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Latin dominated the European medicine till the XVI th century.

After the development of the typography, during the last decades of the XVth century, the French surgeons from Lyon began to publish in French some books of antic and medieval medicine. The reaction of the Faculty of Medicine of that time was negative because they wanted that the medical language rested a secret one for those who were not initiated and they were afraid that the medicine fonded by Galenus, Hipocrat and Aristotel will suffer. After an important expansion in the XVIth and XVIIth century, the medical French lives a golden age during the celebrities like Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard. Throught this field the French expands in North and South America, in Africa and in the Orient.The XXth century represents the period when many professional domains accepted English words. The therapeutical revolution of sulfamides, in 1937, and the one of molecular biology produced important changes. Chronological and etymological, the Romanian medical terminology is structured in 4 lexical levels: 1) Medical terms imported from French, based on the Greek-Latin formal ground. It represents the period of the formation of the medical field and its terminology, and also the semantic bases which were considered universal at the beginning of the XIXth century: rom. anorganic < fr. anorganique; rom. contamina < fr. contaminer; rom. contagious < fr. contagieux; rom. curativ < fr. curatif; rom. epidemie < fr. pidmie; rom. organ < fr. organe. 2) Interdisciplinary terms, taken from other sciences: screening, application, method, system (omnipresent concepts), terms borrowed from the Informatics. 3) Terms that are an international clich, throught the Anglo-Saxon element, inadapted to the phonetic system of the Romanian language(xenismes). The function of the last lexical sphere, a controversial one, is to cover some terminological needs. 4) Medical concepts are actualized throught the terms that developed connotative meanings, by the semantic extension of the units from the European cultural sphere. Even in the literature, we can identify the name of some diseases. Elpenor is the name of the Ulyses companion an weak spirit which, after an exces of alcohol, fell asleep and died while he was sleeping, falling from the balcony of the Circes palace. In the medical language, the Elpenors sindrom refers to a subconfusional state of the subjects who fell asleep in an unknown place, after an abuse of alcohol or an intoxication. It is a state of perplexity and motor automaticity with a risc of committing some medicolegal actions. The Romanian medical terminology is based on the thesaurus of roots and affixes of the Greek-Latin origin, such kind of forms being easily adapted to any language.

Concept Term The medical language distinguishes himself throught the precision of the terms, lexical assured or assured at the level of the adjunctions (nominal vs adjectival) from the structure of a complex structure of the terminological units. In the syntagmatic structure, the articulated forms of the noun individualize, make the referent to be unique (for the singular forms which have a general meaning there are used unarticulated nouns, neutral from the stylistic point of view). The coreferentiality at the frastic level is isomorph to the lexical recurrence (the repetition of the same term, in the field of stomatology, e,g.: cf. symptom, sindrom). From the logical-semantic point of view, the medical name functions like an individual informational unit. The conceptual units are actualized throught the syntagms based on the Latin.The nominal syntagm is a composed linguistic structure whose semantic cohesion is fixed on a complex network. The mechanisms of the terms creation are well known: derivation, compounds(thematical, phraseologica derivation), calque(lexical), borrowings, abbreviations, terminologization. English language has a double origine, Saxon and Romanic, that is why the process of borrowing medical terms from Latin was an advantage for the language. We can observe some medical and pharmaceutic terms: a) lat. acutus > engl. acute; lat. adjuvantus > engl. adjuvant; lat. aglutinare > engl. agglutination; lat. ampulla > engl. ampulla; lat. angor >engl. angor; b) lat. balsamus > engl. balsam; lat. bronchia > engl. bronchus; c) lat. calculus > engl. calculus; lat. calyx > engl. calyx; lat. capsula > engl.capsula. Majority of medical terms are from Greek and Latin ancestry. Food Cocci = grapes Staphyle = cluster Animals Crab = carcinoma Crab = cancer Lupus = wolf Musculus = little mouse Tools Incus, malleus, anvil Music Salpinx trumpet Tympanum - drum

War Xiphoid = sword Thyroid = shield Thorax = breastplate Prefixes Hyper- above, excessive,beyond Hypo- below, beneath,deficient Peri-around, about Retro- backward Super, supra above A, An- without, not Dys difficult, painful,bad Endo within

Suffixes -emia- blood -ectasis - dilation -itis- inflammation -megaly - enlargement -penia- deficiency -cytosis increase of Stenosis narrowing (stenopad)

Roots Cardio- heart Cysto- bladder,sac Enter- intestine Gastr- stomach Hepato- liver Endoscopy inspection of cavity using a scope Building terms Cardio+megaly = enlarged heart Hepatitis = inflammation of liver Gastritis Inflammation of

stomach Cystitis Inflammation of bladder Hepatomegaly- enlarged liver

Muskuloskeletal: Osteo Bone Chondro cartilage Arthro joint Myo muscle Hallux great toe Tarsals foot bones Carpals hand bones

Anatomical Terms Nonunion of a fracture Malnunion of a fracture ORIF open reduction internal Fixation Rodding Crepitation Extension Flexion Related Terms EMG electromyogram Arthroscopy- inspection of a joint through a scope Arthrocentesis drawing out of fluid (from a joint) Myocardium heart muscle Endocardium interior lining of the heart Pericardium covering of the heart Chambers Atrium (pl. atria) Ventricle Heart valves Aortic Mitral/bicuspid

Tricuspid Conduction System internal pacemaker Sinoatrial node Atrioventricular node Echocardiogram ultrasound of heart Heart catheterization Left heart cath, right heart cath Coronary angiography Ventriculography Pulmonary artery measurement Tachy fast Brady slow Dysrhythmia bad rhythm Tachycardia rapid heart rate Bradycardia slow heart rate Myocarditis inflammation of heart muscle Endocarditis inflammation of the heart lining Pericarditis inflammation of membranes around the heart Blood Red Blood Cells erythrocytes White Blood Cells leukocytes,neutrophils, basophils, granulocytes, eosinophils Platelets thrombocytes Plasma Components of a CBC Hemoglobin Hematocrit always a percentage White blood count Platelet count Reticulocyte count MCV mean corpuscular value Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Sed rate PT, PTT INR Coagulation studies Fibrinogen D-dimer Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)

Transfusion of Packed cells Platelets Fresh frozen plasma Whole blood Autologous blood An + emia = without blood Thrombocytopenia decrease in platelets Leukocytosis increase in white blood cells Pan = all Pancytopenia deficiency of all three components of blood Rhin nose Trachea windpipe Pneumo air Pulmo lung Broncho bronchus Pleuro membrane between lungs and thoracic wall Dyspnea difficult breathing Rhinitis inflammation of nasal mucosa Bronchitis inflammation of bronchus Pneumothorax air within the thoracic cavity Hemothorax blood within the thoracic cavity Apnea- without air

Surgical Instruments Curette Trocar CO2 insufflation Port Bivalved speculum Veress needle

Surgical suffixes -ectomy- excision -otomy incision, into


-ostomy creation of artificial opening -oscopy inspection, examination

Digestive Esophagus Stomach Pylorus, antrum, cardia, gastric outlet Duodenum Ileum Jejunum Colon - Ascending, transverse, descending Hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, cecum, rectum Pancolitis colitis of all parts of the bowel Gastrostomy artificial opening into stomach Colostomy artificial opening into colon Gastrostomy artificial opening into stomach Ileostomy artificial opening into the ileum Colostomy- artificial opening into the colon Gastrectomy Excision of stomach Colectomy Excision of colon Cystectomy Excision of bladder (or cyst, like ovary) Gastroenteritis- inflammation of the stomach and intestine Urogenital Prostate - (not prostrate) Ureter connects kidneys to bladder Urethra connects bladder to outside Kidneys (nephro) Bladder CVA costovertebral angle Calculus Stone Lith Stone Straight cath Suprapubic catheter In and out catheterization Foley

Urinalysis dipstick or microscopic (may be clean catch) PSA prostatic specific antigen screens for prostate cancer Retrograde pyelogram BUN and creatinine measure kidney function Cystometrogram KUB Kidney, ureters, bladder

Components of a urinalysis Nitrite Specific gravity Casts Ketones TNTC glucose Cystostomy artificial opening into bladder Cystitis infection, inflammation of bladder Urethritis - infection, inflammation of urethra Ureterolithiasis stone of ureter

Gynecologycal Uterus hyster, metra Ovaries Fallopian tubes - salpinx Cervix Vagina Perineum Instruments Trocar Tenaculum Sound Sheath Retractor Hemoclips Atony without tone Wedge resection (ovary)

-rrhea = discharge Leukorrhea white discharge Dysmenorrhea painful menstruation Myometrium uterine wall consisting of muscle Hysterectomy Excision of uterus Hysteroscopy inspection of uterus using scope Salpingectomy excision of fallopian tube Salpingostomy creation of opening into fallopian tube or unblocking

The English borrowings are characterized by oldness and they have a behavior similar to the Romanian words. They are widely spread and contribute to the re-Latinization of the Romanian. There are English medical terms that entered throught the French chain and that were phonetical and morphological adapted very well. E.g.: a) rom. anelaj > fr. annelage, cf. engl. annealing; rom. angoas> fr. angoisse, cf. anguish; b) rom.bloc > fr. bloc; cf. eng. block; rom. buton > fr. boton, cf. engl. button; c) rom. caet > fr. cachet, engl. cachet.

Causality There are some categories of factors which determine the borrowing of English words in the language of the todays medicine. One of the extralinguistic factor is the scientific evolution of medicine and the other is the phenomenon of globalization. The linguistic factors are: the absence of a Romanian monosemantic term, the tendency to speak briefly, the international circulation. The intention of a scientist to assure the transparency of the meaning and to observe the valency of English terms explain the big numbers of the calques: 1. Anatomical terms that define cardiovascular system: rom. sept interatrial (cf. engl. interatrial septum); rom. valv aortic(engl. aortic valve); rom. circulaia coronarian(cf. coronary circulation); 2. Diagnostic terms: rom. malformaii congenitale ale inimii(engl. Congenital anomaly of heart); 3. Diagnostic test terms: rom. imagine de medicin nuclear(engl. nuclear medicine imaging). From the etymological point of view we have two categories of words borrowed from English and calques: 1. Common nouns: rom. abazie < engl. abasia; rom. acardie < engl. acardia; rom. amebom < engl. amoeboma; rom. bradilalie < engl. bradylalia; rom.

cafein < engl. caffeine. 2. Proper nouns and eponyms. Proper names(German, English, French), named xenismes, have a great frequency in the

medical science, the referent can be a personality in the science, a name of medical theory, a name of a national or an international organization, an invention or an organism. A big number of eponyms represent terms from histology, physiology or anatomy. The new term which is created it is ussualy a syntagmatic one and it has in his structure a common noun to which the name of the scientist is added. E.g.: baze (baze Schiff), buchet (buchetul lui Riolan), canale (canale Havers), celul, corpuscul, discuri (Discuri Merkel), frotiu, metode (metoda Sorensen), piramid (piramida lui Malphighi), reactivi (reactivi Edman), simptom/sindrom, strangulaii (strangulaii Ranvier), an (anul lui Rolando). It is also observed many names of symptoms formed with proper nouns: simptomul EmeryDreifuss(English genetician, 1928), simptomul Epstein (Czech doctor, 18491918), simptomul Haenel (German neurologist , 18741942), simptomul Madelung, simptomul Oehler (German doctor, 1879), simptomul Remak (German neurologist, 18491911), simptomul Roger (French doctor, 18091891). An interesting thing about this terms is that their synonyms are also eponyms: symptom Madelung symptom Launois-Bensuade. Many of the terms that were named are linguistic sources for common nouns, suffixal derived forming syntagmatic forms. Proper names naming syndromes are also widespread: sindromul Abercombrie (Scottish doctor, 1780-1844), sindromul Abt-Letterrer-Siwe, sindromul Achor-Smith(American doctor). The linguistic sources of the patronymes is the name of scientists. Some names arrived from the person who was the first pacient with such a diagnosis: sindromul Duncan. The terms with The Romanian linguist D.Butiurca