F34TPP Theoretical Particle Physics notes by Paul Saffin Contents

1 Lecture one 1.1 Natural units. . . . . . . . . . 1.2 converting back to SI units . . 1.3 relativistic notation . . . . . . 1.3.1 raising/lowering indices 1.4 examples . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 energy-mass relation . 1.4.2 quantum operators . . 1.4.3 Klein-Gordon equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 19 21 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 26

2 Lecture two - Dirac equation 2.1 Dirac equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 solving the Dirac equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lecture three - spin, chirality 3.1 rotation generators . . . . . 3.2 rotating a fermion . . . . . . 3.3 chirality and helicity . . . . 3.4 Weyl fermions . . . . . . . . and helicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Lecture four - gauge symmetry and electromagnetism 4.1 electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 gauge invariance of the Dirac equation . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 covariant derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 the standard model and gauge symmetries . . . . . . . .

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5 Lecture five - Dirac equation and magnetic fields 5.1 magnetic moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 magnetic moment of electron - Zeeman interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lecture six - Feynman rules 6.1 propogator theory . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Schr¨dinger propogator . . . . . o 6.1.2 Klein-Gordon propogator . . . . 6.2 Feynman rules - including interactions 6.3 diagramatic expansion . . . . . . . . .

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7 Lecture seven - action functionals and Feynman rules 7.1 action and equations of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Klein-Gordon action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Dirac action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 the structure of an action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 example, real KG action I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 example, real KG action II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.3 example, complex KG action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 example, Dirac particle coupled to photons . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 complex KG equation coupled to photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Feynman rules for the electroweak sector of the standard model 7.6 Fermi’s golden rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1 ee scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.2 µ decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Lecture eight - group theory 8.1 definition of a group . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 direct product of groups . . . . . . . . 8.3 Abelian groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Lie groups (pronounced ”Lee groups”) 8.4.1 general linear group GL(n,R) . 8.5 special linear group SL(n,R) . . . . . . 8.6 orthogonal group O(n,R) . . . . . . . . 8.7 special orthogonal group SO(n,R) . . . 8.8 O(p,q,R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9 symplectic group Sp(2n,R) . . . . . . .

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26 26 27 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 31 33 33 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 42 42 45 46

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9 Lecture nine - non-Abelian gauge theory 9.1 unitary groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 unitary group U(n) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 special unitary groups . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 unitary groups and the standard model . 9.5 generators and Lie algebras . . . . . . . 9.5.1 o(n), the Lie algebra of O(n) . . . 9.5.2 su(n), the Lie algebra of SU(n) . 9.6 non-Abelian gauge theory . . . . . . . .

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10 Lecture ten - some representation theory 10.1 SU(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 normalizing the states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 general SU(2) represenation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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11 Lecture eleven - isospin 11.1 neutrons, protons and isospin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 pions and isospin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 using isospin in scattering calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Lecture twelve - the quark model 12.1 more multiplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lecture thirteen - charge conjugation 13.1 Charge conjugation . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 photons . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.2 fermion-antifermion pairs . . . 13.1.3 C violation . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.1 electromagnetism . . . . . . . 13.2.2 fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.3 linearity of parity . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 electron dipole moment (edm) . . . . and parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46 47 48 49 50 50 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 62 62 62 63 65 65 65 66 67 68 69 71 71 71 72 73 73 75 75

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14 Lecture fourteen - parity violation and time reversal 14.1 parity violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 time reversal symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Lecture fifteen - CP symmetry 15.1 CP symmetry . . . . . . . . . 15.2 neutral kaons . . . . . . . . . 15.3 kaons and C, P and CP . . . 15.4 Klong and Kshort decays . . . . 15.5 matter vs anti-matter . . . . .

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16 Lecture sixteen - quark mixing 16.1 three generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 quark mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Lecture seventeen - neutrino oscillations 17.1 Solar neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2 neutrino oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3 atmospheric neutrinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Lecture eighteen - Higgs mechanism and 18.1 symmetry restoration/breaking . . . . . 18.2 superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 massive fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 breaking the symmetry . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 non-Abelian Higgs mechanism . . . . . . 18.6 Yukawa coupling and fermion masses . . 3 symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . L85 (2005). . . . . . . ApJ. . . . . . . . . . . . . around the circular minimum. . . . . . .4 electroweak sector. . . . . . . . . . 19. . . 68 71 72 74 List of Tables 1 Table showing quark charges .1 electroweak sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . part I . . . . . . . . part III . . . . part II . . . . . . . . . . . . where the dregs of the wine tend to form at the bottom. . . . . . al. . . . 75 76 76 77 77 List of Figures 1 2 3 4 The predicted flux of solar neutrinos. . . 19. . . . . . . . . . Bahcall et. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. .the real standard model 19. . . . . . . . .19 Lecture nineteen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The typical shower of particles produced by a cosmic ray. . . . .3 electroweak sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This shows a superconductor hovering above a magnet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621. . . . . . . . . A typical wine bottle. . . .2 chiral theories . . . . . . . . . 54 4 . . . . . .

3 × 10−37 miles2 lb hour−1 . the reason for this is that the numerical value depends on the system of measuring rods and clocks you use. and is the quantity that relates masses to times and distances.F34TPP Theoretical Particle Physics 1 Lecture one Aim: To introduce the notion of natural units. c = 1 in these units. Similarly. if we use kilograms. dimensional analysis. If you use metres and seconds you would get c = 3 × 108 ms−1 .8) (1. by picking our units appropriately.e. In effect. 2π p = .3) (1. and if you use cubits and fortnights you get c = 7. we may essentially get any value we wish for dimensionful quantities. Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • be able to convert quantities between different systems of units • know how to use Einstein summation convention 1. As we are interested here in relativistic quantum field theory. (1.7 × 108 miles hour−1 . if you use miles and hours you get c = 6. So.9 × 1014 cubits f ortnight−1 . that would be meaningless. we should think of c as the quantity that allows us to relate distances to times. For example we may use the year as our measure of time. and the light-year as our measure of distance.6) (1. For example. and revise some relativistic notation. Using these natural units we find that the basic relations E 2 = m2 c2 + p2 c2 .5) . pounds or grains to measure measure mass we find that = 10−34 m2 kg s−1 . it makes sense to choose units where c = 1. The first thing to note is that the numerical value of a dimensionful quantity does not have any intrinsic value. i.2) these are called natural units. = 1.4) (1. E = ω.9×1014 .1) (1. 9 × 10−24 cubits2 grain f ortnight−1 .7) (1. E = ω 2π p = λ become E 2 = m2 + p2 .1 Natural units. λ 5 (1. then light travels one light-year per year. if you were told that the speed of light was 7.

Now we do some dimensional analysis [L2 ] = [M L2 T −1 ]a [LT −1 ]b [M 2 ] (1. of a target particle. Note that this gives the same expression as (1. Note that the fine structure constant α ∼ 1/137 is dimensionless.15) 6 . b = −2.11) So. So. [Γ] = L−3 L2 LT −1 = T −1 (1. so we need to able to convert from our eV numbers back to SI units. 1.12) This clearly cannot be in SI units. we see that a = 2.Now. suppose we are told that the cross section associated with Compton-scattering (ei γ → e− γ). eV.6). so write 8π 2 α2 σ = 3m2 e a b c. Γ. as is momentum.9) where n is the number density of particles that are being sent toward the target. to make sense of this expression we need to sprinkle some factors of and c around. 3m2 c2 e (1. are related by Γ = nσv (1. and v their speed. 3m2 e (1. and (1. from (1. so σ = 8π 2 α2 2 . The best way to see how this is done is to use an example.10) (1.12) in natural units where = 1. we still need to pick our basic unit. in natural units.8) shows that distances are measured in (eV )−1 .7) gives that time is measured in (eV )−1 . because if it were. is σ = 8π 2 α2 . Then. the dimensions are as follows [σ] = [L2 ]. and in particle physics the convention is to use electron-Volts. so Γ is the number of scattering events we expect per unit time.2 converting back to SI units At some point an experimenter will want to know how big their machine should be. so consider the following. (1. to measure energy. we have that mass is measured in eV . and rulers don’t come with eV notches on them. while the right-hand-side is in kg −2 . σ. Now (1. The scattering cross section. the left-hand-side would be m2 .14) For this to be consistent. and the scattering rate.13) where a and b are unknown constants. c = 1.

So. 1.3 relativistic notation First of all. with components ηµν . This allows us to ”raise” and ”lower” indices of spacetime vectors.. dz). in (t. for example V µ = η µν Vν Vµ = ηµν V ν . where the first index µ labels the rows. the line element becomes ds2 = ηµν dxµ dxν . 1.1. p) 7 (1. x. recall that the object variously called the line element/proper distance/proper time/invariant interval. There is no need to explicitly write the know they must be summed over. Given this.4 1. The summation convention simply says that if an index appears twice in a single expression.. z) co-ordinates we have η µν = diag(−1. with entries ηµν = diag(−1. So.20) This can be useful as it often further simplifies certain expressions. 1. (1. because both µ and ν appear twice. x1 .22) (1.21) (1.17) ηµν dxµ dxν . is given by ds2 = −dt2 + dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 . the line element is ds2 = µν (1. 1. x2 .4. 1). 1.19) symbol.18) where we have introduced the spacetime four-vector with components dxµ = (dt. (1. dx. 1). y.16) Rather than writing this out each time we introduce a matrix quantity called the metric.1 examples energy-mass relation recall that the energy-momentum four-vector is P µ = (E. (1. for example. z) := (x0 . then that index must be summed over. y. In (t.1 raising/lowering indices µν (1.3. x3 ) co-ordinates the matrix is diagonal. x. on top of dropping the summation symbols. which is just the inverse matrix of the metric. so we Along with the metric ηµν we have the inverse metric η µν . and the second index ν the columns of the matrix.23) . meaning that we don’t even need to write ηµν . dy. 1.

∂x (1.2 quantum operators From quantum mechanics we know that ˆ E = i∂t ˆ P x = −i∂x where we denote ∂x = ∂ .31) (1.30) (1.4. using our relativistic notation ˆ Pµ = −i∂µ 1.37) (1. Using Pµ = ηµν P ν we also have Pµ = (−E.24) As this final expression contains only spacetime indices it is manifestly a relativistic equation.36) .29) (1.26) (1.32) Using the fact that P0 = −P 0 and P1 = P 1 we see ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ P0 = −i∂0 .3 Klein-Gordon equation (1.35) (1.e.28) (1. p) Now we take the energy-momentum relation E 2 = p2 + m2 and rewrite this as −E 2 + p2 + m2 = 0 −(P 0 )2 + (P 1 )2 + (P 2 )2 + (P 3 )2 + m2 η00 P 0 P 0 + η11 P 1 P 1 + η22 P 2 P 2 + η33 P 3 P 3 + m2 ηµν P µ P ν + m2 P µ Pµ + m 2 = = = = 0 0 0 0 (1.25) (1. 1. P1 = −i∂1 P2 = −i∂2 P3 = −i∂3 or.33) (1.34) We have already seen that P µ Pµ + m 2 = 0 and ˆ Pµ = −i∂µ 8 (1. the zero-component of four-momentum is just the eneryg.27) (1. P 0 = E.4.i.

homogeneous.39) (1.45) . however.40) (1. If we unravel the index structure we find η µν ∂µ ∂ν φ − m2 φ = 0 −∂0 ∂0 φ + ∂1 ∂1 φ + ∂2 ∂2 φ + ∂3 ∂3 φ − m2 φ = 0 ¨ −φ + 2 φ − m2 φ = 0 where a dot denotes time derivative ∂φ ˙ φ = ∂t (1.42) (1.46) (2. first-order equation. and so cannot be relativistic. Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how to derive the Dirac equation • know what the Dirac algebra is • be able to solve the Dirac equation 2.Dirac equation Aim: To introduce the Dirac equation. unlike the first-order time derivatives of the Schr”odinger equation. The Klein-Gordon equation on the other hand is manifestly relativistic.43) treats time and space on an unequal footing. it is second-order in time derivatives. Dirac wanted to construct a relativistic wave equation that was first-order in time derivatives. where the γ are as yet unknown.41) (1.44) which is the most general linear.so we may combine them to give ∂ µ ∂µ φ − m2 φ = 0 This is the Klein-Gordon equation.38) 2 Lecture two . This equation is written in relativistic form as γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ = 0 ˆ In order to find out what the γ are we use ∂µ = iPµ and find ˆ (iγ µ Pµ + m)ψ = 0 9 (2. as well as being relativistic. so he wrote down the following γ 0 ∂0 ψ + γ 1 ∂1 ψ + γ 2 ∂2 ψ + γ 3 ∂3 ψ + mψ = 0 (2.1 Dirac equation 2 The Schr¨dinger equation o i∂t ψ + 2m 2 ∂x φ − V (x)ψ = 0 (2.

This is not a problem.52) (2.four complex components . they are matrices.47) (2. which when acting on zero gives zero. let’s start with {γ 0 . γ ν } = 2η µν . they are not. all travelling at different velocities. there are infinitely many choices of matrices that satisfy (2.51) (2. In fact. γ 1 } = 2η 01 ⇒ γ 0 γ 1 = 0 ⇒ ±i = 0 (2.54) (2.57). we can also act on it with (iγ ν Pν − m). So. γ 0 } = 2η 00 ⇒ (γ 0 )2 = −1 ⇒ γ 0 = ±i Now lets try {γ 1 . For example. 10 . we denote the anti-commutator with curly braces {γ µ . how do we use this to find out what the γ µ are? Well. meaning that ψ is actually a four-component object . In fact.as opposed to the Schr¨dinger wave function which is a single complex o function. the smallest set of matrices that can satisfy the Dirac algebra are 4 × 4 matrices.53) (2. so ˆ ˆ (iγ ν Pν − m)(iγ µ Pµ + m)ψ = 0 ˆ ˆ ⇒ (−γ ν γ µ Pν Pµ − m2 )ψ = 0 ⇒ 1 µ ν ˆ ˆ [γ γ + γ ν γ µ ]Pµ Pν ψ + m2 ψ = 0 2 (2.55) (2. γ ν } = 2η µν I. and in fact is a good thing. γ 1 } = 2η 11 ⇒ (γ 1 )2 = 1 ⇒ γ 1 = ±1 And now we go for {γ 0 . and so we should really write {γ µ . γ }Pµ Pν + m2 ψ = 0 2 which we should compare to the relativistic energy-momentum equation η µν Pµ Pν + m2 = 0 leading to the conclusion that {γ µ . The reason this has gone wrong is that we assumed the γ µ are numbers. we can think of each of these different choices as being required for the infinite variety of observers.57) This is known as the Dirac algebra.49) Now.50) and we run into a contradiction.ˆ Given that this vanishes.48) (2.56) (2. γ ν } := γ µ γ ν + γ ν γ µ so we find 1 µ ν ˆ ˆ {γ . (2.

It turns out that γ 5 plays a crucial role in much of the physics of the standard model.g.61) (2. In fact. (2. {Γµ . is γ 5 γ µ = −γ µ γ 5 . and so will Γµ = ±γ µ∗ . then so will Γµ = −γ µ . γ= 0 iσ −iσ 0 .67) (2.57).B are two-component column vectors. e. γ 5 .60) (2. so if we are to look for wave soluitons it is natural to look at the Fourier modes. γ5 = −I 0 0 I (2. γ= 0 iσ −iσ 0 . and it is defined as follows.62) (2.68) where UA. Γν } = = = = = = Γµ Γν + Γν Γµ Rγ µ R−1 Rγ ν R−1 + Rγ ν R−1 Rγ µ R−1 Rγ µ γ ν R−1 + Rγ ν γ µ R−1 R(γ µ γ ν + γ ν γ µ )R−1 R(2η µν )R−1 2η µν (2. We shall have more to say about this later.65) Now. and so will Γµ = ±γ µT . And the Weyl representation γ0 = 0 iI iI 0 . Given this ansatz we note that i∂t ψ = −P0 ψ = Eψ 11 (2.63) Although each of these different representations will lead to the same physical results.58) (2.59) (2. you will have noticed that I sneaked in a new matrix. γ5 = 0 I I 0 (2. And the remarkable property that it satisfies. γ 5 = iγ 0 γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 .64) where the σ are the Pauli matrices. we have that Γµ = Rγ µ R−1 will also satisfy the Dirac algebra. there are certain choices that can make calculations easier.66) 2.suppose that a set γ µ solves (2. that means we look for solutions of the form ψ = eipµ x µ UA UB (2. two common choices are the: Dirac representation γ0 = iI 0 0 −iI .69) . if we take a general invertible matrix R.2 solving the Dirac equation The Dirac equation is linear. making it such a useful object.

and if we use the Dirac representation we find that EUA − σ. chirality and helicity Aim: To see where angular momentum fits into the Dirac equation Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know what the angular momentum operators for a Dirac fermion are • know what chirality and helicity are 12 .x    0 1  (2. 3 Lecture three .P UA + mUB = 0 (2.spin. these are just the spin-up and spin-down posibilities.70) (2. As UB is a two-component object. P z ).76) In other words. as expected. if we focus on the case of a wave in the z-direction.75) UB = ⇒ UA =   1 0 E+m 0 0 solution two has 0 1 Pz E+m 0 −1  0  −P z /(E + m)   ⇒ ψ↓ = eiP. as we shall see. P = (0. for a particle travelling in the z− direction there are two possible solutions.P UB + mUA = 0 −EUB + σ.71) In particular. we have (E + m)UA = P z σ 3 UB (E − m)UB = P z σ 3 UA So that we find (E 2 − m2 )UB = (E + m)(E − m)UB = P z σ 3 (E + m)UA = P z σ 3 P z σ 3 UB = (P z )2 (σ 3 )2 UB = (P z )2 UB (E 2 − m2 − P 2 )UB = 0 (2.74) which is just the relativistic energy-momentum equation.73) UB = ⇒ UA = (2.x  (2. we have two linearly independent solutions: solution one has  z  P /(E + m)   Pz 0 1 1  ⇒ ψ↑ = eiP. 0.72) (2.

83) 3 (3.79) rotation about the z-axis with angle θ  0 0 . Rz = e−iθT where T3  0 −i 0 =  i 0 0 . 1 (3.. 1 0 Rx =  0 cos θ − sin θ  .. and the route to generality comes by again looking at the rotation of vectors. but in fact the L appearing in (3. what about rotating fermions? We cannot use R to rotate a four-component fermion field ψ. let’s consider how we rotate a three-vector V . Ly . here we shall see why. for example. V =RV where R is a matrix satisfying RRT = I.77) ˆ relevant for orbital angular momentum.82) and the exponential of a matrix is defined through the taylor expansion of the exponential function. ˆ ˆ Lx .77) can take a number of different forms.78) ˆ = iL z (3. 1 1 eM := I + M + M 2 + M 3 + . For example. In order to progress we need something more general. This is typically derived using ˆ Lz = xPy − yPx → Lz = −ix∂y + iy∂x (3.81) Now we know how to rotate vectors (we just use the R matrices). a is accomplished by  cos θ − sin θ Rz =  sin θ cos θ 0 0 (3. To see this. but from a different perspective. 0 0 0  (3. as R is a 3x3 matrix. Ry =  0 0 sin θ cos θ sin θ 0 cos θ (3.84) .3. We write. The key is the angular momentum algebra. in particular fermions. To do this we need to understand how to rotate objects. as it is the angular momentum operators that are resonsible for rotating objects.80) whereas a rotation about the x and y axes come from     1 0 0 cos θ 0 − sin θ . 2 3! 13 (3.1 rotation generators By now you will have come across the phrase ”a fermion is spin-half” a number of times over the course of your degree.

78).this is the natural place to start looking. where Σjk := − S i := for example S3 = along with i S 2 = − γ3γ1 2 i S 1 = − γ2γ3 2 (3. we shall simply state that these generators are given by defining a set of matrices Σjk . S that obey the angular momentum algebra these should be 4x4 matrices. In fact.γ . that (3.89) 1 2 Σjk Σ12 + 1 2 321 i i Σ21 = Σ12 = − (γ 1 γ 2 − γ 2 γ 1 ) = − γ 1 γ 2 4 2 (3. in order to be able to act on the four-component fermion field ψ. be they orbital angular momentum. we now know how to rotate a fermion.93) . 3.92) 1 2 312 i j k γ .85). Our task now is to find a set of 4x4 matrices that satisfy (3. but the point is that general group elements. in the representations given previously we find that the generator of a rotation about the z-axis is S3 = 1 2 14 σ3 0 0 σ3 .2 rotating a fermion S 1. (3. (3. T 2 =  0 −i i 0 1 2 where  0 i 0 0 .83.85) This may seem like an obscure thing to do. The magic thing is that. where the set of matrices T α are known as the generators of the group. in which case one should use (3.90) One may check.86) which is just the angular momentum algebra.77). T 2 = iT 3 . in which case one should use the generators given by (3. As we already have a set of 4x4 matrices . 0 0 (3.87) is satisfied.One makes similar definitions for Rx  0 1  0 T = 0 = e−iθT and Ry = e−iθT   0 0 0 0 −i  .87) What we need to do is find some set of matrices.3. or vector rotation. For example. (3. g. by explicit computation using te Dirac algebra. (3.91) (3.77) so that we can rotate fermions. The point is that it is the angular momentum algebra generators that are resposnsible for rotations. So. α α can be written as g = e−iθ T .88) (3. T 1. S 2 = iS 3 .the Dirac matrices . by explicit computation. 4 ijk (3.

97) which means we may check explicitly the common phrase that ”a fermion picks up a minus sign when rotated through 2π”.94) (3.76) have 1 S 3 ψ↑ = + ψ↑ 2 1 S 3 ψ↓ = − ψ↓ 2 (3. 3 (3. because ψ = 1 1 1 1 ψ + γ5ψ + ψ − γ5ψ 2 2 2 2 = ψR + ψL (3. ψL = PL ψ This can always be done.75). while ψ↓ has spin − 1 .98) (3. 2 2 By analogy with vectors.99) I cos(θ/2) − iσ 3 sin(θ/2) 0 0 I cos(θ/2) − iσ 3 sin(θ/2) so. our plane-wave solutions (2.105) (3.102) we then note that the chiral components are eigenfunctions of the γ 5 matrix γ 5 ψR = +ψR γ 5 ψL = −ψL 15 (3.101) and we define the left and right chiral components by ψR = PR ψ. by noting that e−iθS 3 = = e−iθ/2 σ 0 3 0 e −iθ/2 σ 3 . for example.95) (3. (3.103) (3. as expected. for θ = 2π.3 chirality and helicity due to the presence of a γ 5 matrix we have a neat way of splitting up a Dirac fermion using the projectors PR = 1 1 (I + γ 5 ). PL = (I − γ 5 ) 2 2 (3.so.100) 3. a rotation of a fermion about the z-axis through angle θ is accomplished by ψ = e−iθS ψ.106) . (2. shows that ψ↑ has spin + 1 .104) (3.96) which. ψ = −ψ (3.

If the momentum and spin are aligned (positive helicity) then the fermion is spinning in the direction given by the usual right-hand-rule. suppose we see a fermion with helicity + 1 . the notion of chirality.Sψ P . this is because helicity is not Lorentz invariant for massive fields. For example. We shall now see that this ties in exactly with the chirality of massless fields. So. but S will remain the same.S |P | (3. why not white and black..110) 2 which is why they are called right and left. 3. We now know that a fermion has two vector associated with it. as defined by γ 5 . we see that right and left massless chiral fields have 1 hψR = + ψR (3. and its spin. The Dirac equation for a wave mode of a massless fermion may be manipulated as follows γ µ ∂µ ψ = 0 ⇒ γ µ Pµ ψ = 0 ⇒ γ 0 P0 ψ + γ. is Lorentz invariant.108) = 0 = 0 = 0 1 5 = γ ψ 2 (3.P γ 0 γ 5 ψ = 0 ⇒ −P0 γ 5 ψ + γ. 2 2 then P will change sign. this can be seen in another context . In the above derivation we made critical use of the masslessness of the fermion. we can simply convert it to − 1 by travelling faster than it in its direction of motion. Helicity tells us whether they are pointing in the same direction or not.S ψ E = |P | ⇒ |P | so we define the helicity operator h := P . chalk and cheese. we still call chiral fermions left and right. there seems to be little reason to label these chiral components as left and right. or left hand rule.109) 2 1 hψL = − ψL (3..? To understand this we need to introduce the notion of helicity.P γ 0 ψ = 0 ×γ 5 ⇒ −P0 γ 5 ψ − γ. nevertheless.At first sight.Weyl fermions.P ψ = 0 ×γ 0 ⇒ −P0 ψ − γ. Chirality and helicity only coincide for massless particles. they follow the right hand rule.107) which measure whether the momentum is aligned with the spin. We cannot overtake massless fields. its momentum. irrespective of whether they are massless. Taking the Dirac equation and operating on it with PR . However. so we call it right-handed.4 Weyl fermions We have just seen that mass plays an important role for chiral fermions.P iγ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ψ = 0 ⇒ −P0 γ 5 ψ + iP x γ 2 γ 3 ψ + iP y γ 3 γ 1 ψ + iP z γ 1 γ 2 ψ ⇒ −P0 γ 5 ψ − 2P x S x ψ − 2P y S y ψ − 2P z S z ψ ⇒ Eγ 5 ψ − 2P . and so the helicity of massless particles is a Lorentz invariant. and 16 .

Matter particles are the bits that stuff is made out of. a Majarona mass. protons and quarks. First of all. what do we mean by a symmetry? The type of symmetry that we will be looking at is the analogue of a symmetry in Newton’s second law. Here we shall see that the origin of the photon is a symmetry principle. 17 .112) If m = 0 then these are two independent equations.116) (4.113) (3. for which these conclusions are a bit premature.e. such as photons and gluons. 4.PL we find PR [γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ] = 0 ⇒ γ µ ∂µ ψL + mψR = 0 and PL [γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ] = 0 ⇒ γ µ ∂µ ψR + mψL = 0 (3. 4 Lecture four . or ψL = 0 and ψR = 0. the current between two points is determined by the difference in potential between those points. However. we can shift the potential by any number. V0 is a real constant.114) (3. if the fermion has non-zero mass we need both left and right components1 . We can see quite clearly that this system of equations is unchanged if we take V → V + V0 .gauge symmetry and electromagnetism Aim: To see what electromagnetism has to do with symmetry Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • be able to turn a global symmetry into a local one • know what role gauge fields play in local symmetries.111) (3. I= 1 ∆V R (4. whereas force carriers are what bind the matter particles together. A similar thing happens in electrical circuits. and none of the physics changes. and we may consistently set either ψR = 0 and ψL = 0. the list of particles can be split up into matter particles and force carriers. F = − V.115) i. V0 ∈ R (4.1 electromagnetism In the standard model.117) There is another type of mass term that we will not be considering. This is a symmetry. such as electrons.

in this unified language. under these shifts E → E.e.121) This will make it easier when we come to the relativistic Dirac equation . In line with our relativistic notation we shall now introduce the four-vector potential.123) has what is called a U(1) symmetry . α(t. In electromagnetism we have that B = ˙ × A.125) . i. E = − φ − A. 4. we can do much more than that.e. This just means that we are allowed to perform a phase rotation by angle Λ. For ψ = e−iΛ(x) ψ 18 (4. Now we ask the question.we do it everywhere.122) (4. this means the equation for ψ and ψ are exactly the same if ψ = e−iΛ ψ. (4. so long as we do it everywhere in spacetime. ⇒ Aµ = (−φ. x) φ → φ − α. A). Λ ∈ R (4.2 gauge invariance of the Dirac equation γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ = 0 The Dirac equation (4. we can shift by an amount determined by an arbitrary function. (4. by combining φ and A into Aµ = (φ. so we are free to shift both φ and A by constants without changing the physics. everywhere on the circuit. i. B → B. can we make this symmetry local. The fact that φ and A are undefined up to this arbitrary function highlights that they are not physical quantities.124) so. Rather than just shifting by a constant. we see that our gauge transformations become Aµ → Aµ + ∂µ α. only the electric and magnetic field can be measured. Simply put. This is what is termed a global symmetry . Λ is a real constant.which is now. A) Then. and the physics remains the same.119) These shifts are known as gauge transformations.more of which later. let Λ → Λ(x)? The naive answer is no.120) α (4. A → A + ˙ and the physics remains the same. in fact.so we can again shift the potential by a constant amount. (4.118) This system is again governed by derivatives.

moreover. the (ψ. The reason that the original Dirac equation does not have a local U(1) symmetry is that when we take ψ → e−iΛ(x) ψ.135) (4.132) . (4. but it generalizes the global U(1) symmetry of the basic Dirac equation to a local U(1). Aµ ) variables satisfy the same equation as the (ψ . Dµ . i.3 covariant derivatives The best way to think about gauge invariance is through the notion of a covariant derivative.130) = e−iΛ(x) ψ. (4. we start with γ µ (∂µ − iqAµ )ψ + mψ = 0 and ψ Aµ then we end up with γ µ (∂µ − iqAµ )ψ + mψ = 0. ψ and ∂µ ψ transform differently.131) because then the derivative piece of the enhanced Dirac equation (γ µ Dµ ψ) will transform in the same way as the mass term. What we really want is some derivative. the transformation of the four-vector Aµ is exactly what is required by electromagnetism if we identify α = −Λ/q. Aµ ) variables. This is just what we have constructed.e. Let us recap.134) (4. so it’s more of a prize than a penalty! U(1) gauge symmetry implies the existence of a photon. Aµ = Aµ + ∂µ α (Dµ ψ) = e−iΛ(x) (Dµ ψ).e. Rather than just giving up. The penalty for achieving this is that we had to introduce a new quantity Aµ .129) (4. Aµ . 19 (4. We now have something that looks a bit like the Dirac equation.127) i. we can now perform a different U(1) transformation at each point in spacetime and the physics is unchanged.we find that the Dirac equation for ψ implies γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ = −iγ µ ∂µ Λ ψ . (4. that transforms as Dµ ψ → e−iΛ Dµ ψ. instead of starting with the Dirac equation. Dµ = ∂µ − iqAµ and we have ψ = e−iΛ(x) ψ. we notice that if. but that’s just electromagnetism.133) (4. 4.128) (4. 1 = Aµ − ∂µ Λ q (4.126) which is not the Dirac equation.

i.137) where U = e−iΛ(x) . Dν ] ψ → e−iΛ(x) [Dµ . This is define by [Dµ . this is required to hold for all ψ so U Fµν = Fµν U and now note that U U † = 1 = U † so multiply on the right by U † .145) (4. Fµν . F01 = ∂0 A1 − ∂1 A0 = Ax + ∂x φ = −E x . But. Now we need to see what the field strength actually is. (4. To see that it is gauge invariant we note that as Dµ ψ transforms covariantly. so the U .e.136) This is a nice quantity because it is gauge invariant. U Fµν U † = Fµν (4. just calculate it −iqFµν ψ = Dµ Dν ψ − Dν Dµ ψ = (∂µ − iqAµ )(∂ν ψ − iqAν ψ) − (µ ↔ ν) = −iq(∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ )ψ so we find Fµν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ (4.e. e. F12 = ∂1 A2 − ∂2 A1 = ∂x Ay − ∂y Ax = B z .143) (4. This implies that [Dµ .142) = = = = −iqFµν ψ −iqFµν U ψ −iqFµν U ψ Fµν U ψ (4. ˙ e. To be more explicit note that ψ = U ψ.141) then note that in this case the gauge theory is Abelian.144) This proves the gauge invariance of the field strength. It is a useful excercise to check the other components. meaning that Fµν must be unchanged.With this covariant derivative we are now in a position to construct new objects.g. U † are just numbers and can move through the Fµν to cancel each other Fµν = Fµν (4. Dν ] ψ U (−iqFµν ψ) U Fµν ψ Now. Dν ] ψ). (Dµ Dν ψ) = U (Dµ Dν ψ) (4. Fµν = Fµν . to do this. the primed field strength is just ([Dµ . do does Dν Dµ ψ. [Dµ . Dν ] ψ = −iqFµν ψ.148) (4.136) also picks up a e−iΛ(x) .140) (4. U(1). the right-hand-side of (4. Dν ] ψ) U [Dµ .147) and now we are nearly there. the most important of which is the field strength.139) (4. (Dµ ψ) = U (Dµ ψ).g.138) (4. and so could be of physical relevance. Dν ] ψ also transforms covariantly (i. just a few examples should convince you that Fµν is nothing more than a re-packaging of the electric and magnetic fields.146) (4. that is one of the strengths of using covariant derivatives. So. 20 .

1 magnetic moments Recall from electromagnetism that the magnetic moment of a circular. ones of particular importance are SU(2) and SU(3). classical electromagnetism says that the energy of a magnetic moment. with the U(1)×SU(2) supplying the photon.152) 2m This is the starting point for writing down the interaction energy of a particle of spin S within a magnetic field. µ. with current I.149) Now. is given by µ = IA.154) .B = − B.002 It is our task to derive the magnetic moment of the Dirac particle. and the W± gauge bosons. giving the interaction Hamiltonian as q H = −g B. within a magnetic field B is given by the interaction Hamiltonian q Hint = −µ. (5. in period T we have v (5. for a total charge of q running around the loop. g. one finds that they prefer to align with the background field.4. This is because aligned magnets have a lower energy. suppose we place such a magnetic moment in a magnetic field. As we expect there to be differences with the basic loop of wire we adopt a fudge-factor.153) 2m where g for the electron is found. and m its mass.Dirac equation and magnetic fields Aim: To see how electromagnetism fits in with the Dirac equation Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know what a magnetic moment of a particle is • know how to derive the magnetic moment of a non-relativistic Dirac particle 5. to account for differences. planar loop of area A. Now. 21 (5. In fact. and the SU(3) giving us the gluons. the Z0 . by experiment. to be gelectron ∼ 2. 5 Lecture five .150) I = q/T = q 2πr so we find q q mvr = L µ = (5.4 the standard model and gauge symmetries In later lectures we shall come across more general symmetry groups than U(1).S (5. The reason for their significance is that the standard model is a gauge theory of U(1)×SU(2)×SU(3).151) 2m 2m where L is the angular momentum of the current.L (5.

σ]2 = (p − qA)2 − qB.163) m giving a g-factor for the Dirac particle of gDirac = 2 22 (5. we shall see one of its consequences.121).155) Taking the Dirac representation of gamma matrices (2. (5.159) m >> qφ (5.158) showing that ψ1 is small compared to ψ2 .160) which is just the Schr¨dinger equation for a particle in a magnetic field.162) (5.156) (5.64).35) we find i∂t ψ1 = (−m + qφ)ψ1 + (p − qA). whose magnetic intero action is q Hzeeman = − B.σψ2 i∂t ψ2 = (m + qφ)ψ2 + (p − qA).σ which gives the final equation (p − qA)2 q ψ2 + (m + qφ)ψ2 − B. and now we take the nonrelativistic approximation that E ∼ m.Zeeman interaction Now that we have learned all about gauge invariance.157) For a free wave. and use this in (5.161) 1 [(p − qA).σψ1 .156) to find ψ1 1 (p − qA). and the relation between momentum and derivatives (1.Sψ2 = i∂t ψ2 2m m (5.σ]ψ2 2m (5.S (5. namely a prediction for the magnetic moment of Dirac particles. We start with the gauged Dirac equation γ µ (∂µ − iqAµ )ψ + mψ = 0 and we write the Dirac field as ψ = ψ1 ψ2 (5.5. and also we find that (5.2 magnetic moment of electron . we have that the wave function varies as e−iEt .157) now becomes i∂t ψ2 = (m + qφ)ψ2 + and we then use that [(p − qA).σψ2 2m (5.σ][(p − qA).164) . the definition of the four-vector potential (4.

x) to the amplitude at the initial time t.As this is so close to the observed value for the electron.170) .65218111 ± 0. x). xf )]ψ(tf . xf ). This disturbance then propogates to (tf .168) What this equation does. x)ψ(t.1 propogator theory Based on an idea of Dirac. (6. given the amplitde at some earlier time t? To answer this. xf ) with the help of the propogator. at time tf . t.Feynman rules Aim: To uncover the origin of a particuarly useful perturbative technique Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know what a propogator is • be familiar with the route from Huygen’s principle to the propogator equation • be able to solve the propogator equation when there is a small perturbation present • be able to derive the propogtor for the Klein-Gordon equation 6. t.00000074) × 10−6 experiment (5. x). xf )ψ(tf . given that the Schr¨dinger equation is a wave equation. introducing the operator O ˆ O(tf . xf . xf ) = [i∂tf − H(tf . and he based it on Huygen’s principle for calculating the propogation of wavefronts. xf . xf ) = 0 23 (6. tf > t (6. let’s take write the Schr¨dinger equation in the following o ˆ form. This should not come as a great surprise. we introduce the notion of the propogator.165) (5. t. what is the probability amplitude at some location xf . The o question we want to ask is. G(tf . then the block at location x contributes ∆xψ(t.very precisely g−2 2 = (1159.167) g−2 2 = (1159. We then have to add up all such contributions. xf ) = x iG(tf . Feynman decided to formulate his own version of quantum mechanics. The corrections to the value of 2 is explained using quantum field theory . x) ∆xψ(t. xf ) = dx iG(tf . x). we identify the electron as a Dirac particle. x) evolves into an amplitude at the late time (tf .000003) × 10−6 theory 6 Lecture six .65213 ± 0.166) (5. The continuum version changes the summation to an integral.169) To see how this works in practise. ψ(tf . and we may incorporate the tf > t condition by including a theta-function Θ(tf − t)ψ(tf . which tells us how an amplitude at (t. xf . is split space into blocks of size ∆x.

176) dE dp ˜ G0 (E. xf )iG(tf . xf )]G0 (tf .1. this just tells us that the propogator. x) = δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x) (6. xf )G(tf . 6. x) = and then we use dxe−ix(y−a) = 2πδ(y − a) to find ˜ G0 (E. the Fourier transformed version. t. p) = 1 E − p2 /2m (6.171) So. xf . xf . x). is the Green-function associated to the Schr¨dinger equation.172) (6.1 Schr¨dinger propogator o The propogator for the free (no interaction terms in the Hamiltonian) Schr¨dinger equation o comes from solving [i∂tf − H0 (tf . using ∂tf Θ(tf − t) = δ(tf − t) to find iδ(tf − t)ψ(tf .177) (6. xf . t. OO−1 = I. t. t. What this means is that the propogator is.178) and to find the KG propogator we simply replace φ with G0 (tf . x) ψ(t.1. in some sense.e.ˆ Now operate on both sides of (6. x) = δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x) 24 (6. (−∂µ ∂ µ + m2 )G0 (tf . the inverse of o ˆˆ the Schr¨dinger equation.173) ˆ dx O(tf . x) (6. it is more common to call this.2 Klein-Gordon propogator The Klein-Gordon equation is (−∂µ ∂ µ + m2 )φ = 0 (6. t. G(tf .175) In fact. xf . t. xf . xf .169) with O. p)e−iE(tf −t)+ip(xf −x) 2π 2π (6.174) As this is a linear equation we consider a solution using the Fourier transform by writing G0 (tf . x). the propogator. (6. o 6. xf . t. xf ) = which implies that ˆ O(tf . i. and the zero on the right-hand-side by δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x).179) . x) = δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x).

(xf −x) (2π)4 (6.183) This may not be apparent at first sight. it’s not interested in t. note that O0 (tf . xf .2 Feynman rules . xf . x. and the KG equation .184). x) = δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x) + VI (tf . x1 . x1 . xf . x) = δ(tf − t)δ(xf − x) These may be rewritten as ˆ O0 (tf . xf .182) (6. Now we start to spot a pattern.181) where p2 = −E 2 + p2 is the spacetime-square of the momentum four-vector.including interactions So far we have not discussed the propogators for interacting theories. Dropping the details we have G = G0 + G = G0 + G = G0 + G0 VI G G0 VI G0 + G0 VI G0 + 25 G0 VI G G0 VI G0 VI G . while the first term on the right-hand-side gives the first term on the right-hand-side of (6. xf . xf . 6. t. xf )G(tf . xf ) only sees tf and xf . the equation is linear so we look for the Fourier solution G0 (tf . p2 + m2 (6. t. OO−1 = I. x) + dt1 dx1 G0 (tf . xf ) − VI ˆ O(tf .this is rather generic. x1 . xf . the replace the G(t1 . i. x1 )G(t1 . t.185) with O0 (tf .185) (6.184) (6. t1 . the (momentum-space) propogator is just 1/(equation of motion).185) into itself. x) = G0 (tf . we substitute the equation (6. We now use an unusual trick. t.185) by the solution for G(t1 . t1 . now we shall add a small perturbation to the Schr¨dinger Hamiltonian to see how we may o accomodate interactions. x1 ) into δ(tf − t1 )δ(xf − x1 ). x1 )VI (t1 .e. t1 . x1 . x) inside the integral on the right-hand-side of (6. x). x) the solution of which is an integral equation G(tf . only the free versions. To understand the rest. xf ). especially given that we o ˆˆ expect the propogator to be the inverse of the equation of motion. If we operate on (6. t. t. x) = d4 p ˜ G0 (p)eip.180) and now we find the propogator for the KG equation to be G0 (p) = 1 . The starting point is ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ O(tf . that usually results in 0=0 when tried for most equations. allowing the integral to be performed. and is easier to confirm by working backwards. xf ) = i∂t − H = i∂t − H0 − VI = O0 (tf . x) (6.185) it just turns the G0 (tf . xf . the left-hand-side simply recovers the left-hand-side of (6.Again. xf )G(tf . xf )G(tf . t. so when O0 (tf . xf ) hits the integral on the right-hand-side of (6. t. both for the Schr¨dinger equation. t.184).

a stationary ball on a slope must be either at the top of a hill. and objects appearing in the integrals. then moving a bit. 6. ¡¡¡ + + + . But in the standard model we shall see that it allows for a much simpler visualization of what is going on. Such statements for static systems should be obvious by now. (6.3 diagramatic expansion As is common with such perturbative expansions. in that a static system has extremized its potential energy . but as we assume VI is small. Quantum mechanics is a single-particle theory. so the diagramatic technique is not really needed. In principle we should do this an infinite amount of times. The action is the next step up.186) 7 Lecture seven . to include dynamical systems. This is not course on action principles. We then think of a given diagram in physical terms as the particle moving for a bit. 7. at the bottom of a valley. meaning that we have an expression for the full propogater G in terms of the much simpler free-propogater G0 .1 action and equations of motion A neat way of characterizing the dynamics of a system is through the action principle. once an action has been given. or at a saddle point.action functionals and Feynman rules Aim: To introduce action functionals for the basic theories. then interacting with the external potential. G = where the line represents the free propogator G0 and the vertices (dots) represent the interaction term. Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how to derive equations of motion from an action • know how to write down the Feynman rules..Now we repeat what we have just done. 26 . the later terms will be negligible. The diagramatic expansion for the above solution to the integral propogator equation is f ull propogator. so we shall just proceed by example. and see how to read off the Feynman rules. and so on. it is useful to use diagrams as mneumonics for the integrals. which states that a system evolves in such a way as to extremize the action of a system. by replacing the the G on the right-hand-side of this expression with the initial solution G = G0 + = G0 + G0 VI G0 + G0 VI G0 + G0 VI G0 VI G0 + G0 VI G0 VI G0 + G0 VI G G0 VI G0 VI G0 VI G at which point we start to see what’s going on..

38).189) In the case of the real KG field we find δφ→0 lim 1 1 d4 x [− ∂µ (φ + δφ)∂ µ (φ + δφ) − m2 (φ + δφ)2 ] − 2 2 1 1 d4 x [− ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 ] = 0 2 2 We now expand this out. the standard model contains 37 fields. when we find the extrema of a function f (x) we solve the following equation δx→0 lim f (x + δx) − f (x) = 0 (7. dropping the boundary term. We shall always assume this vanishes. so if we wanted to write it down in terms of equations of motion.1.191) (7. We find d4 x [−∂µ φ∂ µ δφ − m2 φδφ] = 0 Now we integrate by parts. it amounts to saying there is no current at infinity. especially when there are lots of field.187) and it is this that we need to extremize. However. Then d4 x [∂µ ∂ µ φ − m2 φ]δφ = 0 (7. dropping the δφ2 as they are subdominant in the limit. in terms of the action. there is just one. use ∂µ φ∂ µ δφ = ∂ µ (δφ∂µ φ) − δφ∂µ ∂ µ φ (7. and so we write δφ→0 lim S[φ + δφ] − S[φ] = 0 (7. that would be 37 rather complicated equations. Now. rather than x. The point is that the action contains the same dynamical information as the field equations. ∂µ ∂ µ φ − m2 φ = 0.193) This is just the Klein-Gordon equation (1.7. and the only way to achieve this is for the integrand itself to vanish. For example. 27 .1 Klein-Gordon action The action for the real Klein-Gordon scalar field is given by S[φ] = 1 1 d4 x [− ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 ] 2 2 (7.190) and ignore the d4 x ∂ µ (δφ∂µ φ) term. but it turns out that the action is easier to handle. (7.188) which is just the first-principles way of saying df /dx = 0.e. i.192) Now. we want this integral to vanish for all possible deformations δφ. Here what we do is vary the field φ.

the variation of the action is remarkably simple.197) where T is the ”kinetic” term.7. S. is usually written in terms of a Lagrangian density. allowing us to write L = L0 − VI 28 (7.2 Dirac action The Dirac action is given by S = − ¯ ¯ d4 x[ψγ µ ∂µ ψ + mψψ] (7. in which case the action must be extremized under variation of ψ and ψ ¯ separately.194) ¯ where ψ = −iψ † γ0 . and V is the potential. We treat ψ and ψ as ¯ independent objects.45). If we vary ψ then we find ¯ ¯ ¯ δSψ = S[ψ. the interaction terms that will be the perturbation away from the linear (free) theory must be cubic (or higher) in the action. (7. and so it needs this peculiar version of Hermitian conjugation. This new object is because ψ is a fermion. L. There are a few useful things about the action that help to restrict the possible theories we may write down. in which case we must have γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ = 0.there are no free spacetime indices. which contins interaction term. they are • L is real • L is a Lorentz scalar . So. despite all the complications one would expect from ¯ the Dirac equation. ψ + δ ψ] − S[ψ.1.199) .196) which is just the Dirac equation (2.2 the structure of an action The action. One can check that varying ψ gives the same results. where they are related by S = and L takes the form L = T −V (7.198) d4 x L (7. ψ] = − ¯ ¯ d4 x δ ψ[γ µ ∂µ ψ + mψ] = 0 (7. 7. after a bit of work. Now.195) ¯ and this must hold for all variations δ ψ. they all come in pairs • L is a scalar with respect to internal symmetries From the examples given it is now clear that pieces in the action that are quadratic in fields will produce terms in the field equations that are linear.

202) In fact.201) if VI is quadratic in one field. if VI is quartic in the field. real KG action I 1 1 1 L = − ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 − λφ4 2 2 4 has VI = so the equation of motion for this theory is 1 4 λφ 4 (7.. and the VI that produces the vertices. but also quadratic in another. for the vertices. then the vertex has four free-propogators meeting at a point. just as we would associate the propogator with a basic line. then the vertex has three free-propogators meeting at a point. (7. in which case we would associate λ with the vertex. In terms of Feynman diagrams. we only want the 4 parametric scale.where VI is the interaction potential. for example λ in VI = λφ4 ..200) and the Feynman rules are Note that we shall not be worrying about factors of 2. it is the L0 that leads to the free propogator. then the vertex has two freepropogators of each species.2. 7.206) (7. ¡ ¡ ∂µ ∂ µ φ − m2 φ = λφ3 (7.207) 29 . 1 .. The vertices are constructed rather simply by looking at each term in VI : if VI is cubic in the field.205) 1 p2 + m2 λ (7. each term in VI will come with a parameter in front of it.203) ¡ ¡ ¡ (7. (7.204) (7. and is cubic (or higher) in the fields.1 example.

2.213) ¡ ¡ ¡ ∂µ ∂ µ φ − m2 φ = ζφ2 (7. arrows on the lines. complex KG action 1 L = −∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φφ − λ(φφ )2 2 (7. there must be the same amount of charge entering a vertex as leaving it. the arrows help us to keep track of where the charge is.7.208) has VI = so the equation of motion for this theory is 1 3 ζφ 3 (7. This is because there is a conserved quantity associated to the field. due to the global U(1) symmetry.210) p2 ζ 1 + m2 (7.209) and the Feynman rules are 7.3 example.2 example.211) (7. As we have seen before. real KG action II 1 1 1 L = − ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 − ζφ3 2 2 3 (7.216) .215) (7. as charge cannot just dissapear. ¡ VI = 30 1 λ(φφ )2 2 (7. When we have such a symmetry then. such a U(1) symmetry is leads to an electric charge for the particle.2.212) has and the Feynman rules are here we see something new.214) 1 p2 + m2 λ (7.

132). the electrowek sector. Dirac particle coupled to photons We have seen the Lagrangian for a basic Dirac particle.3 example. we put an arrow on the fermion line as there is a U(1) symmetry.217) ¯ VI = −iq ψγ µ ψAµ (7. as there are now two fields involved.224) Now that we have a grasp of where the Feynman rules come from we shall write down the rules of one of the sectors of the standard model.220) (7.218) (7. giving the Lagrangian L = −(Dµ φ)(Dµ φ) − m2 φφ = −∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φφ + iqAµ (φ ∂ µ φ − φ∂ µ φ ) + q 2 Aµ Aµ φφ and then the Feynman rules are 7. 7. and one photon −iγ µ pµ + m p2 + m2 q (7.4 complex KG equation coupled to photons To couple the complex KG equation to electromagnetism we simply replace ∂µ → Dµ .223) q2 (7.222) (7.e.7.5 Feynman rules for the electroweak sector of the standard model ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ 31 (7. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ L = −ψγ µ Dµ ψ − mψψ = −ψγ µ ∂µ ψ − mψψ + iq ψγ µ ψAµ so which is something different to those we have seen before.221) p2 q 1 + m2 (7. This just means that the vertex has two fermion lines. to couple in electromagnetism we simply replace ∂µ → Dµ (4. and so charge is conserved. i. the part that tells us .219) Again.

about the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force. yet. γ. The basic set of diagrams are as follows e γ e (7.229) W− gw (7. The matter particles involved in this are the leptons νe e and the gauge bosons (force carriers) .228) Z0 gw (7. (7.230) Z0 gw (7. but this has not been observed. νµ µ .231) 32 . ντ τ .226) γ e (7. W ± .225) It is also believed to contain the Higgs scalar. (7.227) e W− W+ νe νe νe e W+ W− ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Z 0 .

227.235) 33 . The final result is Fermi’s golden rule where Tij is the probability amplitude. ¡ ¡ e γ Z0 gw (7. for example the amplitude for an electron to anihilate an anti-electron producing a photon is given by diagram 7. rather than the amplitude. and this is given by the modulus-square of the amplitude.6. The diagram contains two vertices. each of strength e. we are interested in physical quantities. 2 1 so the rate of this process is Recall that the fine structure constant. There is one extra factor to take into account. Each diagram tells us about the amplitude for a process to happen.νe νe e e Although we have only explicitly given the rules for the muon and the tau lepton doublets. However.234) ∼ e2 (7.236) ¡ Γ(i → j) = 2π |Tij |2 ρ (7. and has amplitude e. which gives us the number of states that are available to be occupied.233) νe e doublet.6 Fermi’s golden rule Now that we have our Feynman rules we need to do something with them. they also hold for the 7. 7. such as rates of events. and so the amplitude of the diagram is given parametrically by e2 . and so we actually need the probability.232) Z0 gw (7. α = 4πe0 c 137 Γ ∼ α2 (7. the density of final states ρ.1 ee scattering e e e This diagram shows the scattering of two electron by a photon.

7.6.237) ∼ gw gw (7.group theory ¡ ¡ ¡ γ γ W e µ e 34 ∼ e4 (7. as it is heavy. and Z 0 it was known that a muon could decay into an electron and two neutrinos.238) ∼ GF (7. Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should . 2 W 8 Lecture eight . is liable to decay. Another diagram that contributes to electron-electron scattering is e e e e but this is fourth-order (four vertices) and subleading so can be ignored at the first approximation.239) which has the diagram νµ It was this GF that was measured first (with a value of 10−5 (GeV )−2 ). which we have approximated as M12 . Before the discovery of the W ± .2 µ decay The muon is the heavy version of the electron and. In fact. and some important examples of groups.240) Aim: To introduce the concept of a group. we can use this to give us an W expression for the Fermi coupling constant. which is fine for low-momentum scattering. so Fermi proposed an interaction term of the form VI (F ermi) ∼ GF (¯νe )(¯νµ ) e µ νe (7. and we can see from our g2 electroweak diagram that GF ∼ Mw . The leading order diagram responsible for the decay is νe 1 2 MW µ νµ and here we also include the internal propogator of the W boson.As the diagram contiains two vertices we say it is a second-order process.

−i}. a → −1. i}. for example. For the set and composition law to be a group. The above examples should really be called representations of groups. a}. the inverse of 2 is 1/2. it is required to satisfy the following • it must be closed: If g1 . • each g must have an inverse. This does not form a group because i · i = −1. 2 does not have an inverse within the set. denoted g −1 : g −1 · g = g · g −1 = e. An explicit representation of this group could be {e → 1. Z. This does form a group • Consider the set of integers. and -1 is not part of the set • Consider the set {1. ∀g ∈ G. we could say that the group we are interested in (called Z2 ) consists of elements {e. G. where the composition law is multiplication. · → multiplication} but there are many others. We shall see more consequences of different representions later. where the composition law is addition. This does not form a group as. (8. for example. • Consider the set {1.• know the definition of a group • know how to check whether a set.1 definition of a group A group is simply a set of objects. • Consider the set {1. where the composition law is addition. e actually are. This does not form a group as. then g1 · g2 ∈ G • it must have an identity. −1. denoted e: e · g = g · e = g. −1. which just means that they are explicit examples of the more abstract group itself.241) where gi are members of the set. where the composition law is multiplication. supplied with a rule that allows you to take two of these objects and make another one. such that a · a = e. • the composition must be associative: g1 · (g2 · g3 ) = (g1 · g2 ) · g3 . Some examples should help to clarify this. forms a group • know what defines Abelian groups. In this definition we make no comment about what a. 35 . Lie groups and orthogonal groups. This does form a group. For example. in combination with a composition law. which is not an integer. 1 · 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 is not part of the set • Consider the set of integers. nor do we say what the composition law is. g1 · g2 = g3 . where the composition law is multiplication. This law of composition is denoted with a dot. i. 8. Z. i. g2 ∈ G. −i}.

defined by the elements gα = eiα (8. addition is also Abelian. this is composed of elements {(e. 8. g2 ·g2 ). the group formed by multiplication within the rational numbers is Abelian. More common examples are those associated to some sort of rotation.1 general linear group GL(n. Suppose we have two groups G1 and G2 . 36 .3 Abelian groups Abelian groups are the simplest. the next step is to think about non-countable sets. a) = (e · a. a · a) = (a.8. forms a group under multiplication (zero is excluded because it has no inverse under multiplication). a). (8. for example (e. as there are n rows and n columns. with the non-Abelian nature coming typically because matrix multiplication is not commutative. excluding zero. e). (e. there are important examples that are not Abelian. 8.242) For example. and it is simple to show that G3 is indeed a group.R) is defined to consist of elements A where • A is a real n × n matrix • det(A) = 0 The dimension of this group (the number of indepenedent numbers within an element) is n2 .4 Lie groups (pronounced ”Lee groups”) The previous examples were all discrete groups. or rather its fundamental representation. consider the group D2 = Z2 ×Z2 . we may form a group G3 = G1 ×G2 with elements g3 = (g1 . However. (a. This just corresponds to rotations in the complex plane by angle α.2 direct product of groups In the standard model of particle physics there are a number of distinct groups. For example the set of rational numbers. e). g2 ) and composition law g3 ·g3 = (g1 ·g1 .4. AB = BA. acting as independent internal symmetries. 8. the direct product does just that. e). so we need a way of combining groups together. and as α is a continuous parameter this is a Lie group. a)} where.243) with the composition law being multiplication (it is easily checked that this forms a group). (a.R) The fundamental representation of GL(n. a) · (a. Consider the unitary group U(1). meaning that there was a countable number of elements in the set. they are the ones for which g1 · g2 = g2 · g1 . For example.

R) is defined to consist of elements A where • A ∈GL(n.R) The fundamental representation of SL(n.e. where 2 B = AT A. i.R) is defined to consist of elements A where • A ∈GL(n. The total number of degrees 2 1 of freedom is then n2 − [n + 2 (n2 − n)] = 1 n(n − 1).8.R) The fundamental representation of O(n.247) (8. as we already have det(A) = ±1 for orthogonal matrices.245) (8. because imposing the unit determinant only selects a sector of O(N.R) • AAT = I = AT A The dimension of this group is 1 n(n − 1). 37 . as there are n rows and n columns.R) rather than reducing its dimension.248) 8.7 special orthogonal group SO(n.244) (8.R) • det(A) = 1 The dimension of this group is n2 −1. however. 8. The same constraint also sets all n2 − n off-diagonal terms to zero. n constaraints.246) (8. By constraining B = I we are requiring the n terms along its diagonal to be 1.R) • det(A) = 1 1 The dimension of this group is the same as that of O(N.R).R) is defined to consist of elements A where • A ∈O(n.6 orthogonal group O(n. 2 Note that AAT ⇒ det(AAT ) ⇒ det(A) det(AT ) ⇒ det(A) det(A) ⇒ det(A) = = = = = I 1 1 1 ±1 (8. and one real constraint coming from det(A) = 1. as B is symmetric this only imposes 1 (n2 − n) independent constraints. 2 n(n−1). which we now explain.5 special linear group SL(n. Think of the matrix B.R) The fundamental representation of SO(n.

. the unitary groups. composed of complex matrices satisfying certain properties as follows 38 .R) as AIAT = I Then we define elements of O(p. then the symplectic group is defined to be those elements that satisfy • A ∈GL(n.1 unitary groups Although the groups presented in the previous lecture all have their role to play in some area of physics..R) Define the symplectic matrix Ω := 0 I −I 0 (8. with p minus ones. q = 3. −1.q. we are particularly interested in a different set of groups.8 O(p. −1..249) where η − diag(−1. This may seem like an obscure thing to do. and non-Abelian gauge theory Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know the definition of unitary groups • know what group generators are.R) • AT ΩA = Ω 9 Lecture nine . 8. 1. but in fact this is just the Lorentz group of special relativity if we take p = 1.R) The notion of orthogonal matrices is easily extended to O(p.. . 1.q. and q plus ones. and how to calculate their basic properties • know how to gauge a non-Abelian symmetry 9.251) where I is the n × n identity matrix.R) by requiring AηAT = η (8..).250) (8.R) by thinking of the defining relation of O(n.9 symplectic group Sp(2n.8.q. 1.non-Abelian gauge theory Aim: To introduce the concept of a Lie algebras.

here we generalize that to matrices by saying U ∈U(n) if • U †U = I = U U † where U † = (U T )∗ . corresponding to 2n2 real degrees of freedom. because the determinant imposes one real constraint. if we impose det(U ) = 1. • SU(3) describes the strong nuclear force.4 unitary groups and the standard model In the standard model one finds that the paricles are described by their transformation properties under three different unitary groups. It has dimension three.3 special unitary groups U ∈SU(n) if • U ∈U(n) • det(U ) = 1 The dimension of U(n) is n2 − 1. U(1).9. 9.255) (9.253) (9. First note that there are n2 complex entries in U .2 unitary group U(n) We have already seen a unitary group. while the off-diagonal part gives 2 2 (n2 − 1) real constraints (the 1 2 is because U † U is symmetric and the 2 because the entries are complex). 9. which we see as follows. 39 . and gives us the eight gluons. This gives a total of 2n2 − [n + (n2 − n)] = n2 real degrees of freedom for each U . and gives us the single photon • SU(2) describes the weak nuclear force.254) (9. each with its own physical interpretation • U(1) describes electromegnetism.252) The dimension of U(n) is n2 . which we see by considering U †U ⇒ det(U † U ) ⇒ det(U † ) det(U ) ⇒ |det(U )|2 ⇒ det(U ) = = = = = I 1 1 1 eiα (9.257) so. and gives us the W ± and Z 0 bosons. (9. It has dimension one. It has dimension eight. all we are doing is requiring the single real constraint α = 0.256) (9. Now the diagonal part of U † U = I 1 gives us n real constraints.

(9.266) (9.259) and that. we may use the defineing property of SU(n) to tell us something about its generators. 9.. but we already have a set of generators for three-dimensional rotations given by (3. the generators are Hermitian.) ⇒ θa [X a − (X a )† ] ⇒ Xa = = = = I I 0 (X a )† (9. the concept of generators is also useful for internal symmetries. the Lie algebra of O(n) The defining property of O(n) is enough to tell us that the generators of O(n) are skewsymmetric.. Although we chose these generators to do our calculations.270) .258) Once we have fixed our choice of generators..9..5.2 su(n). 9. makes our life simpler. U †U ⇒ (I − iθa X a + . the generators X a and the group elements g of a Lie group G are related by g = e−iθ aXa ..83). is that for small θa this just corresponds to looking at group elements near the identity. it turns out. (9. (3.) ⇒ θa [T a + (T a )T ] ⇒ Ta = = = = I I 0 −(T a )T (9. we also need to impose unit determinant det(I − iθa X a ) = 1 ⇒ 1 − iθa T r(X a ) = 1 ⇒ T r(X a ) = 0 40 (9. g = e−iθ aXa I − iθa X a + . the parameters θa are what give us our different group elements. recall from the question sheet that O(n) is just the set of matrices associated with rotations (actually also reflections). we see this as follows OT O ⇒ (I − iθa T a + .267) So.269) (9.85).265) (9.268) (9.264) (9.262) (9. which we note are indeed skew-symmetric.. rather than the group elements. However. the Lie algebra of SU(n) Again.it would just hve made the calculations harder and less intuitive.263) Now. The generators X a form what is called a Lie algebra..5.5 generators and Lie algebras We have already introduced the notion of generators when we were thinking about how to rotate a fermion field.1 o(n). Simply stated.)† (I − iθa X a + .260) (9.. we could have in fact chosen any set of linearly independent skew-symmetric matrices ..)T (I − iθa T a + . The reason that the generators are studied.261) (9..

6 non-Abelian gauge theory This is what the standard model is all about. given the definition of U(n).277) 41 . it’s just that Pauli matrices make life easier. We can see this because if φ = U φ then φ †φ ∂µ φ † ∂ µ φ = (U φ)† (U φ) = φ† U † U φ = φ† φ.271) (9. consider the theory described by the Lagrangian L = −∂µ φ† ∂ µ φ − m2 φ† φ where φ is not just a complex scalar.   . To do that we again introduce a covariant derivative Dµ φ = ∂µ φ − iqAµ φ and require (Dµ φ) = U (x)Dµ φ (9. However.e. and fortunately it’s not much different. it is a constant matrix. any set of traceless and Hermitian matrices would do. And they do indeed generate SU(2). and not just global. we already know of a set of matrices that are Hermitian and traceless . conceptually.274) Now we make the same grand statements as we did for U(1) electromagnetism.273) (9. i. To see how it works. for U ∈SU(n).so. and say that we want this SU(n) symmetry to be local.272) Now. again. The only difference is that now the vector potential Aµ is actually a matrix.  . and where the matrix U does not depend on spacetime. from electromagnetism .the Pauli matrices. φn (9. = ∂µ (U φ)† ∂ µ (U φ) = ∂µ φ† U † U ∂ µ φ = ∂µ φ† ∂ µ φ (9. but is a complex vector of scalars   φ1  φ2    φ =  .275) when we promote the constant U matrix to a spacetime dependent matrix U (x). With the introduction of the gauge-covariant derivative Dµ we may easily construct a gauge invariant Lagrangian L = −(Dµ φ)† (Dµ φ) − m2 φ† φ (9. as well as being Hermitian.the maths is a little bit trickier though. it is clear that this Lagrangian is invariant under φ → U φ. the generators of SU(n) are traceless. 9. for example Aµ Aν = Aν Aµ and U Aµ = Aµ U . Now.276) (9. so we have to be a bit careful about how we manipulate expressions involving it.

perm (10.281) (9. Another important representation of this algebra comes from the differential operators ˆ Lz = −ix∂y + iy∂x . which we do with the following calculation (Dµ φ) ⇒ ∂µ φ − iqAµ φ ⇒ ∂µ (U (x)φ) − iqAµ U (x)φ ⇒ ∂µ U (x)φ + U (x)∂µ φ − iqAµ U (x)φ U (x)Dµ φ U (x)(∂µ φ − iqAµ φ) U (x)∂µ φ − iqU (x)Aµ φ U (x)∂µ φ − iqU (x)Aµ φ i ⇒ Aµ U (x) = U (x)Aµ − ∂µ U (x) q i ⇒ Aµ = U (x)Aµ U † (x) − [∂µ U (x)]U † (x) q = = = = (9. +cyc. 4. we have made no statement about what the j a are. Even if the j a are matrices. We should compare this to the U(1) case (4.278) (9. +cyc. but they need not be matrices. there are an infinite number of different matrix representations.282) (9. perm (10. perm (10. 10 Lecture ten . nor what there composition law is.129) to see that it does at least reduce to electromagnetism in the Abelian case. 42 +cyc.286) . We have seen examples where the j a are matrices. because these are just the orbital angular momentum operators.83. T 2 ] = iT 3 . At this point however.1 SU(2) Because SU(2) is such an important group we shall spend a lecture going into some more of its properties. and the composition is matrix multiplication.85) satisfy [T 1 . This should not come as a surprise. j 2 ] = ij 3 . the three-vector rotation generators (3.this is the definition of the algebra of the generators of SU(2).128. By now we have seen the algebra [j 1 .283) which joins φ = U φ to give us the full set of non-Abelian gauge trnsformations.3.279) (9.some representation theory Aim: To reintroduce the idea of SU(2) representations Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • be aware that there are many different guises for the same symmetry group • know how to use ladder operators to construct the states transforming in a given representation of SU(2) 10.285) which also satisfy this algebra.284) many times .280) (9.The next step is to determine how Aµ changes under the gauge transformation.

we need a way of unifying the calcuation. 1/2. j 3 } (10. we can continue.291) (10. σ 2 /2] = iσ 3 /2. and the eigenstate will be denoted |β. We define j 3 to have eigenvalue m. We have just seen that in the three cases we have looked at. For example. and it’s conventional to choose j 3 as the second commuting operator. (j 1 )2 + (j 2 )2 + (j 3 )2 is proportional to the identity. As is well known. as these two matrix representations consist of 2x2 and 3x3 matrices.295) We are not saying that these commute with everything. In fact. only that everything in the set {j 2 . we could not add j 1 to the set. for example from quantum mechanics.288)  0 1 3/2  √0 3/2 0 0 0 √   0 i 3/2 0 0 √  −i 3/2  0 i 2  √0  R =  (10. The way to acheive this is to find a set of commuting operators. we are free to assign simultaneous eigenvalues to operators that commute. m = m|β.293) (10. m = β|β. j 3 } commutes. one can show using the defining algebra that [(j 1 )2 + (j 2 )2 + (j 3 )2 . 3/2) For later convenience we note that (σ 1 /2)2 + (σ 2 /2)2 + (σ 3 /2)2 = (T 1 /2)2 + (T 2 /2)2 + (T 3 /2)2 (R1 /2)2 + (R2 /2)2 + (R3 /2)2 1 1 +1 I 2 2 = 1 (1 + 1) I 3 3 +1 I = 2 2 (10. m j 2 |β. perm (10.287) And.290) This is all very interesting. and form distinct representations.292) (10. j a ] = 0. −1/2.297) . +cyc. The next one is a matter of choice.296) (10. giving us our commuting set of {j 2 = (j 1 )2 + (j 2 )2 + (j 3 )2 . they are not trivially related.and the Pauli matrices satisfy [σ 1 /2.294) This gives us our first commuting operator. and j 2 to have eigenvalue β. as it does not commute with j 3 . but it would not be very convenient if we had to go through all of this for each representation. m . and so commutes with all the j a .289) 0 −i 0 i 3/2  √ 0 0 −i 3/2 0 R3 = diag(−3/2. j 3 |β. (10. m 43 (10. and use their eigenvalues to classify the representations. and find a 4x4 representation √   3/2 0 0 √0  3/2  0 1 √0  R1 =  (10. In fact. and that is what we shall now do.

a little algebra shows that j 2 = j − j + + j 3 (j 3 + 1) so we find j 2 |β. j but j 2 |β.e. m has a j 3 eigenvalue of m ± 1. We see this by noting that j 2 = j + j − + j 3 (j 3 − 1).311) (10. m (m ± 1)[j ± |β. j = [j + j − + j(j + 1)]|β. rather than working with j 1 and j 2 directly.300) (10.303) Let’s explain what has just happened. and j − lowers the eigenvalue by one. m > m2 which tells us that there is a maximum. −j 2 = [j + j − + j 3 (j 3 − 1)]|β.306) = β. j = 0. we introduce the raising and lowering operators j ± defined by j ± := j 1 ± ij 2 and note that the algebra gives us 2 (10. j + raises the eigenvalue by one.310) = [j − j + + j 3 (j 3 + 1)]|β.302) (10. m ] = = = = [j ± j 3 + (j 3 j ± − j ± j 3 )]|β. i. j (10. j = β|β. usually denoted j. (10. once one has been given Now.305) (10.312) this technique has already been seen in the quantum mechanics of a harmonic oscillator.308) (10. m|j 2 |β. Now.309) (10. then we showed that the state j ± |β.299) (10. how should we go about constructing all the eigenstates? First of all we notice that if we choose the normalization β. m that has a j 3 eigenvalue of m. we will find j + |β. m (10. j ± ] = ±j ± The reason for calling these raising/lowering operators is that j 3 [j ± |β.298) [j 3 . at some value of m. because there are no more states with a higher eigenvalue than j by assumption. −j is the smallest eigenvalue. eg lec 20 of quantum World 44 . and minimum.307) Just as j is the largest possible eigenvalue for j 3 (by assumption).301) (10. so j 2 |β.Now. j so β = j(j + 1). m j ± [j 3 ± 1]|β. We start with a state |β. So. value for m. m|β. j = j(j + 1)|β. j (10. m|(j 1 )2 + (j 2 )2 + (j 3 )2 |β.304) (10. m = 1 then β = β. m [j ± j 3 ± j ± ]|β. suppose we are given a value of β. m ] (10. What this means is that we now have a way of constructing all the eigenstates.

Again. and a particular state within that representation is specified by its j 3 eigenvalue. m ⇒ 1 = |N |2 j. m ⇒ 1 = |N |2 [j(j + 1) − m(m + 1)] j. a total 2j + 1 states. m + 1|j. m ± 1 It is convenient to choose a normalization such that j.315) (10.320) = 1 (10.j − 1. 2 .293) 2 2 • j = 2 rep: this has m = −2. As there is an integer number of states then 2j + 1 is an integer.2 normalizing the states Although we have seen that j ± takes us from |j. or half-integer. 1.319) (10. then j must be either an integer. • in fact. i. m + 1 = N j + |j.316) (10. 2 . −j + 1.313) To sum up. • j= 3 2 1 3 rep: the possible states are m = − 3 . an example being the two spin-states 2 of an electron. j so j − |β. which matches 2 2 the Pauli matrices (10.. for orbital angular momentum we just make the identification j → l. m to |j. note that (10. with an example being the l = 1 p-state of the hydrogen atom. Here are some examples • j = 0 rep: The only possible value for m is zero. We also note that this rep’ has j 2 = j(j + 1) = 1 ( 1 + 1). and so is a j = 1 rep’. −1. 1 • j = 1 rep: The possible states for this are m = ± 2 . An example of this is the s-state of the hydrogen atom. − 1 . m ∝ |j.. −j = j(j + 1)|β. m|j 2 − j 3 (j 3 + 1)|j. a given representation is specified by its j 2 eigenvalue. m ⇒ 1 = |N |2 [j(j + 1) − m(m + 1)] 45 (10. all we can actually say is that j ± |j. From our eigenvalue calculation. m ± 1 . Now. an example being the Ra rep (10. m|j − j + |j. what are the possible values for m? We know that there are an integer number of states. we do this by |j.314) .292) has j 2 = j(j + 1) = 1(1 + 1). −j = 0. m|j.e.317) (10. corresponding to l = 0 angular momentum. j. with j 3 eigenvalues ranging from −j. 1. m for all m and j. m + 1 = |N |2 j. and note that l must be integer 10.but j 2 |β. m|j. 2. As a matter of notation. it is more standard to denote states by |j. m . 0. (10. So. we have to be careful of normalization. 0. m (j ± )† = f ⇒ j.318) (10.291) • j = 1 rep: The possible states for this are m = −1. and an example is the l = 2 d-state of the hydrogen atom. .

m = j(j + 1) − m(m − 1)|j.  .325) .. m + 1 (10.321) ˜ if we perform a similar calculation starting with |j. .    0 −d−l+1  d−l+1 0   l   l−1     l−2   D3 =  (10. m − 1 (10. and we pick it to be zero. but most probably not.     −l + 1 −l where dk = l(l + 1) − k(k − 1) (10.  2 . m = j(j + 1) − m(m + 1)|j.  2 .   .323) .isospin Aim: To introduce the concept of isospin Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how isospin relates to neutrons and protons • be able to use isospin considerations in basic scattering calculations 46 .3 general SU(2) represenation it may interest you. so we end up with j + |j. ..326) 11 Lecture eleven . m − 1 = N j − |j.    0 d−l+1  d−l+1 0   0 −dl 0  dl 0 −dl−1     0 i  0 dl−1   D2 = (10. m we find j − |j. to have a general expression for SU(2) generators of all dimensions   0 dl 0   dl 0 dl−1    0 dl−1 0  1  D1 = (10.324)  .we are at liberty to choose the phase of N .322) 10..

we note that the mass of a proton. with the proton being the 2 1 m = + 2 state of isospin and the neutron being the m = − 1 isospin state. and we call that SU(2) isospin. Heisenberg suggested that this points to the idea that neutrons and protons are. So. as the spin 1/2 property of an electron is going to become an isospin 1/2 property of the neutron/proton.332) 47 .333) m → I 3. from 6 the perspective of nuclear dynamics. that analogy is rather apt. .330) = a|p + b|n (11.11. we introduce the nucleon |N = a b (11. The point about doing all this is to show that. The proton and neutron form a doublet.331) = −b |p + a |n (11. e. and also 11 B 6 7 3 4 5 and 11 C.329) = 1 0 . 13 C and 13 N are mirror. once again. n(940MeV). the same particle. p(938MeV).327) with |a|2 + |b|2 = 1 to get the normalization. i. it is also convential to use the notation j → I. or rather different states of the same particle. − .328) where we see that U is in fact an SU(2) matrix. a j = 1 rep. (11. of SU(2). We also note that the excitation energy levels of mirror nuclei (where p and n are swapped) are very similar. This is not such a wild idea.g. along with our standard notation for states 1 1 |p = | . and neutron. and identify |p So that |N along with the orthogonal state |N⊥ which we can combine into |N |N⊥ = a −b b a |p |n =U |p |n (11. as are 7 Li and 7 Be. protons and isospin At a very basic level. And that is it. 2 2 (11.1 neutrons.e. |n = 0 1 (11. 2 2 1 1 |n = | . SU(2) is at the heart of things. 2 Because we have given this SU(2) a special name. are very close. In fact. we do not think of the spin up and spin down states of an electron as separate particles.

342) (11. and 1 √ (|p |n − |n |p ). it tells us about the isospin composition of the elements within a multiplet. corresponding to I 3 = −1.334) to form the I = 1 triplet of pions. 0. so we shall take a close look at how. 1. what we have shown is that 2⊗2 = 1⊕3 (11.337) (11. −1 states of the I = 1 isospin representation. the direct product of two doublets gives us an SU(2) triplet and an SU(2) singet. I=1 (11. From the point of view of group theory. |p |n . what do the I = 1 states correspond to? Well. This concept will be of great value when we come to quarks. It may not be obvious why we should look at the symmetric and anti-symmetric decompositions. from our 2 analysis of SU(2) in general. for example (I 3 ⊗ I + I ⊗ I 3 )|p |p = (I 3 ⊗ I)|p |p + (I ⊗ I 3 )|p |p = (I 3 |p ) ⊗ (I|p ) + (I|p ) ⊗ (I 3 |p ) 1 1 = ( |p ) ⊗ (|p ) + (|p ) ⊗ ( |p ) 2 2 1 = (|p |p + |p |p ) 2 = 1 |p |p 48 (11.2 pions and isospin So now we know what the I = 1 states of isospin are. from the isospin perspective. we know that there are an infinitude of SU(2) representations. and these may be arranged into the symmetric states |p |p .338) where the product of generators acts in the natural way. Fortunately such a set of particles exists.343) . how do they make an appearnce here? For example. 0. |n |n . 2 I=0 (11. π + (140MeV).341) (11. the pions. 2 |n |n . but it is easily checked that they are the correct ones by using the generators on the product space 3 Iprod = I 3 ⊗ I + I ⊗ I 3 ± Iprod = I ± ⊗ I + I ⊗ I ± (11.340) (11. the first thing we know is that there should be three particles in this multiplet.e.339) (11.336) i. π − (140MeV). 1 √ (|p |n + |n |p ). Given the two states |p and |n there are four independent combinations of their product that we may construct: |p |p . what happens next? Well. and we identify these with the I 3 = 1. π 0 (135MeV).as they are all related by an SU(2) transformation.335) to form the I = 0 singlet. and that they should all have roughly the same mass . the pion triplet is constructed from the nucleon doublet. |n |p .11. The isospin system does more for us than just classify particles.

| . 0 |1.352) (11. | . If isopspin really is a useful quantum number.354) .355) pn → dπ 0 (11. 0 49 = |1.e.347) so. pp → |p |p pn → |p |n dπ + → |d |π + dπ 0 → |d |π 0 1 1 1 1 =| . the singlet. equivalently |p |p |p |n |n |p |n |n = |π + 1 = √ |π 0 + |d 2 1 = √ |π 0 − |d 2 − = |π (11. which is what we claimed.3 using isospin in scattering calculations This is all very nice. 1 |π 0 = |1.350) (11. but we get an extra state. 0 |1.358) (11. 0 |π − = |1.− | .− − | . For example. 0 1 = √ 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | . −1 1 1 1 1 = | . |d = |0. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 = √ (|p |n − |n |p ) (11. so we can use this to rule out.346) (11. we have the nice results that the pions are constructed out of nucleons.349) Or. pn. All of this may be stated as follows for the pion triplet |π + = |1.351) (11.− | .345) 2 (11. 2 = |1. then it should be conserved. 0 + |0. 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 = | .− + | . | . 0 ) . 0 (11. 1 = |1. 1 = √ (|1. dπ 0 .− 2 2 2 2 = |0. − | . coming from the anti-symmetric product of nucleon states.344) 1 = √ (|p |n + |n |p )(11. 1 . the state |p |p has eigenvalue I 3 = 1.356) (11. |d . as it tells us something about the scattering of particles. − = |n |n 2 2 2 2 (11. but it is actually also quite useful. 1 = |0. or constrain certain scattering rates.348) 2 (11.i. This is associated with the deuteron.357) (11. dπ + . = |p |p 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = √ | .359) (11. | . | .353) 11. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 = | . The amplitude of a scattering event is given by ˆ amplitude(initial → f inal) = f inal|Hint |initial so we need the bras and kets associated with pp. let’s consider the two scattering processes pp → dπ + .

but recall that (10. given that isospin is conserved. or else the amplitude will vanish.366) 12 Lecture twelve . 1|Hint |1. 0| + 0. 0|Hint |1. because the pn state contains a bit of |1. (11.Now. 1 I −I + 1 = √ I + |1. have pn → dπ 0 .363) 1 = √ 2 1 = √ ˆ 2 1. it commutes with the Hamiltonian. for example.1 more multiplets 3 2 The success of isospin continued with the identification of the I = of particles ∆++ (1230M eV ). 1 ˆ ˆ 0.361) (11. that we cannot have pp → dπ 0 . giving σ(pn → dπ 0 ) 1 = . meaning that the initial and final states must have the same isospin eigenvalues.321) |1. . 0|Hint |1.362) (11. however. 1|Hint |1. we can make a prediction for the ratio of cross sections as follows amp(pn → dπ 0 ) = amp(pp → dπ + ) 1 √ 2 ˆ ( 1. 0 2 2 = I − I 3 (I 3 + 1). 0|Hint |1. ∆0 (1232M eV ).365) Now that we have the ratio of the amplitudes. We can. and their quark content • be able to state the Gell-Mann Nishijima formula 12. +) σ(pp → dπ 2 which matches observations. 1 1 = √ 2 the last step may not be obvious. 0 (11. we find the ratio of cross sections by squaring. 0|) Hint |1. 50 quadruplet as the ∆-series (12. 0 . (11. 0 1. 1|Hint |1. because the pp state and the dπ 0 state have different isospin eigenvalues. In fact. ∆+ (1231M eV ). 1 ˆ 1. It is then immediately clear. 0 ˆ 1. 1 1. 0 + ˆ ˆ 1.364) (11.360) (11.the quark model Aim: To introduce where quarks came from Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how to construct the baryon octet and decuplet • know the particles in the baryon octet and decuplet.367) ∆− (1232M eV ). 1|Hint |1.

368) to the Gell-Mann Nishijima formula 1 Q = I 3 + (B + S). B = 0. This was all very nice. Q = −1.371) Along with the spin. That is fine. the K 0 .1 baryons fitted neatly into the following octet 2 S=0 S = −1 Σ+ (1189M eV ) p(938M eV ) Σ0 (1192M eV ) Λ(1116M eV ) Ξ0 (1315M eV ) ↑ I 3 = 1/2 Ξ− (940M eV ) ↑ I 3 = −1/2 n(940M eV ) Σ− (1197M eV ) S = −2 ↑ I3 = 1 ↑ I3 = 0 ↑ I 3 = −3/2 This new quantum number extended (12. The troublesome particle was one called te lambda. and assigned S(K + ) = 1. π − has I 3 = −1. Nevertheless. but it decayed via Λ → π−p (12. until more particles came along. it did not decay by it. e. strangeness.and it was noted that the known multiplets (nucleons.1 it was also discovered that the lowest-mass spin. preserved by the strong interaction. 2 (12. This meant that along with the Λ we also had another particle. So. deltas) safisfied 1 Q = I 3 + B.3 baryons fit nicely into 2 2 51 . and B the baryon number. although it was produced by the strong interaction. because the decay time was ∼ 10−10 s. 2 (12. so was an isospin singlet with I = 0. S(Σ− ) = −1. Actually it was not not a total disaster.369) and the state on the right hand side has non-vanishing isospin (lec 11 questions).370)  0 ΛK Gell-Mann and Nishijima independently suggested that the new data could be explained by introducing a new quantum number. pions. as it could be produced by the strong interaction in π − p collisions it would have to be produced in pairs.368) where Q is the electric charge. In fact there were a host of pair-produced particles  − +  Σ K Σ0 K 0 π − p+ → (12.g. Λ. which appeared without any charged partners. so that the collision could conserve isospin. It was discovered that the lowest mass spin. compared with the expected timescale for strong interactions of 10−23 s.

with an SU(2) symmetry relating them. q(ds − sd) where q is one of u. The multiplets form out of particular combinations of states that have symmetry under the interchange of pairs • totally anti-symmetric. Baryons were then formed of three such quarks. ddd.. • anti-symmetric on the second pair. and the triangular pattern of the spin. for example Qu 5 of lecture 11. sss. s. 52 .2 baryons.373) (12. so |u . standing 2 for up.uud. s.1 baryons. and there are 27 possibilities: uuu. calling them aces instead. uud + udu + duu. c. ssu + sus + uss. (ds − sd)q where q is one of u. The observation is that triangles are 1 the base shape of both the hexagonal pattern for spin. but with an SU(3) symmetry relating them. ψf lavour (8)12 : (ud − du)q. He gave them the labels u. d. the Ω− was actually a prediction. We are then led to ask what we can form out of three quarks. • totally symmetric. ψf lavour (1): uds + dsu + sud − usd − sdu − dus • anti-symmetric on the first pair. ψf lavour (10): uuu. rather than just list them in the basic form we should think bck to how our SU(2) isospin multiplets worked. |d . ssd + sds + dss 3 (12.the following decuplet S=0 S = −1 S = −2 S = −3 ∆++ Σ∗+ Ξ 0 ∆+ Σ 0 ∆0 Σ Ξ − − ∆− Ω− ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ I 3 = 3/2 I 3 = 1 I 3 = 1/2 I 3 = 0 I 3 = −1/2 I 3 = −1 I 3 = −3/2 In fact.udu. (us − su)q. d. uus + usu + suu. called flavour..372) (12.374) Zweig had a similar idea. |s were considered the ”same”. down and strange. so he introduced three quarks3 . ψf lavour (8)23 : q(ud − du).. Gell-Mann has subsequently commented that the next step was obvious. (12. ddu + dud + udd. q(us − su). d. than a physical picture.375) dds + dsd + sdd. but they were right. Just as |n and |p were identified as the different states of the ”same particle”. However. but he believed it to be more a mathematical trick.

so we are left with requiring ψspin ψf lavour to be totally symmetric. we seem to have an embarrassment of riches. So. as there appears to be an extra octet and singlet that are not observed.376) and that is more like what we need. the same goes for the list of states that are anti-symmetric in the second pair. the 4 in 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2 = 4 ⊕ 2 ⊕ 2) and the baryon octet is spin. Moreover. ψspin ( )12 2 1 anti − symmetric on second pair.e. we find the final result 3 ⊗ 3 ⊗ 3 = 1 ⊕ 8 ⊕ 8 ⊕ 10 (12. However. or we can form the totally symmetric state 1 1 1 ψf lavour (8)12 ψspin ( )12 + ψf lavour (8)23 ψspin ( )23 + ψf lavour (8)31 ψspin ( )31 2 2 2 (12. the 2s in 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2 = 4 ⊕ 2 ⊕ 2). i.2 part of 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2.1 states gave 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2 = 4 ⊕ 2 ⊕ 2 2 totally anti − symmetric 1 anti − symmetric on f irst pair.1 (it is made 2 1 out of the spin. however.380) 53 . 29 instead of 27. ψspin ( ) 2 : none : (↑↓ − ↓↑) ↑. we have over-counted. ↓↑↑ + ↑↓↑ + ↑↑↓. and baryons are fermions so their overall wavefunction needs to be anti-symmetric. we are now at the stage where the quark model is given as in table 1 and the Gell-Mann Nishijima formula has extended to 1 Q = I 3 + (B + S + C + B + T ). To explain these we need to remember that 1 quarks are spin 2 particles.1 . So. as more particles were discovered due to higher energy colliders coming online.377) and we know that physical states are colourless so the colour wavefunction is the totally antisymmetric colour singlet. ↓↓↑ + ↓↑↓ + ↑↓↓. ψspin ( )23 2 3 totally symmetric. For lowest enery states we have no angular momentum (l = 0).378) as each of the components are totally symmetric. explaining the origin of the decuplet and the octet of baryons. 2 (12. (↑↓ − ↓↑) ↓ : ↑ (↑↓ − ↓↑).3 (it is made out of the spin. this explains why the baryon decuplet is spin.On the face of it.379) and that is all. the ”extra” singlet and octet are in fact not allowed because the quarks are spin. ↓↓↓ which means that we may form a totally symmetric ψspin ψf lavour out of 3 ψf lavour (10) × ψspin ( ) 2 (12.3 2 2 2 part of 2 ⊗ 2 ⊗ 2. ↓ (↑↓ − ↓↑) : ↑↑↑.e. We calculated in question 5 of lecture 11 that the product of three spin. Since the early days the quark model has been extended. A linear combination of the states in the list that are anti-symmetric in the first pair is also toally anti-symmetric. The total wavefunction consists of Ψtotal = ψspace ψspin ψcolour ψf lavour (12. but that one has already been counted. i. this gives us too many states. which is symmetric.

and it acts on particle states as C|p = |¯ p (13. anti-fermions and fermion-antifermion pairs • be able to argue that electric dipole moments of particles would violate parity 13. i.383) Table 1: Table showing quark charges 54 .200 4. For example. but then we also need to think about discrete symmetries.000 (13.200 174. the eigenvalue equation C|p = λ|p implies that |¯ = λ|p . We can find the eigenvalues of C by noting that C2 = 1 p CC|p = C|¯ = |p p (13. such as photons and gluons.1 Charge conjugation We have seen that the standard model relies on continuous Lie symmetries to give us vector bosons.e.382) so C has eigenvalues ±1.13 Lecture thirteen . does the Universe care about a distinction between left and right .charge conjugation and parity Aim: To introduce discrete symmetries Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how to find the parity of photons and mesons • know the parity of fermions. C. We also see that only particle that are there own anti-particles can be C eigenstates.can we flip the Universe in a mirror.381) where |¯ is the anti-particle of |p . p quark Q B I I3 S C d -1/3 1/3 1/2 -1/2 0 0 u 2/3 1/3 1/2 1/2 0 0 s -1/3 1/3 0 0 -1 0 c 2/3 1/3 0 0 0 1 b -1/3 1/3 0 0 0 0 t 2/3 1/3 0 0 0 0 B’ 0 0 0 0 -1 0 T 0 0 0 0 0 1 mass (MeV) 5 2 100 1. and leave it looking the same? Can we swap all particles in the Universe with their anti-particles without anyone noticing? The second of these is known as charge conjugation.

e.386) the same C value.389) 55 . but non-zero angular momentum state.385) (13. so a final state of two photons has C = (−1)(−1) = 1. and the s = 0 meson has C = 1. it is clear that under charge conjugation the sign of the current will change C : j µ → −j µ so to maintain Maxwell’s equations we better have (13. We combine all the above results into the single relation that ¯ ¯ C|f f .2 fermion-antifermion pairs • Consider the decay of a lowest energy state scalar meson. 13. the same argument as above shows that it has C = (−1)l . i. actually two. and that electromagnetism preserves C. an s = 1 meson decays to an s = 0 meson plus a photon. As the photon has C = −1.384) Showing that the photon has negative intrinsic parity. decaying to an l − 1 angular state via the emmision of a photon.e. of Maxwell’s equations are ∂µ F µν = −µ0 j ν Now. This has important consequences for particle decays.1 photons Recal that the photon is just the quantum version of electromagnetism. for example the scalar meson π 0 in the l = 0 state has C = 1 so π 0 → γγ π 0 → γγγ is allowed is not allowed (13.387) ¡ C : Aµ → −Aµ (13. s (13. into two photons As electromagnetism preserves C.13. and we know that the photon has C = −1.1. s = (−1)l+s |f f . i. l. l. then the s = 1 meson must have C = (1)(−1) = −1 = (−1)s • Now suppose we have a meson in a zero spin. then the initial and final states must have • Now suppose we consider the spin-flip of a meson. and that one. l = s = 0.1. l. meaning that the l = s = 0 meson has C = 1.388) (13. and explains why certain decays do not occurr.

For example. so this weak sector decay (13.1 electromagnetism Electromagnetism is invariant under parity. Electric charge is an example of a scalar as ρ → ρ. with the weak nuclear force breaking charge conjugation symmetry.395) 56 .2.2 parity The question of whether the Universe looks the same in a mirror is answered by considering parity symmetry.3 C violation Unfortunately. If we now perform charge conjugation on both sides we get π − → µ− νµ(L) (L) ¯ (13.390) violates C. From Maxwell’s equation · E = ρ/ 0 (13.one that changes sign along with the co-ordinates. A → −A.393) we see that invariance of this equation under P : ρ → ρ. b and c. scalars also split up into scalars and pseudo scalars. This behaviour is not limited to vectors. 13.392) →− requires (13. however. until you realize that experimentally all the muons from π − decay actually come out right-handed.13. where we take the co-ordinates x → −x. the charge conjugation symmetry is not a symmetry of the full standard model. or fortunately depending on your point of view. However. and so is an example of a polar vector . because L = r × p. for example the momentum p → −p. a · (b × c). this is an example of a pseudo vector. whereas the volume of a parallelipiped defined by vectors a. is a pseudo scalar. P : P : E → −E. When we do this we need to know how physical quantities change.391) which looks fine.390) with the muons always coming out left-handed.1.394) (13. and this can be seen by assigning the photon negative intrinsic parity as follows. the following decay is observed π + → µ+ νµ(L) (L) (13. changes according to L → L. 13. C is only a symmetry of the strong sector and the electromagnetic sector. E = − φ− showing that P : φ → φ. Angular momentum. ∂ A ∂t (13. changing sign under parity.

Now recall that the four-vector potential Aµ = (φ.2 fermions × A.404) (13. A) and we see that P : Aµ → −Aµ so we associate a photon state with negative intrinsic parity P |γ = −|γ (13. There are two choices L1int ∼ π 0 E · B L2int ∼ π 0 (E · E + BB) 57 (13. then the overall parity is negative. φ → φ + π. this leaves a negative parity state. Y11 ∼ sin θeiφ → sin θ(−eiφ ). If a meson has negative intrinsic parity.397) (13. But now we seem to have a puzzle. appears to have positive parity. if the two photons are in an l = 1 state.402) (13. For example.398) Fermions are a little trickier to figure out. The point is that the parity must take into account the wave function.399) so fermion and anti-fermion have opposite parity. the s-state (vanishing angular momentum) of the scalar meson π 0 has negative intrinsic parity. and that such a term must be a scalar.405) . ¯ ¯ P |f = −|f (13. so is actually a pseudo scalar meson.396) Now that we know how the vector-potential behaves we can see that the magnetic field is a pseudo vector. then why is the following allowed π 0 → γγ (13. φ). but the result of quantum field theory is that fermions and anti-fermions satisfy P |f = |f .403) ≡ θ → π − θ. write a wavefunction in terms of spherical harmonics ψ(x) = φ(r)Ylm (θ.400) as the final state. So. (13. as B = 13. Another way to think about it is to ask how the pions couple to the electromagnetic field. In particular.401) For example.2. and two photons. as well as the intrinsic parity. so if the wavefunction of the two-photon state has negative parity. φ) where parity corresponds to x → −x then P : Ylm (θ. We know from our Feynman diagram work that if we want a single pion to decay to two photons then the Lagrangian needs to have a term containing a single pion field. which consists of two photons. φ) → (−1)l Ylm (θ. (13. (13.

In the first choice.409) (13.407) Now we perform a parity transformation. which is how it was figured out experimentally. p] = P i P −1 x ˆ so for the commutation law to be preserved we must have P i = iP ⇒ P iP −1 = i (13.3 linearity of parity We now do something that may seem strange. There are now two possibilities. Although it will give us what we think of as an obvious result. we place such a particle in a state where the spin (and electric dipole moment) both point up. p] P −1 = i x ˆ [ˆ. let’s start with the canonical commutator [ˆ. remembering that operators transform as P xP −1 if ˆ states transform as P | . we said 58 .406) 13. The parity transformed state would have the spin pointing up (spin is a pseudo vector so doesn’t change) and electric dipole moment pointing down. so in fact the parity for a meson state is ¯ ¯ P |f f = (−1)l+1 |f f (13. such a particle is not in our theory. the E · B coupling actually tells us that the photons come out of the experiment with orthogonal polarizations.410) P pP −1 = −ˆ ˆ p (13. the electric dipole moment could either align or anti-align with the spin. but we need to take care later on when we consider time reversal. 13. All of this argument about including the spatial wavefunction into the parity assignment goes through for the fermion-antifermion pair. which has a non-zero spin. the square root of -1. had an electric dipole moment. as E is a vector and B is a pseudo vector. but the same holds for anti-aligned. The second choice leads to the pion being a scalar. In fact. As we usually think of i as a number this result is what we would normally write down without thinking. ˆ x to find P [ˆ. or rather how we could observe its violation. we must have the pion as a pseudo scalar for L1int to be a scalar. it is worth doing as we will see that things change when we look at time reversal.408) which is just the statement that the parity transformation acts linearly. So. now perform a parity transformation.4 electron dipole moment (edm) We now think of ways that parity could be violated. p] = i x ˆ (13. so that’s good. we shall go through the argument for the aligned case. So. which is to calculate the parity of i. P xP −1 = −ˆ. which is not what is observed. Suppose that a fundamental particle.411) (13. this would violate parity symmetry. However.

then 10−13 e learth is 0.e. think about the correlation between the direction of nuclear spin. then the decays would have to violate parity .9 × 10−26 e cm dneutron < 1. imagine the neutron is the size of the Earth.parity violation and time reversal Aim: To introduce discrete symmetries. these were called the θ and τ θ+ → π + π 0 π+π0π0 τ+ → π−π+π− (14. implying the τ + parity is negative. compares to the size of a neutron of around 10−13 cm. implying that θ+ has positive parity.nobody wanted that. Corr = 59 .414) (14.m. but if not. corresponding to displacing an electron by 0. had two different decay channels. a result which means that parity is not a symmetry in these decays.412) (13.the particle had aligned spin and electric diole moment. implies the violation of parity. To understand that. The experiment revealed that most of the electrons were emitted in a direction opposite to the spin vector of the nucleus. in contradistinction to data for the strong nuclear force and the electromagnetic force. So. i. the edm of a neutrons and electrons are bounded by dneutron < 2. which were otherwise identical. In 1956 Lee and Yang noted that there was an absence of data showing that parity ws conserved in the weak interaction. dneutron < 2.9×10−13 e lneutron .6 × 10−27 e cm (13. and the momentum of the electrons.415) If these were indeed distinct particles then this would be fine. So. which point in the same direction as their spin. As pions have negative intrinsic parity then the parity of the θ+ final-state is positive.413) which.d. the presence of an e. and their breaking Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know how parity was found not to be a symmetry • know what time reversal symmetry is 14. In the same year Wu performed an experiment looking at the following decay of cobalt to nickel 60 Co → 60 N i e− νe ¯ (14. For example.01mm in the centre of the Earth! 14 Lecture fourteen . there’s a problem with parity conservation.1 parity violation In experiments that observed the decays of cosmic rays it was noted that two particles. but the parity of the τ + final-state is negative. For these to be the same particle (now caled K+ ).416) Wu and collaborators aligned the spins of the cobalt nuclei by utilising their magnetic moment.01e mm. to put into perspective.

and are also moving upwards. Then Wigner showed that if the inner product is preserved | φ|ψ |2 = | φ |ψ |2 we must have either |ψ = U |ψ . Another way to see this is to imagine aligning the nuclear spins pointing up. If we perform a parity transformation the spin still points up. If we think about Newton’s laws there is no problem in taking t → −t. for all states.424) note that a lot of texts get this the wrong way around. however. So. = α A|ψ + β A|φ .420) (14. as this is the parity reversed version of the R observed decay. and momentum a polar vector.418) but not its parity-reversed partner.L L (14. the actual experiment and its parity-reversed version are different. rather then an asymmetry of the fundamental interactions. π + → µ+ νµ.s · p . shattered glass never recombines to become whole again. this is really just because of entropy. If parity were a good symmetry of this decay then we would expect π + → µ+ νµ. using arguments like the spin changes direction in a mirror . Now we want to ask whether quantum mechanics has anything to say about it. 60 . and all anti-neutrinos are righthanded . Another place that parity is seen to be broken by the weak sector is in the decay of pions to muons. The terms unitary and so on are defined by U [α|ψ + β|φ ] A[α|ψ + β|φ ] U ψ|U φ Aψ|Aφ 4 = αU |ψ + βU |φ .423) (14. but now the electrons have reversed their momentum. we observe π − → µ− νµ. = ψ|φ . and A is anti-linear and anti-unitary. so explicitly violating parity4 . If parity is a symmetry then Corr should have the same value before and after a parity transformation.be careful. The underlying reason for this is that all neutrinos are left-handed. or |ψ = A|ψ (14.that’s about as parity violating as you can get! 14. linear anti − linear unitary anti − unitary (14.R R¯ (14.422) (14.R . Suppose that we have some map that takes un-primed states |ψ to primed states |ψ .419) where U is a unitary and linear operator. = φ|ψ = ψ|φ . Similarly. P : Corr → −Corr as s is a pseudo vector.421) (14. then the experiment says that the electrons are mostly emmitted downwards.417) where it is observed that the muon always comes out left-handed.2 time reversal symmetry Although it may appear that at first-sight that nature does not have a time-reversal symmetry.

425) so. the scatterings np → Dγ.427) (14. but the electric dipole moment does not so. i.431) should occur with the same rate if T is a symmetry. it also implies a violation if time-reversal invariance. the unusual thing about an anti-linear operator is that when you move it past a complex number.430) because t → −t and p → −p. consider for example te plane wave T : ψ = e−i(Et−px) → ei(Et−px) = ψ (14. 61 . i. So.e. ˆ ˆˆˆ T pT −1 = −ˆ p (14.CP symmetry Aim: To introduce a product discrete symmetries. and Dγ → np (14. ˆ ˆ T i = −iT (14. and its breaking Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • recognise how the electroweak sector (almost) preserves CP • know how C and P act on the neutral kaon system • be able to calculate the CP violation in te neutral kaon system.So. for example.426) (14.429) so the time reversal operator is anti-linear. p] = i x ˆ ˆ and now we perform a time-reversal transformation with operator T . p] = −T i T −1 x ˆ (14.428) So. just as a non-zero edm signals a breakdown of parity symmetry. time reversal changes only the momentum. p] T −1 = T i T −1 ˆ ˆ [ˆ. 15 Lecture fifteen . T may also be checked using a principle called detailed balance. whereas parity changes the sign of both x and p. This result also manifests itself in the behaviour of wavefunctions under time reversal. we see that effectively i → −i. ˆˆ ˆ T xT −1 = x. then we must have ˆ ˆ T iT −1 = −i. if we are to maintain a time reversal symmetry in quantum mechanics. you have to complex-conjugate it. they don’t commute with numbers! To see why this makes an appearance in quantum mechanics consider again the canonical commutator [ˆ. keep the commutation relations. meaning that ˆ x ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ T [ˆ. Under time reversal the spin changes sign.e.

and if we take that view. the strong force does ¯ not allow K 0 p → K + n. This is achieved through the following processes.434) ¡¡ u W P |K 0 ¯ P |K 0 C|K 0 ¯ C|K 0 = = = = 62 −|K 0 ¯ −|K 0 ¯ −|K 0 −|K 0 is allowed through the strong force as it conserves strangeness.3 kaons and C. In fact. so we have (15. K 0 .432) π − → µ− νµ.433) s s d d ¯ where we start with a K 0 (a d¯ bound state).436) (15.435) (15.R −→ L ¯ R ¯ And in fact the CP (or PC) transformed decay is observed. it is interesting because ¯ the the K 0 is able transform to its anti-particle. then maybe the Universe is mirror-symmetric afterall. the observed decay π + → µ+ νµ.438) . What this effectively means s ¯ is that from the perspective of the weak interaction the K 0 and K 0 are sort of the sme particle. it was argued by Landau that CP. as far as the strong force is concerned. rather than P.R −→ L R   C C P (15.L L becomes the following under C and P and the product CP π + → µ+ νµ. so maybe the weak sector preserves CP even though each discrete symmetry is broken. For example. they are definately different.437) (15. d s d s u W W . P and CP as kaons are mesons (quark-antiquark pairs) then they have negative intrinsic parity.L − − π + → µ+ νµ. as this would require a change in strangeness.1 CP symmetry We have seen that the weak sector violates both C and P individually. P 15.15. is the correct version of the discrete symmetry associated to mirror reflections (see the questions associated with this lecture). and evolve to a K 0 .L − − π − → µ− νµ. but there is still the possibility that together they are preserved.2 neutral kaons A good laboratory for studying CP symmetry is the neutral kaon system. 15. W u u (15. However. for example K 0p → K +n (15. however.

which by assumption means they will be CP eigenstates. it is easy to construct them. Although the kaons themselves are not CP eigenstates. So. Kaons decay mostly into pions.440) We now consider the view that the weak interaction preserves CP and see if that is consistent with experiment.439) (15.5 × 10−7 s) than into two pions (0.442) These are the quantum states that are relevant for the weak decay of kaons. So. and then they decay via the weak force. then all of the k1 will have decayed by the end of the beam-pipe.4 Klong and Kshort decays So. if we have a long enogh beam. we call the CP eigenstates |K1 and |K2 .445) (15. 15.443) (15. and CP conservation implies K1 → ππ K2 → πππ (15.the sign change in the charge-conjugation operation is just convention. so we write |KS |KL = = 1 1 + | |2 1 1+| |2 ¯ (|K1 − |K2 ) ¯ (|K2 + |K1 ) (15. direct evidence of CP violation in the weak sector. it does not make sense to analyse the system in terms of weak eigenstates. we should expect only πππ decays at the end of the beam . So.9 × 10−10 s).444) 1 ¯ = √ (|K 0 + |K 0 ) 2 1 ¯ = √ (|K 0 − |K 0 ) 2 (15. experiment showed that about 1 in 500 of the kaon decays at the end of the pipe was into two pions.447) (15. but rather we should use mass (or lifetime) eigenstates.448) 63 . Given that the K1 decays so much faster than K2 .if CP is conserved in the weak sector. |K1 |K2 so CP |K1 CP |K2 = |K1 = −|K2 (15. Given the smallness of CP violation however. assuming the weak force preserves CP. we note that kaons are not CP eigenstates CP |K 0 ¯ CP |K 0 ¯ = |K 0 = |K 0 (15. However. Cronin. Fitch and collaborators decided to set up a beam of kaons and watch what they decayed to. we know that the mass eigenstates are close to the CP eigenstates.446) as pions have negative intrinsic parity. the picture is that kaons are produced by the strong force (so are eigenstates of strangeness). now that we know CP is violated. In particular. This is useful because the decay into three particles is slower (0.441) (15.

456) |1 + |2 − |1 − |2 ∼ 2 Re( ) |1 + |2 + |1 − |2 (15. but not to π + e− νe .451) u d e νe (15. so Γ1 > Γ2 (15.452) u s d ¯ 0 can decay to π + e− νe .449) (15. allow us to distinguish between matter. via • Γ2 : K ¯ s d d What all this means is that the rate Γ1 is controlled by the amount of K 0 in KL .453) ¡ ¡ W W 64 . as we shall now see. and antimatter. and the rate ¯ Γ2 is controlled by the amount of K 0 in KL .454) 1 = √ 2 1 1 + | |2 ¯ (1 + )|K 0 − (1 − )|K 0 (15. • Γ1 : K 0 can decay to π − e+ νe . KL → π + e− νe . ¯ rate Γ1 rate Γ2 (15. for example the decays KL → π − e+ νe .450) are allowed and.455) Γ1 − Γ2 Γ1 + Γ2 (15. via ¯ e νe (15. but we know that |KL so if we define ∆ := to distinguish between the rates we find ∆ = experiments give ∼ 10−3 . but not to π − e+ νe .Now we look for decays of KL into final states that are CP-conjugates of each other.

15.5

matter vs anti-matter

We now have a way of distinguishing matter from anti-matter. This is really quite remarkable, it would seem entirely natural to assume that our Universe could have been made from anti-matter rather than matter, without making any difference, but this is not the case - an anti-matter Universe is different to a matter Universe. The way we can define anti-matter uniquely is to say that it is the stuff associated with the more common lighter charged product of KL decay, i.e. e+ . In fact, that there is an anti-symmetry between matter and anti-matter is a good thing for us, otherwise we would expect our Universe to be half matter and half anti-matter, in fact we observe a baryon to photon ratio of bb − n¯ b ∼ 6 × 10−10 nγ compared to around 10−40 that we would expect simply from statistical fluctuations. (15.457)

16

Lecture sixteen - quark mixing

Aim: To extend the idea of state mixing to quarks Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know about the three generations of the standard model • know how the Cabbibo mechanism allows for generation-changing processes • be able to estimate the ratio of rates for certain basic processes.

16.1

three generations

The lepton sector of the standard model neatly splits into three generations, νe e− , νµ µ− , ντ τ− .

and in terms of Feynman diagrams the basic interactions occur with strength gw νµ νe u gw W gw W gw .

e µ d In particular, there is no weak decay that allows an electron to turn into a W and a νµ , weak interactions do not mix the lepton generations. The next observation is that the quark sector also has three generations u d , c s 65 , t b . (16.460)

¡¡¡

(16.458)

W (16.459)

which makes us think there could be a correspondence, i.e. does the e− → W − νe , with strength gw , diagram imply a d → W − u diagram of strength gw ? Moreover, does the non-existence of weak-sector generation process imply the impossibility of d → W − c? It turns out that this intuition is close, but not quite right. For example, along with π − → W − → µ− νµ ¯ which just involves u, d quarks, we also find K − → W − → µ− νµ ¯ which shows that the W must couple to both u and s, as K − is a su meson. ¯ (16.462) (16.461)

16.2

quark mixing

We have already seen the importance of mixing quantum states in particle physics, this was how we explained the neutral kaon decays; here we just apply that notion to the quark sector. The point is that the weak and the strong forces are distinct, the interaction eigenstates of one need not correspond to the interaction eigenstates of the other. The correct quark weak-interaction eigenstates are actually a linear combination of the strong-interaction eigenstates, i.e. the weak nuclear force sees d , s , t rather than d, s and t. To keep things simpler, let’s just think about the first two generations, in which case one has

where θc is the Cabbibo angle, i.e. they are related by a unitary matrix. The correct Feynman diagrams are then c u gw W gw W (16.464)

d s We may now, for example, test this idea through measurements of rates such as Γ(K − → W − → µ− νµ ) ¯ − → W − → µ− ν ) Γ(π ¯µ

these rates involves the diagrams µ u W

νµ νµ d sin θc + s cos θc d cos θc − s sin θc The point being that the K − is a particle in an eigen state of the strong interaction, K − = ¯ u¯ = u(d sin θc + s cos θc ), and the pion is also a strong-force eigenstate, π − = d¯ = (d cos θc − s ¯ u s sin θc )¯. Now, in the first diagram there is an us W vertex, but there is no such coupling, so u 66

¡¡ ¡ ¡
d s = cos θc sin θc − sin θc cos θc d s u W

(16.463)

(16.465)

µ (16.466)

the first diagram contributes gw sin θc to the amplitude, as there is a ud W vertex in the standard model and it has strength gw . In the second diagram the uW s vertex gives no contribution, ¯ meaning that the whole diagram contributes gw cos θc to the amplitude. So,
2 Γ(K − → W − → µ− νµ ) ¯ (gw sin θc )2 = Γ(π − → W − → µ− νµ ) ¯ (gw cos θc )2 = tan2 θc

(16.467) (16.468)

and experiments show that

Another way of stating this is to say the weak coupling strengths for quarks are gud = gcs = gw cos θc gus = −gcd = gw sin θc (16.470) (16.471)

Now that we understand the coupling of quarks toνthe W boson, we use the weak interactions e e gz Z gz Z (16.472)

e to predict the strong interactions d gz

d i.e. an interaction Lagrangian of the form

and therefore Feynman diagrams of the form d gz

d There are no neutral weak interactions that change, for example, strangeness.

17

Lecture seventeen - neutrino oscillations

¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡
θc ∼ 13◦ νe u Z gz u Lint = ... + gz Z(uu + d d + cc + s s ) = ... + gz Z(uu + dd + cc + ss) Z 67

(16.469)

Z

(16.473)

(16.474) (16.475)

(16.476)

Aim: To extend the idea of state mixing to neutrinos Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • know about the solar neutrino problem • know about atmospheric neutrinos • be able to calculate neutrino oscillations due to their mass difference

17. L85 (2005). a more recent version of the predicted flux is given in Fig. The reason we do not feel some huge pressure due to this flux is that they don’t interact very strongly with 68 . 1. ApJ. is 8 (17. He and his team put in a herculean effort to measure the number of neutrinos coming from the nuclear fusion events in the Sun. with around 60 billion neutrinos going through your small fingernail each second! And yet we do not notice them. 621. al. goes back to 1968 with the Homestake experiment of Ray Davis. in order to conserve energy. lead to neutrinos.479) What we see from Fig. Our story here. There are a number of fusion processes in the Sun that Figure 1: The predicted flux of solar neutrinos.1 Solar neutrinos Continuing the theme of state mixing we now examine neutrinos. and there are still some rather basic properties of neutrinos that are not understood. 1 is some rather extreme numbers. from an experimental point of view. Bahcall et.478) B →8 Be∗ e+ νe (17. the largest one being the pp fusion pp → de+ νe ppe− → dνe another key one. Ever since their introduction by Pauli. however. in an effort to test the prediction of Bahcall and collaborators. neutrinos hve been rather mysterious.477) (17.

483) and the superK observatory in Japan. suggested that the neutrinos were all there.480) to detect them. and the liquids have changed. one of whom was Pontecorvo who.τ e− (17. They used 615 tons of chlorine (essentially just cleaning fuid).488) . electron and muon. waited for a few weeks.the physical neutrino states are really a superposition of electron.so a rather delicate experiment is need to measure them. This is an astonishing acheivement. ν1 ν2 then we know that ν1 (t) = ν1 (t = 0)e−iE1 t .it would be quite easy to miss a few atoms in 615 tons of cleaning fluid. and the Cabbibo model .µ. the Solar Neutrino Observatory at Sudbury.matter.2 neutrino oscillations For simplicity we shall shall only consider two neutrino flavours.µ.487) (17.485) We know that the solar neutrinos start life as electron neutrinos. using heavy water in its tank which is sensitive to all three neutrinos via νe d → ppe− νe.τ e− → νe. ν2 (t = 0) = sin θ 69 (17. so νe (t = 0) = 1. muon and tau neutrinos. There were. There are two key experiments that really made people believe that Davis was right.τ e− (17. nobody was particularly surprised . νµ (t = 0) = 0 ⇒ ν1 (t = 0) = cos θ.µ. then the state oscillates between them. and when they reported that this was a factor of three smaller than predicted. Although most of the solar neutrinos do go through the planet. ν2 (t) = ν2 (t = 0)e−iE2 t (17.µ. This is just the same basic physics as that behind the kaon decays.τ νe.µ.τ d → npνe.τ e− → νe. in 1968. if they have a different mass. as these are the objects whose evolution is simplest. some people who took the experiment seriously. as those are what the nuclear fusion events produce.486) = cos θ − sin θ sin θ cos θ νe νµ (17. however. And. we consider the Hamiltonian eigenstates ν1 and ν2 . They ended up with 33 argon atoms. some of them hit stuff. Since the homestake experiment the tanks have got bigger.484) 17. To a very good approximation they al go straight through the Earth without noticing it is there . and Davis’ team relied on the reaction νe 37 17 Cl → e− 37 18 Ar (17.482) (17.481) (17. with 50. and instead of writing the neutrinos as flavour eigenstates.000 tons of water which is also sensitive to all three neutrino flavours through elastic scattering νe. but the electron neutrinos had rotated to muon neutrinos. then measured how much of the chlorine had turned into argon.µ.

492) (17. the 2x2 matrix relating mass eigenstates to flavour eigenstates becomes a 3x3 unitary matrix. namely that because neutrinos are very light compared to their energy we have E2 − E1 = p2 + m2 − 2 p2 + m2 1 (17. 2 1 Thus we find that for oscillations to occur we need to properties • there must be mixing between the neutrino flavours. θ23 = 43. 12 23 5 (17. so P (νµ ) L = sin2 (2θ) sin2 2πE ∆m2 πx .497) actually there’s also a phase.4 ± 0. and is parametrized by three angles5     cos θ13 0 sin θ13 cos θ12 sin θ12 0 1 0 0 0 1 0   − sin θ12 cos θ12 0  UM N S =  0 cos θ23 sin θ23   0 − sin θ23 cos θ23 − sin θ13 0 sin θ13 0 0 1 The results of all the experiments to date reveal that θ12 = 34. This matrix is called the MNS (Maki. • the neutrinos must have different masses. but the maths gets more complicated.496) (17. 2L (17.491) (17. θ13 < 10◦ ∆m2 = (2. and t ∼ x.495) where we should be careful to note that ∆m2 = m2 − m2 .5) × 10−3 eV 2 ∆m2 = (8 ± 0.494) (17. as happens in the quark sector. in particular.e. i.489) (17.493) 1 1 |p|(1 + m2 /|p|2 ) − |p|(1 + m2 /|p|2 ) 2 2 2 1 2 2 m2 − m1 2|p| As the neutrinos are highly relavistic we have |p| ∼ E. not (m2 − m1 )2 . Sakata) matrix.5◦ ± 1. but I shall ignore it.1◦ ± 4◦ . Now we may make some approximations.490) so we see explicitly that the amount of muon neutrino oscillates with time. Nakagawa. 70 .so we find νµ (t) = sin θ cos θ −e−iE1 t + e−iE2 t (E2 − E1 )t ⇒ |νµ (t)|2 = sin2 (2θ) sin2 2 (17.5) × 10−5 eV 2 . ∆m2 = 0 For three neutrinos the basic physics is the same. θ = 0.4◦ .

Higgs mechanism and symmetry breaking Aim: To discovery a way of giving particles a mass Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • be able to show how symmetry-breaking gives a mass to gauge bosons. ¯ φ = φ . At high temperatures all these little dipoles point in random directions as the interaction energy between dipoles is overwhelmed by termal energy. 2. These pions then decay to muons and muon neutrinos. sourced by cosmic rays. the observation of solar neutrinos by superK shows that roughly equal number of νe and νµ are actually observed. and these muons then decay to electrons as well as muon and electron neutrino as shown in Fig. such as a bar magnet. One way to phrase this is to ask what is the average angle of the dipoles.17. In this situation it is energetically favourable for the little 71 . The first. This means no direction is picked out. and so we say that the system has a rotational symmetry . immediately obvious. 18 Lecture eighteen .1 symmetry restoration/breaking A nice intuitive way to think about symmetry breaking is to think back to ferromagnets. Now suppose we reduce the temperature.when averaged over a macroscopic volume. with roughly the correct amout of νe . and to fermions 18.3 atmospheric neutrinos As well as solar neutrinos there is another abundant source of freely-available neutrinos. however. 2 is that there are twice as many cosmic ray pions stuff µ− ν ν e µ e− νµ Figure 2: The typical shower of particles produced by a cosmic ray. which is a lump of material composed of many atoms. and then for this symmetric state we have φ = 0. such that the thermal energy is below the energy scale of the dipole-dipole interaction. producing a shower of (mostly) pions. each of which is a tiny magnetic dipole. muon neutrinos as electron neutrinos. Our knowledge of mixing then tells us that the muon neutrinos must be oscillating mostly into tau neutrinos. thing to note from Fig. These arise from cosmic rays striking a nucleus of some atom in the atmosphere.

In terms of the mean angle of the dipoles we thus have φ = 0 in the symmetry-broken phase. and other particles.2 superconductivity Another place where symmetry breaking plays an important role is in superconductors. 72 . just as photons ¯ get an effective mass inside a superconductor when φ = 0. If we think of these electrons as being in a lattice. which will eventually give us the standard model masses. but stick with me. due to lattice vibrations6 . 6 Superconductivity is not part of this course. This allows pairs of electrons to become associated.dipoles to point in the same direction and then. however. The physical reason for this is that photons aquire an effective mass inside the superconductor. forming a boson. with a non-zero value in the superconducting phase. as in Fig. This may not seem relevant to mass generation. they occupy different quantum states. is in fact a rather common effect. has something to do with mass. as they are fermions. φ = 0. so I will not go into detail about the pairing mechanism.the boson made by pairing two electrons together. It was known for some time that superconductors repel magnetic fields. 3. Figure 3: This shows a superconductor hovering above a magnet. then there can actually be an attractive force between electrons. but a rather more abstract quantity . ¯ Here is where the hint comes that symmetry breaking. we say the rotational symmetry is broken. We can loosely think of the order ¯ parameter in this case as φ = ee . which can then Bose-condense. they cannot penetrate a superconductor. In a metal one has lots of electrons floating around and. this is why superconductors can hover above magnet. it is not the rotation angle of a magnetic moment that’s important. a mass by exploiting a non-zero order parameter. The idea behind the Higgs mechanism is to give gauge bosons. and a zero value in the normal phase. and so it costs them energy to be inside. as a direction has been selected. I want to highlight the fact that symmetry breaking. 18. Here.

then this mass term is not invariant. φ → φ = e−iΛ φ 73 (18. in the form of covariant derivatives. whose mass similarly comes from the quadratic. − m2 Aµ Aµ 2 (18. non-derivative piece of the Lagrangian. if we can arrange for φφ = 0..505) (18. − (q 2 φφ )Aµ Aµ . we should make sure we understand what that symmetry is. q However. this leads to an effective mass for the photon of 1 2 m = q 2 φφ .e. non-derivative term of the Lagrangian. we have the Dirac field. Going back to the Klein-Gordon Lagrangian we see that the mass of the KG field comes from the quadratic.3 massive fields Before we give a mass to particles we should figure out what we mean by mass. non-derivative piece LKG.504) (18.502) (18. all we need to do is replace derivatives with their covariant counterparts.. 1 1 LKG = − ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φ2 2 2 For the complex KG field the mass also came form the quadratic. 2 γ (18. i..499) (18.4 breaking the symmetry Before we break the symmetry in the complex KG system.498) And. ¯ So.503) 18.cpx = −∂µ φ∂ µ φ − m2 φφ (18.cpx = . the theme is that mass is just the quadratic. nonderivative piece of the Dirac Lagrangian ¯ ¯ Lψ = −ψγ µ ∂µ ψ − mψψ (18.18. so the gauge invariant complex KG Lagrangian becomes LKG.501) in order to give the photon a mass. The problem with doing that is that this term breaks the gauge invariance that we worked so hard to acheive. we have sort of already solved this problem.. Recall that the construction of electromagnetism involved a U(1) symmetry.506) . if we take Aµ → Aµ − 1 ∂µ Λ.500) So. finally. At which point we just write down 1 LA = ... Easy. Recall from lecture 4 that to construct a gauge invariant action.cpx = −Dµ φDµ φ − m2 φφ − Vint ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = ∂µ φ∂ µ φ − iqAµ (φ∂µ φ − φ∂µ φ) − (q 2 φφ)Aµ Aµ − m2 φφ − Vint and the important term is this one LKG.

if we had φ = η. as with magnetism and superconductivity. then. is a way of creating φ φ = 0. 74 . for example. the potential is minimized at a particular value for the modulus of φ. this potential is positive. So we see that. and when they do the symmetry is broken. but they must make a choice. (18. What we have found. 4. for some non-zero constant η.and we have done it in a way the preserves gauge invariance.505) to give the photon an effective mass . This is just like the ferromagnet.508) So. and is minimized at |φ| = η. but the angle is not given. Figure 4: A typical wine bottle. as both vanish.so. This is what we mean by the symmetry not being broken. the typical choice of the full potential. is λ V (φ) = (18. The way we get the symmetry to break is by writing down a suitable interaction potential. then clearly φ = φ. where the dregs of the wine tend to form at the bottom. quadratic piece plus interaction piece. around the circular minimum.507) (|φ|2 − η 2 )2 4 which has a shape somewhat reminiscent of a wine bottle bottom as in Fig. As we can see. the non-vanishing of the order parameter is just a statement about the symmetry being broken. if we had φ = 0 then we would get φ = φ. On the other hand. i. the little dipoles in the broken phase could have pointed anywhere. which is what we mean by the symmetry being broken. which is precisely what we needed in (18.e.

but it lives partly in the U(1) and partly in the SU(2).e. SU(2)×U(1). it also provides a natural way of generating fermion mass.. Mw 80GeV .5 non-Abelian Higgs mechanism Once the Abelian . where φ is now a column vector (9. Consider. In the weak sector of the standard model one has to work a little bit harder because the gauge group is a product of groups. We could then couple the KG scalar to the fermion by an interaction term of the form ¯ Vint = gφψψ.18. (18. for simplicity.U(1) .509) (18.272).511) This type of interaction (linear in scalar and quadratic in fermion) is called a Yukawa interaction. if φ == 0 we generate a mass term for some species . it has a lot of work to do for something we don’t actually know exists! 19 Lecture nineteen . we see immediately that if we had φ = η. This highlights the importance of the Higgs field. The SU(3) gluons remain massless.275). = −φ† A† Aµ φ + . then mψ = gη. 18. (18.6 Yukawa coupling and fermion masses The Higgs mechanism is not just limited to giving mass to gauge bosons. In the standard model the Higgs field is responsible not just for the masses of the gauge bosons (the W and Z). but also for the fermions. but the principle is the same. a model that has a real KG field and a Dirac field. for a non-zero value of φ this term just looks like a mass term for the gauge boson (i. and the photon is not quite the U(1) that appears in SU(2)×U(1). just use the covariant derivatives (9.version is understood it is easy to generalize it to the non-Abelian case. µ (18. Again. once more. quadratic in Aµ ).510) and again. In fact it is the product structure that allows the W and Z to have a different mass.in this case a fermion. Recall that the Lagrangian has the form L = −(Dµ φ)† Dµ φ + ...512) so. Mz 91GeV ..the real standard model Aim: To have a glimpse of what the standard model is actually like Learning outcomes: At the end of this lecture you should • be scared 75 . and no gauge bosons.

so long as the scalar has the correct charge. The first thing we note is that all the neutrinos that have been observed have been leftchiral. leading to the full set of symmetry transformations ψL → eiqL α ψL ψR → eiqR α ψR φ → eiqφ α φ (19. but this can’t be the full story if the neutrinos are only left-chiral.2 chiral theories The term chiral theory refers to theories where the left and right component of the same fermi field have different gauge symmetries.516) (19. This means that the doublet should e νe(L) and Re = e(R) . Moreover. Given that the electron does have a mass there must be a resolution to this. However. and anti-neutrinos are all right-chiral. The fact that the right-hand component really be split up into Le = e(L) of the electron couples only to the photon and Z0 whereas the left-hand component couples to photon. for the Yukawa term to be invariant we find that one of these three is not independent. So. all of them with the purpose of understanding the standard model. although the standard model is simple compared to what it could have been.517) under which the Lagrangian remains invariant if qφ = qL − qR . 19. it is still rather complicated. one each for ψL . part I Over the course of this module we have introduced a number of different ideas. We also know that there is a Feynman diagram connecting e νe W − . If it weren’t for the Yukawa term there would be three undependent U(1) symmetries. we are also not allowed ¯ to have Re Le as Re contains two fermi fields. φR and φ.518) . W and Z.mass terms must contain one of each chirality. it also ¯ ¯ complicates the possible mass terms as we are not allowed to have Le Le or Re Re because they both vanish .513) 2 which we write as ¯ ¯ ¯ L = −ψL γ µ ∂µ ψL − ψR γ µ ∂µ ψR − ∂µ φ ∂ µ φ − gφψL ψR (19. The starting point is the ungauged Lagrangian g ¯ ¯ L = −ψγ µ ∂µ ψ − ∂µ φ ∂ µ φ − φψψ (19. To see how this works let’s consider a fermion coupled to a complex KG scalar. but Le contains only one so the coupling does not make sense. the νe actual Feynman diagram connects e(L) νe(L) W − . we are free to give the left and right components a different charge when we gauge this symmetry.1 electroweak sector. As you may expect. However. This means that if we promote α to α(x) then ¯ ¯ L = −ψL γ µ (∂µ − iqL Aµ )ψL − ψR γ µ (∂µ − iqR Aµ )ψR ¯ −(∂µ φ − iqφ Aµ φ) (∂ µ φ − iqφ Aµ φ) − gφψL ψR 76 (19. or at least the electroweak sector.514) Now that we have it in this form we start thinking about the symmetries.515) (19. In this lecture we shall bring together some of the concepts from earlier lectures and see how they fit into the standard model. means that Le and Re have different covariant derivatives.19.

while Bµ is the Abelian gauge boson.3 electroweak sector..and so is a matrix given by Aµ = σ Ai . The SU(2) comes from Le being a doublet. The correct charge assignments for the standard model are SU (2) : Φ → UΦ Le → U L e Re → Re Φ → e−iα/2 Φ Le → eiα/2 Le Re → eiα Re U (1) : (19. Φ = 19. at this point. under this symmetry Re remains inert.523) 2 Dµ Re = ∂µ Re − ig Bµ Re (19.. 19. and start by writing down the ungauged version ¯ ¯ ¯ L = −Le γ µ ∂µ Le − Re γ µ ∂µ Re − ∂µ Φ† ∂ µ Φ − g Le ΦRe (19. conventionally taken as |Φ|2 = ν 2 /2. µ 2 and we find that Φ is a two component complex scalar. but for the standard model.. again. by giving an expectation value to the scalar field. so that when we gauge the symmetry we need the following covariant derivatives i (19.519) (19. two symmetries in this lagrangian. part III We are still not quite there as we haven’t come across the photon. if we take 0 √ Φ= the symmetry will be broken. There are. and we find ν/ 2 ν2 (Dµ Φ) Dµ Φ = . to do that we need to break the SU(2)×U(1) symmetry. This is achieved. as usual.is invariant.this is the Higgs boson φ2 that LHC is hoping to find.524) φ1 . but now they are an SU(2) and a U(1) symmetry.522) Dµ Φ = ∂µ Φ + g Bµ Φ + igAµ Φ 2 i Dµ Le = ∂µ Le − g Bµ Le + igAµ Le (19. we soak up that difference in the mass term (the Yukawa piece) with a scalar field that transforms appropriately.520) where. This model then shows us how to make it work in the standard model. the W± or the Z0 yet.521) where U ∈ SU (2). part II We know follow the same proceedure as above. Note also that Aµ is the non-Abelian gauge boson associated to i SU(2) . composed of both electron and neutrino fields. So. + (gA3 − g Bµ )(gA3µ − g B µ ) + g 2 (A1 A1µ + A2 A2µ ) µ µ µ 8 77 . we don’t really know what Φ needs to be.4 electroweak sector. even though the left and right fermions transform differently.

536) 2 2 2 2 and so we find that. we may calculate the fermion covariant derivatives to find ˜ Dµ Re = ∂µ Re − ig cos θw Aµ Re + ig sin θw Zµ Re (19. two W± vector bosons of the same mass.533) (19.531) (19. A. as Re = eR . We also have that. but not to the W. Moreover.526) (19...535) sin θw Aµ + cos θw Zµ Le 2 i g 1 ˜ sin2 θw I + cos2 θw σ 3 Zµ Le = ∂µ Le − ie (I − σ 3 )Aµ Le + 2 2 cos θw ig ig + − + √ (σ 1 − iσ 2 )Wµ Le + √ (σ 1 + iσ 2 )Wµ Le (19. ¯ ˜ Re γ µ Dµ Re = eR γ µ ∂µ eR − ie¯R γ µ eR Aµ + ig sin θw eR γ µ eR Z µ ¯ e ¯ (19.532) (19.534) 1 W+ + W− 2 W+ − W− i σ iσ µ µ ˜ √ µ − √ µ Le Dµ Le = ∂µ Le − g cos θw Aµ − sin θw Zµ Le + ig 2 2 2 2 2 3 σ ˜ +ig (19. and to the Z-boson with strength g sin θw .525) (19. the left-chiral part gives e(L) ¯ ˜ Le γ µ Dµ Le = νL γ µ ∂µ νL + eL γ µ ∂µ eL − ie¯L γ µ eL Aµ + i ¯ ¯ e g νL γ µ νL Zµ ¯ (19.539) 2 cos θw g(2 sin2 θw − 1) g g + − +i eL γ µ eL Zµ + i √ eL γ µ νL Wµ + i √ νL γ µ eL Wµ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2 cos θw 2 2 78 .528) (19. Re couples to the photon with strength e.e.538) showing that the right-handed fermion.527) (19. we have just found a theory that gives us a massless photon. and a single heavier Z vector boson.529) ˜ i. − m2 Z µ Zµ − m2 Wµ W −µ − mγ Aµ Aµ z w 2 2 where mA = mW mγ 1 ν g2 + g 2 2 1 gν = 2 = 0 (19.530) (19. as νe(L) Le = . as required.537) (19.and by introducing g = q tan θw e = g sin θw = g cos θw ˜ Aµ = cos θw Bµ + sin θw A3 µ Zµ = − sin θw Bµ + cos θw A3 µ 1 ± Wµ = √ (A1 ± iA2 ) µ µ 2 we see that this becomes 1 1 + ˜ ˜ (Dµ Φ) Dµ Φ = .

e. it could have been a lot worse. on reflection it just contains physics that we have seen before in the module: chirality. and we have a coupling between electron-W-neutrino. Higgs mechanism. I think we have got away with a remarkably simple theory. What you should take away from this is that although it’s a bit scary at first sight. Abelian and non-Abelian gauge symmetry. 79 .and this one shows that the left-chiral part of the electron couples to the photon with the same strength as the right-chiral part.it has no electric charge. Given that the above Lagrangian is supposed to describe the Universe. As well as this we see that the neutrino does not couple to the photon. i. as should be expected . e. The Z-boson couples to both the electron and the neutrino.

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