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Lee Chapter 27 outline Isolationism

refers to America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars origins of American isolationism o Thomas Paine's Common Sense crystallized isolationist notions which presents numerous arguments for shunning alliances o George Washington's Farewell Address "The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities." WWI America's first major break with isolationist policies but once after the war, quickly reverted back 1940 signaled a final turning point for isolationism o German military successes in Europe and theBattle of Britain prompted nationwide American rethinking about its posture toward the war Everything abruptly changed when Japan naval forces sneak-attackedPearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. as a foreign policy, it became obsolete after WWII ended o America entered United Nations

Appeasement: -This was the appeasement or just give Germany what they want to sustain the peace -By the end of 1937, Hitler was convinced that neither the French nor the British would provide much opposition to his plans. -Neville Chamberlain the British Prime Minister was key in the appeasement process. -He believed by keeping Germany happy, the British Empire would survive. -He even went as far as to say that Germany could do anything in Central Europe as long it was done peacefully. Rome-Berlin Axis: - finalized in Oct. 1936 - a pact between Mussolini and Hitler --> alliance between the two fascist powers

recognized Italy and Germany's (their leaders') common political and economic interests

Anti-Comintern Pact: - concluded in Nov. 1936 - a pact between Hitler and Hirohito (Japan)

agreed to maintain a common front against communism Neville Chamberlain: - prime minister of Britain from May 1936 until May 1940 - adhered to the policy/principle of appeasement --> believed that by granting Germany some concessions, Hitler would be satisfied and quit expanding and go home

Chamberlain couldn't be more wrong... what a naive politician... believed that Britain's - the nation's and its colonial empire's - survival depended on appeasing Germany

- replaced by Winston Churchill Anschlu: -This was the annexation of Austria on March 13, 1938. -Hitler had threatened Austria of invasion and so they willingly accepted the Nazi's taking control of the government to avoid conflict. -Britain saw that it was peaceful and did not opposed the move and France was unable to respond due to political problems of their own. -This only increased the idea to Hitler that the west was weak. Munich Conference: -Germany had wanted to take over the territory of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland for various reasons. -The areas was important for defense reasons as well as the vast amount of resources in the area. -Hitler said that he would risk another war to obtain this land. -Again other countries wanted to appease him and the Munich Conference came about. -British, French, Germans, and Italians came to a conclusion and met nearly of Hitler's demands. -They had all hoped that this would keep the peace. -Hitler had even promised to settle any disputes through negotiation. -Chamberlain had foolishly believed Hitler. Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact: -The Soviet Union gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland. -"Now Poland is in position in which I wanted her....I am only afraid that at the last moment some swine or other will submit to me a plan of mediation." -September 1st German forces invaded Poland. -Two day's later Britain and France declared war on Germany. -Two weeks later, September 17, the Soviet Union sent its troops into eastern Poland.

-Europe was again at war! Blitzkrieg: -Also known as the Lightning war. -Hitler was able to stun Europe with its speed of attack. -With the use of airplanes and panza's Germany was able to swiftly seize through the Polish lines and encircle the overwhelmed Polish troops. -On September 38, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland between them. Maginot Line: - the French line of defense against Germany

built between 1930 and 1935 built along France's border w/ Germany

- consisted of a series of concrete and steel fortifications - the Germans simply skirted the Line (by going through Luxembourg and Belgium) and struck directly at France "Phony War": - in WWII the period of inactivity during the winter of 1939-1940 - after that time period, Hitler struck at Denmark and Norway in April 1940 ** info found on p. 777 of textbook Marshal Henri Petain: - the French hero of WWI - established the authoritarian regime of Vichy France (territory: 2/5 of France) - Vichy France was considered a Nazi puppet state; Petain went along w/ basically whatever the Nazis wanted Vichy France:

remaining 2/5 of France that was unoccupied by German troops ruled by authoritarian French WWI hero Marshal Henri Petain Nazi puppet state

gov't-in-exile in Britain Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

long-time advocate for a hard-line policy toward Nazi Germany o characterized the settlement at the Munich Conference as "a disaster of the first magnitude" May 10, 1940 replaced Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister o proved to be an inspiring leader who rallied the British people with stirring speeches

Luftwaffe: - the German air force - used in the Battle of Britain (1940) - starting in Aug. 1940, launched a major offensive against British air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries

British air force suffered severe losses

- the British rebuilt their air force and soon began inflicting damage on the Luftwaffe

Germany lost the Battle of Britain Battle of Britain (the Blitz):

Hitler's attempt to gain control of British skies, w/ end goal of amphibious invasion of Britain major aerial offensive launched August 1940 against British air-naval bases/harbors/communication centers/war industries not so effective as might have been desired by Hitler o British radar gave early warning of German attacks o Ultra intelligence operation obtained information about specific targets o British air force suffering by August's end BUT Hitler changes strategy, shifts from attacking military targets to bombing cities to break Brit morale (retaliation for British attack on Berlin) British soon rebuild air strength, heavily damaging Luftwaffe bombers September's end: Germany lost Battle of Britain

Operation Barbarossa: -this was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Unions in 1941, which opened up the Eastern Front -the biggest military operation in history (5.5 million troops sent into Russia) -Hitler's lost in this operation ultimately resulted in the Third Reich's defeat even though he attempted to launch other invasions such as Siege of Leningrad, Battle of Stalingrad, Operation Nordlicht, which all ended in defeat. P.S. nonimportant fact: Nazis were victorious operationally, but defeated strategically. Pearl Harbor (attack on): -This is the Japanese's surpirse attack on USA's naval base in Pearl Harbor -Japanese attack was an attempt to protect their progress in the islands of the Pacific Ocean -this battle ultimately resulted in USA joining the war on the Allies' side. Axis & Allies: Axis:

Powers in WWII : Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Imperial Japan signed Tripartite pact in 1940 Allies: power who opposed the Axis in WWII: British Empire, Soviet Union, USA were the Big Threes. Battle of Stalingrad: -this is the assault on Russian city of Stalingrad by the Axis power (mainly Nazi Germany) -this is the turning point of the War on the Eastern front, which resulted in decisive Russian victory -it is often refered to as one of the bloodiest battles ever in military history (1.5 million casuaties) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969)

nick-name "Ike" commander the Allied Forces in the North African Campaign November 1942 Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces invading France (D-Day June 6, 1944) 34th President of the United States (1953-1961)

D-Day/Operation Overlord

June 6, 1944 o invasion of Normandy beach, France by Allied Forces five assualt divisions o Utah andOmaha(American forces), Juno (Canadian forces) , Sword and Gold (British forces) purpose of the operation o liberate Paris and head for the Rhine to capture Berlin

Roosevelt: -the thirty-second President of the United States. - He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. -The "Big Three" (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin), together with Chiang Kai-shek

cooperated informally in which American and British troops concentrated in the West, Russian troops fought on the Eastern front, and Chinese, British and American troops fought in the Pacific. -Roosevelt guaranteed that the U.S. would be the "Arsenal of Democracy" by shipping $50 billion of Lend Lease supplies, primarily to Britain and also to the USSR, China and other Allies. Harry Truman: -the thirty-third President of the United States (19451953). -As vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term. - authorized use of atomic weapons against the Japanese in August 1945. Hiroshima and Nagasaki:

Truman & advisors feared Japanese fanaticism might result in American casualties numbering in millions after Japanese govt decreed mobilization of people ages 1360 into peoples volunteer corps dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima (Aug 6), Nagasaki (Aug 9) o results were devastating 70,000 of 76,000 Hiroshima buildings flattened 140,000 of 400,000 inhabitants dead by 1945s end 50,000 more perished by 1950s end from radiation effects

Unconditional surrender:

complete, unqualified surrender of a belligerent nation Big 3 decided Germany must surrender unconditionally & be divided into 4 occupation zones V-E Day/V-J Day:

Victory in Europe: Germany surrendered May 8 1945; Hitler committed suicide 8 days before (April 30) o HOWEVER Allied forces still fighting Japan; other sporadic fighting still going on A German U-Boat sank 2 ships off Scottish coast some German resistance against Red Army in subsequent days Victory in Japan: Japan admits defeat on Aug 15, 1945 after Hiroshima & Nagasaki o BUT Japanese leaders didnt officially surrender until Sept 2

Nazi New Order: Nazis plan for conquered territories; included:

Jews' + other inferiors' extermination

exploitation of resources German colonization in the east employing Polish/Russian/Ukrainian slave labor

Holocaust: -the term generally used to describe the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and a smaller number of Mizrahi Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination. -planned and executed by the National Socialist regime in Germany led by Adolf Hitler. Final Solution: -this is Hitler's "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" -this is Hitler's plan to have a systematic genocide of the Jews, which resulted in the bloody Holocaust Einsatzgruppen: special strike forces for rounding up & executing Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau: -the largest of Nazi Germany's concentration camps. - Located in German-occupied southern Poland Zyklon B: - the tradename of a cyanide-based insecticide notorious for its use by Nazi Germany against civilians in the gas chambers of Auschwitz and Majdanek during the Holocaust. Wannsee Conference

held January 20, 1942 ouside of Berlin party and state officials were informed by Reinhard Heydrich of the Final Solution o steps that would now be taken to "solve the Jewish question" worked out all the bureaucratic details of implementing the Final Solution

Cold War: - the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s. - Throughout the period, the rivalry between the two superpowers was played out in multiple arenas: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and espionage; sports; military, industrial, and technological developments, including the space race; costly defence spending; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race; and many proxy wars.