Dollar Diplomacy. Clayton Anti-trust Act. impressment. interchangeable parts 42. city on a hill 58. Hay-Buneau-Varilla treaty Document1 04/30/12 16 . Great Society 55. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act. Interstate Commerce Act.. Party Sys. ______ Pendleton (Civil Service) Act. ______ open range. Jonathan Edwards 57.. radical reconstruction 47. Andrew Carnegie. dynamic conservatism. ______ Lewis and Clark. Samuel Gompers. ______ Morrill Land Grant Act. Michael Harrington (The Other America. crop lien system. George Whitefield. National Defense Education Act. John Slidell. Underground Railroad 38. Louis 43. Great Awakening. ______ Know Nothing/American Party. bonus march 48. Open Door Policy. ______ New Nationalism. Republican party/3rd Am. Gilded Age. Plessy v Ferguson. Turner (Frontier) Thesis 49. ______ Miranda v Arizona. Louisiana Purchase. insurgent's revolt. Orders in Council.S. Lowell/Walthan System/Lowell girls. ______ Little Rock school crisis. "forty acres and a mule". ______ Pilgrims/Separatists. Franklin Roosevelt. Thomas Hart Benton. ______ Margaret Sanger. Webster-Ashburton Treaty 52. DuBois (Niagara movement). National Origins Act. ______ Monroe Doctrine. Russo-Japanese War. ______ new immigrants. Huey Newton (Black Panthers). Erie Canal. W. Jack Kerouac (On the Road) 41. James Oglethorpe. Freedom of conscience.E. Schenck v U. Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique). ______ Peter Zenger trial. "Spirit of St. Progressive movement.
United Nations. 67. Sugar Act. ______ SALT I Treaty. ______ Spanish-American War. Annapolis Convention 69. Bakke v Board of Regents 63. Neutrality acts. ______ Servicemen's Readjustment Act. Townshend Acts 73. Irish immigration. no taxation without representation 62. Pure Food and Drug Act. Mayaguez incident.S. First/Second Continental Congress. ______ the Grange. Gaspee Affair. ______ Social Gospel. John Dewey. undeclared naval war. Emilio Aguinaldo. Knights of Labor. muckrakers 72. Wilmot Proviso 66. BallingerPinchot Affair Document1 04/30/12 17 . Jingoism. ______ supply-side economics. War Hawks. Washington. Chief Joseph 76. Ralph Bunche. ______ Quartering Act. George Kennan. William Jennings Bryan. non-importation agreements. King Philip's War. ______ Stamp act Congress. Gentlemen's Agreement. ______ Seneca falls Convention. ______ Shay's Rebellion. A century of Dishonor. ______ Securities and Exchange Commission. hippies. Crisis Papers 75. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act. Salutary neglect. Horatio Alger. irreconcilables. Camp David Accords. Upton Sinclair (The Jungle). Paxton Boys. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. American System 80. ______ Treaty of Versailles. ______ Trade and Navigation Acts. Dorothea Dix. Bacon's Rebellion. Edward Bellamy (Looking Backward) 60. full 64. ______ Trail of Tears. Salvation Army. Sons of Liberty. Big Stick Policy. Gospel of Wealth. ______ spheres of influence. Mormons. long drives. Federalist/First American Party System. Jim Crow Laws. Korematsu v U. ______ settlement house movement. Booker T. American Anti-slavery Society 61. Hartford Convention. ______ Theodore Roosevelt. Northwest Ordinance. Pinckney Treaty. yellow journalism. social Darwinism 70. "share the wealth". Boston Massacre. Sherman silver Purchase Act 68. three-fifths Compromise. Geraldine Ferraro. free soilers. Iran-Contra. ______ Prigg v Pennsylvania. ______ Samuel Slater. nullification. Sherman Anti-trust Act 71. Anthracite Coal Strike 77. Halfway Covenant 78. Maine Laws.59. Mexican American War. ______ Treaty of Ghent. Lochner v New York. Articles of Confederation. "evil empire" 74. Crédit Moblier Scandal. Federal Trade Commission. Oliver North. Pontiac's Rebellion. William Lloyd Garrison/Liberator. Worcester v Georgia 79. Indian Reorganization Act 65. Stamp Act. ______ pragmatism (William James). Adams-Onis Treaty. court packing scheme. Young Men's Christian Association. Atlanta compromise. ______ Tea Act.
Kent State 86. ______ William Randolph Hearst. Tenure of Office Act. ______ Volstead Act. sit-down strike. ______ Works Progress Administration (WPA). John Steinbeck (Grapes of Wrath). ______ War Powers Act. Helsinki Accords. redemption (redeemers). sharecropping. Vietnamization (Guam/Nixon Doctrine) 85. Specie Circular 87. ______ Underwood-Simmons Tariff. Roger Williams. Apologist's view of slavery. Force Act. J. Sussex/Arabic Pledges. ______ Voting rights Act.81. Pullman Strike. ______ indentured servants. insurgents revolt 84. cash and carry. Mayflower Compact. Cross of Gold speech. Woodrow Wilson. Cuban Missile Crisis. Rachel Carson (Silent Spring). Barry Goldwater. Food Administration. reservationists. great Puritan Migration. Bull Moose Party. ______ triple wall of privilege. "he kept us out of war". Zimmerman Note (Telegram) 82. Plessy v Ferguson 88. scalawags Document1 04/30/12 18 . ______ Seward's Folly.P. Social security 89. Independent Treasury. Triangle Shirtwaist fire 83. OPEC. House of Burgesses 90. Fourteen Points. ______ Whigs/2nd American Party Sys. Equal Amendment. Federal Reserve Act. Morgan..
and France. and signed a commercial reciprocity treaty with Hawaii in 1875. Grant. Charles Evans Hughes served (1921-1925) Presidents Harding and Coolidge. cerebral. Seward served (1861-1869) Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson. Hamilton Fish served (1869-1877) President Ulysses S. George C. also served (1949-1953) President Truman. Marshall’s successor. Henry Kissinger. He presided over the Washington Conference for Limitation of Armament (1921-1922) that froze for a decade naval armament among the United States. developed the Marshall Plan for rebuilding postwar Europe. averting war with Britain over Maine’s boundary. our only foreign-born Secretary of State. 4. 5.000 miles in search of peace. he helped settle the thorny Alabama Claims controversy with Britain in 1871. served (1973-1977) under Presidents Nixon and Ford. brought West Germany into the European defense system. served under three Presidents: William Henry Harrison and John Tyler (1841-1843) and Millard Filmore (1850-1852). and successfully engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. and untainted by the corruption that permeated the Grant administration. helping to pave the way for later annexation. 7. He negotiated the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. John Quincy Adams. Daniel Webster. to relax tensions and promote trade with China and the Soviet Union and pioneered the art of “shuttle diplomacy. judicious. Stern. 2. and helped foster the Organization of American States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1. and asserted America’s right to recognize republican Hungary and other popular governments in Europe. 8. directed negotiations that settled American claims against Spain. was the first choice of over 80 percent of the respondents. he sought. 6. He helped create NATO. conscientious and articulate. He helped keep France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy during the Civil War. who served (1817-1825) under President James Monroe. as secretary. They are provided to help you write your nominating speech. Dean Acheson. 3. and implemented a policy of armed intervention in Korea. one of only two Secretaries of State to hold nonconsecutive terms. William H. persuaded France to withdraw her troops from Mexico after that war ended. After four enormously influential years as Nixon’s special advisor on national security affairs. which called upon its signatories to maintain an Open Door policy toward China and respect her independence. Marshall served (1947-1949) President Harry Truman.” traveling 560.Name Date The Ten Best Secretaries of State Read the samples. Document1 04/30/12 19 . and he brought about the 1922 Nine Power Treaty. The first professional soldier ever to become Secretary—and the man who held the post for the shortest time among the top ten—he helped establish the postwar policy of containment. he negotiated the acquisition of Florida from Spain in 1819 and collaborated with the president in formulating the Monroe Doctrine. Calm. Britain. He promulgated the Truman Doctrine that provided military aid for Greece and Turkey.
helped prevent partition of that country after the Boxer Rebellion. Robert Smith. The Five Worst Secretaries of State Read the short biographies which follow. Assured that he would not. 1 (December 1981). Mark Hanna. Porter. charging that Wilson’s notes to the Germans following the sinking of the Lusitania were too belligerent. only to find his unbending pacifism increasingly out of favor with the growing interventionist spirit of the President and public. Albert Gallatin. William Jennings Bryan. An expansionist.9. Bryan knew little of foreign affairs: his chief concern when asked to take the job was whether he would be expected to serve intoxicants. 2. pious lawyer and diplomat. he accepted. called for an Open Door policy toward China. 10. John Foster Dulles served (1953-1959) under President Eisenhower. Vol. Document1 04/30/12 20 . served the shortest term of all—just five days (March 5 to March 10. when war broke out between France and Britain in 1793. was appointed in 1809 by James Madison when a Senate cabal barred the President from appointing the man he really wanted. 78-80. and negotiated the 1903 treaty with Panama granting the Canal Zone to the United States. a Pennsylvanian who had served as Secretary of the Navy under Jefferson. President Grant’s first Secretary of State. In failing health and absentminded—he once forgot entirely that his department was engaged in annexing Hawaii—he resigned when an assistant secretary was invited to attend Cabinet meetings in his stead. He resigned in 1915. who had himself been Secretary of State. Elihu Washburn. subsumed his own sympathy for the French Revolution to successfully administer a policy of strict neutrality. he urged annexation of the Philippines. His successor. John Sherman served (1897-1898) President McKinley. Madison. No. John Hay served (1898-1905) Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt. was made Secretary of State in 1913 because he had thrown his support to Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic convention. An Ohio senator (and the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman). An Illinois congressman and long-time political ally of the new President. 5. planned to direct foreign policy in any case. he was ranked among the worst primarily because of his dangerous tendency toward overstatement—he was the champion of “brinkmanship” and “massive retaliation”—that caused distrust among America’s allies and bewilderment among her potential adversaries.” American Heritage Magazine. 33.1 1 David L. A stern. would prove one of the ablest Secretaries. As our first Secretary of State he established a host of diplomatic and administrative precedents and. Smith was inept and unschooled in diplomacy— Madison complained that he personally had to rewrite all the Secretary’s papers—and was replaced in 1811 by James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson served (1789-1793) President George Washington. 4. Hamilton Fish. three times Democratic candidate for President. he was seventy-four at the time of his appointment—made purely in order to create a vacancy in the Senate for McKinley’s mentor. “The Ten Best and The Ten Worst Secretaries of State. 3. he was made Secretary out of gratitude for past favors—and perhaps to add luster to his new appointment: minister to France. Do you agree or disagree? Why? 1. 1869). to fill.
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