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Chemistry Lab /25

Chemistry Lab /25



18 Laboratory Scientific Investigation (Steps in scientific investigation) 1. 2. 3. 4. Able to state the steps in scientific investigation, Able to carry out a pendulum experiment and record data. Able to write lab report in a proper format. Able to work collaboratively with partner or group.



Retort stand and clamp, stop watch, meter rules, pendulum bob. Cork (cut into halve), thread Engagement 1. Teacher shows a video clip of a woman frying an egg. Based on the video clip, students are asked to explain about the activity briefly. [Explanation should include; The materials needed e.g egg. Oil, pan the procedure to fry the egg Result: fried egg] 2. Teacher gives comments and relate the answers given with steps in scientific investigation Exploration Part A [2 periods] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Students are divided into groups of 4. Teacher distributes Appendix 18 to the students. Teacher asks students to take all apparatus and materials needed for this activity. They are asked to do Activity 1 by using all skills in KAS that they have learned before. During the activity, teacher asks them to: i. ii. iii. iv. v. determine what I want to find out make a smart guess change the conditions for the experiment write down what has been observed (data) decide whether the hypothesis is true

Part B [ 2 periods ] 1. 2. 3. Teacher proceeds with Activity 2 and 3. Teacher explains about the correct steps of scientific investigation. Then, teacher asks the students to write a lab report which includes the following information; a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 4. Aim Problem statement Hypothesis List of variables List of Materials and Apparatus Procedures Diagram of apparatus set up Tabulation of data Graph Discussion Conclusion

Teacher discusses the report and answers with students

Enrichment Teacher asks the students to submit the report as a PEKA report and teacher should explain briefly about PEKA to students CONCLUSION Correct steps in scientific investigation is important to get good result

Notes: teacher

needs to conduct a session to explain the implementation of PEKA (PENATARAN PEKA)



SUGGESTED ANSWER Topic Aim : The steps in scientific investigation. : To investigate the relationship between the length of a pendulum and the time taken for the pendulum to make ten complete swings.

Problem Statement: How does the length of a pendulum affect the time taken for ten complete swings? Hypothesis: The shorter the length of the pendulum, the lesser the time taken for ten complete swings. Manipulated variable: Fixed variable: Length of the pendulum mass of the pendulum bob / 10 complete swings / position of the pendulum bob when released Time taken for 10 complete swings.

Responding variable: Material and apparatus :

Retort stand and clamp, thread, cork (cut into halve), stop watch, meter rules. Procedure : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. A simple pendulum of 100 cm is set up by using a meter ruler as in Figure 1. The pendulum is pulled to one side and released to let it swing freely. The time taken for the pendulum to make 10 complete swings is recorded by using stopwatch. Step 2 - 3 are repeated to obtain two more readings. The average time taken is calculated. Step 2 - 4 are repeated using different lengths of pendulum (80cm, 60cm, 40cm and 20cm). The results are recorded in Table 1. A graph of the time taken to complete ten swings against the length of the pendulum is plotted.

Observation : Length of pendulum (cm) 20 40 60 80 100 Time taken to complete 10 swings (s) 1st reading 8.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 2nd reading 8.0 14.0 17.0 19.0 20.0 Table 1 Graph of time taken to complete ten swings against the length of the pendulum. 3rd reading 9.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 21.0 Average 8.3 13.3 16.3 18.3 20.3

Interpreting data From the graph, we can deduce that the pendulum with shorter length takes shorter time to make ten complete swings.

Discussion 1. When the pendulum thread is shortened, the time taken for ten complete swings is lesser.

2. The time taken for ten complete swings is 1.7 s

3. The length of string increases, the time taken for ten complete swings increases.


Child P takes 20 seconds to complete 5 swings in diagram (a)? i. The time taken for the child P to make one complete swing in diagram (a) is 20/5 = 4 s ii. The time taken by child P using swing in diagram (b) to make 5 complete swings is more than 20 s.

5. Because the length of pendulum for the first reading is shorter than the final reading.


The hypothesis is accepted. The time taken for ten complete swings will be lesser when the length of the pendulum decreases.