Greek History and Mythology

Knossos Linear A Linear B Mycenae Schliemann Troy (Ilium) Peisistratus Achilles Thetis Hector Telemachos (Far from Battle) Penelope Helen Paris Ajax Phoinix Antenor Hecuba Priam Agamemnon Pandaros Kirke Kalypso (concealer) “Between Scylla and Charybdis” 2000 B.C. 1400-1250 B.C. 1200-900 B.C. 900 B.C. 800 B.C. 508 B.C. 490 B.C. 480 B.C. 431-404 B.C. Hellas Hellenes Sparta Troy Mycenae Argos Aegean Peloponnesus Black Sea Hellespont (Dardanelles) Bosporus Hellespont and Bosporus Crete Athens Attica Peiraeus Salamis Dionysian Apollonian Maenad Libation Palace of Minos at Crete Language found at Crete, not early Greek Early form of Greek found at Crete Legendary home of Agamemnon Archaeologist who found Mycenae City sacked by Agamemnon, subject of Iliad Son of Nestor Greatest Greek Fighter Immortal mother of Achilles Greatest Trojan fighter Odysseus's son Faithful wife of Odysseus Menelaos's wife, subject of Trojan war Helens lover, prince of Troy Great Greek fighter, part of embassy to Achilles Old teacher of Achilles, part of embassy Wise counselor of Priam Wife of Priam King of Troy, did not fight Leader of the Argive expedition, king of Mycenae Breaks truce of war by shooting Menelaos Detainer of Odysseus Detainer of Odysseus for 7 years Stuck between two unfavorable fates Iron Age Decline of Minoan Civilization Dark Ages Polei (city-states) begin to arise Homer Cleisthenes takes control of Athens, starts democracy Battle of Marathon, Pheidippides runs Xerxes, son of Darius, sends a second expedition Spartans invade, Peloponnesian War Greece Greeks Rival of Athens Site of the great war of the Iliad Center of Greece, Agamemnons city City-state on Peloponnesus Sea around Greece Connector between the two larger parts of Greece Sea near Persia, north of Greece Straits between Aegean Sea and Sea of Marmara Straits between Sea of Marmara and Black Sea Connectors from Aegean to Black Seas Greek island in Aegean Rise of democracy, major city-state Ally of Athens Port of Athens Site of Battle of Salamis and Ajax's birth A reckless fun-loving style of living An ordered, just style of living Female follower of Dionysius, bloody rituals An amount of wine poured out to the Gods before meals

Satyr Dithyramb Cthonian gods Olympian gods Furies Important Customs of Greek Culture The Dead Strangers Suppliants Hearth (Family) Piety Marriage Oaths to the city Hubris Greater Dionysia Dionysius Thespis Aeschylus Sophocles Aristophanes Tragedy (Tragos-Ode) Persona Prologue Parados Episode Stasimon Exodus Orchestra Theatron Parados Deus ex Machina Altar Eccyclema Stoa Paraskenia Thespians Tantalus Pelops Atreus's sons

Mythological half-men, half-goats Traditional song of the Greater Dionysia Pre-existence, underground gods (Furies) Sky-dwelling, just gods Cthonic god in charge of injustices within families Respect them, bury them, sacrifice to gods Be hospitable Do not kill them, listen to them first Honor them, watch out for Furies The Pious will be dealt with justly Apparently not a blood relation Keep them, watch for Furies Watch it, don't step over the line Athenian festival derived from Maenad rituals God of intoxication & fertility First to introduce actor, single actor among chorus Introduced second actor Third Actor******** Writer of Comedies Goat-Song Masks used by actors, derivative of English word Introduction of story in Greek Drama Entrance of Chorus Plot-line occurs here Chorus stops and sings All exit Place where the orchestra stood and sang Where the spectators sat Arches on either side where the Chorus entered Crane-like object that they used to make gods Where the sacrifices occurred before the play Rolling device often used to show dead bodies Sanctuary of Apollo Stone wall behind stage, sometimes had doors Actors, derived from Thespis Served his son to the gods, stands in sinking water under receding branches Son of Tantalus, brought back to life, no added suffering Menelaos and Agamemnon, fought Trojan war, M. went to Elysian, A. murdered

Book 9- Embassy Scene Agamemnon sends an embassy to apologize to Achilles. Odysseus, Phoinix, and Ajax are chosen. Odysseus repeats Agamemnon's words, minus the arrogance. Phoinix reminds Achilles of their friendship and childhood. He asks Achilles to return for the sake of his friends if not Agamemnon. Ajax points out that Achilles is getting back what he lost and much more. Achilles refuses, telling Agamemnon to find another “kinglier” than him. Phoinix stays with Achilles Book 10- Odysseus and Diomedes This scene is believed to have been added later. Odysseus and Diomedes go to spy on the Trojan camp. They encounter a Trojan spy, from whom they learn to expect a Trojan attack the next day. Diomedes kills the Trojan spy, and he and Odysseus move on to the Trojan camp, where they kill several men, including the king of a recently arrived ally, and steal some immortal horses. Story of Achilles's armor Achilles’s armor was taken by Patroklos. When Hector kills Patroklos and steals Achilles's armor, Haphaestus makes new armor, including the famed “Shield of Achilles”. Achilles uses this when he goes on his bloody rampage during which he kills Hector (in his armor, so is he killing himself?)

Sceptre of Agamemnon Passed down his family from the gods, a symbol of power and honor. Whoever has the sceptre has the floor above all others Greaves Calf-guards for battle. The Achaians are often referred to as “the strong greaved Achaians” Priam's visit Achilles is finally humbled when Priam requests his son’s (Hector’s) body. Achilles has now accepted his fate as a mortal, and will no longer over-step the boundaries of mortal and immortal Hector Hector lost, because Achilles was able to experience some sort of immortality, and with his death, Troy has fallen What is tragedy? Tragedy is a story ending in some kind of misfortune for at least the protagonist if not others. The main characters often have two choices, possibly more, both of which will end tragically. There is often a conflict between ordered justice and raging, revengeful justice. What was Orestes problem in The Eumenides? Orestes had to avenge his father’s death, because Clytemaestra needed to die to satisfy justice, AND because Apollo ordered him to. If he listened to Apollo, the Furies would turn on him, while if he ignored Apollo, Apollo would kill him. Orestes then killed Clytemaestra, and turned to Apollo for protection. An ensuing battle between Cthonic (Furies) and Olympian (Apollo) gods, with Orestes caught in the middle with no control over his own fate, is taken to Athena. Athena eventually judges in favor of Orestes, in a tie among 12 mortals. Whose special concern is Dike (Justice)? Zeus is the god of justice, and using his power, backs up ancient law. Vision of Disorder in crumbling Warrior Society The warriors are becoming something more than men, and the established warrior code is being changed, slowly. Achilles is most responsible for both of these, but others are contributing. Vision of Order and Civilization in contrast to Anarchy and Tyranny By distributing power, there is stability, and the people have something invested in it. It also takes much of the arbitrary punishments of pre-democratic Athens out of the equation, leaving justice in its place. Vision of the individual conscience, obligations of leadership, and limitations of authority The individual may feel free of sin, while it is not. As a leader you must be able to sacrifice for the good of the city. The mortal law cannot supersede the immortal law. Anthropos Hippos Potamos Phusis Hudor Time Arete Aristeia Agros Andreia Psuche Hubris Paedeia Pathos (A)Thanatos Kleios Moira Philoi Strategos Kosmos Kronos Themis Nomos Man Horse River Nature/ Origin Water Prize/ Honor Virtue/ Excellence A sequence of heroic deeds Field Courage mind/ soul/ spirit/ shade Excessive pride Education/ Culture Suffering death(less) glory fate the friends/ frienship General Good Order Time Custom Law

Daimon Agathos Polis Dike Nike Pleionexia Noos Zoon Sophia Agoniste

spirit/ demon good city-state justice victory seeking more than you are due mind animal wisdom conflict

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