Skill Sequence Assignment Danielle Chemello Page 1 of 18

Skill Sequence Assignment Danielle Chemello SPED 448: Spring 2012

Skill Sequence - Visual Diagram

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Skill Sequence - General Explanation and Rationale

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The purpose of a skill sequence is to define what a student needs to learn in order to accomplish an outcome. The skills to be learned are ranked in order of difficulty based on their placement in relation to other skills in the skill sequence. For example, skills on the bottom of the skill sequence are the easiest skills, while the skills on the top of the page are much harder. Skills that are located on the same level as each other are considered to be ones with similar difficulty levels. Skill sequences are made specifically for a student’s needs and preferences, so I have made one specifically for a student named TJ. The skills on the skill sequence are ones that she needs to learn and practice so that she can arrange public bus transportation and then ride it safely to a store so that she can pay for items. The skills that are on the top of the skill sequence are there because they are specifically harder for TJ. She is yet to master the bottom ones, so the higher up ones would be more difficult. For example, TJ has a hard time keeping her purse and belongings with her at all times. She often forgets them and does not realize it until later. Quantity is what makes it more difficult for TJ to remember her things. When she has many things out of her purse, she is more likely to put an item down and then forget it. This is why mastering the skill of remembering one, then two, then more items is a good progression for her. Another example would be that of figuring out times for the MTD bus. TJ will start with texting the MTD company for bus times because she loves to use technology and this is a task she can master with practice. After mastering this, she will move on to another source of technology that will allow her to determine the schedule. Since this skill is a little more difficult, it is on a higher level on the skill sequence. Later, TJ will be expected to use the electronic and paper sign schedules at the bus stop to determine which times the bus will come. These are important skills to know in case TJ does not have her phone with her.

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Similar to the other two columns of skills, the paying column has the easiest skills on the bottom with harder skills on top. TJ has a particularly hard time paying with singles. She understands when to give a ten dollar bill if she needs to pay seven dollars, but she could not pay for an item when she only has singles. Again, the higher quantity of dollar choice is harder for TJ to make correct decisions. The higher skills include more kinds of bills in case TJ ever has a limited selection in her wallet and she needs to pay for a cost. By mastering all of the skills in the skill sequence, TJ will be able to arrange transportation and ride the MTD bus to a store so that she can pay for an item under a variety of conditions. Brief Literature Review Teaching Money Skills to Individuals with Mental Retardation A Research Review with Practical Applications offers the best methods for instructing students with disabilities to pay for items as well as manage their money. The main focus here will be on paying for items and how to teach the necessary skills for it. The review consists of 43 studies that taught students with mild, moderate, or severe intellectual disabilities how to pay for items. Of the reviewed studies, 51% used the next dollar strategy to teach students how to pay for a cost. Other methods included having students use videotape instructions to pay for a cost while in the store and having students use a calculator to determine what to pay as well as how much change they should receive. Each of the studies combined both special education classroom instruction and community based probes or instruction. The prompt systems used in the studies were permanent prompts, a system of least prompts, and time delay. Generalization was accounted for by teaching skills across settings. However, no specific generalizing strategies were taught. After reviewing all of the studies, the authors compiled a list of guidelines of the best and most effective as well as efficient practices.

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The authors suggested that teaching paying for a cost was the first step in money skills. It is considered a prerequisite skill to other money management skills such as paying with checks and ensuring a positive balance in a back account. Next, they suggested using next dollar method with a system of least prompts because it is the most efficient for students to master. It also allows students to have errorless learning and stay motivated to learn how to pay independently. Generalization was suggested to be accounted for by teaching in both the community and special education classroom. Direct instruction was also an important aspect to be used when teaching. Each of these suggestions for using next dollar method, using a system of least prompts and direct instruction, and promoting generalization will be taken into account when creating an instructional program for TJ. Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities to Use Counting-On Strategies to Enhance Independent Purchasing Skills offers a program on how to teach paying for a cost. In the article, an adaptation to the next dollar approach is described. In this case, students are to set aside a single dollar bill to cover the cents portion of the cost. They are then to count out the money for the necessary dollar amount. These two piles of money are to be combined and given to the cashier. This adaptation ensures that students pay the cents portion. During the instruction of this method, a teacher taught 4 students with autism and moderate intellectual disabilities in the classroom first. There, the teacher gave the students a cost to pay for with real money. The students were taught using a least to most prompt system that consisted of first giving a verbal prompt, a gesture, a gesture with a verbal explanation, modeling with a verbal explanation, and last physical assistance with a verbal explanation. Once these skills were mastered, they were then taught and assessed in the school bookstore. Once the skill was mastered in

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the bookstore, students were assessed in the community. Overall, the students succeeded and were able to pay for a cost entirely independently. When writing an instructional program for TJ, aspects of this article’s program will be used. The least to most prompts system will be used to teach the next dollar method. This method was effectively taught for the 4 students in the study, so TJ should be able to learn the method in the same way. However, the skill will not be taught in the school bookstore. The basics of the method will be taught in the classroom and then taught in community settings such as the grocery store or a shop in the mall. TJ will be expected to master the skill in the community because that is where she will be using it and it will allow for the most efficient way to generalize the skill. Build Organizational Skills in Students with Learning Disabilities offers twenty different ideas or strategies that will help students with disabilities learn and remember to keep their items with them. Other skills addressed are carrying only what is necessary, using an organized notebook to keep information, and using a checklist to track activities. The skills that will specifically be focused on will be using checklists to track activities and keeping everything where it belongs. The authors suggest that students should use checklists so that they will feel accomplished when they remember something. This will be helpful in TJ’s situation when she has a checklist of items she needs to remember to bring off of the bus with her. She often forgets some of her belongings because she does not remember what she brought. By having a checklist with what she brought onto the bus, TJ will be able to cross off what she has in her bag before she leaves the bus at her designated stop. As long as TJ remembers to use the checklist, she should have little to no problems with remembering her belongings.

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The second focus of the article that will be used in TJ’s instructional program is that of keeping everything where it belongs. TJ brings a purse with her on the bus as well as items such as her wallet, phone, and iPod. Each of these items are important to keep with her. By reminding TJ that each of her items needs to be put back into its place in her purse, she will have a better time keeping all of her possessions with her. Both the strategies of using checklists and remembering where each item belongs, TJ will have an easier reminder as to what needs to be in her purse upon leaving the bus. The checklist will start with the items that TJ brought onto the bus during that specific trip. This will allow her to know exactly what items she needs to bring back. By knowing that each item belongs back in her purse, TJ will be able to remember to place everything in her purse before leaving the bus as well. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation offers the results of a study conducted on three participants ages 19-20. These students were given instruction in the classroom on how to use the video playing device. After students became familiar with how to work the device, instruction on how to follow the video’s directions was given in the classroom. The videos offered step by step instruction on how to take and get off the public city bus. The video consisted of still images and voiced over directions. The students were to press a button for the next pictures after completing the previous video’s instructions. Students were taught how to do this in the classroom using teacher modeling. They were to repeat what the teacher had done with the video player. After the students were able to use the video independently in the classroom, they were assessed on the actual city bus. Teachers were on the bus to ensure student safety and to redirect students if necessary.

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All three students were able to complete each of the steps instructed to them by the video’s voice over. Additionally, the students from the study had positive attitudes toward using the video. Technology is an area that was of interest to all three of the students as well as a socially valid tool. Since the students were able to learn using the technology, TJ will be using technology on the bus too. The checklist that ensures she has all of her belongings will be on her iPod. This way, she can use technology, which she especially enjoys, in order to accomplish her objective of keeping her belongings with her for the duration of the bus ride and when exiting the bus. Using a System of Least Prompts Procedure to Teach Telephone Skills to Elementary Students with Cognitive Disabilities describes a study where a teacher taught three of her students to call using a variety of phones. The baseline, instruction, and maintenance phases occurred in the special education resource classroom. Generalization assessments occurred in other rooms in the school building as well as places in the community. The classroom often did community based instruction, so assessment in the community was not unexpected for the students. The instruction used a task analysis and a system of least prompts. The teacher would ask the student to call using the provided phone. If the student did not do anything within three seconds, the teacher use a direct verbal prompt. If nothing happened within three seconds again, the teacher used direct verbal instruction combined with a model of how to call. Lastly, if nothing happened within three seconds, the teacher used direct verbal instruction combined with a physical prompt to ensure that the student would call someone. Each of the three students who participated in the study met criterion which consisted of calling using 100% of the steps of the task analysis accurately across three opportunities. Once criterion was mastered in the classroom, the students were assessed and instructed on calling in different settings. The students also met criterion in the different settings.

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Although this study discusses calling someone on a phone, the instructional procedures can be applied to texting on a phone. TJ’s instruction will also include a task analysis combined with a system of least prompts because the study shows that it is an effective method of instruction. Instead of teaching until mastery in the classroom, TJ will be taught across multiple settings. This will ensure generalization of the skill more efficiently. Instructional Program -Description of Student: TJ is a nineteen year old girl who comes from a family consisting of her adoptive mother, step dad, and her sixteen year old brother. She loves to eat out at new restaurants and try new foods. She especially enjoys independently ordering and eating seafood, Buffalo Wild Wings’ hot dogs, and egg salad sandwiches. She also likes going to coffee shops, the mall, and the library. Her favorite coffee shop is Cafe Kopi, and she loves to shop at American Eagle and Forever 21. Her mom takes pride in the fact that TJ is so fashionable. Even her peers compliment her great fashion sense. She is funny, witty, and enjoys the company of her family and friends. She is currently employed at County Market, which she especially enjoys because it is on the University of Illinois campus. Through Best Buddies, TJ has become fast friends with a college student who has been able to hang out with TJ at the University of Illinois dorms. This has quickly become one of TJ’s favorite places to visit. TJ also loves animals and watching House. TJ is currently enrolled in Central High School’s functional life skills class. There, she is taught money skills, patience, and improving learning through using rote memorization by a University of Illinois student teacher. Her teacher says that she is a good reader and is good at math. Also, TJ has good range of motion and fine motor skills. TJ was adopted from Russia, but has spoken English throughout her entire life. She is diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and micro-

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cephaly which causes her to have processing issues. She is often frustrated if she sees no end to the task she is currently working. For example when shoveling snow, TJ’s mom will make sure to give TJ a section to shovel so that she can easily see how much snow is left to shovel. This allows her to feel better about working towards a goal that is reasonably able to be accomplished. TJ has mentioned to her mother numerous times that she wants to move to Colorado or to St. Louis because some of her family members live there and because she thinks they have better malls in those locations. TJ is able to envision her future and knows exactly what she wants for herself. Overall, she is a happy nineteen year old who loves to be independent and socialize within the community, her family, and her circle of friends. -Student’s Effective Learning Environments: • one on one setting for initial instruction • likes to socialize so after initial instruction, use small group instruction • likes to use technology (iPod, iPad, cell phone, etc.) • break task into smaller parts so TJ will not get as frustrated with a large task • remind TJ of what she has to do for desired result of task • remind TJ of naturally reoccurring rewards of task (taking bus to get food at a restaurant) • rewards for completion of steps (verbal, high fives, tangibles such as food, etc) • consistent and specific feedback -Instructional Programs: Instructional Program for Texting MTD for Bus Schedule Context for Instruction: Assessment and instruction will occur in both the classroom and the community. The classroom setting will be a one on one instructional situation. The community instruction will occur at any store or restaurant. The time of instruction will vary depending on the community based instruction schedule for the day. Materials necessary for instruction are TJ’s cell phone, task analysis, and the data recording sheets. Other students in the classroom will be work-

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ing on their specific community based IEP goals either independently or with a paraprofessional while TJ is learning to text MTD. Program Objective: When arranging bus transportation, TJ will be able to text MTD for the specified bus schedule and time frame for 100% of the steps of the task analysis across 8 out of 10 naturally occurring opportunities. Generalization: Generalization is embedded within the program. TJ will be expected to text MTD in both the classroom and in various community settings. She will be texting during different times of the day too. She will also be using her own cell phone so that she does not need to generalize the skills learned on a school phone to her own cell phone. Rationale: TJ needs to work on her ability to arrange transportation. This will be done through text because she especially enjoys technology. The skill of arranging transportation will allow her to become a more independent citizen. She will be able to get to places in order to shop or work independently. The ability to take the bus independently will also allow TJ to integrate more closely with her same aged peers. Many teenagers can take the bus independently so TJ will become more like them.

Assessment Procedures: 1. Ask TJ to take out her phone. 2. Ask TJ to text MTD for the bus schedule of the Illini 220S. (can be any other bus, but must remain constant for remainder of assessment procedures) 3. Mark a + for each task on the task analysis when TJ completes it. (Task analysis is in instructional procedures below.) 4. If TJ does not complete each step within 5 seconds, do the step for her and ask her to continue. 5. Mark a - for steps you do for TJ. 6. After assessment, thank TJ for cooperation. Assessment Schedule: Baseline assessments will occur until data is stable. Start instructional procedures after. Instructional opportunities will happen 10 times per week (text for bus on way to community based instruction and text for bus on way back to school). Assessment will occur on the 7th opportunity to text. This allows for TJ to not always be assessed on a particular day of the week or time of day. The above assessment procedures will be employed during this time. Instructional Procedures: 1. Describe task analysis to TJ and what is asked of her. Explain that she must complete each of the steps to master the skill. 2. First the verbal prompt will be given. “TJ, go to the home screen of your phone.” 3. If TJ goes to her home screen within 3 seconds, record V on data sheet. 4. If TJ does not go to the home screen within 3 seconds, offer a verbal explanation while modeling. “TJ, go to the home screen like this.” Model which buttons to click to get to the home screen. 5. If TJ goes to home screen after modeling, record M on data sheet.

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6. If TJ does not go to home screen after modeling within 3 seconds, offer a verbal explanation while using hand over hand physical guidance to go to the home screen of her phone. 7. In this case, record P on the data sheet. 8. Repeat steps 2-7 with each step of the following task analysis. Task Analysis for Texting MTD 1. Go to home screen on cell phone 2. Click ‘messaging’ using trackball 3. Click trackball once 4. Scroll to ‘Compose SMS Text’ 5. Click highlight ‘Compose SMS Test’ option using trackball 6. Using the keyboard, type “MTD” after the To: section 7. Click the trackball once 8. Scroll to ‘ok’ 9. Click highlighted ‘ok’ using trackball 10. Type specified bus code 11. Click trackball twice to send text 12. Once text is received, read text 13. Select time that occurs during predetermined time frame Reinforcement Type and Schedule: During baseline, TJ will receive specific verbal praise for each attempt at completing the task analysis steps. This praise will consist of, “Thank you for texting” or “Thank you for cooperating and listening to directions”. During instruction, TJ will receive specific verbal praise for completing each of the 13 tasks on the task analysis. Maintenance: To ensure maintenance of skills, TJ will be asked to text MTD for the bus schedule during each day of community based instruction. Since criterion for mastery has been met, TJ will receive praise for every other time she completes 100% of the steps of the task analysis. This form of praise can be the same specific, verbal praise or a simple smile and high five. Monitoring maintenance will occur each day when I ask TJ to tell me at what time the next bus will be coming. Instructional Program for Keeping Belongings in Possession on Bus Context for Instruction: Instruction and assessment will both occur in the classroom and on the MTD busses. Classroom instruction will occur during TJ’s resource class during first hour. Instruction on the busses will vary due to bus schedules and community based instruction schedules. Materials necessary for instruction are TJ’s iPod, her purse and various belongings, and the data recording sheet. Other students will be working on their specific IEP goals with the paraprofessionals either in the classroom or on the bus. Program Objective: When riding any MTD bus, TJ will have each of her belongings that she brought on the bus in her possession when exiting the bus during 10 out of 10 opportunities. Generalization: Generalization is embedded within the program because it occurs in the setting in which the skill will be used independently once mastered. TJ will also be using her own iPod

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which she can later use when taking the bus independently. During classroom instruction, TJ will be reminded that the simulated procedures are the same as on the bus. Rationale: By learning to keep all of her items with her on the bus, TJ will become more independent. She will not have to rely on someone else to take care of her things. She also will become more safe. For example, if she lost her wallet with identification cards, someone could steal her identity as well as her money. By learning this skill, she will have mastered some of the skills that are necessary for independent living. Assessment Procedures: 1. Tell TJ to take out her iPod and go to the Notes app. 2. Tell her to type in each item from her purse. 3. Instruct TJ to get on the bus and when the landmark that determines when she should get off the bus comes, tell TJ to take out her iPod and go the note she typed earlier. 4. Ask TJ to ensure that all items are in her purse. (If they are not, tell her to pick up the specific items she would have left on the bus.) 5. Exit the bus with all of items. 6. Praise TJ for her cooperation. Assessment Schedule: Baseline assessments will occur until data is stable. Start instructional procedures after. Instructional opportunities will happen 10 times per week (taking the bus on the way to community based instruction and taking the bus on the way back to school for community based instruction). After instruction has begun, assessment will occur on the 7th opportunity on the bus. This allows for TJ to not always be assessed on a particular day of the week or time of day. The above assessment procedures will be employed during this time. Instructional Procedures: 1. Tell TJ that she is going to use her iPod to help her remember all of the items she brought with her on the bus. 2. During the time before she gets on the bus (here she will use the time she spends waiting at the bus stop) TJ will be asked to type in the notes section of her iPod what belongings she has with her. Note: TJ already knows how to access notes section and type and save notes. 3. The notes portion of her iPod where she is to type in her notes is saved under the “Belongings” template. This template has lines to type in items and “LAST: take purse and iPod with you as you exit bus” written at the bottom. This is the last check she must make after exiting the bus. 4. Tell TJ to check her bag and type in each item on a separate line on the notes section. 5. If TJ does not type in the items within 3 seconds of the verbal prompt, model how to do it for her by saying, “TJ type in the words like this.” Say this while typing the items in. 6. If TJ does not type in the items after 3 seconds of modeling and verbally explaining, use a hand over hand physical prompt along with an explanation like, “TJ type in the words like this.” 7. After typing in all items, TJ will continue to wait until the bus comes. When the bus comes, TJ will get on. Once TJ sees the predetermined landmark that shows that she is close to her destination, she will be instructed to take out her iPod. (No instruction necessary for sitting on bus or determining landmark.) 8. Say, “TJ take out your iPod and go to your “Belongings” note.”

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9. If TJ does not take out her iPod and go to her “Belongings” note within 5 seconds, use a hand over hand physical prompt with verbal explanation to ensure that she has her iPod out. 10. Instruct TJ to compare her items on her list to the items in her purse. Tell TJ that once she sees that an item on her list is in her purse, she will delete the item from the notes section and move onto the next written word. 11. If TJ does not compare her list to the items in her bag within 5 seconds, use a hand over hand physical prompt with a verbal explanation to guide her to look at her notes section and then check her purse. 12. This will be done until TJ reaches the bottom note that reads, “LAST: take purse and iPod with you as you exit bus.” After completing the last task, TJ will delete the writing. 13. Reward TJ with a small piece of candy for completing the task. (Steps 4, 5-7, 9-10, 11, 12) Reinforcement Type and Schedule: TJ will receive a small piece of candy for completing each of the steps accurately. The candy will be determined by her but must be small such as tootsie rolls or fun sized candy bars. Smaller items are necessary so that TJ does not become full before completing the next step because this would diminish her desire to complete the following steps. She will receive a candy for each step until mastery is met. Maintenance: To ensure maintenance of skills after mastery has been met, TJ will be asked to have all of her items with her when leaving the bus during each day of community based instruction. Since criterion for mastery has been met, TJ will receive praise for every other time she exits the bus with all of her items. The praise can stay as small candies or be a simple high five paired with verbal praise. Monitoring maintenance will occur each day when TJ has all of her belongings with her when exiting the bus. Instructional Program for Paying Using Next Dollar Method Context for Instruction: Instruction and assessment will both occur in community settings such as stores like American Eagle, Forever 21, and Walmart. Specifically, the instruction and assessments will occur at the cashier’s counter. The time of instruction and assessment will vary depending on how long it takes for TJ to find the items that she wants to purchase. Materials necessary for both instruction and assessment are single dollar bills, a container of some sort for all of the bills (envelope, wallet, etc.), and a data collection sheet for the instructor. The other students will be elsewhere in the store working on their specific IEP goals with a paraprofessional or independently. Program Objective: When shopping at American Eagle, Walmart, and Forever 21, TJ will count out the correct amount of singles for a cost using the next dollar method during 5 out of 5 naturally occurring opportunities. Generalization: Generalization is embedded within the program because it occurs in the setting in which the skill will be used independently once mastered. TJ will also be using real money so that she does not have to generalize what she has learned if she had been instructed using fake money. Rationale: By learning how to pay for costs, TJ will become a more independent citizen. This is an especially important skill to have for when she lives independently. She will have to buy groceries and clothes alone. By learning the skill in school, she will have achieved some of the necessary skills for independent living.

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Assessment Procedures: 1. Give TJ money container (her wallet or an envelope) and tell her that when the cashier says the amount to be paid, she must give enough money to cover the cost. Remind TJ that I will be here for help. 2. Wait 3 seconds after the prompt of the price. If TJ does not give the correct amount of money, count out correct amount of money and pay cashier. Mark a - on data sheet. 3. Reinforce TJ for effort in paying. Assessment Schedule: Baseline assessments will occur until data is stable. Then instruction will begin. Assessments will occur on the 5th day of instruction. This will be the same as the 5th opportunity to pay using the next dollar method. The above assessment procedures will be employed during this time. Instructional Procedures: 1. Give TJ money container (her wallet or an envelope) and tell her that when the cashier says the amount to be paid, she must give enough money to cover the cost. 2. Wait 3 seconds after the verbal sd of the price. If TJ does count out the correct cost, record a V on data sheet then go to step 7. 3. If TJ does not start counting out bills within 3 seconds of the verbal sd, use a gesture prompt such as pointing to her wallet. If TJ starts counting bills within 3 seconds of the gesture prompt, record G on data sheet then go to step 7. 4. If TJ does not start counting out bills within 3 seconds of the gesture prompt, use a gesture prompt paired with a verbal prompt. Point to TJ’s wallet while saying, “Count out enough money to cover price.” If TJ starts counting bills within 3 seconds of the gesture and verbal prompt, record GV on data sheet then go to step 7. 5. If TJ does not start counting out bills within 3 seconds of the gesture and verbal prompt, model the action with a verbal explanation of what to do. Demonstrate counting out bills and paying while saying, “TJ count the bills like this.” If TJ starts counting the bills within 3 seconds of the model, record M on the data sheet then go to step 7. 6. If TJ does not start counting the bills within 3 seconds of the modeling and verbal explanation, use a hand over hand physical prompt paired with a verbal explanation to ensure that TJ pays the correct amount. In this case, record PV on the data sheet then go to step 7. 7. After completing the step, praise TJ with a specific verbal praise such as, “Great job counting out the correct amount of money! Now grab your items and enjoy them. You worked hard for them!” Reinforcement Type and Schedule: Verbal praise will be given when TJ completes the step correctly at any point in the prompt system. This can be, “Great job counting out the correct amount of money!” No tangible reinforcers will be used because she will be getting the item(s) for which she just paid. Maintenance: To ensure maintenance of skills, TJ will be asked to pay independently during each shopping trip for community based instruction. Since criterion for mastery has been met, TJ will receive praise every other time she pays correctly for an item. The specific verbal praise will remain the same during the maintenance phase. Monitoring maintenance will occur each time there

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is shopping during community based instruction. She must maintain the skill in order to receive her items from the store. Rationale for Choice of Methods/Procedures The procedures for the instructional program were chosen based on best practice and what would work best with TJ’s specific learning styles. After completing the literature review, suggestions were given for making important instructional decisions in each of the following programs: texting MTD for the bus schedule, paying for a cost using next dollar method, and keeping belongings in possession on the bus. Research for texting concluded that using a system of least prompts would be the most efficient method. This allows TJ the opportunity to complete steps independently first. However, if she cannot do so, she will be offered gestural, modeling, and physical assistance all with a verbal explanation. This allows for errorless learning and for TJ to not get frustrated with each step of the task analysis. The task analysis was also a good strategy specifically for TJ. She often gets frustrated if a whole task is presented to her. By giving her small steps, she will be more motivated to continue learning and complete the overall task. Additionally, the use of technology interests TJ so she is highly motivated by the use of it in any situation. TJ also especially enjoys consistent feedback. The reinforcement schedule that gives TJ specific verbal praise after completing each task will motivate her throughout the entire instructional program. Research for paying for a cost was so beneficial when writing the instructional program. Teaching the next dollar method was effective in numerous studies as was using a system of least prompts. Using this system allows TJ to practice her skills and still complete the task if she cannot do a step independently. More assistance may be necessary which is why the system of least prompts works well for her. This allows TJ to learn errorlessly, which ensures her motivation to continue learning. The natural reinforcer of the item TJ is purchasing is a big reward for her. This will be another reason that she will stay motivated to learn how to pay independently. Shopping is

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also an activity that she enjoys so she will have the internal desire to continue learning to pay independently. The reinforcement schedule of praising TJ after each step is beneficial too because she works very well when she is praised for her efforts. Research for keeping belongings with study participants showed that using checklists was an important motivator and reinforcer. The participants felt especially accomplished when checking off an item. This works perfectly with TJ because she works well after receiving positive feedback. The deleting of an item on her checklist will make her feel accomplished and proud that she can keep track of all of her purse’s contents. In TJ’s specific instructional program, technology was used because she loves anything with technology and is already familiar with her iPod. She can make a checklist on there to organize her belongings. A system of least prompts was also used so that TJ could receive feedback on each step of the process.

Reference List

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Browder, D. M., & Grasso, E. (1999). Teaching Money Skills to Individuals with Mental Retardation A Research Review with Practical Applications. Remedial & Special Education, 20(5), 297. Cihak, D. F., & Grim, J. (2008). Teaching students with autism spectrum disorder and moderate intellectual disabilities to use counting-on strategies to enhance independent purchasing skills. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 716-727. Finstein, R. F., Yang, F. Y., & Jones, R. (2007). Build organizational skills in students with ing disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 42(3), 174-178. Manley, K., Collins, B. C., Stenhoff, D. M., & Kleinert, H. (2008). Using a system of least prompts procedure to teach telephone skills to elementary students with cognitive disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17, 221-236. Mechling, L., & O’Brien, E. (2010). Computer-based video instruction to teach students with lectual disabilities to use public bus transportation. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45 (2), 230-241. intellearn-

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