You are on page 1of 30

COURSE TRAINING OBJ ECTIVES

COURSE TRAINING OBJECTIVES

Discuss Types ofExplosions

. . .
r

Mzor Fuze/Safety Data Sheet/Fuze Firing Sequence Deployment of Ftash Bang/Hang Firg Misfire or Failure Render Safe Procedures for Deeibel Levels
Secondary Blast Pressure Effects
a

t
.
r

Primary and Secondary Effe*s ofan Explosion

Misfire

History and Types ofDiversionary Devices


Specifications ofModel 7z9o Flash Bang Model Tzoo Series Training System

. .

Instructor Checklist

- H"t,ds-on Training

COU RSE TRAINING OBJECTIVES

TYPES OF EXPLOSIONS

ATF Requirements
Flash Bang Terms and Definitions

Nuclear

o Mechanical

e Specification Sheets

r Chemical

Certification Test

Nuclear Explosion .
Fission (splittingof the nuclei ofAtoms)
(ioiningtogetherofthe nucleiofAtoms)

Mechanical Explosign

. Fusion

The gradual and constant buiidup ofpressure to the the point ofexplosion . A tea kettle/pressure cooker, building up preszure until

it explodes

BLEVE = Boiling Liquid Expansion Vapor Explosion

Chemical Explosion

The extremely rapid and violent conversion ofa solid or Iiquid explosive compound into gases having a much greatervolume than the substances ftom which they are generated. Examples of chemicals mighi include gasoline, gun powder, and/or flash powder.

. l{ith

the qception of

Nudru

Explosioro, all muufactured

exPlosives

ue chmical

explosives.

Chemical Explosion

Chemical Explosion
= thg comPlete charge explodes

. High Qrder ExPlosion


as desigrred.

Chemical Explosion -'Speed of Combustion'

.
= the charge does

Deflagration

= a slow explosivg pushing effects

not completely explode or does not explode with the Low Order Explosion
designed velocity.

' . BlackPowder,SmokelusPowder,mdFluhPowdu
.
Detonation
explosion
= a very rapid, almost instantaneous

. Tninyou

officus whatto do if you have a Low Order

RDX , HMX, TNT,

ud

PETN (all

bm fasts tha

6,500 &s)

Chemical Explosion
o'ExplosivesClassifications'

Chemical Explosion
Low Explosivesvs. High Explosives

Low Explosive = slow change ftom a solid to a gaseous state at up to 3,3oo feet per second (fts) . Black Powder, Smokeless Powder, md llash Powdu

. Low

explosives are described as "deflagratiag' and generally burn at iess than 3,3oo fps (flash

bangs)

Haveapushingeffect

High Expiosive

ehange from a solid to a gaseous state


as

. High

e4plosives are designed to shatter and

alnost instantaneously at 3,3oo - 27888 fps

Creats a shattsing effect knom

Eusall3

- they are described as "detonating" and generallyburn greater than 3,3oo frs
destroy

Primarv Effects of an Explosion

Primary Effects of an Explosion

.Thermal Event
r Blast'Pressure

Thermal Event

. .

Heat

Light

I Fragmentation
The

r
fime other iaining cou$6 ars;

Blast Pressure

thye pimary effrcts


Heot

listed by

Light
Sound

'Somd

Fragmentation

Primarv Effects of an Explosion (extreme)

Thermal Event (tteat) .


The least desirable effect ofa flash

b.rrg
o Heat from a flashbane can exceed

3oooo

. (f$ 729q 8rFgplvl


tem

Fahrenheit =

z,7ooI

Can cause ffres . dways have fue qtinguishers with

you

Thermal Event (Lielt) . The Thermal Event ofa flash bang


or low light vision ofa suspect
creates the light effect that assists law enforcement officers by taking away night

Thermal Event (Lieht)

function

Cones = Let us see colors; they need a lot oflight to

The flash bang's use on a person under the influence of drugs or alcoliol or one who is mentally disturbed may not be ai effective as when used on a }ucid person
is effected by the Cones and Rods in the

. A person's vision
eyes

Thermal Event {Lieht)

Primarv Effects of an Explosion - Blast Pressure

Rods = oroduce the chemical lthodopsin that Iets us see ElitEanilwhite better in the dark

. .

tight bleachs out Rhodopsin


Once Night Vision is lost, 2o-3o the Rhodopsin

minuts

is required to redevelop

Some

nigttv'uionwill

recover

within mvenl minutes.

Fragmentation

. .

From tl:e device From debris around the explosion site; also secondary fra gmentation

lnown

as

Blast Pressure

The almost instantaneous creatibn of gases being forced away from the explosion site, compressing tJre surrounding air into a blxt pressule wave

Overoressure is the increase ofatmospheric pressure created bythe eompression ofair caused bythe blxt Pressure wave

Blast Pressure and Overoressure The ffeater the exDlosion, the more effect ofthe oveSressure (PSl)'on the body

' . Ovet?ressure is measured


(PSI)

in Pounds Per Square I4ch Normal atmospheric pressure is r4 psi at sea level

Ears

most affested by overpreszure

. .

Pressure waves cm caure intemal (cellulu) dmage

Recommendation - flash bang be less than 5 PSI

Cm caue serious injury or even death at certain levels.

In6nls ae more suceptible due their developiEg bodies


Create. consideratlon should be taken prior to when infants or chtldrenare p8ent

The CTS Model Tzgo is 1,63 PSI at 5 fet

ue ofa Flsh

Bang

Blast Pressure Blast Pressure o Posi*ve Wave


=

fomed the instant of the explosion md moves

Multiple bangs used in

a room

away &om the explosion site

PSI mayhave sllght increase

. . .

Shock Frcnt is the leading edge ofthe positive wave Brisance

. . Use in a small room (Bath/Utility)


.
PSI

the shock ftont

French word used to describe the shattering efrect

of

wilt haw sught inrrease

Neeative-l^lave = the retuming Presffe wave to ffll the **-i"a tv tt e p"stive wave - '

vamm

Dumtion will be longer

Not as hst or violent

the Positive wave

Positive wave pushes alr out Negative ffive brings it back

&st
. . . ' .

Pressure = Sound

Sound is measured in Decibel Levels (dB) Anything over 90 dB may cause lrcnring paln Aoything over r3o dB may ouse eardruin damage At !8j dB there is a possible 5o% chance of lardrum ruptule

Fluh

bangs should have

les than r85 dB

.'Ihe

CTS Model 7r9o hasrz5 dB at 5 feet

Blast Pressure lSound) and dB


Blast Pressure

(soundl and dB

Ambient =4odB ;6o dB Conversation ,et Engine ':oo dB Rock Concert - 25 dB .45-CaliberACP 'r57 dB gmPistol =r59dB rz-gauge rS" shotgua = 16r dB .23 tactical romd = 164 dB
CTSModd 7z9o &.7zgoM = 44.5 dB

Comparing dB to PSI

. .

dB conelate to each othu; they are not mcdy the but very close Ifyou know one, you cm figure the other PSI

ffie

md

Blast Pressure (Overpressure)


e
5

psi psi psi

possible eudrum ruPture

.15psi
.
3o-4o

5o%PossibleeudromruPture
possible lmg dmage

.5opsl .
9o+8o

severelungdamage
5o% possible dealh

.zoo-25opsi

roo%Possibledeth

Secondarv Effects of an Explosion

Reflection

o Focusing

Shielding

Secondary Blast Pressure Effects

Reflection

Explosives take the path ofleast resistance pressure cannot knock a barrier down, it

. lfthe
.

u'ill

bounce

offofiL

The pressure wave will gadually disseminate or be absorbed by other materials such as drapes, curtains'

and fiuniture.

Secondarv Blast Pressure Effects

Focusing

. .

ExPlosives tatce the path of least resistance and

will

find the easiestway.out


The full effect ofthe device will be felt at any exit point, plus the duration wil[ be longerwith a diminishing pressure wave

This diminishing pressure tave will ustally not be noticeable to an individual

Device produces 10Psi and creates excessive overpressure (nota cls device)

Secondarv Blagt Pressure Effects


o Shielding . A person in the open will feel the full force effect ofthe explosion

fu1y medium between the device and the subject will diririnish some of the effect . This dos not mem the zubject will not get any of the blast pressue wave; howevo, it will not be the full force

Refleaion
subiect

ud tte 'ffll in' will

have some effect on a shielded

Psvcholoeical Psvcholoeical & Bhvsiolosical Effects Psychological


bang
= The bang or loud sound from a flash

Psychologrcal = The bang (sound)

.
Sound creates a sensory overload resulting in:

. . .

Human fear or instinct ofbeing surprised by a loud sound; creates the syndrome known as 6ght or flight Confusion Disorientation

Recovery is usually qurck, within seconds . Their ability to reson and react my be affected . A Pssorls Psychological state of mind my alter their natural reaction Suspect may not be affected . If they ue uder t}e in{luence of dmgs . If they ue mentally disturbed

'

Phvsioloeical

Phvsioloeical
=

filr.tf#g*t
. .
Light

t*osure

to the flash orbright light from a

Physiological = Light and sound comparisons . Recommend a flash bang minimum r. million Candela

creates temporaryYisual imPaiment

. .

Residual effect dependenton

SureFire 6 = ro

r5,ooo candela

. . .

Light Power of devicr' candela Suioects focusinr on devlce or area - shiqfdilg may be an issue Suspecrs physical Psydrological condition

Flash bulb = lo,ooo

roo,ooo candela

"nd

.
.

Cm

hile

effects onAssault Team

Msion remveryin ?3o mitrutes '. 2-ro minuts: some niShtv'6ion lacweE recovets 2o.3o mlnutesi full 'nomal' tright vision

Physiological = Sound . Exposure to dB above 50 may cause hearing loss

Multiple mprotected expomres (training) may euse heuirg


loss

Psvcholoeical & Phvsioloeical Effects


Physiological = The flash (Light)

. .
.

CTS Model Tzgo = 5

- 8 million candela
the

Dumtion of flash

(one-fourth of 5o milliseconds

tirne to blink an eye)

Lels covers to save nightvisioo . Amber - Blue - Grem - Red

ln the early r97os the zz SAS (Special Air Service) were the fusi to develop and use flash bangs in
Counter Terrorist (CT) OPerations

Israeli Military

3ldy,t976

Entebbe, Ugmda

.
.

These devices were designed for the SAS at the research center Po*er Down in the UK The SAS, in turn, trained Special Operations Units inseveral other countries in the use offlash bangs for CT Operations, including U,S. Special Operations Units
U.S. Police agencies adopted the use

. .

'
o

Operatrol-Auade&ct AKA Opelar.ioElhudrrhr[ titer lenamed ODeraliadantGn for the only Israeli Commando
killed tn the operition (the commander)

Air Frmce aircraft skyjacked by Palesdniu (PLO) terrorists (Pilots anal Crew choi! to stay with hostages)
ro4 hostages rescued . r hostage killed by *re tesoe hrce

offlash bangs

from the militarY

GSG 9

:7 October,

r97

(Bundesgrenzschutzes)

Mogadishu, Somalia
Fire Magic)

.'One6li9Dle[egatrbgr' (OFration

' . .

German Lufthansa atcraft skyjacked

A bon$re was set

as a

ruse to draw the terrorists to the cockPit

ofthe aircraft

Two British zz SAS soldiere accompanied GSG 9 for the assault They dePloyed + two fl ash bangs under the Ai@ft to initiate the

Nault

Distraction Devices

Retaking of hijacked French Airliner'7994

"Operation NIMROD" -the lranian Embassy

Familv of Mllitarv Simulators

.
. .

MuSAz Ground Bust (Artillery) Simulator

Mu6A:

Grenade Simulator

Mu6Ar Modiffed Crenade Simulator

Fuse vs. Fuze

M 115A2 Ground Burst

Simulator

Military simulators used two types of initiators

AKA: Artillery Simulator


Neygx considered for use ln law enforcement

. lgse

- a pyrotechnic initiator such as the M34,1 friction fuse on dle Mu5Az and Mn5Ar simulators. . A firecracks is u *ample of a fuse . Fuse is pyrctechnic in nature

. .

M3Arfriction fuseinitiator Ithas aro-u second delay

Fuze - a mechanicai initiator such as the Mzor and MzorA: . The Mzor and MuolAr ue the most comonly used type initiators on flash bmgs and Chemical Grmades

ir law

. . . .

will rcund for z-4 seconds 8{4seconds: itwill explode 6o Bnms ofllash powder rt8 dB @ 75 feet
6-10 seconds: a whistle

Enforcment

o@icatoeeryEffi
M116A1 Hand Grenade Simulator M11641 Modified Hand Grenade Simulator

DistractidilDevaB--

M3.Ar

friction fuse initiator

' .

Developed in the mid r97os for U,S.

Military Speeial Operatione uniB


MzorAr Fue replaced the M3,{r Friction
Fuse

. Ithasa 6-useconddelay .
One ofthe ftrst devices used as a flash bang in the U.S. by miliary and police
38 grams

' .

M2orAr has a

1.5

s!@nd average delay

r8gramsoffl*hpowder

. .

offluh

powder

E5dB@z5feet

Used by several LE agencies as their FB LAPD tqok the Mfl6Ar - Modified and domloaded half the powder

first

Separatins Sub-munitions

Sepa ratinF Sub-munitions

.
.

One of the first devices commercially made for military and Law Enforcement in the U.S. The Slplosive charge is kickgd out and away from the body to avoid fragmentation from the Fuze

Shermly (British) . Used by zz 5AS md British Police Special Amed Units such as London MehoPoLitan

'

Police Du (now

knom

as COrg)

Separatine Sub-munitions

Seoaratine Sub-munitions

. Kilgere

.
.

It was

was one of the fust made in the U.S. copy of the British Shermly (Green Memy).

The Kilgore body is a hard plastic

Accuracy Systems (owned by Chuck Byers) was the prlmier distributor of flash bangs in the 198os. . Amracy Systeru made a wide auay of flash bang Muaitions to include the Sting-ball, Multi-bangs, Star Flash, Thunder Strip
and rz-gauge flash bangs

prcducingthem.

. .

AauracySystemswas sold and became Precision Ordinance Precision Ordinance eased toexist uPon thepassing of the owner (Michael Rowe) of the rcmpany Some of theAmuncy/Precision munitions ile now manuhcturcd and sold byALS

Separatifre

Su

b-mu nitions

Separat!ns Sub-mu nitions

. Accuracy

Systems Multi-Bang

ffiffi
Separating Sub-munitions

FA.C.T.S. First American Counter Terrorist System . A rubbu boot held the mLmmitiore ir place . The Safery Leverwas coded forthe munitions . Bumps on the Iser indicated a multi-bang

Separating Fuze Munitions

Red

indtcated star

flilh-t

'De

munitlons

The Fuze assembly separates from tlle body which contains the explosive charge (used on Strng-ball and Tear-ball) . This is to avoid fragmentation ofthe Fuze

Thiscompmy no longere$rts

Separatins Fuze Munitions

SWAT-T developed by Martin Electronics . The SWAT-T body was made ofa hud plastic leading to several injuies. It is no longer rcld inthe U.S.

ffiI

ds

Sepa ratinq-Luze

Munitions

Separatins Fuze Munitions


o

Mark r4r developed by Ensign BicKord

. .

Sold

No longer sold,

to Pyrotechnic SPecialties. Inc. (PSt) but may still be in agency use

is a German company that makes several types offlash bangs, including a separating fuze munitions with6,7or9 chatges

!!QQ

Metal Canister flash banss

Metal Canister FIash Banes

The first Metal flash bang body was made for Accuracy Systems by Defence Technologies. . This ms the M4oo Sugemt Tlanu, deigned to be a resable cmists for training onlY

Defense Technology Inc. took the Sergeant Trainer idea and developed the Number #25 Distraction Device Several other companies have designed

. .

metal non-bursting canisters


CTS developed the Model 7z9o

Disossedindetaillater

Metal Canister Flash Banss

Metal Canister Flash Banss

NICO = Sound Flash Device

BAE (Def-Tec) #25 Distraction Device

'I'his device can be loaded with one or two reports

. . .

Reloadable md non-relmdable

r5gramofflashPowder dB-rz+,5/psit.63

Cudda-6-8million

Metal Canister Flqsh Bangs

. ALS

. .

ALSo9NR

,:169-q4dB
ALS+t+o

.ALSo9 Fuze/Reload

CIS Model 7290

Nomenclature ofCTS Model 7290

Non-reloadable device . No cleaing ofused body

Steel body

No hmdling unprotected explosive relmd

. .
.

wnts on top and bottom weight 7z9o = r.zr lbs. (55o gram)
ro

chuges
No tools (cleming kits, wenthes oitaps) needed

. .

WeightTzgoM=.92lbs. Height6.o' Dimeter 2.o'

CTS Model ?zgo and 7z9ot't

.The CTS Mzor fuze

.
Explosive charge

Delay time is r.5

o'3 seconds

. IgramofFlashPowder . PSI=L63 . dB = 174.5 dB at 5 feet . Cmdela=6-8Million


.
Fuze Mzor with safetY cliP

Mil-spec is o.7 to z seconds Creater corrosion resistance (withstands 96 hours salt water spraY)
The body is made ofcast zinc alloY

.
. .

of

.
.

Delay time r.5 .3 seconds More pHise than the MzolAr

Hinge Pins are hardened stainless steel

CTS M2O1 FUZE Nomenclature


Hinge
Safcty leYEr
Fuze body Pull ring assmblY

CTS

Model 7290
Shelflife
5

--- assemtly
I

.
.

years

gtiler/t
Clip Safety OIP Safty Lwer

Shipping classiffcation :"4G


PackaS;rng rz Per box

safety Lwer
DelaY

Requires ATF aPProval

body

Prlms
Delay

Ignition Mixture

CTS

Model 729OTM Trainins MINI BANG


and performance same
as

CTS
...-..o

Model 7290 and 7290M


_ .__.Iur",iot

Exoended Model Tzgo bo$es are not tg be lEloaded

the

in 'any form or fashion

Smaller in size - r.5" in Diameter


42o grams

e CTS recommends

;;;;-t

method that will disable tu*her use

that spent Model Tgo bodies that t.;'ilGea for trii.ning be destroved in any

. Weight:

'3"i,fl#ir',*"'.Bi&'llgfi "if f.1:x$ig'1i"rif, i:*

i I I
I

I
I

i--

CTS Trainine FLASH BANGS


CTS Trainine FLASH BANGS
Designed to give law enforcement and corrections a low-cost/lowoutput level training flash bang Reloadable with blue fuze (Modei zorFB) . The Model zorFB has an output ofroo dB

Allows fortraining in areu that full powercd flash bmgs cannot


be qsed

. .

Blue steei reusabte body (Model

. .

Both fuze and body are left hand threads Fuze cannot be loaded by turning to the right

zzgoT)
Can be reused indefinitely

Trainine with Used 7290


Once deployed, the CIS 7z9o can be cleaned, rearmed with the safety lever and a pull pin and used as a traiaing aid

Spray paint or tape to indicate a training

device r--

=.

-,:=

_E]

Fire

. .

There is always a potential for fire when combustible materials are near the explosion site
The Thermal Event ofa flash bang can give offheat in excess of3ooo degrees Fahrenheit (CTS flash bang is measured at zToo degrees). Fire extinguishers should always be carded by tactical teams or field force (riot confol) units.

Fire followine deplovment of flash bane . Operation in Albuquerque, NM

Glass windows

/ doors

Over?ressure can break and blast glass out oi in, especially if it has already been weakened

Glasswindows / doors Proiectiles or Fragmentation

Debris from the ground may be picked up and ejected toward

Glass

Gravel,rocks

Explosive Materials Explosive Materials

'.

',,'1, -:

'.1 ll'l

. .

. Meth Labs . Gasoline/Propaneloxygen


Bottles

In

business area

In a garage

. Methandcracklabs

'

In a residence

Hostages or lnnocent Third Person

Potential Hazards to lndividuals


Bums to subiects, innocent 3rd persons or ofhcers

The age ofindividuals need to be considered bang is goinB to be dePloYed

ifa flash

.
. .

Inhnts Crlldren
Elderly

Iniuries are likely ifa flash bang is deployed to close to an individual (innocent 3d person, susPect or ofnceni,

Blast Pressure (OverPressure)

Blast Pressure (close proximitv)

May cause severe injuries if in close proximity

Safetv Equipment

Safetv Equipment
EquiPment and Uniform

Goggles

Glasses

/ Mask

. All parts ofthe

body should be protected

. .
.

Helmet
Baladava
Ear protection Gloves

Safetv Equipment Eouioment and Uniform Carry Positions

.
Gloves

Vest

.
r

. . .

Nomex Kevlar Leather

. . . .

Never on the froat ofthe torso Backofvest Pull pin towuds inside

sy-mPathetic exqlosion

Leg?ouches
Protection

Pintowudsinsideflap

Eauipment - Fire Extinquishers

Safetv Equipment
.A

. . .

large extingpisher should be carried on all operations Cm be staged atthe entry Point

- fire extinguishers

UtilityBaEwit}ltem
Sevsal Tearn Members could carry smaller

uthguishos

CTS

and BATFE BATf!


TzgoM'
as Destructive Devices (7zgo'

CTS requires atl agencies wishing to purchale any

munitions classiffid
Bang Instmctor.

Sti"i-sa[, fe"r-na[) to

have an up-to-date certiffed Flash

CTS recognizes: . Other mmufaetures of LSDD, NFDD, DD,

ud

Flash BmEs

. . . .

NTOA
IACP FBI, KBI, tTPOA, md other competmt txaining orgilizations
State POST

certiffcations

alto requlre thls certi66tion with sPsific 'Other flash bil8 manufacturers Eslnctiof,s

(SOP) Justification for the use of flash bangs

BATFE

Barrieded incirlents
Hostagerescue

.
.

The Bureau of Alcohol. Tobacco..FireqEs' an9 ilffir1"";?BATFE) h* classfied Flash-So,und= Diiersionary Devices (FSDD) as "Destructive lJevrces-

Highriskwurants
susPects

. funed
' . .

Mentallydisurbed Persotr Non-fiream

BATFE controls: . Ordering . Accountabiliry . Notifi@tion

of a Anytime their use would ohancc the safe rcolution situation

Stolage

TrusPortation
Possesion

Orderine - BATFE requires an ATF Form ( for thc,Ealsfer0plq


dre manufa.cturer to the LE agency

BATFE requires accountabiliW


FSDDS

for

all

containing

Keep an inventory log device was obtained

Agenc, receiving . One agency cannot'6ve' to anothr


aSency

. When

.
ofmunitiom

How itwas utilized

Serlal number

'%#e-e
ts-:----"1F.E:--

. .

Training
OPerations DemonsEations

6MWW
tu iTFFt'r{ildatuL*nh tu troilLlhil lat .NN tuilrF ;d ekmnon b Frt e4d' FAofd*wmt.*ah.Ma frNhn""t" ht'.dnt tu'. krtd r d ahttd -u'Mr r til dF Om! 4)t@nc. t^4 Ut tt tana r&@, dil nn,il rh* tutbtrF u?n ,,. D< itht" taqt. n.at artnt -itiataoa ; e nNdtd tn tH th.b zvddnt'' ,ot npile dt dil, nN.dbn 4 te d FkEt-' ,ilNtda@.l"kae Mtid.r@ndodn'h i*aE 6tO Kr,flAd.N MEftlfrtd, N ,0226

BATFE resulates storase of all exolosive

materials

As ATF regulations can change (and do)

This is normally done bY shioment oflots on Your ATil Fotrn q


Call ATF before sending

vou should contact BATFE to ensure you ire in compliance'

. .

Also check rvith state and local regulatiou

br sorage
A Twe z magazine is considered acceptable for lt:oage aiyour rgency for less than 5o pouds Jf Hgh exPtosive ruterial

your notification in for instructions

You are required to keep the records - forever

":H:,x,lr{i.;:;::v,ffi

t {iJ

powder as BATFE and US DOT classifv flash a hish exolosive for transDortltion
DUrposes

BATFE and US DOT classifv flash oowder as a hieh

explosive for transDortation pur0oses

.
.
Storage facility

For uansportation or storage of a small amount Flash Bangs, ammo eans could be used

of

Recommend keeping devices in cardboard shipping

. .

Stoling in trqnls ofvehicles is not advisable

Humidity is the

nmbs

one desEoyer

of

fluhpowds

Court Rulines lnvolving Use of Flash Banes

Flash banss in one form or another have been used for -years in tactical operations nearty 4o . Firstused by the military or elite specialized teams . Flash bangs have been in use by law enforcement in the U.S. since the earlY r98os

Langford v. Gates - CA Supreme Court 1987 o The ffrst challenge to the use ofa flash bang . The flash bang was used is conjunction with a . . , motorized battering ram to gain entrance to a tortfieo location

- ^

Court Rulinqs lnvolvine the Use of Flash Banes

Court Rulings lnvolvins the Use of Flash Banes

Langford v' Gates

langford v' Gates -

CA Supreme

Court 1987

. '

i'Jirmil'vlfu
.

Ms-

Iasford

was

u6.ci Modifi cd'

hlled in-a IAPD nucotics srudr

Garcia v. State ofTexas Jenkins v. City


U,S.

fi

Court ofAppeals r99z Circuit 1996

g!$$E11"Uuot-"irti:$35l"sl'.lr##lmltt
i-*fi"oa"nt i. *t

.
.
.

ofTopeka-ros
lorh Circuit 1997

dildA;*;itio

the-

"!m!

before

deplolngl

"tE taitical dePloYments

v. Meye$ -

'iilF.H#si.ffiIffif#p#+$H'i:tr""
,"i"ti,'tti,iiii'iiii;s"uF.Hi"o*f; t$Hil,T"* regarding overuse or abust
enlorcemenE

Nina and Eugene Kirk - ro* Circuit 1999


Boyd v. Benton County and City of Cowallis zoo4

- 9s Gmit

Court Presentation Court Rulines

WarninFs

are: Some ofthe warnings expressed ftom the courts . Use with cNtdren Present (wmmt) . Use with imocent third pilty or Persos Present

. . .

policy Know your agency's flash bang or use-of-force


Know your device - the opPosition s attorney

will

.
.

. . .

Exctssire use orunnecessaryuse No fire extinguishes eried

on the Study the case Prior to testimony, dePosition or stand

Throwine'blind' into aroom


Injuries

ir

deathto inhabitants

ReadallrePorts

.
. .

Failuretotain
Delibsate indifrsence

explanation to lay Be prePared to defend your tactics with persons

officers Deviees should only be used by traiaed-certified


DePloy with a line of sight where the device

will land

!m

G6AD'CONVINdD'8t

Lesal Considerations

Proper GriP Prooer GriP


Left Hand

Rieht hand - hold the device fuze uP wi-th the safety lever in the web of the hand between the thumb and trigger

E*niith
finger

Military Method - hold the device fuze

th" tofety lever in the web of hand between the thumb and trigger

ffnger

. .

Fuze

mrl sfery lever should be aligned


no Part of the

Fuze

md sfety lryer should

be

aligned

withthem
Ensre
ports

hud

covus anY

with the ports

am

Enure no Part ofthe hud covers anY

PreparinE Device for DePlovment Proper GriP

.
Left Hand

for The CTS Mzor does not have to be'lrepared"


deployment

Altemaqe Method

;ilf;ffifrErweb
aia ttigget n"g."

'

of the hand between the thurnb (same as right-handed) with the arm Fuze md safety lever should be atigned ofthe hmd covers any ports EtMe no

- hold the device fuze up with-the

Devices from other companies may require straightening the pin into a "V' shape before pulling it

. '

oice

Put

;i;;;,;;;ii

a device

pin has bem straightened' it should be destroyed to rem soP t"ui'ins esin ""cordins

Pulline the Pin Right-Handed


(Fuze Up)

Pulline the Pin Left-Handed Method (Fuze Down)

Mllitarv

'
.

Place the left hand middle finger

Place the right hand middle ffnger into the Pull Ring in an'dg!a!944ts1' motion

into the pull ring in an 'gPlgagl' motion y1turn 'slggkgise' Turn the pull ring to disengage the safetY cliP

'
.

Tum the pult ring

turn 'cloghaise' to

disengage the safety cliP . Use thethumbasatr asist

Pull the ring out ofthe device and deploy

Pull the ring out ofthe device and deploy

ffi ffi

Flash Bans Poles

. A very safe and controlled


device

way of deploying a flash baag

.
.

Less chance

ofinjury to offire

Persons

Less chance

Flash Bane Poles

Flash Bans Poles.


nale
flash

' Manufaetured . Several compmies .


Imorovised

bmg poles

Deployment

. F'irmans Pike Pole . Paintss pole (extendable) . i*r*'ir'*rr1'""g perpudiolu


. .
.
Safety ring must be prepped for Tape body seuely to Pole . Must se steel body dtrice Do trot se SepmtingFuze

. . .

Ouuide a window Insidebuildings - glass


Excellent for second

ud

third-story deploymots

" deployment Wire/cord to Pull *fetY ring out


.
Muitiom

to pole (officer)

Methods of DePlovment
o Team Stacked

. .

up on mfest DeplolanB oficer PrePus dwice, Seu moves side (euns)

DePlolng officer puts hmd on #z's shoulder

' .

Shows#tdevise

r JtrNodsto acknowledge "ReadY'


out ofway Device is dePloyed and deplolng officer steps entry

of

tem

Methods of DePlovment

Methods of DePlovment

r Inside . .

stack or outside stack


are officers guns Pointed?

SAS

(Military)

. Where

#r signals for bang

Towardwall

Awayftomwall
Have SOP for rerbal and non-verbal

comands

. #z PrePares, shows #r . ih Nods . #z throws bang over #z's shoulder . #z follows #r into room

into room

Methods of DePlovment
r All enrries
are made after explosion

Methods of DePlovment
ofdevice

#r Officer may elect to cover his eyes from the effects

(Do not enter until it goes off)

of
flash

Low Order - back

it uP

Dud - backitup

The flash will affect ofhcey's vision as wel[ as those

o Mechanical breachers must be protected

inside

r Ballistic

breachers can Protect deploying officer

'

Closing an eye or both eyes does not stoP the eftcts 6-8 miltion candela {CTS Model Zzgo)

of

Disposal (Dump) Site in a "No Bane" or "Banq

Ouf'

Situation

When the flash bang cannot be deployed in building


Safe site to "DisPoseu

Simal Team:'"bang is being deployed" . lerbal - "bang goingoff or'tang ouC

or'DumP"

. .

. .

Outsidc - cleu

ma

Non-verbal = show bangin ai! Do not dispose ofa flash bang Sympathetic shoodng

teams ate etrterinB looms

Room - prwiously deared

May hold flash bmg for possible use in next room

Tactical Situation Failure (Dud)

Operational Rendering Device Safe

. .

Ifpractical, immediately deploy another device


Continue assault

RePlacing Pin (no t normally rccommended) . StraiSlrt- nryorworked Pin fuze Spread - Placing one plong of pln through

Tape

. .

Safetypin Procedures" Dispose ofASAP aceording to SOP "Rendu Safe

Causes

for a Failure

'OPerator erro!

. .

MzorlMzolAr malfu nction


Explosive charge degraded

Causes

for a Failure

Common causes of low order detonation or deflagration ' Improper


storage resulting in moisture contamination ' Improper or insufficient initiator . seoarition or movement ofthe fuze from the body ' DJterioration (age) of explosives ct urgu (atoppi;&'shock, poor handling)

OPerator ErIor

Operator forgets to pull t'he saftty ring out . This can happen in a stress situation . Tralning is the key to rectiff tIIs error . The Jty ring is pulled but with a broken pin left
inside the device

. The sfetvrinI is twisted too much or pulled at a-,

t**" -!f ", i"u.itg the pin to break in tle middle

Low Order ExPlosion

Du.ds. Misfires or Failures

Humidity -

the number one killer of munitions

Train and be Prepared to follow uP in tactical operations

Make it

put ofyour

SOP

r Know and have "Render


as part

Safe Procedures' (RSP)

in place

ofyour SOP
or bomb squad

. This might inclnde calling ior EOD

Causes Causes

for a Failure

for a Failure .
Mzor / MzorAl

js for a Mzor / Mzorfu rnalfunction the leading cause i"itutu *itt rno.t companies' munitions'

Fuze Head

. The'housing'ortop
bucore d.niud

Slriler - fails to hit the primer hud enough

ofthe fuze may the striker from going fovard hard enough to set offthe
ralls

in

and and prevent

primen This is called a "Hanglire"

Recovering Malfunctioning Munitions

Recoverins Malfunctionins Munitions


dispose

ONLY orooerlY traineC officers should

recwe md

of

my u'exploded mmluons

. If-afugIue,

use a long pole

to hit the firze to

. Wait

3o minutes from dePloYment Protecdve equipment:

. Aporoach weuring

. Tye protection (goggles/mask) Ei.rorotection (earmuJIs,

. . . . .

Glo'ies (heavY) Full uniiorm (Nomex or cotton)


Ballistic shield ifawilable

send the striker forward . Ifstriker goes forwud, turn away and wait for d*ice to go oF . This can be done ftom behind a ballistlc shield . Ifit fails to go offwhen striko goes forwud' wait irinutes to continue (next step) another
3o

gone Observe from adislance 1o see ifthe striker has forward or it it is a hang ilre

Render Safe

Recoverins Malfunctionins Munitions

ffi;m.",ff.k
it in

If not

minutes from a a Hang Fire (or after waiting the 3o

rp the

device

(notwith

hands) and place

a safe container.

plastic bucket For the Model zlgo, Place the device in a enough water ffi;-e_nilrgh t" *"t"tn the device and with i" Eo*pi.t".fv *Umerge the device - leave until flash powder is floating in the water . Do not place the dg!q]13 rS:4 coildner or closed container

dsice A shwel, if available, can be used to lift the

Transportins Malfunctioning Munitions


Render Safe

. For@ .

;;lffi;"t"t*.
destruction'

*d

Place thedevice in EansPort it to the place for

Ifoossible, transport the device to im:mediate destruction

saG location for

. f]iibep""t . .

Rarse

nunt or EOD bum faeility

.
.

Render safe by shooting with dfle or E-ga' sluB or clo*d container Do not Place the device in a meral contalner tL" Su*g-ball ud Te*ball Grenades in watu rglllggt

Ifpossible, tranqPort in an open end truck bed


Do not transPort in cab ofvehicle

rt"ang

destroy ttre 0uh Powder

'l{sg'sE?,'"q%|T,Sfif."I"lf,r*":"xT?mH&tlt'o'"r'

In all

cases, follow the manufacturefs RSP

shoot FB Render Safe Procedure - Method #2 for 7290 Bodv with a .223 or larser

ffi

Storins Malfqnctionins Munitions

Document AII Failures

If munition is to be stored for z4 hours

.
cilbe

Enter on accountabilitY log form


Contact manufactwer to advise them of the

Place mmitions in

safe

location

Leave C'Is

. f.+ it up,.fouUty
desEoyed

Model 7z9o and 729oM in wate fenced or gated uea until munitions

fiilure

Equipment Needed for Range Training

. .

EYe Protection

Ear protection

.
. . .

Hat or helmet
Gloves (ifthrowing grenades or flash bangs) Guns or launchilg

plaform

(rz ga', 37mm or 4omm)

Can/trash bag

Equipment Needed for Range Training

Practice Makingjntries w/Flash Bangs must be Once a flash bang goes off, team members prepared to make entrY -.
Entry must be coordinated to cover each other

.
.
.

Protective rnasks Body armor Weapons or blue gJrns

.
.

breaching tools Rams, sledgehamrner, pry bars or other


Fire exting;uisher

Practice Various Scenarios . yman stack

' 5-man stack . With a ballistic

shield

Pracrice Prior to Running Actual Raid

entry Team pmcticed 8 hours Prior to this second-story