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It is the neglect, exploitation or “painful or harmful” mistreatment of anyone who is 65 or older (or anyone aged 18 to 64 who falls under the legal definition of a “dependent” adult). It can involve physical violence, psychological abuse, isolation, abandonment, abduction, false imprisonment or a caregiver’s neglect. It could also involve the unlawful taking of a senior’s money or property. In short, elder abuse involves various crimes, such as theft, assault or identity theft, that strike victims of all ages. But when the victim is 65 years old or older (or a dependent adult), the criminal could face stiffer penalties. Source:The state Bar of california(what should I know about elder abuse published in 2007-2008) It is generally agreed that abuse of older people is either an act of commission or of omission (in which case it is usually described as ‘‘neglect’’), and that it may be either intentional or unintentional. The abuse may be of a physical nature, it may be psychological (involving emotional or verbal aggression), or it may involve financial or other material maltreatment. Regardless of the type of abuse, it will certainly result in unnecessary suffering, injury or pain, the loss or violation of human rights, and a decreased quality of life for the older person (4). Whether the behaviour is termed abusive, neglectful or exploitative will probably depend on how frequently the mistreatment occurs, its duration, severity and consequences, and above all, the cultural context. Among the Navajo people in the United States, for instance, what had appeared to an outside researcher to be economic exploitation by family members was regarded instead by the tribal elders concerned as their cultural duty, and indeed privilege, to share material belongings with their families (5). Other Indian tribes in the United States viewed elder abuse as a community problem rather than an individual one (6). The definition developed by Action on Elder Abuse in the United Kingdom (7) and adopted by the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse states that: ‘‘Elder abuse is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older persons
source:elder abuse(Woldreport on violence and health)
Pencetage of old people abused both male and female?
The abuse of older people by family members dates back to ancient times. Until the advent of initiatives to address child abuse and domestic violence in the last quarter of the 20th century, it remained a private matter, hidden from public view. Initially seen as a social welfare issue and subsequently a problem of ageing, abuse of the elderly, like other forms of family violence, has developed into a public health and criminal justice concern. These two fields – public health and criminal justice – have therefore dictated to a large extent how abuse of the elderly is viewed, how it is analysed, and how it is dealt with. This chapter focuses on abuse of older people by family members or others known to them, either in their homes or in residential or other institutional settings. It does not cover other types of violence that may be directed at older people, such as violence by strangers, street crime, gang warfare or military conflict. Mistreatment of older people – referred to as ‘‘elder abuse’’ – was first described in British scientific journals in 1975 under the term ‘‘granny battering’’ (1, 2). As a social and political issue, though, it was the United States Congress that first seized on the problem, followed later by researchers and practitioners. During the 1980s scientific research and government actions were reported from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong SAR), Norway, Sweden and the United States, and in the following decade from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India, Israel, Japan, South Africa, the United Kingdom and other European countries. Although elder abuse was first identified in developed countries, where most of the existing research has been conducted, anecdotal evidence and other reports from some developing countries have shown that it is a universal phenomenon. That elder abuse is being taken far more seriously now reflects the growing worldwide concern about human rights and gender equality, as well as about domestic violence and population ageing. Where ‘‘older age’’ begins is not precisely defined, which makes comparisons between studies and between countries difficult. In Western societies, the onset of older age is usually considered to coincide with the age of retirement, at 60 or 65 years of age. In most developing countries, however, this socially constructed concept
based on retirement age has little significance. Of more significance in these countries are the roles assigned to people in their lifetime. Old age is thus regarded as that time of life when people, because of physical decline, can no longer carry out their family or work roles. Concern over the mistreatment of older people has been heightened by the realization that in the coming decades, in both developed and developing countries, there will be a dramatic increase in the population in the older age segment – what in French is termed ‘‘le troisie`me aˆge’’ (the third age). It is predicted that by the year 2025, the global population of those aged 60 years and older will more than double, from 542 million in 1995 to about 1.2 billion (see Figure 5.1). The total number of older people living in developing countries will also more than double by 2025, reaching 850 million (3) – 12% of the overall population of the developing world – though in some countries, including Colombia, Indonesia, Kenya and Thailand, the increase is expected to be more than fourfold. Throughout the world, 1 million people2002.
CHAPTER 5. ABUSE OF THE ELDERLY . 125
reach the age of 60 years every month, 80% of whom are in the developing world. Women outlive men in nearly all countries of the world, rich and poor (3). This gender gap is, however, considerably narrower in developing countries, mainly because of higher rates of maternal mortality and, in recent years, also because of the AIDS epidemic. These demographic changes are taking place in developing countries alongside increasing mobility and changing family structures. Industrialization is eroding long-standing patterns of interdependence between the generations of a family, often resulting in material and emotional hardship for the elderly. The family and community networks in many developing countries that had formerly provided support to the older generation have been weakened, and often destroyed, by rapid social and economic change. The AIDS pandemic is also significantly affecting the lives of older people. In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, children are being orphaned in large numbers as their parents die from the disease. Older people who had anticipated support from their children in old age are finding themselves to be the main caregivers and without a family to help them in the future. Only 30% of the world’s elderly are covered by pension schemes. In Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, for instance, as a result of the changes from planned to market economies, many older people have been left
In the economies of both developed and developing countries.without a retirement income and the health and welfare services that were provided by the former communist regimes. about 20 per cent of the total 9. As life expectancy increases in these countries. the world’s elderly population is projected to be 1. there were about 200 million persons Bangladesh. structural inequalities have often been the cause among the general population of low wages. Nevertheless. The median age of the world population will jump from 23. The elderly population of Bangladesh is also increasing in a remarkable rate.8 billion people.1 per cent of the total global population. poor health services. The resulting large number of older people will be a boon for society. We know from the various sources that in 1950.doc aged 60 and over in the world. It is common all over the world that older age range is increasing rapidly on the other hand the number of children and youth population is decreasing. By the year 2050. 1995--2025 S o ur c e : U n i t ed N at i o ns P op ul at i on D i v i s i o n .8 billion people. constituting a great reservoir of experience and knowledge FIGURE 5. Diseases will be avoided or their impact lessened through better health care strategies.5 years in 1950 to 36.2 years in 2050. Older people in developing countries still face a significant risk from communicable diseases. there will be a ninefold increase. constituting 8. 20 0 2 Percentmage of old people both male and female in Bangladesh? Aging of population is now a global phenomenon. largelyincurable and often disabling diseases associated with old age that are currently most prevalent in developed countries. advances in medical science and in social welfare will ensure that many older people will enjoy longer periods of disabilityfree old age. high unemployment. lack of educational opportunities and discrimination against women – all of which have tended to make the elderly poorer and more vulnerable. They will also face environmental dangers and the likelihood of violence in their societies.1 Projected growth in the global population aged 60 years and older. Bangladesh has same experience. the elderly will be subject to the same long-term. The increasing trend of the number of elderly population is explained in the following table: Table form source: Country Statement .
Thailand 25-27 July. 2007 Arshad Hossain Deputy Secretary Ministry of Social Welfare Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh .on Seminar on the Social. Bangkok. Health and Economic Consequences of Population Ageing in the Context of Changing Families.
angry or frightened. shout at you or threaten you. 6 Emotional abuse This is when people say bad things to hurt your feelings. Sexual abuse is being touched where you do not want to be touched _ your private parts _ your bum _ your breasts _ your penis or vagina or being made to touch other people in these places. 5 Sexual abuse This is when someone makes you do sexual things that make you sad. Physical abuse can be: _ Hitting _ Kicking _ Pulling hair _ Pinching or shaking _ Or giving someone too much medication so they find things difficult to do.Source: Types of elder abuse? Physical abuse This is when someone physically hurts you. Examples of emotional abuse are: .
or treat you unfairly because you are different._ calling you names _ laughing at you _ blaming you for things when it’s not your fault _ treating you like a child _ ignoring you 7 Financial abuse This is when someone takes your money or belongings without asking. Discriminatory abuse is being treated unfairly because you: _ have different colour skin _ have a different religion _ are disabled _ are lesbian or gay _ speak a different language . Neglect can be: _ being cold much of the time _ being hungry much of the time _ having only dirty clothes to wear _ being put in danger 9 Discriminatory abuse This is when people say or do bad things to you. Financial abuse can be: _ stealing your money _ being forced to pay for other people’s things _ when you don’t have a say in how your money is spent 8 Neglect Neglect is when your care or support is not enough to meet your needs.
and any sort of physical punishment or restraint. Physical abuse can also include depriving them of basic needs such as food. misuse. or assets of a vulnerable elder. Sexual Abuse Sexual abuse is non-consensual sexual contact of any kind. psychological abuse is defined as. or threatening to inflict. Physical abuse accounts for 25% of all abuse cases of elder abuse. agitation or withdrawal. Inflicting. This type of abuse includes punching. medicines. Signs of abuse include physical signs as well as sudden changes in behavior or refusal of a caregiver to allow visitors to see an elder alone. Inflicting mental pain. People being abused in this way can show changes in behavior. pushing. pinching. Signs include the physical signs. Psychological abuse accounts for 36% of all cases of abuse. Always investigate allegations of sexual abuse by a vulnerable adult. physical pain or injury to a vulnerable elder. burning. valuable possessions. anguish. fear when in the presence of the abuser. Neglect accounts for 49% of cases of abuse. Emotional or psychological Abuse Emotional. shelter. changes to wills or financial documents. or concealment of funds. shaking. Emotional abuse can be difficult to detect unless witnessed. property. . Financial/material exploitation accounts for 30% of all cases of abuse Exploitation includes the unexplained disappearance of funds.Source: Say NO to abuse Easy read version Printed by SUFFOLK DESIGN & PRINT. or distress on an elder person through verbal or nonverbal acts. healthcare or protection for a vulnerable elder. or giving too much medication. Telephone 01473 260600 Physical Abuse Physical abuse is defined as. force feeding. Neglect as abuse Neglect is defined as failing or refusing to provide food. Sexual abuse can be difficult to detect except for those involved in their nursing care. Financial or Exploitative abuse Financial or exploitative abuse is defined as the illegal taking.
insulting. poor personal hygiene.htm There are several different types of elder abuse: Physical Abuse: Any act of violence or rough treatment causing injury or physical discomfort. pushing. untreated cuts or sores. punching. kicking. swearing Threatening abandonment. poverty. Psychological abuse may include: Name calling. smell. silent treatment Invasion of privacy Excluding from decision making or meaningful events Financial or Material Abuse: Theft or misuse of a senior’s money or property. frightening. or self-worth of an individual. or institutionalization Intimidating. infantilizing (treating like a child) Isolation. choking. ridiculing. Physical abuse also includes sexual abuse and medication abuse. pinching. Financial abuse may include: Theft of money or possession . soiled bedding. such as withholding prescriptions over overmedicating Psychological or Emotional Abuse: Any act that may diminish the sense of identity. humiliating. burning.The physical signs of neglect are often easy to see. poor dental hygiene. Physical abuse may include: Any kind of physical assault such as slapping. or injuring with an object or a weapon It also includes deliberate exposure to severe weather and unnecessary physical restraint Force feeding Rough handling Sexual abuse such as sexual assault or harassment Medication abuse. Source: file:///C:/Users/USER/Downloads/6_types_abuse. withdrawal of love. Dirty surroundings. Abandonment To desert a vulnerable elder is abuse when that person has assumed the responsibility for care or custody of them. yelling. dignity.
information. psychological. and be: Active: Intentional withholding of basic necessities and/or care. has the right to make choices about their lifestyle and to live at risk if he/she is not a danger to others. heat. or ability Neglect may include: Failure to provide necessary provisions such as food. Neglect may have physical. Forging a senior’s signature on cheques or other documents Misusing power of attorney Use of a senior’s money or possessions without authorization Unduly influencing a senior to change his/her will Sale of home or possessions without senior’s consent or legal authority Neglect: The failure to meet the needs of an older adult who cannot meet these needs on his/her own.ca/Types_of_elder_abuse . While this may be distressing to see. it must be remembered that a competent person. it is suggested that you contact your Regional Health Authority Source: http://www. including the need for supervision Abandonment Note: A senior’s neglect may also be self-neglect meaning the older person is living in an unsafe or unhealthy manner by choice or ignorance. non-malicious withholding of basic necessities and/or care because of lack of experience. clothing Failure to provide recommended health aids or equipment Lack of attention to needed medical or social assessment treatments Inattention to safety precautions. and/or financial components. water. However. adequate housing.nlnpea. if you have any concerns about a senior not having the means and supports to access basic necessities or if you feel a senior does not understand the implications and risks of his/her lifestyle. or Passive: Non-intentional. of any age.
the Clearinghouse on Abuse and Neglect of the Elderly (CANE) of the University of Delaware. the National Association of Adult Protective Services Administrators (NAAPSA). or failure. Refusal. the Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly of the American Bar Association (ABA). Administration on Aging. Support for the National Center on Elder Abuse is provided by the U. physical pain. March. Kuzmeskus. DC: National Center on Elder Abuse. neglect and exploitation conducted by the Center in 1995. to fulfill any part of a person’s obligations or duties to an elderly person. Tatara. Toshio and Lisa Kuzmeskus. property. 1997).The National Center on Elder Abuse defines seven different types of elder abuse: physical abuse. M. 1999). or distress through verbal or non-verbal acts. The National Center on Elder Abuse is a partnership of the National Association of State Units on Aging (NASUA). 1 . financial exploitation. or assets. or impairment. emotional abuse. neglect. the San Francisco Consortium for Elder Abuse Prevention of the Goldman Institute on Aging (GIOA). abandonment. pain.S. Sexual Abuse. Summaries of Statistical Data on Elder Abuse in Domestic Settings for FY 95 and FY 96 (Washington. for the National Center on Elder Abuse Grant 2 No. This Informational report was researched and written by Toshio Tatara. and Lisa M. These definitions are based on an analysis of existing State and Federal definitions of elder abuse. and self-neglect. update by the National Center on Elder Abuse. PhD. Neglect. 90-am-0660 (Washington. and the National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (NCPEA). Financial/material exploitation. DC: May 1996.A. Infliction of anguish. Non-consensual sexual contact of any kind with an elderly person. Physical abuse. Use of physical force that may result in bodily injury. Illegal or improper use of an elder's funds. Emotional abuse. sexual abuse.
Data were collected from State adult protective service agencies and State units on aging.9 years.6 percent in the same year. In 1996. Source: . conducted by 2 the National Center on Elder Abuse. thus. however. This figure. many incidents are not reported.01 million elders were victims of various types of domestic elder abuse in 1996. while 18. Tel (202) 898-2586 Fax (202) 898-2583 E-mail NCEA@NASUA.16 million individuals.6 years in 1996. NW.000 reports in 1991. 55 percent involved neglect. Desertion of an elderly person by an individual who has physical custody of the elder or by a person who has assumed responsibility for providing care to the elder.7 percent were black.000 in 1996.3% Sexual Abuse All Other 0. The median age of elder abuse victims was 77. 213. 286. 66.7% Neglect 55.000 in 1995 and 293. Physical abuse accounted for 14. From 1986 to 1996 there has been a steady increase in the reporting of domestic elder abuse nationwide: 117. while financial or material exploitation represented 12. NCEA Web site wwwgwjapancom/NCEA Native Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were each less than 1 percent.000 reports in 1986. excludes self-neglecting elders. The median age of selfneglecting elders was 77. As noted above.3% Types 6. This study estimates that approximately 1. according to 1996 data that excluded self-neglecting elders. these numbers may undercount the extent of the problem. Of the nonselfneglect reports that were substantiated in 1996.000 reports in 1993.0% victims in the same year.000 reports in 1987.000 reports in 1994. 128. the total number of elder abuse victims might be as high as 2. Self-neglect. Washington.1% Emotional Abuse 7. 140. DC 200052800.000 reports in 1990.Abandonment. Behaviors of an elderly person that threaten the elder’s health or safety. please contact the National Center on Elder Abuse at 1201 15th Street. Suite 350. 227. Neglect is the most common form of elder maltreatment in domestic settings. If selfneglecting elders are added.4 percent of the victims of domestic elder abuse were white. Hispanic elders accounted for 10 percent of the domestic elder abuse Types of Domestic Elder Abuse (1996) Physical Unknown Abuse Financial/Material4% 14.3 percent of the substantiated reports.000 reports in 1988. The proportions of FOR MORE INFORMATION. 241. Highlights of A Study of Domestic Elder Abuse Reports Presented below are selected findings from a national study of state domestic elder abuse reports. 211.6% Exploitation 12. The 1996 figure represents an increase of 150 percent since 1986.org.
solicitor. • You pay “fees” to claim a “free vacation” or winnings from an international lottery—only to deplete your savings and get nothing in return. a volunteer worker. are all socially considered as relationships of trust. although the type of abuse differs according to the relationship. Family relationships. relative. • Neglected and hungry. neighbors and friends.published in 1995 Examples of elder abuse? Your caregiver or a “new friend” persuades you to sign a power of attorney so she can handle your affairs for you—only to sell your home and steal the cash. whether or not the older adult actually thinks of the people as "trustworthy". typically the older adult's spouse/partner or sons and daughters. you lie stranded in your bedroom while your adult son empties your bank accounts. Relatives include adult children and their spouses or partners. Perpetrators of elder abuse can include anyone in a position of trust. • A home repairman persuades you to pay cash on the spot for a “great” home improvement deal—then never does any work. or any other individual with the intent to deprive a vulnerable person of their resources.NATIONAL CENTER ON ELDER ABUSE. . Whom abuses old people? An abuser can be a spouse. The majority of abusers are relatives. Children and living relatives who have a history of substance abuse or have had other life troubles are of particular concern. Some perpetrators may "groom" an older person (befriend or build a relationship with them) in order to establish a relationship of trust. partner. a paid worker." a situation in which the abusive behaviour of a spouse or partner continues into old age. practitioner. control or authority. In some situations the abuse is "domestic violence grown old. a friend or neighbor. their offspring and other extended family members. Older people living alone who have no adult children living nearby are particularly vulnerable to "grooming" by neighbors and friends who would hope to gain control of their estates. 3 2 3 • You forget to take your medication and a nursing home staff member slaps you in the face.
chronic medical condition or financial crisis • Financially dependent on victim for home. The following characteristics profile the abuser: • Usually relative of the victim. The abuser may also be a caregiver or friend hired by the elderly person to assist him or her with household tasks. They may appear to be symptoms of dementia or signs of the elderly person’s frailty — or caregivers may explain them to you that way. With sons and daughters it tends to be financial abuse. With the aging of today's population. In fact. food preparation and the management of financial resources. abuse can occur for a variety of reasons. practice elder abuse for the Schadenfreude associated with the act. a case study in Canada suggests that the high elder abuse statistics are from repeat offenders who.wikipedia. lack of training. Many of the signs and symptoms of elder abuse do overlap with symptoms of mental deterioration. valuables and money. You might not recognize signs as being abuse immediately. Within paid care environments. Because of the close relationship. Sometimes this type of abuse is referred to as "poor practice.org/wiki/Elder_abuse Characteristics of abuser? The abuser is usually a relative of the victim. there is the potential that elder abuse will increase unless it is more comprehensively recognized and addressed. Institutional abuse may be the consequence of common practices or processes that are part of the running of a care institution or service.In some situations. or insufficient resourcing. Source: http://en. Some abuse is the willful act of cruelty inflicted by a single individual upon an older person. elders find it difficult to report abuse. like in other forms of abuse. in the absence of external support. an older couple may be attempting to care and support each other and failing." although it is important to recognize that this term reflects the motive of the perpetrator (the causation) rather than the impact upon the older person. car or food • Under stress • History of violence in family Symptoms of elder abuse? Elder abuse and neglect can be very difficult to notice. The following are a few warning signs that could indicate some form of elder abuse: . justified by a belief that it is nothing more than the "advance inheritance" of property. lack of support. More commonly. but that doesn’t mean you should dismiss these warning signs. institutional abuses or neglect may reflect lack of knowledge. most often son or daughter • Often has alcohol or drug abuse problem.
dehydration. sudden changes in elder’s finances. improper use of medication. friend or care provider. confusion about new legal documents. Source: http://canadasafetycouncil. such as rocking. In more than seven in eight cases the victims were maltreated by family members. changes in personality or behaviour in the elder. sprains.org/campaigns/preventing-elderabuse Number of old people abused? More than 200. fear. the care standards watchdog said yesterday. the Commission for Social Care Inspection found. such as brusies. sucking. the CSCI warned in its Government-backed report. depression or passiveness in relation to a family member. poor nutrition or poor hygiene. such as a new will or a new mortgage. The number of elderly people being starved. behaviour that mimics dementia. . and reluctance to speak about the situation. denied medicine. or broken bones. such as significant withdrawals. anxiety. unexplained physical injuries.000 old people suffer abuse and neglect from those close to them. or mumbling to oneself. routinely humiliated or beaten up is likely to be far higher as the figures do not cover abuse in care homes.
uk/news/article-1083132/The-abuse-old-age-200-000-maltreatedrelatives-says-care-watchdog. and 49 per cent named another family member.co.000 elderly Britons are reckoned to have suffered mistreatment.000 older people 'have experienced neglect or abuse by persons they should have been able to trust'.More than 200.000 elderly people are said to suffer some form of maltreatment (file picture) Using figures from a Department of Health survey. the CSCI estimated that 227. The survey questioned 2. It called for further research into abuse of the old in hospitals and care homes. Read more: http://www. The CSCI warned of 'uneven' and 'variable' efforts by local authorities to stamp out abuse or act on complaints.html#ixzz1s37owIEI . more than one in seven said they had been suffered physical abuse or attack. This equates to more than one in 40 elderly Britons who live independently.dailymail. Some 51 per cent said they had been maltreated by a spouse or partner. just under 350. said they had been mistreated by a care worker providing home help. and just over a quarter complained of financial abuse. More than four in ten said they had suffered neglect. the report found. Many who said they had been abused or neglected named more than one person as responsible.100 people over 66 who were living in their own homes. 13 per cent. If incidents such as abuse from neighbours and other acquaintances are included in the figures. Around one in eight.
co." Research suggested that up to 90 per cent of people would want to report abuse if they knew it was taking place. "If more people understood what elder abuse is and its impact on those affected. a charity said today. . the largest proportion of abusers are related to the person being abused (46 per cent). Help the Aged said half a million older people were neglected or abused at any one time — physically. even though figures show that a quarter of abusers of the elderly are sons or daughters. almost a quarter of people surveyed by the charity were under the impression that professional care workers were the ones most likely to carry out abuse. said: "These figures signal a 'Not In My Back Yard' public attitude. by someone in a position of trust. the director of policy at Help the Aged. sexually. fuelling myths that abuse of older people is largely carried out in professional settings and never close to home. Elder abuse can happen anywhere and by anyone. However. he said. Paul Cann. with 64 per cent of abuse occurring in the homes of victims. Related Articles Elderly most at risk of theft by own children 30 Jan 2007 "We know this isn't the case. or psychologically — but a third of people had not heard of "elder abuse" and almost a quarter had no idea what the signs were.uk/news/article-1083132/The-abuse-old-age-200-000-maltreatedrelatives-says-care-watchdog. Social Affairs Correspondent 12:01AM GMT 07 Feb 2007 Abuse of the elderly must be treated with the same seriousness as child abuse.dailymail. with police receiving special training to protect older people from what has become a "national scandal". and is more likely to occur within the family home. Only 17 per cent of those surveyed thought that sons and daughters would be most likely to abuse their parents.html 'Half a million old people suffering abuse' By Sarah Womack. we'd be one step closer to tackling this national scandal.Source: http://www. As The Daily Telegraph reported last week. instead of treating it as a taboo.
The charities also want elder abuse to be treated with the same degree of seriousness and priority as child abuse and adult protection to be a compulsory part of police training. The television personality Esther Rantzen. recognise the signs and act upon them to protect our vital asset. said: "Elder abuse not only has a devastating effect on older people. . "We must all be vigilant. our older population. What kind of country allows older people to suffer.Help the Aged is today publishing a booklet giving information on "tell-tale signs of abuse" and ways to help. and council staff.uk/news/uknews/1541787/Half-a-million-old-people-sufferingabuse.some five million people .co. a conference has heard.have been abused.000 to15. The charity Action on Elder Abuse believes 5% of older people . such as doctors. a free helpline for anyone worried that an older person is at risk.000 have been sexually abused.html UK Call for action on sexual abuse of elderly The sexual abuse of elderly people may not be openly acknowledged The sexual abuse of elderly people is one of society's last taboos and needs to be confronted openly if it is to be stopped. nurses. abusers must be brought to justice. It estimates from calls to its helpline that about 10.telegraph. who is leading the campaign. Source: http://www. social workers. it shocks and appals their loved ones and the whole nation. and it's up to all of us to make sure this happens. It says signs may include the person becoming unusually withdrawn or depressed or changes in appearance." Help the Aged and Action on Elder Abuse want training in the prevention and recognition of elder abuse to be a mandatory element of all staff training for anyone working with older people. Help the Aged is raising money to help fund the Action on Elder Abuse response line. and looks away? Older people must be protected.
" Action on Elder Abuse. we have faced up to the appalling facts about abuse of children and people with learning difficulties and now we must begin to open our eyes to the reality that some people target and abuse vulnerable elderly people.co. who headed an inquiry into the sexual abuse of people with learning difficulties." National register Wendy Greengross. some might think they were partly responsible for their abuse. He called for much tighter regulation of residential and nursing homes for elderly people. as with all forms of sexual abuse. Source: http://news. said another problem was that elderly people may not feel comfortable talking sexual matters. Learning difficulties The conference also heard from Tom Burgner. including those working in old people's and nursing homes and community care services for the elderly." He also called for elderly people to be offered the same protection as children in care and for prison sentences for those found guilty of abusing the elderly to be increased. set up six years ago. "Social services tends to concentrate on child protection.Ginny Jenkins.bbc. the charity's director. "As a society. Ms Jenkins said that there was currently nothing to stop care staff who had abused elderly people moving from care home to care home. a patron of the charity. "But in terms of each individual member of the nation we should be looking to older people as they are our own future. She said social services and women's aid organisations were not geared up to deal with it. It may be right for the nation to look to children as the nation's future. She added that.stm .uk/2/hi/uk_news/481465. "But sadly it happens far more than anyone would like to believe. told its national conference on Thursday that the first step to tackling the problem was to acknowledge its existence so that victims could talk about it: She said: "The idea that someone could rape or indecently assault a frail elderly person is so shocking that people often prefer not to think about it at all. supports proposals in the government's Social Services Bill to create a national register to be created for all staff working in the social care field. He said: "It is far easier not to give permission to set up an establishment than to close it down afterwards." she said. Ms Jenkins told BBC News Online that there was a lack of appropriate services to support elderly people who had been abused.
says a UN report. such abuse comprises elder maltreatment in both private settings and residential and nursing homes. and affecting their mental and physical well-being at a time when they are very vulnerable. “This is very shocking. WHO Regional Director for Europe: “This abuse is destroying the lives of older people. wounded with a knife or locked in their rooms. looks at physical. and provides an overview of good practice in prevention. released today by WHO/Europe at the 3rd European Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion. The report gives the first description of the size. Hungary. These are the main findings of the new European report on preventing elder maltreatment. particularly at a time of financial constraint. In addition to the estimated 4 million older people physically abused each year: . in Budapest. More resources will be needed to pay pensions and to provide health and social care. The European population is ageing rapidly and governments need to act urgently to halt this growing health and social problem. a third of the Region’s population will be aged 60 years and older.” In 2050. along with neglect. covering the 53 countries in the European Region. The new report. Copenhagen and Rome. This report will help. causes and consequences of elder maltreatment. burned. This may in turn increase the numbers of old people who are abused. Budapest. mental and financial abuse. due to a combination of increased life expectancy and a decline in fertility.Every year at least 4 million older people in the European region are estimated to suffer physical abuse: being slapped. punched.” says Zsuzsanna Jakab. kicked. social and family structures. 16 June 2011 European report on preventing elder maltreatment Image by WHO Research also indicates that as many as 2500 older people may die at the hands of family members. Having more old people dependent on younger carers will place extra strain on economic. sexual.
rape or exposure pornography) Old people who suffer from dementia and disability are more likely to be abused.who.who. improving data collection. The WHO/Europe report. please visit the web sites of Eurosafe (http://www. and much of it is ignored or underreported in many countries.int/violenceinjury). the European Association for Injury prevention and Safety Promotion. the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Pacific Ocean in the east (http://www. justice. This leads to increased dependence. and 1 million to sexual abuse (sexual harassment.eurosafe. as a common challenge across government departments and sectors. stretching from the Arctic Ocean in the north.int/en/what-wepublish/abstracts/european-report-on-preventing-elder-maltreatment) Violence and injury prevention (http://www.eu. Nevertheless. practitioners and development agencies on using evidence-based approaches to prevent elder maltreatment. including investment in staff training. Elder maltreatment is still a social taboo. provides guidance for policy-makers. Health systems can play a key role in providing services for people for whom maltreatment leads to physical. Notes The 3rd European Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion is a major event bringing stakeholders in preventing injuries and violence from across Europe to exchange and discuss the latest results of injury research. For more information. http://oneworldgroup. strengthening services for victims. Proposed actions include: developing and implementing multisectoral national policies and plans to prevent elder maltreatment and to address equity and ethical issues. overseen by an international group of experts from the health.org/2011/06/16/10000-old-people-abused-every-day-in-europe/ Characteristics of abused persons? . They are also central in advocating and coordinating preventive action.euro. 6 million to financial abuse (stolen money or fraud). and raising awareness.int/en/where-we-work). Abuse is also more likely to occur in low. The WHO European Region covers over 880 million people in 53 countries. It is coordinated by Eurosafe. 29 million are subjected to mental abuse (insults or threats).euro. social and other sectors.and middle-income countries and in the poorest sections of society. policies and practices. surveillance and research.com) and WHO/Europe: European report on preventing elder maltreatment (http://www. with a special emphasis on protective factors. and the victim may live in the same household as the perpetrator. sexual and/or mental harm.euro. molestation. the problem is gaining increasing public and political attention. Source.who. the Mediterranean in the south. implementing prevention and control strategies.
suffer pain and neglect or die from injuries inflicted by others. Tennessee law requires that any person (family member. Elder abuse often goes unreported because victims are ashamed. many older citizens are forced to live in fear in their own homes. Frequent contact with the elderly can help family members evaluate their health status. etc. The National Committee for Prevention of Elder Abuse estimates that one million older individuals are abused or neglected each year in the United States.The elder abuse and neglect victim can be described as follows: • Usually female • 75 years old or older • Widowed/divorced • Lives alone or with abuser • Dependent on the abuser • Physically or mentally impaired • Frail or chronically ill • Isolated Source.000 people. unaware of how to report abuse or fearful of retaliation if they report the abuse.) who has reasonable cause to suspect that an adult has suffered abuse. If these estimates are accurate. Check the telephone directory for the telephone number of the local county office of the Department of Human Services. friend. the Department of Human Services works with 2. neighbor. dentist. by telephone or in person. Elder abuse and neglect can be prevented or stopped if family members monitor the well-being of elders and report known or suspected abuse and neglect to the Tennessee Department of Human Services. All 95 Tennessee counties have a local office of the Department of Human Services Elder abuse and neglect can be prevented. Instead of enjoying their later years. living . neglected or exploited annually. many cases of elder abuse and neglect are going unreported in Tennessee. Preventing Abuse and Neglect Of The Elderly Anna Mae Kobbe. The Tennessee Department of Human Services indicates 5 percent of the elderly population in the state is approximately 40.000 cases per month. Currently. Assistant Professor Family Life Preventing elder abuse? The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Aging estimates 5 percent of all elderly in America are being abused. neglect or exploitation must report it. doctor. Contact the local office of the Tennessee Department of Human Services in writing.
• Report abuse even if the abuser is a family member. Home-delivered meals and programs for senior citizens can reduce isolation. • Be willing to accept changes. • Encourage elderly persons to develop a social support network. Keep in touch with them throughout the year. Check local telephone listings for the number. Call the county office of the Tennessee Department of Human Services. • Establish a Widow-to-Widow program in the community. friends or neighbors. • Develop a neighbor-to-neighbor program. A daily telephone call can help monitor the well-being of seniors. • Learn the facts about elder abuse. the Senior Citizens Center. You can protect yourself from elder abuse and neglect. Adult Protective Services.conditions. • If you know or suspect that an elderly or disabled adult is being abused. • Promote the elderly's involvement in activities that require social contacts with others. contact the following resources: National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse c/o Institute on Aging The Medical Center of Central Massachusetts ll9 Belmont Street Worcester. MA 06l05 508/856/00ll The program of the National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse . • Transportation can help prevent isolation. neglected or is not receiving the proper care. quality of care and emotional well-being. report the abuse to the county office of the Tennessee Department of Human Services. church or community social service organizations. friends or neighbors daily. • Encourage participation in Meals on Wheels. daily telephone contact or personal visits may be required. Ask for help. provide food or small gifts and help them be involved in the community. Help provide transportation to senior citizens. Contact family. In some cases. the Nutrition Site. Elders have rights. • Develop a social support network. Visit them. Extension Homemakers or civic/community/religious groups. Be willing to ask for help. Report needs to family. • Be willing to accept help from others. • Adopt an elderly person. Elderly people should have daily contact with family. • Enhance assertiveness skills and self-esteem. The following are suggestions to help prevent elder abuse and selfneglect: You can help prevent elderly abuse and neglect. For additional information on elder abuse prevention.
0 What you can do as a concerned family member or friend: Watch for warning signs that might indicate elder abuse. health care decisions can be addressed to avoid confusion and family problems. Watch for possible financial abuse. On an individual level. 2009. should you become incapacitated. Source: http://jerichoroadministries. If you suspect abuse. report it. Assistant Professor Family Life HOW CAN ELDER ABUSE BE PREVENTED? « on: May 18. With a power of attorney or a living will. Stay active in the community and connected with friends and family. and the public on abuse is critical to prevention. and urge family members to get help for these problems. Look for any discrepancies in the elder’s medications. Ask the elder if you may scan bank accounts and credit card statements for unauthorized transactions. Attend support groups for spouses and learn about domestic violence services. alcohol. professionals. The Ombudsman is your advocate and has the power to intervene. some simple but vital steps to reduce the risk: Take care of your health. If you live in a nursing home or board and care home.php?topic=163.org/board/index.includes research. you have the right to voice your preferences and concerns. 11:27:33 AM » HOW CAN ELDER ABUSE BE PREVENTED? Educating seniors. Know your rights. caregivers. If you engage the services of a paid or family caregiver. public awareness and information and training for professionals in gerontology and related fields who work to prevent abuse. Seek independent advice from someone you trust before signing any documents. Please visit our Help for Elders and Families section to learn more. and home and community care services that can help older adults with activities of daily living. Plan for your own future. All states have adult protective and long-term care ombudsman programs. Seek professional help for drug. family care supports. call your Long Term Care Ombudsman. This will decrease social isolation. and depression concerns. . advocacy. Source: Preventing Abuse and Neglect Of The Elderly Anna Mae Kobbe. which has been connected to elder abuse.
mental health. Policies based on active ageing ensure fewer disabilities associated with chronic.org/campaigns/preventing-elderabuse Preventing elder abuse in south asian region? Education and public awareness campaigns: conducting campaigns on elderly abuse have been vital for informing people in industrialized countries. However.7This framework is valuable for SEAR countries to adopt when formulating policies or designing a campaign on prevention of elderly abuse .6 Active ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health. It is essential that elder’s have access to information and are aware of available help. if you can. Source: http://canadasafetycouncil. legal professionals and/or members of faith communities. Call and visit as often as you can. scientific meetings and conferences can help change the attitudes and behaviour of caregivers and practitioners in various disciplines – medicine. or other family members and take their concerns seriously. participation and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age. no official action at the policy level or programmes have been formulated for prevention of elderly abuse. Make sure to listen to your elderly parents. Help the elder consider you a trusted confidante. nursing. police. If you suspect abuse. awareness building as well as training workshops. continuing educational programmes. giving the elderly a chance to participate in all aspects of life. criminal justice. social services. If an elder is experiencing abuse they may feel ashamed or embarrassed to tell anyone in fear of retaliation or punishment. lowering costs of medical treatment and burden on health services. policy-makers and decision-makers. old age diseases. social work. These activities need also to be conducted in SEAR countries to bring out the ‘hidden’ aspects of elderly abuse. educators. Public education. researchers. report it immediately to health care providers. friends. Offer to stay with the elder so the caregiver can have a break — on a regular basis.
increase the amount of money and the number of beneficiaries under “Boyoshko Bhata Karmashuchi”. Neither an inclusive nor a comprehensive understanding in association with national policy agenda of Bangladesh. the programmes for the welfare of the elderly population should be prioritized as: . 2003 SEA/Injuries/2 Distr: General Prevention of elder abuse according to Bangladesh? Though. but it will be difficult to manage this situation unless the efforts are accelerated. Department of Sustainable Development and Healthy Environment World Health Organization. From the foregoing discussion it has been observed that even though Bangladesh is experiencing the increasing trend of elderly population. However. most of them are fail to reach large segments of the elderly population. and financial support for the family care-givers. It is high time that Bangladeshi policy makers give due importance to the forthcoming age wave. a number of initiatives have been taken for the welfare of the elderly people but.source. Regional Office for South-East Asia New Delhi. There are many lessons that can be learnt from the experience of industrial societies who are facing the problems associated with an increase in their ageing population. .
.the traditional joint family system should be strengthened in order to provide basic needs and psychosocial support to the elderly.the elderly should be given the opportunity of providing community based services with their active involvement in their care and in the effective utilization of their potentials in development. 12 | P a g e . for widows and husband deserted women) should be established..access to treatment facility should be available and cheap for elders and special emphasis on care of geriatrics should be taken every health center. medical college. .accelerating implementation of nutrition programmes should be prioritized. . . community clinic in both rural and urban areas.separate programmes (financial and health care) for the welfare of the elderly women (especially.
Bangladesh. and . requires permission from the Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators. Farmgate.government should be tried to achieve the targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Z. Bangladesh. Fax: + (880-2) 815 91 35 E-mail: info@unnayan. M. Tell: + (880-2) 815 82 74. based in Dhaka. © Copyright: Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators The content of this publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes with proper citation (please send output to the address mentioned below). careful supervision and uninterrupted encouragement to carry out this research work. The growing number of older persons traditionally expected to be taken care of is contributing to increasing stress in joint and extended families.programmes for the welfare of the elderly have to be broadcasted through the medias.org. Source: Unnayan Onneshan Policy Brief on Present Social Context and Elderly Population in Bangladesh Author K.. The youth fail to understand the values cherished by the elderly while older persons are virtually bewildered at the rapidly changing attitude and lifestyles of the . Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir for his constant support.unnayan. Dhaka-1205. Indira Road. storage in a retrieval system or transmission by any means for commercial purposes. occurring in any relationship where there is an expectation of trust that causes harm or distress to an older person” (WHO 2002). I am also thankful to A. . Mustafizur Rahman Acknowledgement: The manuscript is an output of a research programme of Social Policy Unit. 911 06 36.government.or Population ageing has been seen to result in increasing neglect and abuse of older persons. Web: www. a center for research and action on development. I cordially thank Mr. The faster pace of lifestyle changes has resulted in a quicker widening of the generation gap making it difficult for both the younger and older persons to adjust to each other’s attitudes. Elder abuse is defined by WHO as “a single or repeated act. Any other form of reproduction. I am grateful to Mohammed Abdul Baten and Jayanta Kumar Basak for valuable inputs during this study. NGO and all their organizations have to build care home and available recreational facilities there for elders. or lack of appropriate action. M. For orders and request please contact: Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators House: 16/2. undertaken by the Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators. Saleh for his efforts in developing and editing the report.
various types of elderly abuse are known to exist and to be on the increase in all countries of South Asia. So deeply entrenched is the psycho-cultural barrier preventing elders to report abuse that the tendency is still to be found among the South Asian diaspora in North America (Gupta & Chaudhuri 2008). abuse and neglect of the elderly are also gradually coming out more into the open as a result of awareness creation campaigns (INPEA 2008). The incidence of neglect and verbal abuse of the elderly is reportedly much higher than that of physical abuse though it is not unknown particularly cases of violent crime targeting older persons. the elderly’s traditional place of honour in the family has been eroding and the Government is planning to use legislation . Akhtar & Tajuddin 2006).26 Abuse can be physical. Generally. particularly in the rural areas is reportedly on the increase (Hossain. . A study on elder abuse in India based on focus group discussions involving older persons showed that the elderly suffered abuse. financial or social. Neglect and abuse of the elderly has come to be recognized as a universal phenomenon as reflected in the establishment of the International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (INPEA) in 1997 and the designation of 15th June as World Elder Abuse Awareness Day (WEAAD) in 2006. In Pakistan. Like domestic violence. In Bangladesh.younger persons.Senior Citizens Welfare Bill . like domestic violence elderly abuse goes unreported as victims prefer to remain silent to avoid bringing shame to their own family as well as for fear of retaliation. However. emotional. Veedon & Vasi 1995). psychological. Shah. neglect and emotional distress but by and large were reluctant to complain and even tried to justify their maltreatment by offspring and other younger family members (Soneja nd. elderly abuse.to protect the older population from neglect and abuse and make it Section 4: Emerging Ageing-Related Issues 37 mandatory for the offspring to provide care and support to their elderly parents (GAA 2009). Data on elderly abuse are not available for most countries as discussion of elderly abuse in South Asia remains a taboo. typically neglect and abandonment.
July 2009. As population ageing progresses. DEMOGRAPHIC PROGNOSIS FOR SOUTH ASIA: A future of rapid ageing. .UNFPA Asia and the Pacific Regional Office Bangkok. The elderly can also be faced with abuse in the institutional setting such as discrimination. older persons are also becoming increasingly vulnerable to violent crime. Older persons living on their own become an easier target for criminals.Elderly abuse is not confined to the home. Moreover.A. 6. Priority needs to be attached to provide the elderly with protection against abuse and crime as these pose a serious threat to the dignity and safety of the older population source: Papers in Population Ageing No. the growing preference for the nuclear family continues and an increasing proportion of older persons choose (or are forced) to live on their own. neglect and maltreatment by caregivers and service providers 27. elder abuse is a gender issue as generally older women are more vulnerable to abuse and neglect (Shankardass 2003). In addition to abuse. Ghazy Mujahid K. Siddhisena.P.
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